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DESIGN

OF
STEEL STRUCTURES
Unit-I
INTRODUCTION

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Compiled by Dr.Y.K.Sabapathy,Prof.,Civil
Dept., SSNCE.

SYLLABUS
Unit-I
UNIT I
INTRODUCTION
Properties of steel Structural steel sections
Limit State Design Concepts Loads on
Structures Metal joining methods using rivets,
welding, bolting Design of bolted, riveted and
welded joints Eccentric connections - Efficiency
of joints High Tension bolts

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Dept., SSNCE.

BOOKS
TEXT BOOKS
1. Dayaratnam, P., Design of Steel Structures, Second edition, S.
Chand & Company, 2003.
2. Ramachandra, S. and Virendra Gehlot, Design of Steel
Structures Vol. I & II, Standard Publication, New Delhi, 2007
REFERENCES
1. Teaching Resources for Structural Steel Design Vol. I & II,
INSDAG, Kolkatta.
2. Gaylord, E.H., Gaylord, N.C., and Stallmeyer, J.E., Design of Steel
Structures, 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill Publications, 1992
3. Negi L.S.. Design of Steel Structures, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing
Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, 2007.
4. IS 800-2007 Indian Standard General Construction in Steel code
of practice (3rd Revision).
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Dept., SSNCE.

Topics
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Introduction to steel
Properties of steel
Structural steel sections
Limit State Design Concepts
Loads on Structures
Metal joining methods using Rivets,
Welding, Bolting
7. Design of bolted, riveted and welded joints
8. Eccentric connections
9. Efficiency of joints
10.High Tension bolts
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Dept., SSNCE.

Introduction to steel
(as a structural material)

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Dept., SSNCE.

STEEL - A CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL


Steel is the most commonly used structural
metal in civil engineering due to its greater
strength, good ductility and easy to fabricate.
Due to its high strength and relatively light
weight (less dead weight) it can carry heavy
loads.
Its due to the above reason steel has become
an affordable material for making very long
span structures.
e.g.Auditoriums, Stadiums, Halls, ..etc.
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STEEL - A CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL


Due to steels good stiffness, the
defection need not be given special
consideration.
Unlike concrete, steel members can be
fabricated easily by drilling, cutting, etc..
Steel members can be joined easily by
welding, reviting and bolting.
Most importantly the construction can
be done at a faster.
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Dept., SSNCE.

STEEL - A CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL


Steel is a cheaper metal compared to other
metals.
Steel structures can be errected without any
form work.
Mojor portions of the structure can be
fabricated with more accuracy and good
quality at factories far away from site and the
transported to site.
Using steel structures we can alter or extend
the structure easily at a later stage (which is
not easy in concrete structures)
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STEEL STRUCTURES -LINK


South beijing railway station
TCS HQ SIRUSERI
HOWRAH BRIDGE
http://www.howrahbridgekolkata.gov.in/

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26,500 tons of steel

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PROMINENT STEEL STRUCTURES

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EIFFEL TOWER ,PARIS


Erected in 1889 as the entrance arch to
the 1889 World's Fair.
It was named after the engineer Gustave
Eiffel, whose company designed and built the
tower.
The tower is 324 metres (1,063 ft) tall, about
the same height as an 81-storey building.
7,300 tonnes of metallic framework, and a
total weight of 10,100 tonnes.
18,000 metallic parts joined by 2,500,000
rivets.
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GOLDEN GATE BRIDGE,


@ SAN FRANCISCO
Total length of Bridge including
approaches from abutment to
abutment: 1.7 miles = 8,981 ft = 2,737 m

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GOLDEN GATE BRIDGE

The maximum transverse deflection, at center


span: 27.7 ft = 8.4 m

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WORLD TRADE CENTRE

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WORLD TRADE CENTRE


200,000 tons of steel used in the construction
of the World Trade Center complex
110 stories in each tower.
The World Trade Center towers used highstrength, load-bearing perimeter steel
columns called Vierendeel trusses that were
spaced closely together to form a strong, rigid
wall structure, supporting virtually all lateral
loads such as wind loads, and sharing the
gravity load with the core columns.
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WORLD TRADE CENTRE


The core of each tower was a rectangular area
87 by 135 feet (27 by 41 m) and contained 47
steel columns running from the bedrock to the
top of the tower.
The floors consisted of 4 inches (10 cm) thick
lightweight concrete slabs laid on a fluted
steel deck.

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LONDON GAINT WHEEL

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LONDON GAINT WHEEL

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LONDON GAINT WHEEL

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Industrial structural members

chute

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CHUTES for Conveying the Materials


chute

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CHUTE DESIGN

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Chicagos WillisTower, or the


SearsTower as it used to be called, just
might be the worlds most famous steel
building. It was the worlds tallest
building when it was constructed in the
1970s.

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OTHER COMMONLY USED STEEL STRUCTURES


INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURES
- Roofing Structures,Lifting and hoisting
Structures,chimneys,ducts,chuts
OFFSHORE STRUCTURES
POWER TRANSMISSION STRUCTURES
COMMUNICATION TOWERS
RECREATION STRUCTURES (Theme parks)

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Dept., SSNCE.

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INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURES

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INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURES

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DIFFERENT OFFSHORE
STEEL STRUCTURES

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Design Through SACS

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OFF SHORE PLATFORM


SACS SOFTWARE
USED FOR DESIGN OF
OFFSHORE PLATFORMS

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DESIGN USING SACS SOFTWARE

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SACS

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Dept., SSNCE.

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OFFSHORE WIND MILLS STRUCTURES

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PROPERTIES OF STRUCTURAL STEEL


The major constituent of structural steel is Iron.
There are three commnly available commercial
forms of steel namely Low Carbon Steel, Mild Steel
(M.S.), High carbon steel which are based on the
amount of carbon content in it.(as in table)

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CARBON CONTENT IN IRON AND STEEL


First the cast iron with 2% to 4 % cabon was found
and used.
Then wrought iron was found in which the carbon
content was less than 0.15%.
Later steel was found in which the carbon content
upto 1.5%

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CARBON CONTENT IN STEEL

Low carbon steel (carbon content 0% to 0.25%)


Medium carbon steel (carbon content 0.25% to0.75%)
Hight carbon steel (carbon content 0.75% to 1.5%)
Increasing the the carbon content increases the
hardness and tensile strength,but reduces the
ductility and toughness.
Hence a low carbon steel is prefered than high
carbon steel for structural applications.
Morover, carbon content influences the
weldability.
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STRUCTURAL STEEL
STRUCTURAL STEEL have carbon content less than
0.25%.
The minimum ultimate tensile strength varies
between 410 MPa to 440MPa.
All the structural steel used in general
construction, coming under the purview of this
standard shall conform to IS 2062 (before
fabrication )

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Dept., SSNCE.

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STRUCTURAL STEEL

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STRUCTURAL STEEL
HIGH CARBON STEEL whose ultimate strength
ranges from 480 MPa to 550 Mpa are preferred
for structures such as transmission line towers
and microwave towers.

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PROPERTIES OF STRUCTURAL STEEL


Various types of steel are obtained by altering
the carbon content by blowing oxygen through
molten iron.
The steel so made is rolled to bring it to the
required shape.
The rolled steel is reheated and passed
between rollers to change its shape like
plates,bars,steel sections,etc

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STEEL FOR MAKING VARIOUS SECTIONS

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I. Physical Properties
II. Chemical Properties
III. Mechanical Properties

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Dept., SSNCE.

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PROPERTIES OF STRUCTURAL STEEL

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FIRE PROTECTION

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FIRE PROTECTION

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FIRE PROTECTION

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FATIGUE EFFECT

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BRITTLE FRACTURE

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CORROSION PROTECTION

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RAW STEEL BARS

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ROLLING OF STEEL TO
REQUIRED SECTION

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ROLLING OF STEEL TO
REQUIRED SECTION

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Dept., SSNCE.

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ROLLING OF STEEL TO
REQUIRED SECTION

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ANGLE ROLLING - CURVED PROFILE SECTIONS


(a recent development)

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SHAPES OF STEEL SECTIONS

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STRUCTURAL STEEL SECTIONS

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About Steel I -Sections


I-Sections are used as beams and columns.
The shape of I section is suited to resist
Bending Moment and Shear Force.
About 80% of bending is resisted by the
flanges and the remaining by the web.
Nearly 95% of shear is resisted by the web and
the remaining by the flanges.
Some times the flanges are attached with
extra plates to resist more B.M.
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ABOUT I-SECTION
1)
2)
3)

4)
5)

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Details of standard sections


given in SP-6/STEEL TABLES

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(II) CHANNEL SECTION

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(II) CHANNELS

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(III)ANGLES

EQUAL ANGLE
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ANGLE

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T-section

NORMAL T-SECTION

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T-section

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(V) PLATES

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ROLLING FOR TUBULAR SECTION

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(V)PLATES

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Castellate beams

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(vii)Compound section

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AS PER SP-6

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Sectional properties to be known


before Designing

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Sectional properties

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TERMINOLOGY

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TERMINOLOGY
Refer IS 800 for many terms used in steel
structural design.

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STAGES IN DESIGN
Initially in the first stage the architect plans
and prepares the layout to suit the clients
needs and then the structural engineer
designs the structure based on the loads.

In the second stage, the structural


arrangment is then analysed.

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STAGES IN DESIGNING
STEEL STRUCTURE

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DESIGN METHODS

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DESIGN METHODS

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CHARACTERISTIC LOADS

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PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR

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IS 800, TABLE 4, PAGE-29

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CHARACTERISTIC STRENGTH

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Design Strength as in IS 800

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DESIGN STRENGTH

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FACTORS AFFECTING ULTIMATE STRENGTH

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LIMIT STATE OF SERVICEABILITY

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DEFLECTION LIMITS

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DEFLECTION LIMITS

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OTHER LIMIT STATE OF SERVICEABILITY

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DEAD LOAD

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LIVE LOAD

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WEIGHTS OF BUILDING MATERIAL

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LIVE LOAD ON FLOOR

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LIVE LOAD ON ROOFS

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LIVE LOAD

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IS 875 PART-1 TO 5
CODE FOR DESIGN LOADS

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LIVE LOAD IMPACT AND VIBRATION

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Given in IS 875

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LIVE LOAD

Given in IS 875

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Given in IS 875

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Given in IS 875

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Given in IS 875

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Given in IS 875

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GANTRY GIRDER

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GANTRY GIRDER

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GANTRY GIRDER

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IMPACT ALLOWANCE FOR CRANE GIRDER


Gantry Girders are subjected to the following
loads
1)Vibration
2)Shock From Slipping Or Slings
3)Kinetic Action Of Accleration And Retardation
4)Impact Of Wheel Loads

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Dept., SSNCE.

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Dept., SSNCE.

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Dept., SSNCE.

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CRANE LOAD

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Dept., SSNCE.

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CRANE LOAD COMBINATION

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Dept., SSNCE.

149

LOADS ON GANTRY GIRDER

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Dept., SSNCE.

150

LATERAL SURGE

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Dept., SSNCE.

151

TRACTIVE FORCE IN GANTRY GIRDER

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Dept., SSNCE.

152

TRACTIVE FORCE

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Dept., SSNCE.

153

TRACTIVE FORCE

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Dept., SSNCE.

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IMPACT ALLOWANCE FOR LIFTING,HOISTING AND


MACHINERY

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Dept., SSNCE.

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Dept., SSNCE.

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Dept., SSNCE.

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Dept., SSNCE.

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EFFECT OF WIND LOAD

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Dept., SSNCE.

159

STRESSES DUE TO WIND LOAD

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Dept., SSNCE.

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STESSES DUE TO WIND LOAD IN COOLING


TOWERS (CONCRETE STRUCTURE)

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Dept., SSNCE.

161

WIND LOAD ON TOWERS

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Dept., SSNCE.

162

WIND LOAD

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Dept., SSNCE.

163

IS 875 FOR WIND LOAD

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Dept., SSNCE.

164

SOFWARES FOR STEEL DESIGN

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Dept., SSNCE.

165

End of introduction

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Dept., SSNCE.

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