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7-8

Roci carbonatice.
Mineralogie
Controlul precipitarii carbonatilor
Particule carbonatice si originea lor
9-10 Calcare -Sistematica
Medii depozitionale,
Porozitatea si diageneza calcarelor
Dolomite, dolomitizare

Mineralogia rocilor carbonatice

Mineralogia carbonatilor

Scholle & Ulmer-Scholle (2003)

T<; PCO2>; pH<8,3


Mg/Ca <2
T>; PCO2<; pH>8,3
Mg/Ca >2
T 20-30C, pH>8,3
Sr, Ba, Mg
T>30C, pH>8,3
Mg/Ca>5, -NH4, -SO4
Flgel (2004)

Determinari mineralogice: staining


- Alizarin si fericianura de potasiu

PPL, HA = 0.65 mm, Calcit ferifer- mov, albastru


Mid. Ordovician Simpson Gp., Oil Creek Fm., Murray Co.,
Oklahoma

Scholle & Ulmer-Scholle (2003)


PPL, HA = 16 mm, LMC- roz, Dol- alb
Up. Permian (Guadalupian),Capitan Fm., subsurface, Eddy
Co.,New Mexico
PPL,
HA
= 1.2 mm,
Calcit si
dolomit

Pleistocene Coral Rock Fm.,


corehole, Bottom Bay, Barbados

PPL,HA = 1.2 mm, Dolomit


Pleistocene Coral Rock Fm. Golden, Grove, Barbados

Controlul precipitarii carbonatilor

Precipitarea CaCO3

2H2O + 2CO2 = 2H+ + 2 HCO3Ca++ + 2HCO3- = CaCO3 + H2O + CO2

Total:

H2O + CO2 + Ca++ = CaCO3 + 2H+

simplificat: apa + dioxid de carbon + calciu dizolvat = calcar

Accelerarea reactiei in cazul:

cresterii temperaturii

fotosintezei algale

cresterea energiei de bazin (curenti si valuri)

CO2 Efectul temperaturii si a presiunii


Temperatura mare si presiunea scazuta impreuna cu spargerea
valurilor favorizeaza precipitarea carbonatilor
Solubilitatea CO2 descreste odata cu scaderea adancimii apei si
cresterea temperaturii

CO2 este elibrat la presiune mica si se dizolva la presiune mare


HCO3-1 si CO3-2 sunt mai putin stabili la presiune mica si mai stabili pa
presiune mare
HCO3-1 si CO3-2 au concentratie mica in ape calde si concentratii mai
mari in ape reci

Solubilitatea CaCO3
Disocierea CaCO3 : CaCO3= Ca+2 + CO3-2
CaCO3 este mai putin solubil in ape calde decat in ape reci
CaCO3 precipita in ape calde si putin adanci si devine solubil in ape reci,
adanci
CO2 in solutie, diminueaza concentratia ionului carbonat(CO3-2)
Crescand presiunea, creste concentratia de HCO3-1 & CO3-2 (produsi ai reactiei
de solubilizare in apa marina)
CaCO3 este mai solubil la presiuni mari si temperaturi mici

Controlul in acumularea carbonatilor


Temperatura (Climatul) tropical si temperat favorizeaza productivitatea
carbonatica
Lumina- fotosinteza conduce la productivitatea carbonatica

Presiunea Limita compensarii carbonatului de calciu (CCD) creste cu


adancimea
Energia de bazin (valuri, maree, curenti) sursa de oxigen si eliberarea CO2

GEOL 751 Kendall - Lecture 1: Particles

TEMPERATE OCEANS
TROPICS
TEMPERATE OCEANS

Carbonatii nu mai pot precipita


incep sa fie dizolvati
Carbonatii sunt dizolvati

GEOL 751 Kendall - Lecture 1: Particles

After James, 1984

Particule si structuri carboatice.


Originea lor

Alocheme

Particule invelite

Pelete/peloide
Ooide/pisolite
Oncoide
Cortoide

Agregate granulare: grape/lump


Bioclaste/biomorfe (granule scheletice)
Constituenti
petrografici

Claste

intraclaste
extraclaste

Particule legate organic- bioconstructii


Automicrit: precipitat in bazin chimic sau biochimic
Micrit
Ortocheme

Sparit

Alomicrit: eroziune sau dezagregarea part. preexistente


Pseudomicrit: diagenetic- ciment

Autosparit- direct precipitat in pori


Pseudosparit: de recristalizare sau inlocuire

Bioacumulative
depozitionale
Bioconstructive
(bioheme, biostrome)

Particue si
structuri specifice
rocilor carbonatice
Cimentare-dizolvare
Interpenetrative
postdepozitionale

Fenestrale
Silt vados

(lamine, strate, alte geometrii)

Alochemice (ooide, peloide, claste)

ALOCHEME

Alocheme

Particule invelite

Pelete/peloide
Ooide/pisolite
Oncoide
Cortoide

Agregate granulare: grape/lump


Bioclaste/biomorfe (granule scheletice)
Claste

intraclaste
extraclaste

Scholle & Ulmer-Scholle (2003)

D=3.2 mm, Sedimente recente,


Australia, pelete fecale, crustacee

D=2,4 mm, Insulele Cayman, Pleistocen, peloide,


micritizari ale diverselor particule

ooid

Cortex concentric
neregulat
(acretie algala)

Scholle & Ulmer-Scholle (2003)


D=0.9 mm, Salt Lake, ooide actuale

D=6 mm, oncoid

Scholle & Ulmer-Scholle (2003)

D=1.6 mm, Permian, Rusia, lump

D= 3.2 Sedimente actuale, Bahamas, grape

Scholle & Ulmer-Scholle (2003)


D=12.5 mm, Triasic, East Greenland, intraclaste

D. 5.1 mm, Permian, Rusia, extraclaste

Geneza particulelor carbonatice

Pelete si peloide

D=3.2 mm, Sedimente recente,


Australia, pelete fecale, crustacee

D=2,4 mm, Insulele Cayman, Pleistocen, peloide,


micritizari ale diverselor particule

Peloide

Pelete
sau
Pelloide
D=2,4 mm, Insulele Cayman, Pleistocen, peloide,
micritizari ale diverselor particule

Ooide

D=0.9 mm, Salt Lake, ooide actuale

Ooide aragonitice
concentrice
recent
Bahamas

Recent. Florida
Structura originala

Ordovician- recristalizari

Recent
Ooide radiale. Salt lake.
Structura originala

GEOL 751 Kendall - Lecture 1: Particles

Recent sediment, Point of Rocks,


Baffin Bay, Laguna Madre, Texas

Pisolite

Grapestones

Scholle & Ulmer-Scholle (2003)

D= 3.2 Sedimente actuale, Bahamas, grape

D=1.6 mm, Permian, Rusia, lump

Intraclaste
carbonatice

Permian
West Texas

D=12.5 mm, Triasic, East Greenland, intraclaste

Extraclaste carbonatice

Scholle & Ulmer-Scholle (2003)


D. 5.1 mm, Permian, Rusia, extraclaste

Granule scheletice
Bioclaste/biomorfe

Perioada de aparitie si diversitatea


principalelor grupe de organisme
cu schelet carbonatic
Scholle & Ulmer-Scholle (2003)

Mineralogia scheletelor carbonatice, Tucker (1991). x =


mineralogia dominanta, (x) mai putin comuna. In timpul
diagenezei mineralele originale pot fi dizolvate
sau inlocuite, Tucker (1991

Exemple de forme tipice ale bioclastelor unor organisme cu scheletul


carbonatic asa cum apar in sectiunile subtiri Tucker (1991).

Distributia unor organisme recente in functie de salinitate


(Oertli, 1963 in Flgel, 2004)

Alge verzi
Ex. Dasycladaceae

Oligocene Suwanee Ls., Citrus Co.,


Florida

Typical dasycladacean green algal structure

Cretaceous, Albian-Cenomanian
Tamabra Ls., San Luis Potosi,
Mexico

Alge rosii

Recent sediment, St. Peters Parrish, Barbados

Mid. Eocene Naranjo Fm., Coamo Springs Mbr., Ponce-Coamo area,


Puerto Rico , HA = 5 mm

Foraminifere

Discocyclide
Mid. Eocene
Naranjo Fm., Coamo
Springs Mbr., PonceCoamo area,
Puerto Rico

Fusulinide
Up. Pennsylvanian
(Virgilian)
Holder Fm., Otero
Co., New Mexico

Miliolide
Eocene Ocala
Gp., Inglis Fm.,
Levy
Co., Florida

Uniseriat
Mid. Pennsylvanian Paradox Fm.,
southeastern Utah

TABULATE CORALS

RUGOSE CORALS

Up. Devonian Mt. Hawk Fm., Alberta, Canada

Lo. Permian (Sakmarian) Tastubsky


Horizon, Perm Region, Russia

Briozoare

Echinoderme

A large echinoderm fragment with characteristic single-crystal or unit extinction and


uniform honeycomb microtexture (small pores fi lled with micrite). Also note the
fact that the grain is surrounded by calcite overgrowths that formed in optical
continuity with the grain and predate later silica cement. The irregular shape
and lack of a central canal help to distinguish it from a crinoid columnal.

A longitudinal section through an echinoid spine. Note the


bulbous attachment socket at one end and the elongate, ribbed,
tapering spine itself. As with other echinoid grains, the entire
spine acts like a single calcite crystal with unit extinction. The
external ribbing visible on the spine in the SEM above reveals the
origin of the micrite-fi lled stripes that parallel the long axis of the
thin-sectioned spine.

MOLUSTE Gastropode

Recent sediment, Grand Cayman,


Cayman Islands, B.W.I. HA = 1.6 mm

Lo. Cretaceous Cupido Fm.,


Coahuila, Mexico HA = 1.9 mm

MOLUSTE -BIVALVES (PELECYPODS)

Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) El Abra Ls., San Luis Potosi, Mexico


Rudist: Stratul extern calcitic, stratul intern, initial aragonitic

Lo. Cretaceous Cupido Fm., Coahuila, Mexico, testul initial-aragonitic

Brachiopode

HA = 2.0 mm

Punctate
Miocene Mount Brown Beds, Canterbury, New Zealand

Pseudopunctate
Lo. Devonian Becraft Ls., Schoharie Co., New York

Precambrian, northern Wisconsin


A columnar, stromatolitic
boundstone or biolithite .
The lamination results mainly
from alternating episodes of
microbial growth and entrapment of
transported sediment.

Ortocheme
Automicrit: precipitat in bazin chimic sau biochimic
Micrit

Alomicrit: eroziune sau dezagregarea part. preexistente

Pseudomicrit: diagenetic- ciment


Sparit

Autosparit- direct precipitat in pori


Pseudosparit: de recristalizare sau inlocuire

Alomicrit- matrice

Ortocheme

Autosparit- ciment

Calcare -sistematica

Criteriul compozitional (Folk, 1962)


Criteriul textural
(Folk, 1962,

Sistematica calcarelor

Criteriul textural si structural


(Folk, 1962, Embry i Klovan, 1971)

Roci mixte:
(Mount, 1985, Scolari et al., 1973)

Clasificarea (Folk, 1962)


Criteriul compozitional

Clasificare dupa dimensiunea particulelor transportate si dupa dimensiunea cristalelor (Folk, 1962)

Dunham (1962)
Considerarea raportului
alocheme/ortocheme

Embry i Klovan, (1971)


Diversificarea terminologiei
privind bioconstructiile

D=3,6 mm, Cretacic, Italia


Folk- micrite
Dunham- mudstone

D=3.1, Cambrian, SUA, Folk name: packed oomicrite.


Dunham name: oolith lime packstone or oolith lime
wackestone (depends on whether you see this as grain- or
mud-supported; a major difficulty with the Dunham classifi
cation).

D-5.5 mm, Folk name: oolitic dismicrite.


Dunham name: oolitic wackestone.

D=2 mm, Missisipian, New Mexico


Folk name: sorted pelsparite.
Dunham name: pelletal grainstone.

Roci mixte
Clasificarea Scolari et al., 1973
Roci hibride

Ternary diagram clayrock (argils)-limestone (micrite) - silica (Scolari et al., 1973) 1 - argils, 2
calcareous argils, 3 - marl, 4 argillaceous limestone, 5 - limestone, clay, silica 6 - siliceous argils, 7 siliceous marl , 8-siliceous limestone, 9 argilaceous silica (chert) 10-marly silica, 11- calcareous
silica, 12-silica.

Medii depozitionale pentru


particulele carbonatice

Spelean: ex, stalactite, stalagmite


Medii
continentale

Lacustre: ex. alocheme, calcare stromatolitice,


In jurul izvoarelor reci sau fierbinti: ex. tufuri calc.,
travertine

(dependente de climat)

Petrogeneza
calcarelor
Medii
depozitionale

Medii
costiere

Medii
Marine

Litoral mareic
Litoral dominat de valuri si furtuni
Lagunar

c. alochemice,
calcare bioconstruite
bioacumulate

marin de apa putin adanca: platforme si rampe carbonatice


marin de taluz (baza taluzului): calcare clastice
marin batial/abisal (deasupra CCD): bioacumulari si maluri carb.
pelagice

Dizolvarea carbonatului de calciu

Medii
continentale
Spelean:
ex,
stalactite,
stalagmite

Dar si precipitarea lui...

Coloane, stalactite, stalagmite

Din izvoarele carstice sau hidrotermale => depuneri crustiforme

Travertin (porozitate 30-60%)

Medii costiere si marine

Petrogeneza calcarelor

Medii depoziionale - platforma carbonaic


(Tucker, 2003)

Tucker (2003)

Structura recifului

Distributia faciesurilor carbonatice intr-un


complex recifal Nichols (2007).

http://www2.ulg.ac.be/geolsed/sedim/canning2.jpg

Sectiune intr-un depozit recifal , Devonian sup. Australia

http://www2.ulg.ac.be/geolsed/sedim/Stromat.jpg

Tipuri de stromatolite (dupa Logan et al., 1964).

LLH-S

SH-C

Apa adanca

Brecie
(debris flow)
Argil
pelagic

Calcar
hemipelagic

Argil pelagic
Micrit hemipelagic

Diageneza sedimentelor
si a rocilor carbonatice

Porozitate: tipuri de pori

dependenti de fabricul initial al rocii

Choquette and Pray (1970)


in Scholle & Ulmer-Scholle (2003)

independenti de fabricul initial al rocii

PPL, BSE, AFeS, HA = 6.0 mm Recent sediment,


Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands, B.W.I.

PPL, BSE, HA = 2.4 mm Eocene limestone, Zakinthos,


Ionian Islands, Greece

Scholle & Ulmer-Scholle (2003)

XPL, HA = 3.4 mmLo. Permian (Leonardian) Skinner


Ranch Fm., Brewster Co., Texas

PPL, BSE, HA = 8.0 mmUp. Permian Wegener


Halv Fm., Jameson Land, East Greenland

D=10 mm, Pleistocen, Barbados, vuggy porosity

Up. Permian (Guadalupian) Road


Canyon Fm., Brewster Co., Texas

Biotice

Transformarea biochimica a materiei organice


Bioturbatia

Mecanice

Compactarea
Dizolvarea sub presiune

Precipitarea chimica in spatiul poros


Chimice
recristalizare
Neomorfism:
supracrestere
Inlocuire (metasomatoza)

Cimentarea

Procese
diagenetice
in calcare si
dolomite

litificare

Dizolvarea selectiva

Sindiageneza/Epi(telo)diageneza

Sin(eo)diageneza
(Tucker, 1991)
Mezo(ana)diageneza

Mediul controlat de fluidele meteorice (vados, freatic):


LMC, FC, menisc, stalactitic, druzic, mozaic, silt vados
Mediul controlat de fluidele marine (marin freatic, vados):
HMC, A, fibros, pelicular, supracresteri, silt vados
Mediul controlat de fluidelor de amestec:
D, HMC, metasomatoza, autigeneze necarbonatice

Mediul ngroparii progresive:


LMC, de pori, recristalizare

Sindiageneza
Mediul meteoric vados si freatic
Tipuri de ciment: LMC, FC, menisc, stalactitic, druzic, mozaic, silt vados

Scholle & Ulmer-Scholle (2003)

Meteoric freatic

Meteoric vados

PPL, BSE, HA = ~ 0.7 mm. Ciment de menisc


Holocene (<2700 yBP) eolianite,
Isla Cancun, Quintana Roo, Mexico

XPL, HA = ~1.0 mm. Ciment druzic


Holocene sediment, Joulters Cay,
Great Bahama Bank, Bahamas

Scholle & Ulmer-Scholle (2003)

Sindiageneza
Mediul marin freatic,
tipuri de ciment: HMC, A, fibros, pelicular, supracresteri, silt vados

Scholle & Ulmer-Scholle (2003)

Marin freatic
in Scholle & Ulmer-Scholle (2003)

Diageneza timpurie

Recent sediment (beachrock), Salt Cay, Bahamas


Aragonit acicular

D=5 mm, Permian, Guadalupe, fabric fenestral, silt vados

Ingroparea profunda

in Scholle & Ulmer-Scholle (2003)

Ingroparea profunda

Compactarea mecanica si chimica

Fabricul cimentului
Stagii de ingropare

in Scholle & Ulmer-Scholle (2003)

Ingroparea profunda

D=5 mm, Permian, Guadalupe,


compactare chimica- stilolite

Fisuri si cimentare ingropare profunda


Up. Cretaceous Chalk, Yorkshire,England, U.K.
PPL, HA = 3.5 mm

in Scholle & Ulmer-Scholle (2003)

Dolomite
si
dolomitizare

Primare
Dolomite
si dolomitizare
CaMg(CO3)2

Secundare (diagenetice)

- Strura foarte ordonata

in Scholle & Ulmer-Scholle (2003)

Fabricul dolomitelor

in Scholle & Ulmer-Scholle (2003)

Dolomite primare

Conditii necesare
precipitarii directe:

Ca2+ + Mg2+ + 2(CO3)2 = CaMg(CO3)2

Mg/Ca >5

- sunt greu intrunite conditii naturale


pentru precipitarea primara
bazinala a dolomitului

Temperatura >

Hidratarea rapida a Mg2+


Inhibatori cinetici

Activitatea chimica redusa a CO32-

Prezenta [SO4

]2+

Forte ionice puternice in apa marina

- Mai usor precipita aragonitul si


calcicul magnezian

2CaCO3 + Mg2+ CaMg(CO3)2+Ca

Dolomite secundare
(inlocuire)

sau
CaCO3 + Mg2+ + CO32 = CaMg(CO3)2

mineralogia paleosomului (HMC, Aragonit)


Inlocuirea este
dependenta de
textura paleosomului (micrit, sparit)

Modele de dolomitizare (inlocuire):


Toate modelele trebuie sa explice:
1. Sursa Mg2+
Apa marina furnizeaza Mg2+ (apa meteorica are o concentratie mica de Mg2+ )
Transformarea smectitelor in illite in timpul ingroparilor profunde furnizeaza Mg2+
Formarea saramurilor in lagune sau pori: imbogatire in Mg2+ prin evaporare
2. Metodele de pompare a fluidelor saturate in dolomit in spatiul poros
Evaporativ (sabkha)
Drenajul (seepage) de reflux
Zona de amestec a apelor meteorice cu cele marine (mixingzone)
Ingropare profunda (burial)
Apa marina

Modele generale
1. Evaporativ (sabkha)

2. Drenajul (seepage) de reflux

Tucker (1991)

Sursa Mg: concentrat prin evaporatie


Apa este alimentata de:
1. Indundatii periodice
2. Pompare mareica

Evaporarea apei in zona capilara cauzeaza curgerea ascendenta in zona acviferului


evaporative pumping".
Densitatea mai mare a saramurilor ccurgere descendenta (seepage)
Paleosom: aragonit asociat cu gips

3. Zona de amestec a apelor meteorice cu cele marine (mixingzone)

Tucker (1991)

Apa marina furnizeaza Mg


Amestecul de ape continentale cu cele marine dilueaza inhibatorii cinetici
Sistemul de pompaj conditiile din acvifer
Produse: dolomit rombic, planar
Paleosom: comun- aragonit

4. Ingropare profunda (burial)

Expulzarea Mg din argile in timpul


compactarii si din apa interstitiala cu
Tucker (1991)
Temp >
Problema circulatiei fluidelor majoritatea
fluidelor circula vertical, nu lateral
Produse: dolomit cu fete curbe
Paleosom: HMC, LMC, A

5. Apa marina
Mg din apa marina
Pompata prin sedimentele carbonatice de curentii oceanici
Se creeaza celule convective datorita diferentelor de temperatura (platforme-calde) vs
apa oceanica (rece).

Front de dolomitizare

Up. Devonian (Famennian) Wabamun Fm., Alberta, Canada


PPL, HA = 5.0 mm

Dolomitizare incluziuni in zona


centrala (mixing model), ciment in
exterior (marin ingropare)

Oligocene Gambier Fm., coastal South Australia, PPL, HA = 1.0 mm

Dolomitizare selectiva

Lo. Cambrian Forteau Fm.,southern Labrador, Canada


PPL, AFeS, HA = 4.4 mm

Dolomitizare ingropare profunda

Mid. Ordovician Laval Ls., Quebec, Canada


PPL, AFeS, HA = 2.0 mm

ANASTASIU, N., PANAIOTU C. E., 1995, Petrologie i sedimentologie aplicat: ndreptar metodologic pentru cercetarea i explorarea
bazinelor de interes petro-gazeifer, C.C.P.E.G. Bucureti, 202 p.
DUNHAM, R.J., 1962. Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture. In: Classification of Carbonate Rocks (Ed.
Ham, W.E.). Memoir 1, American Associationof Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, OK; 108121.

EMBRY, A.F., KLOVAN, J.E., 1971. A late Devonian reef tract on north-eastern Banks Island, Northwest Territori
FOLK, R.L., 1962. Spectral subdivision of limestone types, in Ham, W.E., ed., Classification of Carbonate Rocks-A Symposium:
American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 1, p. 62-84.
FOLK, R.L., 1974, Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks. Hemphill, Austin, Texas.

NICHOLS, G., 2009, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy : Second Edition. Wiley-Blackwell, 419 p.
SCOLARI, G., LILLE, R., GIOT, D., 1973. Nomenclature et classification des roches sdimentaires (roches dtritiques terrignes et
roches carbonates), Bulletin du Bureau de Recherches Gologiques et Minires: gologie gnrale 2, 57-127.
TUCKER, M. E., 1991. Sedimentary Petrology. An introduction to the origin of sedimentary rocks, 2 nd edition, Blackewell Scientific
Publication, 260 pp.

ANASTASIU, N., PANAIOTU C. E., 1995, Petrologie i sedimentologie aplicat: ndreptar metodologic pentru cercetarea i explorarea
bazinelor de interes petro-gazeifer, C.C.P.E.G. Bucureti, 202 p.
DUNHAM, R.J., 1962. Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture. In: Classification of Carbonate Rocks (Ed.
Ham, W.E.). Memoir 1, American Associationof Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, OK; 108121.

EMBRY, A.F., KLOVAN, J.E., 1971. A late Devonian reef tract on north-eastern Banks Island, Northwest Territori
FOLK, R.L., 1962. Spectral subdivision of limestone types, in Ham, W.E., ed., Classification of Carbonate Rocks-A Symposium:
American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 1, p. 62-84.
FOLK, R.L., 1974, Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks. Hemphill, Austin, Texas.

NICHOLS, G., 2009, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy : Second Edition. Wiley-Blackwell, 419 p.
SCOLARI, G., LILLE, R., GIOT, D., 1973. Nomenclature et classification des roches sdimentaires (roches dtritiques terrignes et
roches carbonates), Bulletin du Bureau de Recherches Gologiques et Minires: gologie gnrale 2, 57-127.
TUCKER, M. E., 1991. Sedimentary Petrology. An introduction to the origin of sedimentary rocks, 2 nd edition, Blackewell Scientific
Publication, 260 pp.