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PLURARUL SUBSTANTIVELOR

1. Se adaug "s" care se pronun "z" :


car - cars
bed - beds
cow - cows
key - keys
chair - chairs
room - rooms
door - doors
noon - noons
pub - pubs
flower - flowers
ball - balls
soil - soils
2.

zebra - zebras
needle - needles
moor - moors
vacuum cleaner - vacuum cleaners

Se adaug "s" care se pronun "s" dup substantivele care se termin in "p", "k",
"t":
cap - caps
hut - huts
book - books
hook - hooks
hat - hats
map - maps

3. Se adaug "es" care se pronun citete "iz" dup substantivele care se termin in
"s", "x", "z", "ch", "sh" :
bus - buses
fox - foxes
box - boxes
dish - dishes
buzz - buzzes
bench - benches
branch - branches
kiss - kisses
brush - brushes
fuss - fusses
3a. Se adaug "s" care se pronun "iz" dup substantivele care se termin in "ge", "ce"
"se", "ze" :
bridge - bridges
house - houses
voice - voices
noise - noises
fence - fences
promise - promises
horse - horses
breeze - breezes
( se aplica aceeai regula si la forma verbelor de la persoana III -a singular , prezent ,
afirmativ : she mixes, he teaches , etc. )
4. Substantive cu plural neregulat :
mouse - mice
goose - geese
man - men
apex - apices ( eipecs - eipisi:z ) = vrf , culme
woman - women
foot - feet
child - children
ox - oxen
louse - lice
die - dice
tooth - tooth

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5. Dup substantivele terminate in "o" se adaug "es" care se pronun impreun


"ouz" :
potato - potatoes
veto - vetoes
tomato - tomatoes
tornado - tornadoes
no - noes
torpedo - torpedoes
archipelago - archipelagoes
lingo - lingoes
jingo - jingoes
mulatto - mulattoes
grotto - grottoes
cargo - cargoes
echo - echoes
hero - heroes
negro - negroes
mosquito - mosquitoes
5a. Dup substantivele terminate in "o" se adaug "s" care se pronun impreun ouz"
radio - radios
portfolio - portfolios
piano - pianos
ratio - ratios
photo - photos
bamboo - bamboos
studio - studios
folio - folios
rodeo - rodeos
6. Substantive care au aceeai form si pentru singular si pentru plural :
fish
reindeer
fruit
series
candy
species
sheep
apparatus
deer
grain
7. Dup substantivele terminate in "y" precedat de o consoan se schimb "y" in "i"
si se adaug "es" care se pronun impreun "ies" :
cherry - cherries
baby - babies
lorry - lorries
daisy - daisies
8. Dup substantivele terminate in "y" precedat de o vocal se adaug "s" care se pronun "z" :
boy - boys
toy - toys
day - days
9. Dup substantivele terminate in "f" se schimb "f" in "v" si se adaug "es" care se
pronun impreun "vz" :
wolf - wolves
turf - turves (turfs)
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life - lives
knife - knives
wife - wives
half - halves
thief - thieves
loaf - loaves
shelf - shelves
self - selves
calf - calves
leaf - leaves
elf - elves
sheaf - sheaves (snop, teanc)

scarf - scarves (scarfs)


warf - warves (warfs)- chei ,port
hoof - hooves (hoofs)
beef - beeves (beefs)

9a. Dup substantivele terminate in "f" se adaug "s" care se pronun "s"
brief - briefs
tariff - tariffs
grief - griefs
giraffe - giraffes
dwarf - dwarfs
cliff - cliffs
chief - chiefs
cuff - cuffs
belief - beliefs
sheriff - sheriffs
roof - roofs
bailiff - bailiffs - arendas
proof - proofs
muff - muffs
gulf - gulfs
staff - staffs (vezi punctul 10.)
reef - reefs
motif - motifs
mischief - mischiefs
neckerchief - neckerchiefs
handkerchief - handkerchiefs
10. Substantive care (delimiteaz grupuri si) au aceeasi form si pentru singular si
pentru plural ("is" sau "are" - my family is , my family are ) :
family
committee
audience
government
class
regiment
crew
congregation
public
tactics
team
technics
alms
precis ( preisi: pentru "is" - preisi:z pentru "are" )
flock
economics
pack
species (specie)
army
fleet
navy
staff (vezi punctul "9" )
11. Substantive care se folosesc doar cu forma de singular si cer numai "is" :
advice (plurarul se formeaz cu pieces of - two pieces of advice = dou sfaturi ) 3

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news
furniture
money (where is my money)
information
knowledge
luggage
impoliteness
chalk
baggage
nonsens
homework

barracks
rubbish
progress
billiards
specie (moned)
music

12. Substantive care se folosesc doar cu forma de plural si cer numai "are" :
police (where are the police )
pincers
people (singular - person)
pliers
trousers
pyjamas - pajamas
glasses
brethren
scissors
compasses
cattle
pants
13. Substantive cu diferene minime de pronunie singular - "is" , plural - "i:z" :
crisis - crises (kraisis - kraisi:z )
basis - bases
oasis - oases
thesis - theses
emphasis - emphases
antithesis - antitheses
diagnosis - diagnoses
paralysis - paralyses
analysis - analyses
photosynthesis - photosyntheses
parenthesis - parentheses
axis - axes
14. Substantive de origine latin :
antenna - antennae (nten - nteni )
datum - data ( deitm - deit )
larva - larvae (la:v - la:vi )
stratum - strata (strtm - strt )
residuum - residua (ri'zidjuam - ri'zidju )
erratum - errata (era:tm - era:t )
terminus - termini (t:mins - t:mini ) via - viae ( vai - vaii ) = drum, cale
phenomenon - phenomena (fi'nominn - fi'nomin )
nucleus - nuclei (nju:kli s - nju:kliai ) stimulus - stimuli (stimjuls - stimjuli )
genius - genii (dinjs - dinjai )
calculas - calculai (klkjuls - klkjulai )
formula - formulae(as) (fo:mjul - fo:mjuli )
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