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## Tamara Congdon 17409414

Primary Science
Folio
BY TAMARA CONGDON
Tamara CONGDON (17409414)
La Trobe University - Faculty of Education
(Primary)
EDU2SES

## Tutor: Jacolyn Weller (Tues

1-3pm)

Contents
Foundation
Physical Science
4
Biological Science
Level ONE
Physical Science
8
Biological Science
Level TWO
Physical Science
12
Biological Science
Level THREE
Physical Science
16
Biological Science
Level FOUR
Physical Science
20
Biological Science
Level FIVE
Physical Science
24
Biological Science

2 Chemical Science
3 Earth and Space Science

6 Chemical Science
7 Earth and Space Science

10 Chemical Science
11 Earth and Space Science

13

14 Chemical Science
15 Earth and Space Science

17

18 Chemical Science
19 Earth and Space Science

21

22 Chemical Science
23 Earth and Space Science

25

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Tamara Congdon 17409414

Foundation
Physical Science
The way objects move depends on a variety of factors, including their size and
shape.
Balloon Topology
What I need: A Balloon
Textas / Markers
Method: Draw a circle on a balloon before blowing
it up, blow it up and see what happens to circle.
describe the circle before and after (T-Chart). Is it
still a perfect circle, or did the shape change as
well? Get them to draw a picture on the other side
to emphasise that it happens to all shapes.
Wellers, J. (2013). EDU2SES, Lecture 3, Teaching
and Learning Physical [Tutorial]. EDU2SES,
Bundoora, Australia: La
Trobe University,
Department of Education.

## Playing with Play Dough

What I need: Play dough
Table
Method: Students mould different shapes with
play dough and see if it rolls.
Scaffolding: Guiding the students, get them to
make a circle out of their piece of play dough,
and push it. Does it roll? Was it easy? Get
students to then make triangles, rectangles,
squares, and cylinder and see if they roll easily
on the table. Observe what happened and share
ideas with partners.

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature
and development of science
Exploring
and observing the world using senses.
They are all using their senses to grasp an
understanding of their world.
Inquiry Skills
Observing, discussing,
and sharing.
Relevance to year level
At this level, students are exploring the
world around them. Learning that shapes
on objects change as the object does.
Evaluation of resource
This is a good hands on activity to
demonstrate the way objects move and
change.

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature
and development of science
Exploring
and observing the world using senses. Full
participation of this activity from the
students means they are all using their
senses to grasp an understanding of their
world.
Inquiry Skills
Testing, observing,
discussing, and sharing.
Relevance to year level
At this level, students are exploring the
world around them. Manipulating shapes
and exploring their functions is a great way
Evaluation of resource
This is a good hands on activity to
demonstrate the way objects change and
how it affects movement.

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Tamara Congdon 17409414
This activity was designed by the author.

Biological Science
Living things have basic needs, including
food and water.
What I need: Container from home
Soil
Plant Seed
Water
Sunlight
Method: Plant your own plant; look after it by
giving it water and sunlight. Observe how it
grows.

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature
and development of science
Exploring
and observing the world using senses. They
are using their senses to grasp an
understanding of their world.
Inquiry Skills
observing, discussing, sharing
and drawing to represent ideas
Relevance to year level
At this level, students are exploring the world
around them. Living things are everywhere
and a part of everyday life. It is important for
students to know what they need to survive
and thrive.

## Scaffolding: Discuss that the plant is a living thing

Evaluation of resource
and it needs basic things like water and sunlight
This is a good hands on activity to
to survive. Link this to humans; discuss what we
demonstrate how to look after a living thing.
need to keep us alive. Make sure the children
This relates to the student directly and realise
every living thing needs basic needs to
have time to look after their plant to emphasise
survive.
what needs to be done when keeping a living
thing alive. This can be done with a chart, tick if
you have watered it today. Notice the plants are growing and at different rates. Get them
to draw a picture at different points of life just planted, beginning to spout, and grown,
this will introduce students to idea about life cycle for when they learn about it in level 2.
This activity was designed by the author.

## RSPCA Incursion / Excursion Pets pets

pets
Method: You can go there or they come to you.
There is a discussion and picture book that
teaches the basics in looking after a pet, what
they need, how to look after them, including
registration and how to tell if they are sick.

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature and
development of science
Exploring and
observing the world using senses. Using their
senses to grasp an understanding of their world.
Inquiry Skills
respond to questions, explore,
uses senses, engage discussion and observations,
share.
Relevance to year level
Students understand that every living thing has
needs and this experience does this. This is a great
interactive way to teach students about caring for
a pet.

## Scaffolding: RSPCA have created pre and post

activities to do with students that relate directly
Evaluation of resource
This is a great resource to introduce students to a
pdf file). Some of these activities include find
range of different animals that they may not have
the difference, designing your own special pet,
at home, how to care for them and giving them
match the pet to its shelter and what do pets
need? All of these are a great way to combine what the students learnt in the incursion /
excursion. I chose RSPCA because it was easier to think of activities and they cover
everything that is needed in this Level and also mentions how basic needs relate to

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Tamara Congdon 17409414
humans.
http://www.rspcavic.org/services/education/primary
education/schools-program

Chemical Science
Objects are made of materials that
have observable properties.
Materials - Clothing
What I need: Raincoat
Flannelette Pyjamas
Singlet
School t-shirt
Jacket
Method: Ask the students when would they
be wearing this? How do you know? Ask
them how they think this material keeps
you dry rather than a t-shirt.

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature
and development of science
Exploring
and observing the world using senses. Using
their senses to grasp an understanding of
their world.
Inquiry Skills
observing, discussing,
sharing and drawing to represent ideas
Relevance to year level
Students begin to understand the importance
of clothing and what it does. They can start
differentiating between different materials
and their properties.
Evaluation of resource
This resource is a fun and interactive way to
engage students but still be able to access
their prior knowledge because these
materials would not be new to them.

## Scaffolding: Explore with the students that

we wear different types of materials to
keep us warmer and cooler. Ask them when they would wear each of these things and
why? Make up a list of adjectives to tell apart these fabrics. Draw or colour in a
worksheet. Get an activity where you have to dress person and put them in different
scenarios.
This activity was designed by the author.

## Materials in the Classroom

Method: Take a look around the room, list all the
different materials / things / objects you can. You
can have a look at how they look different,
supply them with a list of things and get them to
agree with a few things. For example:

Hard
Can it bend?
Is it see
through?
Shiny

Window glass
Yes
No
Yes

Paper

Yes

No

No
Yes
No

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature
and development of science
Exploring
and observing the world using senses. Using
their senses to grasp an understanding of
their world.
Inquiry Skills
explore, uses senses, engage
discussion and observations, share.
Relevance to year level
This introduces students to ideas about what
different things are made of and how they look
at act differently. They have observable
properties.
Evaluation of resource
This can be a good resource but would have to
judge the students understanding prior to this
activity to get the most out of it. The great
are able to manipulate it to suit the level of

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Tamara Congdon 17409414
Scaffolding: As this is most likely a new concept for the students, a lot of guidance is
needed. List some things around the room they can look at and make sure they know
what it means to be hard, shiny, see through etc. You can get them to draw their
findings, count around the room, use worksheets with pictures on it etc.

## Daily and seasonal changes in our

environment, including the weather, affect
everyday life
Its raining; its pouring
What I need: Raincoat
Umbrella
Gumboots
Method: Bring these items into class and ask the
students when would they be wearing this? How
do you know? Ask them how they think this
material keeps you dry rather than a t-shirt.

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature
and development of science
Exploring
and observing the world using senses.
Using their senses to grasp an
understanding of their world.
Inquiry Skills
observing, discussing,
sharing and drawing to represent ideas
Relevance to year level
Students begin to understand the
importance of clothing and what it does.
They can start differentiating between
different materials and their properties.
Evaluation of resource
This resource is a fun and interactive way
to engage students but still be able to
access their prior knowledge because
these materials would not be new to them.

students understand why we wear certain things
in different weathers, and not just take it for
Humanities, English, Art and Chemical
granted. Dressing up like this on a sunny day will
engage them with humour for a memorable experience. This can be followed by a picture
book and colouring in sheets, matching up clothes to weather work sheets. You can also
make up a list of all properties that describe water proof clothing, e.g. shiny, flat, and
usually colourful.
This activity was designed by the author.

## Night and Day Discussion

Method: Ask students to tell you the difference
between night and day. What do you see at
these times, where does light come from? What
noises can you hear? Are their different animals
that come out at night? What do you do at these
times? This relates to the students senses. Get
them to draw a picture, one half of the page
day, one half of the page night.

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature and
development of science
Exploring and
observing the world using senses. Using their
senses to grasp an understanding of their world.
Inquiry Skills
explore, uses senses, engage
discussion and observations, share.
Relevance to year level
Seeing the basic changes in our environment
and what we do differently during night and day.
Evaluation of resource
This discussion is very good to get an idea of the
students knowledge about night and day. It can
be also be beneficial to discuss this incase they
didnt know there was a big difference in night
and day.

## Scaffolding: This discussion will be great to

brainstorm with everyone before they draw their
Maths, English, Art and Humanities.
pictures. This may be followed by a picture book
about day and night. The students pictures will
give a good understanding how much the students know about day and night and may

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Tamara Congdon 17409414
be great opportunity to have another class on it.
This activity was designed by the author.

Level ONE
Physical Science
Light and sound are produced by a range of
sources and can be sensed.
Our Voices
What I need: Voice box
Hand
Method: Touch throat with hands and talk, notice
it vibrates
Scaffolding: Explore that every time we talk, it
sends vibrations. Explore this further by making a
tune, stopping and starting your voice, notice if
its different with higher or lower pitch, soft and
loud.

Science as a Human Endeavour
Use and
influence of science
People use science
in their daily lives. Realising they can find
sound with everyday actions and objects will
help them define their senses.
Inquiry Skills
Predicting, observing,
investigate, manipulating materials,
discussing, and sharing.
Relevance to year level
Learning that sound is produced by our own
bodies can benefit their understanding of the
world.
Evaluation of resource
This is a good hands on activity to
demonstrate noise and sound produce
vibrations. This knowledge will develop when

## Wellers, J. (2013). EDU2SES, Lecture 3, Sound [PowerPoint in

Tutorial]. EDU2SES,
Bundoora, Australia: La Trobe
University, Department of Education.

Mystery Noises
Method: There is one sound maker up the front
and everyone has their eyes closed and faces
away from them. The sound maker makes sound
with objects and everyone has to guess what it
is. Some of these may include:
-Tearing paper
-Clap hands
-Stomp on the floor
-Tap pencil on the desk
-Close a book

Science as a Human Endeavour
Use and
influence of science
People use science in
their everyday lives. Exploring and observing
the world using senses. Using their senses to
grasp an understanding of their world.
Inquiry Skills
Participating, predicting,
discussing, and sharing.
Relevance to year level
This not only teaches kids that sounds come
from a range of different thing and actions, but
they learn to compare and concentrate. They
are training to use just one sense their
hearing which can be difficult at first. Students
will realise their ability to listen selectively and
attentively.
Evaluation of resource
This is a good hands on activity to demonstrate
the way objects produce sound. Students will
be involved in a fun way and training their
hearing. Also its an easy game to manipulate

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Tamara Congdon 17409414
Scaffolding: This activity will be great to get kids to distinguish and focus on one sound. It
is recommended to start them with something easy (clapping hands). This is a fun game
that can be played regularly in class.
Reach Out. (2013). Hearing (Audition), Retrieved
from

Biological Science

http://reachoutmichigan.org/funexperiments/quic

## Living things have a variety of external

features. Living things live in different places
where their needs are met.
20 questions!!
Method: The teacher thinks of a living thing
(animal or plant that theyve been studying) and

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature
and development of science
objects. Being able to ask their own
questions to find out the answer is tricky
and very beneficial.
Inquiry Skills
Respond to questions,
predict, participate, investigate, start to
record observations.
Relevance to year level
This activity gives the class an opportunity
to break down features of animals including
their physical appearance, where they live
and what they eat. This is very beneficial to
this stage as stated in Science
Understanding.

## Scaffolding: This game engages and encourages

students to participate. If the class is shy, you can
make up a circle so each student gets to ask a
question. Questions should include:
Evaluation of resource
This is a simple game, that can be good for
- Are you big or small?
all year levels and manipulated accordingly.
- Have 2 legs or four legs?
It empowers the students to think and link
- Animal or plant?
information together to get an answer.
- Do you live in the jungle?
- Do you eat meat?
You can judge how much you have to assist the class by their questions. Build up their
knowledge by choosing something really simple and write suggested questions on the
board. It is also a good idea to write questions
and answers to the current game so all students
Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature and
can follow.
development of science
Science in daily
This activity was designed by the author.

## Rock and Roll

You will need: Reasonably large logs and stumps
An area to explore
Method: Either in an excursion or a local walk or
even in school grounds, students will carefully
look under logs and see what minibeasts are in
there. Safety first so use gloves so no splinters
and bites on hands, lift log away from body and
be sensible.
Scaffolding: This activity will give a real life feel
of how and where minibeasts live. You may

## lives, including caring for environment and

living things.. Students will grasp an idea about
what is going on in the minibeasts life while
they are at school.
Inquiry Skills
explore, uses senses, engage
discussion and record observations, share.
Relevance to year level
Humans are naturally curious, especially
children. You will find that students will explore
around the school grounds and see what bugs
they can find. Why not give them time to do
this and make it a learning and sharing activity.
This will definitely teach students that different
minibeasts live different places to attend to
their needs.
Evaluation of resource
This is a fun activity to engage students in and
make them apart of their environment. It can
be done at any year level and can be
manipulated accordingly.

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Tamara Congdon 17409414
even get them to collect some bugs in containers to get a better look at them, which
then they can describe it on a sheet (how many legs does it have, colour etc) and even
draw it. This would be done after some research on minibeasts so they know background
information on them and respect them a bit more.

Chemical Science

## La Trobe Wilflife Sanctuary. (2013). Education

Experiences,
EverydayRetrieved
materialsfrom
can be physically

## changed in a variety of ways.

http://www.latrobe.edu.au/wildlife/experience
s Make
/education
What I need: 1 c salt
2 c plain flour
1 c water
1 Tbs oil
Food colouring
Method: Combine plain and salt. Add water,
food colouring and oil. Mix well and knead well.
If too wet, add more flour.

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature
and development of science
questions, describe changes in objects and
events. This is exactly what this activity does.
Inquiry Skills
predictions participate,
investigate, exploring, manipulating
materials, testing ideas, discussing, sharing
and represent ideas.
Relevance to year level
Students learn that mixing individual things
together makes something else. This is
physically changing items.
Evaluation of resource
This resource is a fun and interactive way to
engage students and still teach them to
follow a recipe, importance of ingredients and
mixing things together.

## Scaffolding: This teaches kids that mixing

ingredients can form something else and
become one item. You may change it up a bit too, dont add flour, and see what happens.
This teaches kids the importance of flour and ultimately every ingredient. Students may
need help mixing, method, measurement and predicting.
Best Recipes. (2013). No Cook Play Dough,
http://www.bestrecipes.com.au/recipe/NoCook- Play-Dough-L2119.html

Melting Chocolate
Method: Suck on a piece of chocolate (without
biting) and see how long it takes to melt (using
timer).
Scaffolding: Discuss how the chocolate changes
from being hard and solid to melting and being a
liquid. You can melt the chocolate in front of
them using steam for a more visual approach
(especially if any students have allergies). Does
it take a shorter amount of time to become a
liquid if you bite and chew on it? Why do you
think this is? You can ask the kids what would

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature
and development of science
questions, describe changes in objects and
events. We are forcing the chocolate to
melt and changing state.
Inquiry Skills
predictions participate,
investigate, exploring, manipulating
materials, testing ideas, discussing, sharing
and representing ideas.
Relevance to year level
This puts the students in charge of their
own learning by exploring and being
involved in changing the state of an object.
This introduces the idea about solid, liquid
and gas that will be taught in Level 3.
Evaluation of resource
This is a fun and interactive way to test
things. This encourages students to think of
different methods of melting.

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Tamara Congdon 17409414
be the slowest and fastest way to melt the
chocolate. Get them to experiment and think of
their own method.

## Wellers, J. (2013). EDU2SES, Lecture 7,

Chemical Science
[Lecture]. EDU2SES,
Bundoora, Australia: La Trobe
University,
Department of Education.

## Earth and Space

Science
Observable changes occur in the sky and
landscape.
Making a windmill
What I need: Windmill template

Science as a Human Endeavour
Use
and influence of science
People use
science in their everyday lives. Weather is
science and its something we can all
observe.
Inquiry Skills
Predictions, participate,
explore, represent and communicate
observations.
Relevance to year level
Weather, including wind is important to
learn in this year level as students start to
understand the environment changes
constantly.
Evaluation of resource
This is a good resource and can be
explained and discussed with as much or

## Scaffolding: Ask students how we make

them spin? Take them outside on a
windy day, use fan or simply blow to
make it spin. Discuss with the students
wind in the environment and that it
changes and doesnt come at one hit,
changes every day. More likely to be
stronger in storms. Can watch a video

Method:
1. Cut a square of paper and rubber stamp as required
2. Cut along the lines and make small holes, as indicated on the plan on the previous
page
3. Fold the corners into the centre of the square as shown in the photo and fasten
the corners into place to form a pinwheel or windmill using a brad or a twist of
craft wire
4. Attach the pinwheel to a stick and enjoy!
Pullen, K. (2013). Paper Pinwheels or Windmills for Rubber Stamping, Retrieved

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Tamara Congdon 17409414
Learning Seasons

## and what the weather is in these

seasons benefits the students in
understanding that at different
times of the year, the weather is
different. Getting them to colour
draw the different seasons will
emphasise change. You could also
get them to draw a calendar for

Level
TWO

Science as a Human Endeavour
Use and
influence of science
We use science every day.
We push and pull objects all the time and it is
important to understand the amount of things we do.
Inquiry Skills
Predict, participate, investigate,
start to record observations.
Relevance to year level
This relates to The Science Understanding how we
change objects through push and pull motion.

Free for
(2013). Four Seasons Colouring
Evaluation
of Kids.
resource
Retrieved
from http://www.free-forToys Page,
are a great
thing because
students will be used
kids.com/seasons-colouringto playing with them already and find them fun.
pages.shtml
Teachers
can use that as an advantage and get them
to be in control of their own learning and enquiry.
English, Maths, Drama

## A push or a pull affects how an object moves or changes

shape.

Physical Science
Pushing and Pulling Toys (p. 100)
Method: The teacher describes push and pull
and demonstrates this on a toy. The class then
plays with toys and decides what action they are
doing to achieve this. This is recorded either on
a sheet or in workbooks.
Scaffolding: The students will grasp an
understanding of push and pull and will then
discuss a range of different things in our
everyday lives that we push and pull. A
worksheet will be given with pictures of different
things that we push and pull and the students

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature
and development of science
questions and describing changes in events.
Inquiry Skills
Predictions, explore,
represent and communicate observations
Relevance to year level
Students start to observe changes in
environment and studying seasons does this.
Evaluation of resource
This is a good colouring page but drawing
their own seasons would be better. This caters
for differentiated learners.

## Maths, English, Art and Humanities.

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Tamara Congdon 17409414
will distinguish between these.
Skamp, K. (Ed. 4). (2012). Teaching Primary Science
Australia,
Cangage Learning.

## Pushing and Pulling a Table (p. 100)

Method: Turn a table upside down on the
floor. Challenge students to pull it.
Scaffolding: Teachers can change it up a bit
to challenge the minds of the students.
- What if one person stands on table? Try to
pull now?
- What if two people stand on it?
- Does it make a difference if two people both
pull?
- Does it matter If one people pushes and the
other pulls?
To measure this force more visibly, you can
wrap a stocking around table and get
students to pull on that. Does it stretch more
or less with two people pulling? These are
good questions to ask so the students learn
by participating, visual learning and testing.

Constructively. Melbourne,

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature and
development of science
Describe changes
in objects ad events. Looking at changes in
living things and seeing how they grow fits into
this requirement.
Inquiry Skills
Predicting, investigating,
discussing, testing ideas and comparing
observations with others.
Relevance to year level
This activity demonstrates how we, as humans,
grow and change in time. This will link to all
living things and explore different ways people
and animals change. This can start to develop
into classification which will be leant later on.
Evaluation of resource
This is a great way to engage students and
relate to them directly.

## Skamp, K. (Ed. 4). (2012). Teaching Primary Science

Australia,
Cangage Learning.

Constructively. Melbourne,

Biological Science
Living things grow, change and have
offspring similar to themselves.
Baby Photos
Method: The whole class brings in a picture
of themselves as they were a baby or
toddler. As a whole class or groups (each
group gets a quarter of photos), and they
have to find out whos photo it is. The
teacher may choose to photocopy the photos
to protect the original photos from damage.
Scaffolding: You can discuss ways the groups
came to their decision, pointing out facial
features and gender. This will go to a
discussion about growth and even though we
grow, we still have dominate features that
tell us apart. You can ask the students if they
get told they look like their parents or

Science as a Human Endeavour
Use and
influence of science
We use science
every day. We push and pull objects all the
time and it is important to understand the
amount of force taken by weight and
friction.
Inquiry Skills
respond to questions,
predicting, discussing and compare
observations.
Relevance to year level
Students in this year level are
understanding push and pull and this
forces.
Evaluation of resource
This is a fun activity that engages kids and
encourages them to test theories and

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Tamara Congdon 17409414
siblings. This can then develop into an activity where the students should match the
baby animal to the adult and link this up to the range of different names we call
younger animals e.g. Chick, foul, puppy, pup, kitten etc.
Wellers, J. (2013). EDU2SES, Lecture 5, Biological Science [Lecture]. EDU2SES, Bundoora,
Australia: La Trobe University, Department of Education.

## Edendale Farm Excursion

Why: Edendale Farm offers a range of different school programs but for the purpose of
animal growth and change, the best one would be biodiversity. September would be a
good time to go as there will be baby animals so the students can get a solid
understanding of growth and hopefully see a variety of stages of life in a variety of
different animals. Edendale Farm also offers Teachers Environment Network session
twice a term that gives support in teaching sustainability within the curriculum.
Scaffolding: This is a hands on activity to do with students about the growth of a variety
of plants and animals. The teacher can teach a bit to the kids prior to coming here
(growth and change of animals) and can be followed by a range of activities.

Chemical Science
http://www.edendale.vic.gov.au/School_Progr
ams/Primary

Science as a Human Endeavour
Questioning
about, describing changes in objects and events
AND
people use science in their everyday
lives to care for environment and living things.
Exploring and observing the world using senses.
Full participation of this activity from the students
means they are all using their senses to grasp an
understanding of their world.
Inquiry Skills
Participating, Responding to
questions, exploring, observations.
Relevance to year level
This is crucial to give the students a hands on
experience to explore the changes in time in all
living things. This will also compliment the
learning in younger years about basic needs.
Evaluation of resource
Students will have a chance to explore plants,
feed and milk animals, and also explore their
living environment. This is a good excursion that
engages all students in their learning.

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Different materials can be combined, including by mixing, for a particular
purpose.
Mixing and Separating Liquids
What I need: Candle
Water
Oil
Brown Vinegar
Golden syrup
Soft drink
Bi-carb soda
Method: Combine these ingredients in a
variety of ways and see what happens
- Oil and water
- soft drink and oil
- brown vinegar and water
- golden syrup, oil and water
See what sinks and floats, what mixes and
doesnt.

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature and
development of science
about and describing changes in objects and
events. Students are changing the state of liquids
intentionally and seeing what happens
Inquiry Skills
respond to questions,
predicting, discussion and compare observations.
Relevance to year level
Students are starting to make observations about
mixing certain things, and not all liquids mix with
liquids.
Evaluation of resource
Having a range of different things that students
can choose from puts them in charge of their own
learning. This is a great, yet can be messy,
experiment.

## Scaffolding: This activity is a great way to

introduce mixing liquids. With observing that
oil will float on top and not mix into water,
ask students what does it mix into? Get them
Wellers, J. (2013). EDU2SES, Lecture 7, Chemical Science [Tutorial Presentations]. EDU2SES,
to inquire and test out formulas.
Bundoora, Australia: La Trobe University, Department of Education.

Making Bubbles
What I need:1/2 dishwashing detergent
4.5 litres of water
4 Tbs of Glycerine
Method: Depending on what the teacher has
available, is what the bubble maker will be e.g.
coat hanger, string. You could try eBay for a
bubble making device.
Scaffolding: Explain to the students that the
Glycerine makes the bubbles stronger. Explain
what a bubble actually is. Work with the
students to make the world biggest bubble.
Show them YouTube videos of huge bubbles.
This is engage them and emphasise that the sky
is the limit.
Bubble Blowers. (2008). Homemade Bubble Solutions,
retrieved
from:

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature
and development of science
questions, describe changes in objects and
events. Testing bubbles and exploring.
Inquiry Skills
predictions, participate,
investigate, explore, manipulating
materials, testing ideas, discussing, sharing
and represent ideas.
Relevance to year level
Making bubbles fits in with the mixing
component as we are mixing dishwashing
liquid to water to make other new objects.
Evaluation of resource
Bubbles are a great way to have fun. They
are curious things and getting students to
explore them further will present with
fascination and awe.
English, Humanities, Maths, Art.

14 | P a g e
Tamara Congdon 17409414

## Earth and Space Science

Earths resources, including water, are used in a variety of ways.
Yarra Valley Water Incursion
Why: Yarra Valley Water has multiple
incursions but The Big Book About Water
one is aimed at lower primary school
children and talks about the water cycle,
sewerage and water supply. This would be
a great way to engage the students and
talk about water that is around them and
that affects them daily. This is a free
service.
Scaffolding: After this, you could discuss
with students the water globally, where to
find it (dams, rivers, waterfalls), what
different kinds (salt, fresh, rain) and what
we use it for (bathing, washing, drinking).
Learning about the life cycle of water will
link in with the global perspective and how
we use the earths water.

Science as a Human Endeavour
Use
and influence of science
People use
science in their everyday lives, including
when caring for environment. The way we
get and use water is scientific.
Inquiry Skills
Predictions, participate,
explore, represent and communicate
observations.
Relevance to year level
It is important to realise where water
comes from and what happens when it
rains. This fits in with our everyday lives.
Evaluation of resource
This sounds like a very valuable incursion
that would teach the students a lot. It also
spices things up a bit hearing from
someone that isnt the regular teacher.

Yarra Valley Water. (2010). School visits and tours. Retreived from:
http://www.yvw.com.au/Home/Inyourcommunity/Education/Schoolvisitstours/index.htm

## How paper is made from trees Video

Why: In this video, we follow two children around
to different places to find out how paper is
made. This includes visiting forest, paper mill,
bark removed and crushed, pulp is turned into
paper. This video is very good because children
are staring in the show and demonstrating
curiosity and inquiry. It is from a series from
Curious Cat on BBC TWO.
Scaffolding: After watching this video can come
a quick discussion (after 9mins of video
concentration will be thinning). Teachers can get
students to colour in the paper process to
emphasise this learning and put in step by step
visual process. In another session, discuss how
humans use trees from the earth to make manmade items. What do we use trees for beside
paper (tools, building houses, pencils, furniture).

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature
and development of science
questions and describing changes and events.
AND Use and influence of science
people
use science in everyday in caring for the
environment.
Inquiry Skills
Explore, investigate, respond
to questions
Relevance to year level
Students learn how we use the earths
resources and this is just one more way.
Students should be engaged in this because
they use it every day.
Evaluation of resource
This is a good resource that aims directly at
children. It engages them with a visual level
because they may never have the real life
experience of going to the places seen in the
video.

15 | P a g e
Tamara Congdon 17409414
Discuss importance of recycling and get the children to make their own paper.

Level
THREE

## BBC TWO. (2012). Curious Cat: How paper is made

from trees,
http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p011snmr

Physical Science
Heat can be produced in many ways and can move from one object to another.

16 | P a g e
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Static Balloons
What I need: Balloon
Little bits of paper (confetti)
Materials (hair, cotton, fur, wool)
Method: Rub balloon on different materials and put them near paper. How long do papers
stay on there? Does it change differently
with the material?
Scaffolding: Explain that creating this
friction causes heat and that different
material causes more heat. You can get
them to make charts and diagrams to
material to the length of time the confetti
stays on for.
Wellers, J. (2013). EDU2SES, Lecture 3,
Physical
Science
[Tutorial].
EDU2SES, Bundoora, Australia: La Trobe
University, Department
of Education.

## Hands creating heat

Method: Students will be in partners. One
person rubs their hands together and
gets them warm (partner A). They then
put there warm hands on partner Bs
hands (which shouldnt be as warm). Can
the students tell the differnce?

## Science as a Human Endeavour

Nature
and development of science
Make
predictions and describing patterns and
relationships.
Inquiry Skills
Predict, participate,
to
AusVELS
investigate,
Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature and
Relevance toof
year
level
development
science
Describing patterns and
This relates to
Theexperiment
Science Understanding
relationships.
This
looks at the
how we change
objects
through
andofpull
relationship
between
material
andpush
length
time
motion.stays on.
confetti
Inquiry Skills
investigate, predict, materials to
Evaluation
of
resource
make and record observations, tables and column
Toys are
great thing
because
students will
graphs
to arepresent
data,
compare.
be used to playing with them already and find
them fun. to
Teachers
can use that as an
Relevance
year level
and
get
them
to beways
in control
of
Level 3s are learning different
to produce
heat
their
own
learning
and
enquiry.
and through friction is definitely one of them.
Evaluation of resource
This is a fun activity that involved maths and science
into one. Involving balloons already boosts the
interests of the children. Learning why your hair sticks
up when rubbing a balloon on it will engage with their
curiosity.

Scaffolding: Students come to understand that creating friction, through rubbing, creates
heat. Partner A should feel coolness in partner Bs hands, whereas Partner B will feel heat
from partner As hand.
This activity was designed by the author.

Biological Science
Living things can be grouped on the
basis of observable features and can be
distinguished from non-living things.
Categorising stuffed toys

Science as a Human Endeavour
Use and
influence of science
helps people understand
the effect of their actions.
Inquiry Skills
Participating, Responding to
questions, exploring, observations.
Relevance to year level
This teaches students different ways heat can be
produced and moved from one object to another,
in this case, body heat.
Evaluation of resource
This is a good experiment because it teaches
students how to get warm if they are cold.
Humanities and English.

17 | P a g e
Tamara Congdon 17409414
Method: Have a range of different animals as a stuffed toy. Get the students to categorise
them into different groups. Then share. It will be good to see the range of different ways
people categorised (e.g. number of legs, colour, size, fur, pet etc).
Scaffolding: Explain that not everyone groups the same. Categorising things does
wonders for our lives e.g. Reptiles are not animals, sort socks at home, cutlery etc. It
makes things neater and easier to find things. You can go one step further and get a
picture / or a video of a real animal and get them to compare it to the stuffed animal.
What makes them living and not living?
Wellers, J. (2013). EDU2SES, Lecture 5, Biological Science [Lecture]. EDU2SES, Bundoora,
Australia: La Trobe
University, Department of Education.

## Tant_Living and Non-Living Things K.6

Why: This song demonstrates what things need to be alive. They constantly go through
living and non living objects and checking if they are alive by seeing if they eat, breathe
and grow. This basic categorising is a good way to start to label what is living and what is
not.
Scaffolding: This is a good start to classifying what is living and what is not. Students can
explore this concept more thoroughly through their own observations and testings.
Maybe even walk around the school and ask what is living and what is not and do you
know? Relate this back to humans and possibly different life stages of humans, we still
need these things even as babies so we are still living there.

Chemical Science
A change state between solid and liquid can
be caused by adding or removing heat.

## Keeping ice cold

Method: Freeze water in a glove, take it out and
see if it would be better wrapped up or left out
to take the longest amount of time to melt.
Scaffolding: This challenges students ideas
blanket keeps the warmth we produce in. How
fast does it melt when heat (hair dryer) is placed
on it?

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature
and development of science
making
predictions and describing patterns and
relationships. This song is providing
relationships between all living things.
Inquiry Skills
investigate and identity
questions, record observations, compare
results.
Relevance to year level
This song is engaging and teaches children
to start classifying things into living and
non-living things through basic
charateristics.which is required in science
understanding.
Evaluation of resource
This is a good song however doesnt touch
on the subject of plants being a living thing.
But this can be discussed with class later.

18 | P a g e
Tamara Congdon 17409414
If we were to refreeze it, would it be the same or would the water change its texture,
shape and taste like the ice-cream?

## Method: Melt ice-cream either on heat or

leave it out of freezer on a hot day.
Refreeze it again.

## Wellers, J. (2013). EDU2SES, Lecture 10, The 5

Es [Tutorial
Activity]. EDU2SES, Bundoora,
toto
AusVELS
AusVELS
Australia:
La as
Trobe
University,
Department of
Science
a Human
Endeavour
Science
as
a Human
Endeavour Nature
use and
Education.
and development of science
making

## Scaffolding: What happens when it is

refrozen? Does it stay in the same shape?
Do the colours run? Is it the same texture?
Can you explain this?
This activity was designed by the author.

## Earth and Space

Science

influence of science
Helps people
predictions
and
describing
patterns
and
understand
the
effect of their
actions.
relationships.
Students
will
gather
an
Inquiry Skills
identify questions,
understanding
relationship
investigate, predict,
represent
ideas and fair
between
earth
and
sun.
testing
Inquiry Skills
identify questions,
Relevance
to year
level knowledge,
predicting
based
on prior
Students understand
the relevance
of
investigate,
represent data
using tables
freezing
and
and
graphs,
fairmelting
test. and freezing again.
They understand that although it can
Relevance
tochanges
year level
happen, it
the state of the product.
This is a visual interesting exercise so that
Evaluation
resource
students
learn
This is They
a good
because
routine.
willtest
learn
axis and does
change
the
quality
of
it
once
its been
rotation.
melted and refrozen.
Evaluation of resource
Maths,
and Humanities
This
is funEnglish
and visually
represented as
change. This demonstrates how important

## Earths rotation on its axis causes regular

changes, including day and night.

## and influence of science

Helps people
understand the effect of their actions.

## What youll need: An object

Chalk
Sun preferably not
cloudy
Pavement

## Science as a Human Endeavour

Use

Inquiry Skills
Identify questions,
investigate, predict, represent ideas and fair
testing
Relevance to year level
Freezing and melting water is a component
of the science understanding above.
Evaluation of resource
This is a good source because it tests ideas

## Method: During the morning, get the class to

go outside on pavement in the sun. With their
chosen object (that stands up), get them to
English and Maths.
trace around it using chalk and put their name
in the middle (this will help later when finding it again). Get them to trace around the
shadow that this object makes, notice where the sun is (not looking directly at it safety
first)
Then in the afternoon (ask the students if they think the shadow has moved or in the
same spot), get them to place the object in same spot and trace the shadow once more.
See how its changed.

19 | P a g e
Tamara Congdon 17409414
Scaffolding: This is a perfect visual to demonstrate that the sun travels during the day
and creates shadows accordingly. This can then develop into the world being on an axis,
and explain why we have day and night and why the sun moves throughout the day. This
activity can also create an investigation about shadows and can show a video on finger
puppets. Get the children to make their own.
This activity was designed by the author.

## Earth, Moon and Sun Excursion to Science Works

Why: This science show demonstrates everything this level is learning earths axis
affects night and day, night cycles, and phases of the moon. This seems very
educational and fun and can demonstrate better quality sound and visuals where normal
classroom approach limits.
Scaffolding: Before seeing this show, teachers need to assure that children know that
basics about earth being the world, the fact that its round and about space, moon and
the sun. Afterward, students and teachers can explore these concepts more thoroughly
with real life models with torches and research.

8,

Level FOUR

http://museumvictoria.com.au/scienceworks/educ
ati
on/education-programs/earth-moonand-sun/

## Forces can be exerted by one object on another through direct

Physical Science
contact or from a distance.

Playing marbles
What I need: 5 marbles (2 minimal)
2-3 persons in a group
Method: With one marble, try to hit the other
one (that is at least a meter away). Notice how it
the marble that is being hit moves as well. This
is transporting the force from the first marble.
This is similar to bowling and bowls.
Scaffolding: This is a fun game that this year
level will pick up quite quickly. You can take it
further by challenging them to get to the middle
(or be the closest to the middle ball). This is a
mini version of the game bowls. It teaches
children that the amount of force you give the
marble will transfer to the other ones which may
be for or against their intention. As they begin to
strategize, ask them why they are giving the
marbles lesser force? Relate this to the force
that is being transferred to one object to the
other.

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature
and development of science
making
predictions and relating them to patterns.
Learning about nature and the way things are,
relating to everyday life.
Inquiry Skills
identify questions, compare
results and predictions and trends, participate,
and reflect
Relevance to year level
Students gather a bigger perspective of the
earth and globe. They relate this to how
nature affects their everyday life.
Evaluation of resource
This is a valuable excursion that can always
be related back to in the course.

20 | P a g e
Tamara Congdon 17409414
This activity was designed by the author.

Magnets
Method and Scaffolding: Allow students to play
activities (probably not in one hit).
- Push 2 magnet bars together at different
areas. When do they attract each other?
When do they avoid each other? Talk about
the positives and negative ends of a
magnet. Get them to draw their findings
with a description.
- Test how strong a magnet is by getting it
to hold up as many paper clips as it can. Fill
in a table displaying this and is there any
difference on the end of magnet or the way
paper clips are placed?
- Getting the students to understand the
positive and negative ends of a magnet
affect the relationship between certain
objects. This can be done by making a
compass with them. Rub a pin on the
positive end of a magnet, put it on piece of
paper in water and it will face north.

Biological Science

## with magnets and can do different

Science as a Human Endeavour
Use and
influence of science
people understand
the effect of their actions. The introduction to
humans doing wrong by the environment and
Inquiry Skills
identity questions,
investigate, record observations, identify
patterns and trends, predictions communicate
and compare.
Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature
and development
Describe
Relevance
to year level of science
in objects
events.
Looking
Plants changes
and animals
depend
each other
andat
changes in This
livingisthings
and seeing
the environment.
an activity
that how
they grow
into this requirement.
demonstrates
thisfits
effectively.
Inquiry Skills
Predicting, investigating,
Evaluation
of resource
discussing,
testing ideas and comparing
This is observations
a great activity
to others.
do with kids to
with
expand their knowledge on the environment.
Relevance
year level and requires
Involving
drama istointeractive
Students learn
impact force has on
full participation
from the
everyone.
other objects when transferring it.

## Living things have life cycles. Living things,

including plants and animals, depend on
each other and the environment to survive.

Evaluation of resource
This is a great way to engage students in a
game that it educational. It is good for the
aim intended.

## Relating all living things

What I need: Living things pictures
Method: Distribute the living things pictures to
the class so one per person (get them to guess
what the plant or animal is and they can get the
card). Get the students to behave like their card
Wellers, J. (2013). EDU2SES, Lecture 3,
and be like the living thing. Then ask them to
Physical Science
[Tutorial]. EDU2SES,
find other cards that you need to survive (e.g.
Bundoora, Australia: La
Trobe University,
koala links with eucalyptus tree). Do this in a
Department of Education.
big space. Eventually they will be linking to
everything and realise everything needs each
other to survive.
Scaffolding: You can introduce predators and
see if that complicates things? Remove all the
trees and where does that leave things?
Introduce factories. There are a range of helpful
lessons this activity opens up. Sustainability ,
change, development, life, big system that

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature and
development of science
predictions and
finding patterns and relationships. Researching
about magnets and exploring their uses will do
this.
Inquiry Skills
Participating, Responding to
questions, exploring, observations, graphs, fair
test, diagrams.
Relevance to year level
Students learn different forces and how certain
objects attract and hate other materials. They
learn how magnets do not need physical contact
to react each other.
Evaluation of resource
Magnets are fun and a good way to explore and be
involved in their own learning. These experiments
and clever and teaches valuable lessons on forces.

21 | P a g e
Tamara Congdon 17409414
everyone relies on everyone else, animals and plants, food chains etc.

http://www.latrobe.edu.au/wildlife/experiences/education
Frog Calls
Method: Testing to see how healthy a
wetlands area is by frog calling to see how
many species of frogs there area. Go to
www.frogs.org.au and see the frogs of
Victoria. Play the frogs sound near the
wetlands and they should reply if there is any
in there.
Scaffolding: Discuss with the class what it
means if there werent any frogs in there. Ask
them if they predict that other frogs will
respond to different calling and why? What if
water was polluted? Would frogs stay in
there? Explain cause and effect in this. What
other ways do we know if these wetlands are
healthy?

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature and development of science
predict and make patterns and
relationships.
Inquiry Skills
investigate, use
materials, tools and equipment, record
observations, fair test.
Relevance to year level
Students investigate and learn by
themselves with trial and error what is
the best material for the job. They can
then learn physical properties of
materials. This inquiry experiment puts
students in charge of their own learning.

Evaluation of resource
This is a good experiment to do with this
La Trobe Wilflife Sanctuary. (2013). Education Experiences,
from
year levelRetrieved
as they will
be more
responsible with heat and equipment.

Chemical
Science
http://www.latrobe.edu.au/wildlife/experiences/education

Amphibian
Research
Centre.
(2013). Frogs
Australia,
Retrievedproperties;
from
Natural and
processed
materials
have of
a range
of physical
these

http://frogs.org.au/frogs/index.html
properties
can influence their
use.
Science as a Human Endeavour
Best coffee mug
Method: Students design a
mug/container to keep coffee (or
a hot drink) hotter for longer. To
make the test fair, thermometers
would be needed. Students
should have time to plan and
make. They should justify their
reasons for this particular
material and test it out.

Nature of
development of science
Making predictions and
describing relationships. Level 4 observe the
relationship between frogs and their habitat.
Inquiry Skills
identify questions and investigate,
record observations in a variety of ways, compare
results and fair testing.
Relevance to year level
This teaches students the importance of quality
habitat and can affect living things. This links in with
science understanding.
Evaluation of resource
This is very interactive activity that students relate to
the environment directly. Being a good teacher would
be to encourage them to be in charge of their own
learning. The could be in charge of experiment which
is working computer and website, deciding how to
represent findings and predicting what types of frogs

## Scaffolding: This uses

predictions, planning, thorough
reasoning, testing and improving,
fair testing and representing
findings. This would be better if
students were competing with other groups or other classes so they can keep improving
it and make it interesting. The properties of materials can then be discussed, and linked

22 | P a g e
Tamara Congdon 17409414
into reasons why certain things worked to keep heat and liquid in and certain things that
didnt. This can spread to why we use different materials for certain things.
Wellers, J. (2013). EDU2SES, Lecture 7, Chemical Science
[Lecture]. EDU2SES,
Bundoora, Australia: La
Trobe University, Department of Education.

Bridges Flexibility
What I need: Table
Wooden Ruler
Plastic Ruler
Metal Ruler
Tape measure
Weight
Method: Test the flexibility of these materials by placing the weight on the end of rulers
that are half off table. Measure how far the rulers flex by first measuring height of ruler
without the weight.
Scaffolding: This is a good way to emphasise to the students that different materials were
made for different things. Link this in with the structure of bridges and how bridges need
just a little bit of flexibility for traffic and weather.
This activity was designed by the author.

## Earth and Space Science

Earths surface changes over time as a result of natural processes and human
activity.
Niagara Falls Alive

## Why: This website shows the erosions over time

in the Niagara Falls. This is a natural process
that takes away 30 cm every 10 years of the fall.
Relating this change to famous sites around the
world puts a real view on it and can then predict
what its going to do in the next 100 years. This
website has extraordinary photos that make
sense and diagrams to explain it further. It also

to AusVELS
to AusVELS
Science
a Human
Endeavour Use of
Science
as aas
Human
Endeavour
Natureofand
development
of science
influence
science
science
Predict with
and
relationships.
knowledge
helpspatterns
people to
understand
the
Looking
at actions.
present, people
effect
of their
objectscan
the materials
natural process
ofwith
the world.
are predict
in mind
their
Inquiry Skills
Investigate,
properties.
questioning,
record
observations,
Inquiry
Skills
predictions,
investigate,
compare results.
manipulating
materials, testing, represent
appropriately.
Relevance to year level
Relevance
to yearhow
level
Representing
the earth changes due
At this
year
level,
students
understand
to natural causes by showing
the
properties
of
materials
and
their uses.
students famous landmarks.

## Scaffolding: This website is perfect for

Evaluation
of resource
individual research. It is recommended that
Evaluation
of resource
ThisThis
is a is
good
experiment
that explores
a
students work through a question and answer
a very
good website
for students
range
of
different
experiments
in
the
same
sheet provided to do research. Discussion of this
to go on and have a look.
way.
process needs to include diagrams and thorough
explanation. Non-fiction books would do this perfectly. Introduce erosion in other famous
sites such as the Grand Canyon, caves and cliffs.

23 | P a g e
Tamara Congdon 17409414

## This activity was designed by the author.

Cities at Night
Why: Showing a satellite view at night will demonstrate to students what humans have
created on earth. This shows human activity on earth and where the developed areas of
the world are. It may display some indication of where most of the population is but could
just mean the countries who consume the most energy.
Scaffolding: Ask students what they think this is a picture of? Explain to them that it was
photo-shopped because we know the earths surface cannot be at night all at one time.
Ask them why they think some cities are more lit than others. If they say more people
live there get them to research it and get numbers of population to support their
prediction. So ask them again. Then explain to them different countries consume
different amount of energy. Ask them why they think this is. You can make a research
inquiry on this too or just have a discussion.

http://www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/everydaylife/Growing_Cities_AGU_prt.htm
Wellers, J. (2013). EDU2SES, Lecture 10, Earth and Space Sciences [Lecture]. EDU2SES,
Bundoora, Australia: La
Trobe University, Department of Education.

Level
FIVE
Physical Science

## Light from a source forms shadows and

can be absorbed, reflected and refracted.
Mirrors and Torch

Science as a Human Endeavour
use and
influence of science
How peoples actions
affect the earth.
Inquiry Skills
Explore, investigate, respond
to questions
Relevance to year level
Students learn the effect humans are having
on this earth. What we are have done, our
population, our effect on earths resources and
economy.
Evaluation of resource
This is a very good picture to present the
students to demonstrate human activity and
resources on earth

## What I need: At least 3 mirrors (can be small)

One torch
Dark room
Method: Assign students in groups of at least 2 and turn off all the lights in the

24 | P a g e
Tamara Congdon 17409414
classroom. Get students to reflect the light from the torch onto 3 mirrors, reflecting off
each other.
Scaffolding: Explain to the students that this is reflecting and because the mirrors dont
absorb any light, no light will be lost in this process. Using the whole classroom,
challenge the class to work all together with all the mirrors but only one torch, and
create a maze. Emphasise the importance of accuracy and try to aim the beam of light
in the middle of each mirror.
This activity was designed by the author.

## Glow in the dark jelly

What I need: Jelly
normal water)
UV Flouoresent Light
(bigger the better)
Mehtod: Make jelly as normal substituting
normal water with Tonic water (which has
quinine in it responds to UV light).
Refrigerate, then expose it to UV light.
Scaffolding: The quinine in the tonic water
reacts to the UV light making it glow bright
blue. The brighter the light, the brighter the
jelly will get. Explain to students that the jelly
absorbs the light and traps it inside the jelly.

## Science as a Human Endeavour

Use and
influence of science
discoveries and
inventions are used to solve problems.
Inquiry Skills
investigate, plan methods of
investigation, predict, solve problem, and
communicate ideas.
Relevance to year level
AusVELS
Animals
have
structural features that
Science
as a
Human
Endeavour
Nature and
separate
them
from
the rest
development
of science
Testing
survive
in their environment.
predictions by gathering data to explain
Evaluation
events.of resource
ThisInquiry
is a good
activity that
allows students
Skills
investigate,
solve to
create
a
nesting
boxes
for
animals
based
problems, fair test, observe, measure on
and
theirrecord
needs.
data, suggest improvements.

## Winston, R. (2011). Science Experiments:

Explosively fun activities you
can do. London, DK.

## Relevance to year level

This activity teaches reflecting of light and can
be related directly to the science
understanding of this year level.
Evaluation of resource
This resource uses everyday objects and
questions why and how light bounces.

Biological Science
Living things have structural features and
adaptations that help them to survive in
their environment.
Building Nesting Boxes
Method: In groups, students put together
different bird and animal nesting boxes. Creating
this can teach students to differentiate between
animal needs. For example, the Rosella has a
nesting box that has a bar of wood over opening
because they peck at it and go in. But to peck
on it, they have little grooves on opening so its
possible. This bird house was specifically
designed to attract Rosella birds as oppose to
other animals.

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature and
development of science
Testing predictions
by gathering data to explain events.
Inquiry Skills
investigate, solve problems, fair
test, observe, measure and record data, suggest
improvements.
Relevance to year level
This experiment demonstrates how an object
absorbs light instead of reflecting it.
Evaluation of resource
This is interesting and engaging experiment. It
may take extra scaffolding to explain to students
how this works because it is a complicated
process.
English, Maths and Chemical Science

25 | P a g e
Tamara Congdon 17409414
Scaffolding: This activity helps build the students knowledge of different environments
and needs for different animals. This was activity was created through an excursion to
the LaTrobe Wildlife Sanctuary, but it can be done in class. Teachers can even encourage
research of animals first to design and make a home specifically for this animal. This is
creating nesting boxes for animals because the trees are too young to have hollows. The

http://www.latrobe.edu.au/wildlife/experienc es/education
Does the bark protect the plant from fire? (p. 65-67)
What I need: Thermometer
Bark from a tree
a portable heater
Method: Measure the temperature 30cm away from heater (be careful around heat).
Then place a piece of bark in between and measure the temperature again. What is the
difference in temperatures? What did we find out? Scaffolding: Further, you can measure
the temperature at different lengths from heater. The bark protects the inside parts of
the plant from intense heat and enables the plant to survive a bush fire. There are sheets
that were created from NSW bushfire website, that has activities such as describe
changes in gum trees during a bush fire , how a gum tree looks after 6 months after a
bush fire? and where do new seedlings come from?.
http://www.rfs.nsw.gov.au/file_system/attachments/State08/Attachment_20050308_FED1
C5C4.pdf

Chemical Science

Science as a Human Endeavour
Use and
influence of science
scientific
knowledge is used to inform personal and
community decisions.
Inquiry Skills
pose questions, predict
findings and represent appropriately.
Relevance to year level
These are very good activities to do with
this grade because it emphasises living
things adaptions to bush fires. After this,
you can look at how animals survive during
and after bush fires (p. 71 72).
Evaluation of resource
This is a good experiment because it
demonstrates what trees do and they were
made to protect themselves from threats.
English, Humanities and Maths.

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Solids, liquids and gases have different observable properties and behave in
different ways.
Cornflour and water
What I need: Cornflour / Cornstarch
Water
Things to test it with
Method: Students combine this and play with
it. Activities can include what sinks and floats
in it, how to mix food dye in it, how to stir it
with a pencil, find a marble in the bottom and
try blowing bubbles in it.
Scaffolding: Get the students to try and
distinguish if it is a solid or a liquid and get
them to justify their answer. You can get them
to research what cornstarch is made of and
when we use it for. Lesson is, not everything
can be a smooth definition of solid and liquid,
it can be both.
This activity was designed by the author.

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature and development of science
test predictions by gathering data to
develop explanations.
Inquiry Skills
pose questions,
scientific investigation, represent using
graphs and tables to present
relationships and patterns.
Relevance to year level
Students are understanding that not all
liquids and solids behave in the same
way and can be difficult to categorise
them.
Evaluation of resource
This is a good experiment that can be
entertaining for hours. There is so many
things that can be done with it to test

## Balloons and Elements

What I need: Balloon full of water
Balloon full of air
sticks in it.
Method: With these balloons, get students to do
basic things with them and record their findings.
For example, throw them, which ones go the
furthest? Drop them, how fast do they hit the
ground? Is it stable on a piece of paper? Does it
bounce when it hits the ground?
Scaffolding: Getting the students to do the same
experiments on each the balloons, will produce a
fair test. It can also be a good way to tell the
differences in these elements, how they differ
and how they behave.

## This activity was designed by the author.

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature
and development of science
test
predictions by gathering data to develop
explanations.
Inquiry Skills
pose questions, scientific
investigation; represent using graphs and
tables to present relationships and patterns.
Relevance to year level
Testing the observable properties of these
elements will help to distinguish between
them. They can also test what they already
know about liquids, solids and gases.
Evaluation of resource
This is an alright experiment. It can be
varied to match certain grade. Try it once, if
it does not work and does not do what its
aimed to do, then dont try it again.

27 | P a g e
Tamara Congdon 17409414

## Earth and Space Science

The earth is part of a system of planets orbiting around a star (the sun).
Miniature universe

## Method: Get students to make planets, sun and

moon out of foam (scale to size). When
completed, go outside to oval and measure out
to scale how far away planets are to each other.
Scaffolding: Doing this will give students a
visual on how far away they actually are to each
other compared with their sizes. This is a very
interactive activity where everyone can be
apart. Maybe instead of making the sun,
students can stand in a big circle to represent it.
When get back to class, ask students what
videos to compliment this and know what and
how the planets are made up of.

Science as a Human Endeavour
Use
and influence of science
Science
understandings, discoveries and inventions
are used to solve problems. Scientists
studies our universe to better understand
what is around us.
Inquiry Skills
investigation, fair testing,
represent patterns and relationships in an
appropriate way.
Relevance to year level
Students learn that they are not alone in
this universe and that there are planets
with us. They understand the distance
between these planets and start to realise
how big our universe is.
Evaluation of resource
This is a good task to do with students to
represent visually the universe in a
miniature scale. Students can have the

## Wellers, J. (2013). EDU2SES, Lecture 10, Earth

and Space
Sciences [Lecture]. EDU2SES, Bundoora, Australia:
University, Department of Education.

La Trobe

http://www.telescope.org/nuffield/pas/solar/solar7.html

## Ordering the Planets

Method: Get students to make up mnemonics to
remember the order of planets. For example,
My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us
Nachos.
Scaffolding: Teachers should encourage
creativity and get students to show off their
work. If they are worked on and made page look
good for display, students will be more likely to
remember it and look at others regularly. The
comedy part of it will make it a fun activity.

Science as a Human Endeavour
Use and
influence of science
Science
understandings, discoveries and inventions
are used to solve problems. Scientists study
our universe to better understand what is
around us.
Inquiry Skills
representations,
improvements, communicate ideas.
Relevance to year level
In order to know about the planets and
universe, it is important for students to
remember the order of planets.
Evaluation of resource
This is a fun way for individuals to remember
the order of planets. Students should do this
task individually because it will mean more to
them and have more likelihood of

28 | P a g e
Tamara Congdon 17409414
http://www.teachingideas.co.uk/science/ordering planets.htm

Level SIX
Physical Science
Electrical circuits provide a means
of transferring and transforming
electricity.
Energy from a variety of sources
can be used to generate electricity.
And let there be light (p. 148)
What I need: 6 volt battery
2 electrical cords
Flash light bulb
Method: Make a circuit that electrons
move along conducting path. Attach
negative end to battery, connect it to
light, then from the light, the other
negative cord will attach from battery
and link up onto battery onto positive
side.

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature and
development of science
Test predictions and
gather data from evidence to develop
explanations. Test different ways to light up the
light
Inquiry Skills
Predicting, investigating,
compare data, suggest improvements, solve a
problem.
Relevance to year level
This level learns you can transfer energy from one
place to another to generate electricity. This
experiment demonstrates this very well.
Evaluation of resource
This is a good experiment for this year level,
however it will probably be elaborated on in high

Scaffolding: This circuit proves the link electricity has to each other. Teachers can then
get students to add a switch in the process.
Skamp, K. (Ed. 4). (2012). Teaching Primary
Science
Constructively. Melbourne,
Australia, Cangage Learning.

## Pulling apart a torch (p. 144- 146)

Why: Torches produce electricity but not by wires. It is
beneficial that students know there are different ways
to produce light from batteries.
Scaffolding: Get students to play with new and old
torches and tell the difference. Why one works and
why the other one does not. Dismantle working torch,
wire metal strip retreats batteries. See above
experiment to create own torch.

## Science as a Human Endeavour

Use and
influence of science
Inventions that are
made to influence and benefit peoples lives.
Inquiry Skills
pose questions, predict,
investigate, and communicate ideas
Relevance to year level
Students in this year level understand different
ways of which we produce electricity. Pulling apart
a torch does this and puts them in charge of their
own learning.
Evaluation of resource
This is a good experiment but may need a lot of
assistance for some students.
Humanities, Maths and English.

29 | P a g e
Tamara Congdon 17409414
Skamp, K. (Ed. 4). (2012). Teaching Primary Science
Australia, Cangage Learning.

Biological Science
The growth and survival of living things
are affected by the physical conditions
of their environment.
Plant cause and effect
Method: Students condition looking after a
plant. Knowing what plants need to survive,
students may choose to not water it or keep
it in the dark.
Scaffolding Students learn that what they
do affects plants (cause and effect). They
learn the importance of survival. Students
can also test if it is reversible. At what stage
of the process can you stop that and start
to look after it again, will go back to
normal? Would it be possible to strive or
just survive after this? Can relate this is
animals and humans. RSPCA shows lots of
animals that have been mistreated and some
still lead happy lives after the right home is
found for them.
Wellers, J. (2013). EDU2SES, Lecture 5,
Biological
Science [Lecture]. EDU2SES,
Bundoora,
Australia: La Trobe University,
Department of
Education.

Wildlife CSI

Constructively. Melbourne,

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature
and development of science
Scientific
understandings are used to solve problems.
Looking at plants needs can be related to
humans.
Inquiry Skills
Investigate, fair testing,
represent data in an appropriate way,
researching, designing.
Relevance to year level
The growth and survival of living things can
be affected by their environment. This relates
directly to the experiment testing plants
needs with providing the opposite.
Evaluation of resource
This experiment is very beneficial for the
students understanding but purposely
harming a living thing may distress some
students so it is useful to know your class
well.

Science as a Human Endeavour
Use and
influence of science
Science
understandings, discoveries and inventions
are used to solve problems that directly link
to humans. Knowing about how the
environment is damaged and ways we can
prevent and fix that is using our science
brains
Inquiry Skills
pose questions, clarify
practical problems, investigate, predict,
plan, fair test and improvements, compare
results and representations.

## Why: Wildlife CSI is an activity designed from

Relevance to year level
grades 3-6. An excursion to La Trobe Wildlife
Students realise the effect humans have on
Sanctuary will supply all materials, and
the environment. This affects the growth
discussions needed for students to understand
and survival of living things.
the affect humans have on the environment.
Your educational experience at the Sanctuary is
Evaluation of resource
designed to stimulate the imagination and
This is a fun activity that engages students
curiosity of your students and provide them with
and get them in charge of their own
ways to safely explore, learn about and look
learning and having a chance to investigate
after their environment. Along with this,
students learn how our environment is damaged and ways to protect it and make the
world a better place.

30 | P a g e
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Scaffolding This is a great activity to do with the students and they will learn a lot from
that excursion alone. However, you can continue this in the classroom by asking the
students ways to prove their hypothesis they developed. Create fair tests to help prove
you know who did it. This is higher level thinking and will challenge this year level.
Because this excursion talks about what humans have done to the environment, you can
look more into that in class.

http://www.latrobe.edu.au/wildlife/experiences/education

Chemical Science
Changes to materials can be reversible, such
as melting, freezing, evaporating; or
irreversible, such as burning and rusting.
Rust and Nails

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature
and development of science
Testing
predictions, and gathering data.
Inquiry Skills
Testing hypothesis with
variety of materials. Represent in a number
of different ways, have fair testing and
ways to improve for later.
Relevance to year level
Students are learning a range of different
testing materials with this experiment and
relates directly onto reversible and
irreversible experiments.

## Method: A) First you need a standard test to see

what liquid will make the nail rust faster. So put
nails in 4 test tubes with tap water, salt water, soft
Evaluation of resource
drink and vinegar for 2 weeks. See which ones
Students are primarily in charge of their
own experiment and will think of and test
rusted faster and to what extent? B) Can you think
ways to prove hypothesis. This is therefore
of a way to get rid of the rust? Is rust irreversible or
a great experiment to do with grade 6s.
can it reverse back to previous state? C) How
would you prevent the nail from rusting next time?
Humanities, Maths, Art and English.
Using one liquid, get student s to test different
ways you can protect the nail from rusting, For example, painting the nail, wrapping in
plastic, dipping it in oil etc.
Scaffolding Students should create and plan these testings out themselves in an
appropriate form. This is a good and thorough experiment that students can be experts
in. Get them to present their information in an appropriate way (graphs, tables, poster
and multimedia). Students should work in groups and come to a conclusion. This
experiment includes many experiments in one so allow for a term to do this in selected
times. Emphasise the importance of predicting and having a hypothesis. How can they
create an experiment to prove this?
http://www.finishing.com/328/07.shtml

Making Crystals
Method: Make a mixture of salt water in a cup (can half full or completely full) and dye it
with food colouring (optional). Place a string on a paddle pop stick and place over waterso string is in it. Wait for 2 weeks (or longer) and you have made salt crystals.
Scaffolding Instead of just a sting, students can create objects out of pipe cleaners and
make them crystallise. Discuss what are crystals made for (cat litter etc)? Can crystals be

31 | P a g e
Tamara Congdon 17409414
reversed after made? How would you do this?
Get students to draw what is happening and write a description.

## Earth and Space Science

Sudden geological changes or extreme weather
conditions can affect Earths surface.

Earthquake Jelly

Science as a Human Endeavour

use

## and influence of science

science
understandings are used to solve problems
that directly relate to people.
Inquiry Skills
predict, plan an
results in an appropriate way.

## Method: Make jelly in a bowl as normal, when it

Relevance to year level
is set, cut out different length holes (3 to a bowl)
Students investigate Earthquakes and do
in it and place tall, thin biscuits in them (and
this experiment to understand what
different lengths). Make an earthquake in your
happens
in earth
quakes.
Wellers,
(2013).
EDU2SES,
Lecture
Chemical Science
[Tutorial
Presentations].
jelly byJ.hitting
the
side of the
bowl. 7,
Which
EDU2SES,
Bundoora,
Australia:
La
Trobe
University,
Department
of
Education.
buildings survived the earthquake, which did
not?

Evaluation of resource
This is a good experiment to show different
size buildings but I feel it would work better
if the biscuits set with the jelly (but this
would be soggy).

## Scaffolding Discuss with the students that if

they were in an earthquake, would they rather
be in tall, thin building or a short, squat
Humanities, English, Art and Maths
building? Is this really like an earthquake? What happens to underneath the surface
during an earthquake. How can we make this a fair test?
Catchpole, H. (2004), The Yummy book of Rocks, Dickson,

## A.C. T., CSIRO Education.

Science as a Human Endeavour
Nature
and development of science
Testing
predictions, and gathering data.
Inquiry Skills
Testing hypothesis with
variety of materials. Represent in a number
of different ways, have fair testing and
ways to improve for later.
Relevance to year level
Students will be creating different materials
with salt to make something greater. They
will learn some made things can be
reversible and some cannot.
Evaluation of resource
This is a good experiment that can be
altered. Although this can be done with
younger year levels, the comprehension

Tsunami Poster
Why: In this poster, it has diagrams, real pictures, signs, birds eye view of map. This is a
good resource because it demonstrates exactly what a tsunami is, what affects is and
how to protect yourself from it.
Scaffolding Teachers can choose to go through a section with the class each day or they
can just put it on the wall as a reference. Students should have non-fiction books on
tsunamis again. They should research big ones and how it affected the people who live
there and their town.

Please Note: This document was referenced using APA. (2010) (6 th ed.) Found at

http://www.lib.latrobe.edu.au/referencing-tool/apa-6/style-notes/

Reference List
Amphibian Research Centre. (2013). Frogs of
http://frogs.org.au/frogs/index.html
AusVELS. (2013). Science Scope and Sequence:

Science as a Human Endeavour
use and
influence of science
science
understandings are used to solve problems
that directly relate to people.
Inquiry Skills
predict, plan an
results in an appropriate way.
Relevance to year level
Students learn what natural disasters have on
earth, tsunamis in specific.
Evaluation of resource
This is a good poster but should not be used
alone to teach the affect tsunamis have on
people and what they actually are.

http://www.vcaa.vic.edu.au/Documents/auscurric/Science_scope_and_sequence_AusVELS.
pdf
http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p011snmr

http://www.bestrecipes.com.au/recipe/No-Cook- Play-Dough-L2119.html
http://www.finishing.com/328/07.shtml
Catchpole, H. (2004), The Yummy book of Rocks, Dickson, A.C. T., CSIRO Education.
http://www.edendale.vic.gov.au/School_Programs/Primary
http://www.free-for-kids.com/seasons-colouring-pages.shtml
http://www.latrobe.edu.au/wildlife/experiences/education
http://www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/everydaylife/Growing_Cities_AGU_prt.htm
http://www.rfs.nsw.gov.au/file_system/attachments/State08/Attachment_20050308_FED1
C5C4.pdf
Pullen, K. (2013). Paper Pinwheels or Windmills for Rubber Stamping, Retrieved from
http://reachoutmichigan.org/funexperiments/quick/uwash/chhearing.html

http://www.rspcavic.org/services/education/primary-education/schools-program
Science Works. (2013). Earth, Moon and Sun: Years 3-8, Science show, Retrieved from
http://museumvictoria.com.au/scienceworks/education/education-programs/earthmoon-andsun/
Skamp, K. (Ed. 4). (2012). Teaching Primary Science Constructively. Melbourne, Australia,
Cangage
Learning.
http://www.telescope.org/nuffield/pas/solar/solar7.html

http://www.teachingideas.co.uk/science/orderingplanets.htm
Wellers, J. (2013). EDU2SES, Lecture 3, Sound [PowerPoint in Tutorial]. EDU2SES,
Bundoora, Australia: La Trobe
University, Department of Education.
Wellers, J. (2013). EDU2SES, Lecture 3, Physical Science [Tutorial]. EDU2SES, Bundoora,
Australia: La Trobe
University, Department of Education.
Wellers, J. (2013). EDU2SES, Lecture 3, Teaching and Learning Physical [Tutorial].
EDU2SES, Bundoora, Australia: La Trobe University, Department of Education.
Wellers, J. (2013). EDU2SES, Lecture 5, Biological Science [Lecture]. EDU2SES, Bundoora,
Australia: La Trobe
University, Department of Education.
Wellers, J. (2013). EDU2SES, Lecture 7, Chemical Science [Lecture]. EDU2SES, Bundoora,
Australia: La Trobe
University, Department of Education.
Wellers, J. (2013). EDU2SES, Lecture 7, Chemical Science [Tutorial Presentations].
EDU2SES, Bundoora, Australia: La Trobe University, Department of Education.
Wellers, J. (2013). EDU2SES, Lecture 10, The 5 Es [Tutorial Activity]. EDU2SES, Bundoora,
Australia: La Trobe
University, Department of Education.
Wellers, J. (2013). EDU2SES, Lecture 10, Earth and Space Sciences [Lecture]. EDU2SES,
Bundoora, Australia: La
Trobe University, Department of Education.
Winston, R. (2011). Science Experiments: Loads of Explosively fun activities you can do.
London, DK.
Yarra Valley Water. (2010). School visits and tours. Retreived from:
http://www.yvw.com.au/Home/Inyourcommunity/Education/Schoolvisitstours/index.htm