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Pathophysiology of

Urolithiasis
Chandra Hermawan Manapa

H
E
L
L
O

ETIOLOGY
METABOLIC
LIFESTYLE
GENETIC FACTORS
DRUGS
OTHERS

RISK FACTORS
HISTO
RY OF

METABOLIC RENA
DISTURBANL
CES
DEHYDRATI
CALCU
ON
LI
SEDENTA
RY LIFE
STYLE
IMMOBILIT
Y

RISK FACTORS
HIGH MINERAL CONTENT
IN DRINKING WATER
DIETARY INTAKE
UTI & H/O FEMALE
GENITAL MUTILATION
PROLONGED INDWELLING
CATHETERISATION
NEUROGENIC BLADDER

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

Slow urine flow, resulting


in supersaturation of the
urine with the particular
element that first become
crystallized and later
become stone

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

Damage to the lining of the


urinary tract

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

Decreased inhibitor
substances in the urine that
would otherwise prevent
supersaturation and crystalline
aggregation

TYPES OF STONES

Calcium Phosphate
Calcium oxalate
Uric acid
Cystine
Struvite

REFERENCES
Taal M.W,Cherton G,Marsden P.A. Brenner
and Rector`s: The Kidney. 9th
edn.Philadelphia: Elsevier;2012.
Nettina S M, Mills E.J.Lippincott Manual of
Nursing Practice. 8th edn.Philadelphia
:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006
Walsh C.Urology. 10th edn. Philadelphia:
Elsevier;2012