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Intervals 5 atoms are the building blocks of matter, intervals are the building blocks of melody and harmony. A good definition of an interval is “the space between two notes.” Figure 1-1 shows all the intervals from the smallest, the half step/minor Znd, up to the octave, all based on middle C. The most commonly used term is shown above each interval; alternate terms are shown just below. Figure 1-1 minor 2nd major 2nd minor 3d ‘major 3rd half step, whole step perfect ath ‘witone perfect Sth minor 6th ‘augmented ath augmented 5th ‘diminished 5th major 6th minor 7h major 7th octave augmented 6th INTERVALS. The relationship of adjacent notes in all the previous scales is a whole-step or haif-step. As part of our vocabulary, we need a method to identify the relationsnip between any two notes. In order to do this, we need 2 logical means of showing the distance, or interval from one note to another. A simple numerical means of accomoiisning this is to count eacn v0ssi staff degree between the two notes to find which number the top pitch represents & a= = = a = - 27 * > 1 2 3 4 5 = 5th 12 3 4 = 4th The intervals in a major scale between the first note and the other notes are = - = a perfect major major perfect perfect. = major = major —operfeot. unison = 2nd 3rd th Sth 6th Tih _ octave if a major interval is made smaller by a half-step (by lowering the top note or raising the bottom note) the major interval becomes minor: minor minor minor minor 2na ea eth 7th NOTE: Intervals may occur as melodic intervals (one note following the other), as the minor 2nd and minor 3rd in the above example, or as harmonic intervals (both notes together) as the minor 6th and minor 7th above When a minor or perfect Interval ts made smatler by a half-step, ‘t secomes diminished: $ e ae He aim, dim. dim. dim. 4th Sth 6th octave Notice that in ali intervailic relationships, one must first count the number of staff degrees invoived, and then qualify the relationship. Major and perfect intervals made larger by -a 1/2 step are called augmented intervals: - Oe > OF > aS aug. aug. aug. aug. aug. aug. aug. aug. unis. 2nd Srd 4th Sth 6th 7th oct. Diminished intervals mace smailer sy an additional half-step secome double diminished: oe ad couble double couble im. Sth dim. 6th Gim. oct. Augmented intervals made larger py an additional half-steo become double augmented: couple couple double aug. 3rd aug. 4th aug. 7th It is also possible to have an interval which exceeds the octave: & This interval is called a = major 10th (or a major 3rd plus | octave). Here are the basic rules and names {when examining the distance from the first note of a major scale upwards): 2nds, 3rds, 6ths and 7ths are major intervals. Unisons, 4ths, Sths and octaves are perfect intervals. Major intervals made smaller by 1/2 step become minor. Major intervals made smaller by 2 half-steps become diminished. Perfect intervals made smaller by 1/2 step become diminished Perfect intervals made smaller by 2 half-steos become gouble~diminished, Major or perfect intervals made larger by 1/2 sieo are augmented, by two half-steps they become double augmented. INVERSION OF INTERVAL Intervals describe the distance between two notes. The notes involved can appear and sound in two ways: or: —————————— re In other woras, any interval can be turned upside-down (Inverted) $+ When an interval is inverted, the note names involved are still tne same, and the intervailic relationship follows a pattern, in the above example, one interval is a major 2nd; the inversion is a minor 7th. Some simple rules for inversion of intervais follow: 0 “g" minus the number of the interval equals the inversion interval: oe zo = 7 9 minus (nd) = 7th) or: = $ minus 7(th) = — 2(na) 2) Major intervals inverted become minor intervals: SS Major Sra Minor 6th 3) Minor intervals inverted become Major: anes Minor 6th Major 3ra Aug. 6th 5) Diminished intervais inverted becot Dim. Sed ‘Aug. 6th 7) Double diminished intervais inverted become double augmented: ——— Double Doubie Dim. tn Aug. Sth 8) Qouvie augmented intervals inverted Decome oS ~ Doubie Double Aug. Sth Dim. 4th In oraer to correctly sroduce an inversion of any interval, the nettem 21 Wiust De ralsed one octave or the top pitch must be lowered one octave. Inversion of a perfect unison becomes a perfect octave and vice versa > EEE 2 minus iiunison) = 8 Coctave? CHORD CONSTRUCTION TRIADS S anc iwe Totes together te algne in scale situation: interval situat‘ons, Now, we wi'l place thr The terms use to descrise three note chores will ps major, minor, augmented, 203 diminished (Peris ontervais), 2e note chords | 3ra, To start with, the major scale wi!! De usec are called triads. The oasic Duilaing oleck fr. the iacervai of a Sra, te in the scale wili 22 clacec two more ditches - th: zie ihe second pitch @ Ird above th Above each 3 3rd above the note from the pitch: Aji the pitches used to build the chards are from ine key ef C major eiatonic to S major Fhey are The diatonic triads in ine key of C major contain three of the four sessibie trlagte chore structures (major, minor, and diminisned). :f the in relationships within each chord are studied, these three chora types 2 characterist:cs can 9e seen, 1) Majer triads: chords with intervals of a major Zra trom th