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ren ub wert ne ie te Seats we ere dn'te Uned Ringo nd! contin Exrope by Kadai Bupet Caoih © 197 by Katt So sities Pd eteapnpanecom CONTENTS Preface BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS, "AGB" Type 1 ‘ADoes 3 Type 14 Vsesof 2 ro] and A (a) 19 13 and go) 24 fbr? llosoado} Woah 34 lacaties 37 CONNECTING WORDS. ‘Conecng Nuns of Noun Phases 39 CConesieg Ven Verb Phaser 44 ‘CONJUNCTIVE EXPRESSIONS: Conon Mattes and Trobleome Usages, Conjuctons 87 Reson and Case 76 Pal Negation 82 IdomaieExpession 87 easy 92 Voli, eaton Til $5 Sutpntive, Conon! 99 Tinevelded Espessons 116 Disipoieent, Anmoyance Rept 121 Teaaeney 123 » o MISCELLANEOUS CONNECTIONS bs UT feos) 125 Hb RAE Finan mo, nad) 126 2h 5, 20.4 [rela oo we) nd PRI ren) 127 SUCH LAE ieee] 28 Te Usesot A tho) 129 Pasi and Cause 130 Noun & 0] Verb fun) Noun © [nl Now €F (osu) To SCH [tele] 6 Usesof (228 imam 137 EOI CEE loitot den) (38 Verb 8195 (mu uehi nl Veo 09 aie) 139 Sentence A (no a) SemenceB EEC iso den) 0 UNE / LH bia w/e) 14 U0 (ane) 2 Seese A =°C/ 240 roo de ser de) ‘Sentence 133 Semence Af [10 bbarin] Senece BAS Sune AE 2102114 (te aera ‘Sere 81S Appendices “w ‘Conrsting Priel Pres Preface jon abou Japanese expressions and usages that ai T: Purpose ofthis book st provide help informs: late the flow of ees and thought in writen and spoken Jepanese Daring my thiy-year teaching career, Ihave seen a grest al ‘ity of mistakes, many of which were the result of ul Aiffereces or differences in the way that second-angu leamers and native speakers of Japanese conceptuaie lan tuage. The book arempis wo help students become aware cf these diferences in conceptaizaton and to provide them with the Fnguistc tols to overcome these lferences, thereby allowing their ideas to flow more naturally, The book focuses on those grammatical items, idiomatic expressions, and set phrases that have proven tobe the most problematic vo my students, ‘The pavers ar presested with examples, nd tps are provided throughout the teat highlight partclaty impor ‘an pois, 4 few exercises ae also include tallow sents ‘opportunity o experiment with what they bave lead. [Noe that © refers to pattems that are predominantly fem inine and to those predominanily macaine, | woul he to thank the Center of Japanese Stes the Uni- ‘verity of Hawai for the Japanese Studies Summer Grant (1998) which supported this projet. T would also like to thank Greg Nshhare and Sarina Chugai for thee hours of ‘computer ore and t express appreciation to family and frends for her encouragement nd moral spon. Very spe- tial thnks go to my leachets,Dr-Shiro Hatori and Prof. Fv tmiko Kes, and to my father, who gave me the opportunity {0 sody apd teach abroad and withost whom sone of this ‘would have toen posible. Finally, 1 would lke to express ‘my sioere gratitude to Mr. Michael Brase and Mr. Shigeyosh ‘Suzuki of Kodansta International, Ld; without their hep, this publication would pot have heen posible SD RISLAMY EI AMN UCR NHR Roongenengyceaetcn, xapnouie nsnninleepbhisacerc con Mc bae 4 ORB PCBS U TORIES ELA HD OR CEAM TE 5S MTEL AD EA 5. tonsa ROM: Ve) BA OMRE RBA” 27 2. ORS. BAL OMNES HeFeDeE AUELBORS, SPELL RECURMOMAR SEMATET, LOMMPIRT AMES TEARAS 30m, BE EONS idMiNa A Ze ECR, HOBRLI OLR PMROD EE ERIE LOL MEERA, AT SEOLEAML TH THAT. KIMI, fib) [Criz- eid) CANT SORE DE OMLOE 30, RLIBMOME, CREME RL TEO ESL OMT HEU AMREMLOMMLE LA, MMe RONEN CIE AINE SOME T PMA SOIL -XEMMERLEROMML TORT, AM CHAD RATS PB AMMA 9. WA BOL PMR ADLALOEMDS, TARTAMBELO CF, GE, RUAN CHMMEF = 7 PCRS ED Exercises EHIBL Lt RAMEN SEMEL SEH TRE LAMRORA! DD ET, BINT AAP COMEL DZ EEIISIE, DIADRBOS OBBOME ED, N9-KFEMIERE ELDELE, SOBAMERIT SHE, IRENE UT BAIA RELOBER GL OARSHANT, Bissce ERED MMMBOK) EDIBTRERS LOS DoREIEBOST, RANGE LORRI AB Eth, BSMEMASTERRAL SICAMCERTL A, DRPSETRE, DETHEFD ERC UORLES A “ERGUABEMAL TORT, COKMDAME PLT LSREASOMTICED, DAIERL THC HACE oaopaicenignct, LOREM EDROTH, BCOATECMNEEE BELA. MRRERRU TS 8 RI ARORA HDI BERL TEAR PLO TD 9 TREMBLE VPA aMaEA, BR, EELELI LTA CHAM Moe LTSh S01, MONMLMNOURIE. AMNE EE EUHRENLTCRALO NACH, REIL AEH BED ELA, SoH BMOMERLALE BOE F, RRESOROANE HME LTC HE o RMA 7 BFL PROV TN FUL ER, WAMEEE AE mR LE, 1997828 Ewart ° BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS . ‘There are two basic types of sentences in Japenese the “Ais BB ype and the “A does B” type In the “A iB” ype, noun ‘orsdlecval phrases are inked by for of the copia #27 “TF daless. ln the "A does B typ, aver ie presen, o ‘gether with nouns o noun phases. WAISB Type ‘An “A i BY sestece doesnot havea verb and is therefore called a verbess sentence, When B is a foun or koun phrase, Bells what or who Ais For example AzBeT LI 2OMR, ‘urate a Arerita no aru da “The Camaro isan American cr, MasaBzovapangeaey, ae una riei des Pater isan exchange stoeet from Franc. When Bis adjectival, 8 describes A BEAhORUECERRUTT, ‘ikosan noe wa oem dl dese. ‘Aki’ s house is very bi councisitcanunet, Kono ihiga wa anakute oth dese. These strawberries are sweet and ast. nan “Ais B” sentence, the wpe marker iS (a) andlor the copula 2£/ "CF [dadest] may be deleted if hee pres- ence is understood from the cote: Ba: DRUENTLELS ION, aERME +801 Bier DRL, TAS, M.ED, Yaa: Watashi wa osushi @ mora hed, anata wa nani Mart: Watashi tmpura Sokana, ial na no. ‘Yoka: —Tiltake the sushi. Wha re you going to have? Mari: Fl have the tema. I don't ike ish (a's why) Inthe example above, Marie dropped the pact and cop because their presence is understood from the flow of the conversation. The full form of Mae's statment would be RLETARS CF, (DELI) MAMET, LWotaohi we tempura desu. (Watashi wa) Sakana ga kiana ro desu} 4 Two Uses of CF [den Inthe last example, the CF (desu) of (bt: Lis) | MTF [(tashi we) Sakana ga tri na no desu) merely makes the sentence formal instead of colloquial, wile the 4 [desu] of bf LR TARE “OF [Watashi a enpura desis substiuting fora verbphese wich as (CARE) EL OVE (Ter purao moraimasi YWiake ], (TAKE) LRT {Tenpura nf shimasu I've decided on -Jor CCA 5) AUT [Tempura gai desu I prefenivant 0 eat) ‘When a comma inmediatly fellows enoun—as in Ly TAS (Weta trpura and. WED Sabana, ura nano) inthe example ubove—it often indiats that pticle has been deleted, While punctuation in Japenese is generally ta fixed a in Engi his i one instance tat {susful to kep in mind, + Omited Particles & Copulas Whe the copula subsites fra verb, the precoding parte soften delet Q HeHCAeTH A DELMAS (CHEE, (Nan de tn’ desu ka, A: Washi wa su dea How are you going? (°m going) by bus. @ BETRECEN SOLOS TIM, A ME RMCEE (HEED), (0: Nihon de wa doe ni irasshara n’ desu ka a a & imas 22 Tokyo vo uaa des (ni imasu). ‘Where are you going in Jan? (goto) Tokyo ard Osaka 1 more informal or casual situations, he copula may leo be deleted: DALIVEA CH, Watashi wa base desu SBRLINCA, wm Watashi wa bane DRL, © Wash, bare Bra, Base, SRERME CH, Toho 0 Osaka kara desu SIURERTINS, © Told 10 Osaka kara [Natural Japanese avoids mensoning o epesting what isunderstod from context. A Does B” Type. A typical “A does BY ype sentence consists of a verb phrase fad one or more noun phrases. The following isthe typical structure ofan “A does B sentence: Topi Subject tect Dirt Advis Ver Sentence Coen Obet Panises ao OE OP 2 tet Some exagles: HRB (DRUID) ROBE GANMES/ UA Thhe/O. omodachi ga / wetashi ni) /have no / demwacbango 0/ aisha de/ shit kurta no. My fend secret told me is elephone number. BEBO bHRE MO TRIRAK/ ED Haka ga/ oxo ni /basket-bor ote ata nda. My mother ought abasketal for my younger brother, When the sebject o objet i the same asthe ic iis deleted Dh Lidtete ERR, Watashi wa REE hon ima As forme, Fl bay a book ARDELIEEROET, Hon wa watasi ga Pm anos ‘As forthe book, I'L buy I, Inthe next ovo examples the topic and subject ar der en, so both appear: DALIBEDIREN, Watashi wa how ga tia, ‘As forme, I want to buy a book EEOLAN I YRTARE MILD, Koko no restoran wa tempura ga olshit ‘As forthis restaurant, the ep is god, [Noxmally, the topic comes st the beginning of the sen tence and the mln Yer comes at the end The word order, however, isnot always Fed, and putes help to indie the grammatical fnction when a werd appears in aa une sted poston, Some examples: PoE MSZOM, HOME D ‘Auta oto gaara, a ooh nt? ave you met that man before?” DAL MEMES Eat SA TH, BOM (8), Wearashi, mae ni mita toga arn” des, ano eto (0). e 1 have sen that man before. BARCMOS > THRO! Birk (I)? Anna ni tok ara eta no mi, atcha no, anata (a? Byen though told you it was expensive (s you shoul buy i, you Bought it anyay id you? ‘The above examples show thatthe Word ode in Japan se can sometimes change rather freely, As explained below, ‘hough, tere are cates when the order cannot be changed. [2 Hobeoko, ‘Modifiers and Modified. In English a moditying sestence ie, relative clause) comes after the modified nous, while in Japaese the modifying ‘esteace aways comes before the modified word, regardless ‘of how long the modiier is RODEN FE ‘ind ita tga the ter tak came yeseny Bavoibocogr sb Yona harte in apito ‘te apartment that Jt seins Bxercise 1 ‘Translate the elowing sentence bteraly, and identify the nova modifers Pak HOR LEME LimeMVTM DALAL WS, FR COUIRE Eo, MENARD ARB 3 Yano era no yurusio ea sannin ga nanoo tote to Ashita bused we, Ima made no butts to me koto rata, shinp-ei na emi o ababeta kamen daa Hints This isan “Ais BY seatencs, where A i 1B (buts) and B is BEE (Rannon-2) The gst of the ‘meaning is, “The three people wer finaly given per- mission from the temple, so they undid the cloth and took out the Buddhist satu. twas a Kannon sate ih myeons me ue ny hey ha en be For those at an vanced level who need to read Japanese texts analyaing sentence sutures correct is ese gnor ing semence analysis may make it ard to grasp the comet. in reading, itis imporant to look fr the verb-noun (V-N) sequences. They will help you pinpoint the meifers and moe. Here are some clues help you ( Step 1 Look for V-N Sequences ‘The fist sep in identifying the modifiers and modified in = Sentence iso fook for vebs that come drely before nouns Here are wo examples (OMMAR BEY Ticdeh RS, VN Koto wa tka yinsach te lyon ni lta chara da. ‘This isthe place where I came with several fends. DRUMMER Y PROT NCR ocRE he eerecr, Worash wa sakunen ying Indonehia ara Rate Rte cea we suk den, ike the potre that my fiend (ought and) brought bck for me from Indonesia last yer. > Step 2: Look for the Subjects, Objects, Modifies, of ‘Adverbials “The net sep isto ieniy the subjects, objects, modifiers, and adverbial inthe sentence. Remember thatthe topic (narod by If [vel is always ouside the moving clause. Fer example S/R ROT MoE Deh Sy Ade Ae v a ‘atten a » ‘Kore wa/tomodachi ga /kyonen / Indonesia de kate ‘ete urea shat des “This the shit that my fend (bought and) brought back forte fom Indovesia ast yea. ‘08 Step 3: Look for Adjectives and Adjectval Nouns Finally, Wetfy adjectives and adjectival nouns tha precede nouns, Check ifthe adjectival element has a subject marked byte subject marke [ga or {ro}. Examples ROSIBL LOE [aminokeganaea! ko ‘gi with ong hair it, x pil whose hair is kong) Aosta ‘toed okora ‘eowded place it, place where there are many people) sea me ik 0 fad na kata ‘mater thal is impossible to implement (it, a mate foe hich implemestation is impossible) DELO IE wats suki haa my favorite Nowe (it he Hower tha ike) © Adjectives es Verbs Adjectives and adjectival nouns precede the mosifed ‘oun ad fnetion ike modifying ves: pene ‘ish pat 4 pie tht is delicious deliciospie Bt Lows eum ‘sushi no tak nal mise A resauant where shi snot expensive BEL Smo | omoshirotaaeige ‘movie that wa intersting Uses of © [no] and A, [n]. The particle © [no] and it variant A. (1) have several dis- ‘= Connecting Noun Phrases 1. When © {ol links «specific noun o& common noun it ‘nay be tasted as “of” lo." "i," o possessive: Kor #ERAOK wach no how Heanako-sanno ina tmy book /abook of mine Hansko’s dog HOKE Boo Tok no digas [Nihon no relish trumivenity ie Tokyo the history ofapan 2, When (nol liks to common nouns, it may be tans ated 8 “ox” “concern "0," i". moron BoroZe ‘otoko no kono eta ——‘ind no koro ‘tera orboys the event of yesterdy ROWE shat no cite serial ener 43. When a common noun precedes 7 (no) and a specitic ‘oan, maybe trated as an aposive or noun modifies: oat _gesel no mucho ‘ny 200, #stadent my son the student KAO? 2-7 teaodach no Jj ‘George my tend / my frend George MRO oka daigoku no oly0-daigal the University of Tokyo, a national university / the state- run college the University af Tokyo AA9DAN EY pera no Karmen Carmen, the oprah opera Carmen 4. When no] follows a noun an particle, itis generally not ansaed Note that phase witha pail or witha" (ie form is consiered o bea noun pra. 36 5 OF ARV ambORER Talyd bara no egami Igri hara no Pest ‘lever fiom Tokyo” Pegey rom England BOTLEY) — tL TY ROU Chichi eno purezento Oregon made no Kipp present orm father adckett0 Oregon 2 Subject Marker The subject marker 4¥ [ga can be replaced by © no} in modiying pass. AMIDKO SBI ELE. Sokuranbo no mi no nar koro ni narimasit, thas become the time of yar when cherries apes. BOCRRANI—N Chichi no kureteorugra {he music box tat my ater gave me Mowers seatachino suki na ito the person ke oo Nominalzer When D [a] comes ater the dictionary form of vb it ‘ums that verb ito a noun, MEORT MDA BoTLB OR. Kaeruno ga subtar orl nate shinai. (Or return Bore hes poten ver ate 7 (FEE THZOERE, Kare ga Waki o ante ra no omit, Taw hen walking slong Wai COMMEND MIE EDLERD, Tu ka hana no ka hair shina Stop being wishy-vashy abou whether you are going or reading aoager Ais B ‘amples, the © no] ia te fist sentence canbe identiied ftom th comest othe situation. In sentences like the second ‘nd third example, it shouldbe noted tat the sentences ae AXE [wo] B CUETO A & (desde ara ype sentences ‘which equates tothe Engish "Ais B”eemance. When has the pronominal 2 (no) B defines or describes A. Inthe ce cond example, B splice name, so I defines the 2 [no] nA 4s substiuting for Mf (tokor; place) In the tir example, (Charles Darwin is person 80 A perfoms the function ofr lacing A (hit: person. BELO (2, AHERN? Satunen iano (ve) Avima data ke? Did we got Arr lst yar? (li, Wat the place where ‘we went st ear Aria) SERED MITCH, ‘oko iar now tala desu “That ne over there 1oks expensive, i, The one thats laced over thee looks expensive) Fy TROMILO RR MIMS & FAWA F947 CBE. ‘Sango sho ne shinka no dantaosaisho ni aroha ni shita ‘no wa ano Chr Din dear ‘The first one to clarify the evolutionsry stages of coral reefs as Chatles Dern, ROILSO ‘+ Explanatory Before the copala E/C4/C 2 & [dafdesu/de ar the particle © (no} shows that the speakers aking fr ce ivi ‘an explanation or tying to convinee the ther person. fn speech this [no] often becomes 4 (n ESLTEARL LEM AD (THM)? Dashite soma hove 0 ita no (dea a? Why did you say someting like nat? MFERROET AOR ‘Raziko wa sig ga nigate namo da (Gecause)Kazuko's no good at matberates. ome RRAHHS, LILIES COREE Sekt da kara, mo sharatu ara? Since you've gone oa the trouble to come, why don't you stay alte Loager? ‘9 Softener Informal spect, © (no) is aed tothe ends of sentences to make questions and statements softer or les dest. 2 [no] aller stement i normally used by women, atttiagon? Naze kana no? ‘Why aren't you going? £9, ABCD, 8, inna in. Yes, everbody’ going. ch, nd 54807 Kor, hur suru no? How mach rhe? ‘5 [wal and 4° (gal ‘The particles [wal and # (gl are pehaps the most ou ‘esome and confsing parle foe students 10 lee Some studests thik that both wo] nd 2 go] are sbject mark fs and are ltrchangeable in fc, though, 12 a} marks the setence's tole of focus, which may be diferent from the subject ofthe verb. However, when the topic isthe same athe verbs aubjest or objet, Uf fa] may replace the sut- Jeet marker 2 ga ote objet marker (0 ‘Compare the examples below (be LAeOkERo: Watashi ga sono hon @ bata. "am the one who) bought the book, DELULOREM Watashi wa sono hone kata (As forme,) bough th Book DRLLTOREM >, Warasht wa sone hon wa haa (As forme, [bought that bok (not anther bok). AOKILbE LER. Sono hor wa wash ga ata (As for tat book) bought © DALBM AMOR ARLE, Watashi wa ata rok wt tanjidoru haraimashita (As forme, I paid $30 when bought it HUM RAKSAOF CR UA ‘on a tata ok ni sanjdoruharaimashita (As forthe book.) I puid 30 when I bought it When both the subject and the topic ae in the semence, the topic normally precedes the subject A sentence such at DEULHLOALH ELA [Watashi ga sone hon wa ‘aimashita sounds awkward. 'As a tople marker, 1 [ma] may aio be used with other pails: AVY EAD GOMMLRINES BD BAA arensan tara no dena aaa deta arimaser. 1 don't want to answer phone calls from Karen, (1 n't rnd answering the phone if tis rom someone es.) One ofthe function of [wa] and 4 (go is smi to that ofthe Enlishatcles “a and “he” Like the indefinite antile “a” 2 (ga) introduces «new subject inthe soy, na faton, composition, et. The topic marker (Ewa, onthe ‘ther han, works lke the definite ancl “he.” The topic ‘macker i (a) replaces go} when the subject has alredy ‘bee introduced ois know fom the context Once the sub- Jet becomes he topic, it may be deleted from following sen. fences when the meating i clea. Infact itis beer and ‘mote natural not to repeat things that are understod from ‘omit or have already been mentioned. ‘Consider the following parage HASME, G26 LADESEDI MM OMTDNE AOR, BSADEOS E, —AIRUNEM Wau ELE, EAL AMMEB > CONOR Aoi 3 biz, BUMNTRELE, EUTH AUMeOea HS UA. Makai ar tokoro mi Moss to Minoich tol rydshi ‘no eyo ga sinde Inashta. Ars fy nok no koto, f= (aris yar ni ryém dekatemashita. Dondon emono 0 ofte ama no ola no Nd ni ite yuku chim, ga learete Kimasha,Soshietumeai kaze me fkijne mash, “Translation: Once pon a ime, at a cerin place, there ive two hunirs named Mosaku end Minokihi, who vere father and son. One winter day, te two men went ‘ou hunting. As they chased after game and went deep Into the mountains, the sun began to set and a enld wind began to bow. nth first sentence ofthis passage, 2° (ga) marks the sub+ {et that i, the fatersor hunters named Mosk ard Mino ach, Inthe second tentenc, the topic marker {2 (wa) replaces (ga, because te subject—the two people—has sleady ben introdveed Inte ft half ofthe ti sentence, either atopic nor «subject i mentioned, besuse i is clear ‘who is bunting ‘Since the Japanese language lends not 1 repeat subjects hat have alveady ben inoduced o re understood fom the ‘content, cortinud reference in scen ss hey-handed aad un- ecesary. This eppie in paricalar to & 7 LIB atari va} and #7: U2 (watadh gal, te overase of which can rake the speaker seam excesively selfasserive. ‘As mentioned on page 18, the topic cannot be pat of noun moter. Consider the felling exeropes G@ DALAM REAL, Watashi wa ita tok niwa mas desta DO DALAMRAMICRE ATLA, Warashi ga hia tkim wa imasen desi, Inboth ofthese sentences, 7 (La isa noun medir that modifies #8 [oti Since bf: U [watasi} in example (a) s marked by iva}. itis the sobectonly of BAKA C L [imasendesia. Tus (a) means “When hese came, I was rot there" In) the 28 (ga marks U [wera asthe subject of AE Ute) 0 () means “When Texme, he/she vas et there ‘wren text, a comma afer the subject marker 2 (ga) |s important It indeaes thatthe subject i not ony fr the following vee EDALE, DEL, BOIRAMMLRA TT Gomen nase. Watashi go ind kta toti ni kovashitan enw 1am fore. 1 broke it when I eame here yesterday. am ‘the one who should be blamed.) 20 Focus of Sentence ‘The choice between IZ wa] and At [ga] can also shift the focus ofa sentence. Consider the following ()ERBACT, —Korewahondene ENHATH, — Kore gahon dew ‘What isthe diference between (a) and ()? Remember that inan A [wa B sentence he fous ison what or ho, while nan A A! (ga) B sentence the focus ison which. The sen- tence © LEACH [Kore wa hon desu indicates o defines what = (ore is (Le abook) while = ALEC [Kore {2 hon desu Indicates which of several things ip the book ot ‘which te Book in question. Brercie ‘Translate the following ino Japanese 1. Who ae you? am (ou mame 2, Which one is your book? This oe is ine. 3. Whichone of uit Tam jour same] [pow mame]? 4 Mow istharbook? this book) is ineretng (20 Focus of Question “The focus ofa question may change depending on wheter iS [va] o (ga is use. @ anieeeye. ‘Whats ha? ‘Ave wa nan desu ka (dtd) ORF D-H, Tears Tolye Tower, (Are we) Toya desu. () ENMMEROATT I, —_Whiehisheisary book? Dore garish no hon desu ka. Sh (OMEOA) CH, Thsisit ore (ga rekishina hon) desu {1 the main questions 70°F (nan desu ka “what In ther words the speaker wants 1oidemify a objec thats located over there. Either the speaker i potting athe tower cor thelistenec knows what the speaker refering 0, 50 sinecessry to repeat £018 [sore wa inthe answer fn (6), tosh the speker andthe istnee know that history book i moog the many books in on of them. The speaker, how ‘ever, doesnt know which anesthe history book. The focus ofthe quest sox “which,” o inthe answer its unneces- ‘sary to mention tat What be} looking foris history book. © Quewions and Anewers with ve) and Lge a question uses [a the answer must also use 2 {gal Ifa question uses i (wu), the ansmeremust fl Jow suit In other words, £218 C42 (sore wa nan eset) cnnot be answered with © RARE hore schon desl. Some examples Q sangeaeTTn, A: be LIUETT. 0: Anata wa donata desu ha? AA Watesh wa Yemada dev @ Who are you? ‘A: Tm Yamada @ Bhatsr omen, A ANE .0eH. (Dore gu oak no huruma de ka? A: Are sae no desu ( Which caris youre? A: Thatone tors 1 Peston of & [mo] ‘The English sentence “goto Kyoto, too" i ambiguous in Snoation because “to” may refer to citer "I" or "Kyoto." Jnpanat islets vague hore, because & (mo) too” immed teely fellows the word it refers, ‘Compare the flowing: DALEMBICT ERT. Watashi ma Kyoto ni shimasu Tas wallas others, wll goto Kyoto. DRLIMITICATE ET, Watashi wa Kyo ni ma Minas, 1 wil 10 Kyoto as well aso other paces Questions and Answers with & (mo fe question has ¢ [mo] and the answer is aim tive namely "yer anewer wth & (mo). If the ques tion hat & fmol and the answer is negtive(astely no"). answer wih (na. For example @ caaAeTe, A EREAY CH @ Lew, ChENY THD, ALLOA, EMERY UBD EEA, FBO, & haever. : Kore wa nan dese ka, [A Sore wpe ders (9: Ja ore ma pen des ha. ‘A: le, sore wa pen Ja arimasn. or Hel, ore mo pen dew. Whats tis? A: This iv apen. Wallis thisapen, oo? ‘A: No this nota pen. or Yes, that's pe, to. © Altona formation “The topic marker (f(a) may be used to indicate thatthe speaker has in mind a const ors suggesting adional n- eration, For example: RE, BBY CRE, Raines, YOroppani ta. RHI, BEY tHE. ‘Rainn wa, Yoroppa nl. (3 oy NICE G Yoroppa ni wa ku ‘Sentence (a simply says hat the speaker i planing to goto urope nex yest Sentene () suggests adcltonal informa tion, such thatthe speaker went to some other place tis yea or that cicumstances di nt allow him ogo to Earpe this yar but hat he stil hopes to go next year, Sentence (e) ‘may mean “'l goat least to Europe (even if Tcannot go ‘other places)" In (the 1 wa with ESE rane] shows the conzat with other years, whl in () tho (a with 3 ~ #1 Yoroppa nl] shows contrast with ater paces ‘The topic maker 1 (a is also used with some pattems to partly megs a previus statement ries. Some examples: @ Zs LtHARUOI WAT ZO? A BENTIROR OIE, FRIIS HS a 0: Dowhte kant no? Toure ‘ran? ‘A: Tokarete anal Redo, kn’ yas karadekake- taka a, ‘Why are’ you ging? Are you tie? 1s not that Ta tired, bot t's ol tonight 801 don't wantto goo. Me smeanor BCREDEE, GaMVED Bn, Tokai kara kewanai no? Tobal yg nat hed, iro ga kira da kara. ‘So you aren't ping to buy it because it's expensive? Went tht i's expensive just ont ike the cole EAGHEE ELA, RIO? HOGG E, Br ok MCRALIME Wor. ‘Sonnahade na does, kau no? ‘Kal shina kd, chon ite dake iy ka to ome ‘Are you really going buy such a gaudy cess? 1 dont intend to uy it, but though would at least, teyiton re rerere zere Bxercive 3. ‘Transat the following into Eaghsh LMC Tema TERT RENE, (sokitemo son made mwa ite hudasl yo. 2 AVUM RYE, DTA ERD EMD: en wa tata kedo,shipypen wa kawanakata BAELC TE. HDALRSTREIER, Isogashiate mo, ano hit i wa ate kay to ono SFist TRO STL, MNBL LOR, ‘Ame gate wa iv kao, kas go iru hodo jana S. ADAIR ORE EGE SIE EMIS 21, Ano to nat koo war ed noe wa shires 1 Wit interrogatives With an inerogative word suchas (nani “what o 2 doko} “where, there's a simple ral for choosing between (wal and 9 [ga ase &2 (wal before an inerogstive and 2° ge] afer. Some examples OC ckaHeTe, BATH (0 Kore wa nan des AA: Pendesu Q: Whats tis? Av This iva pen O trBes cH, A TRIOBITH. 0: Soto wa dol dese ha. A: Takano no mae desu Q; Whereis it hat piace)? A: Iis in front of Takano’. QO MASEL ORAM, amet, (Q: Sokujinu anata to its ito wn dare desu ha ‘A: Muse desu (Who waste person wit you yesterday? A: Iva my daughter, B AkaskeD co, AURA CTS : Dare ga kia yo desu ka ‘A> Yomomere-tan dea Who came? A: Me. Yamamoto, @ Koos -BpoLocta, AAO TLE DS (0: Dokena a ichban oii desu ka A: Yanagi desha. (Which place ashe best fod? A: Probably Yanagi @: HaBED THD, A BEACTS (Non gar no desu ‘A: Hosa det @ What do you need? A: Teed some seston BEEBE [hoso-ado] Words The £---£ [ho-sodo] words are demonsatves sch a8 ZF [bolo], £6 [social BO ano), 4 (doe), te ‘When these words refer to objects that are visible wo the speaker and hearer, they are similar to demonstrates suchas “ths” and "hatin English, Fer example, = lore means “this thing” while 2% [ror] meses "hat hing (near you)" sd 1 [ore] means "Yat thing (ove there)” ‘When the words refer to things that are not seen or rectly experienced they sometimes become roableome, Es Fecal in eadng, one must be earful wi the meaning of Eo -& -2 [loso-rdo} words, This seston fouses ot ‘when these words refer to unseen emits suchas experince, Knowledge, or ideas, In sich contexts, these four prfies ave the following meanings: fo: refers toa present mater known by bo speaker ané Fstener 2 loosens the spesker: refers to a previously me toned mate, statement lol exces the Usener; refer to past experience, ‘nowiege, et, sired by both specker and listener (donates the iterrogative forms ‘When © - (ho and €- [20] refer to ess, statement, thoughts, et, <- [ko:] refers iter to what was just men. tioned orto what wll be mentioned sen fe, whe %- (11) refers only to something that has been entoned before. ‘Sone examples @) ZO, 552 eH tObR, © Kena cig, chitomo omoshirotu ni we ne This movie ist atalllzeresting Wh, v20K87 Sare tu no hash? When dd thet Ching you have been aking bout) hap reo? OmkexLouRchocARoTT IRE, Aes GRABLE, CELE ‘Shims ni Toho no omen nite it modes heredo, aka we made yuk desta | arta oe ping Tohoku tw i snowing ere. O3K09—s7bOLmok, BnAEEICHE DE, ibe no rime dshiha. Sts kei yo The ramen (ht We ae) Sng ar very good Les 0 thee agin In (a), both the speaker and sen re watching s movie, so the knowledge about which movie s shared by both. In), 4 # (sore) suggests that the speaker was wots prt of the tappening or incident In oer wor, itis only inte oer person's memory. The & £ = (aroolin(c) refers to place that only the speaker vised. Thats the listener did no pace tiipate in the visi to the ho spring that the speaker is ds feasting. In (@, the speaker ad the istser share the se meron they went et ramen together. ere aresome more examples of 2-8-2 [ho soard ws PRE EIRMBLROTTINED ESERRPES RASCH. Dotyy: ZFCURM ZHRTAERATL * Yamada: Saya otal ni odenwa sha no desu ered chodo onus data yi desu ne Jonaion: $6 desta ka. Soe a sunimasen desk. ‘Yamada: Tealled you lastnight It sems that you wee not at home Sonuua: Youd? Sor about that BH: RERBIOTMOAMEMAC EMS bate HA: Bb, abe Be: BhioorecLim, WA: BhuMmomOceR RE wOET. Keni Anata va kono shashin no jinbutsu 0 ita evo gaarimasu ka. Shon: — Hai Armas Keni Sarewa tau no koro dest a ‘Shonin: Are salunen no natsw no koto data to Prosecutor: Have you ever seen the person in his pice Wives: Yes, Thave Proseouor: When was ha? ‘Witness Tick thc it ws at samme SUADUSY F—ABWREEI- CTA, tomo OCT. —MIOMR 2 CB AMER LE, BELORIVI EDC DLEL EM, KEP SURG oLAELED, BLATT, Kono Osaka ni mo drag debra s8 desu gs kara ‘chiki no desk. tho mi TOK dm de Kyo sen 0 ‘mia tli, asake no Skike mi itt shimashta go, atom wa moto Gt ok, tanoshint desu ne, "heard tht ey ae now buildings dome in Osa, 00, 1s your place near there? When we saw the Giants game in Tokyo Dome together, Iwas surprise tthe sine of the dome, but they say thatthe Ozaka Dome will be much bigger. Ist thi exciting? MLocatives: "Explanations f location o destion are sometimes cons- ing because Japanese sestence structs tferent from tht of English, Compare te fllowing @bRLO 240 kunt Mee Anat, wz _s Watashinowchin tna kiko 2 arma ‘hes achuch esto my tse anya aapranane st a Seyoor ge acc (MSE DELO 24M kan Tt. sim nation acs smog (ahi nno sso nsrone-ss, Stu ius ince do Tage pec me Semtace (a) tls what is located next to my house; (0) tells what the nelghboring bullding i) tells the location of ‘ paiclar churn; and (@) tls which one is the church under dscstion Sewences (2) and (8) ae the “Ais B” ype, sit isnot cometio ny MELEE LOI BOE DIAC (Kyat tra walahi no woh no tonal dens or 8 E> LOD BOLLHIENR CT [Sorema watashi no uch no tonari Loa desu), tn seaence (6), the CF (desu) replaces BORT (marinas), Bxerive 4 For each ofthe sentences above, w ‘would be answered by that sentence. @ o o ® uestion that CONNECTING WORDS ‘This chaper focuses on hw elements of Japanese seleaces are inked together In English the conjunction “an can com rect nouns to nouns and verbs to verbs in mst cortex, ut in Japanese the conecting word varies depending oa the p= ‘ofelements being linked as well athe shades of meaning "Connecting Nouns or Noun Phrases o> Listing Things, Names, ec, + Exhaustive Ling’ & (0) ‘The conjunction & (1) suse to conect series of nouns that are exhaustive Ia ter words, the word linked by 2 Ito] ae the complet list and there are no others, ‘Some examples Mobic 9 apm, KEI PERD BAD ETCH Taulue no we nan ga armas ta Hon tonto to pen ga arimanu des. Whats onthe desk? ‘There are books, notebooks, and pens (and that'll) ‘Students of Japanese often connect sentences tke #2 L HOIEHUEHF a 9 [Wash wa Tolyo wi ina and BE EMIHE UBF (Gia de kaimono oshimacl with te pac. ticle & (fol This common mistake seems 1 coe about be- cause he students think that (2 the same “an all counectiva wonos usages: Remember hat & [is sed only berween nouns 4 Partial Lsing: © (yo), 2 foal When a tof nouns is aot exhaustive, they canbe com ected by the pales ya or £2 oda, For example WHE hav Et, Hon ya nto gaarimase “These ae books, notebook, and oer things OPH PERT I Ldn dh EMER ORA TY aeAcT. Jv oka Mari tka... at wa dare ga taka oboete ina In desu Jean and Marie and. I don't remember whe else was there besides thom, In example (2), the speaker i simply not mentioning the ‘whole ist, petapsbocaus there are feo many things to list ‘orthe speakers busy or lary. Ths the particle [ya is used to name o lista par of the wae. ‘As shown in (),& 2 [10 kal may be wd interchange ably with ® fe, Sometimes though, 2 to kal may also show the spesker’steluctnce of uncertainty. I the follow ing example, the speaker hestts to give « fll sting be ‘catse she wants to hide something me: MIELE AARON? BRRAL POV Lee) Lawn, HEIBBA DROA COEDATT. Keiji: Sokomidare gait n' da? Minna ita no ka? Yopisha A: Je oka Marto ha. tows dare gaia ka ‘boat ina n’ dest Detective: Whoa there’ Was everybody there? Sespet A: Jean und Mare and . I don't remember ‘no else was there besides hem. Like & (0) he paricle (a swe onl with nouns tnd noun phmses. However, & % [o kal may also occur twit verbs or verb phrases, as sow bythe following exam ple FAs Bik, ALTHO? WE TONEY S LORE RICH ka, CLAMEAT, TOMECL ED LOR, ert: Oyasumi nani shite no? Keiko: Koimano o suru aka ciga 0 mini ok Demo issn nant, sug sgite sma mono Terry: What did ou do during your vacation? Keiko: Tweat shopping and went to the movies and ( i ther things ike tha) .. Anyway, one week passes much foo quickly ‘The panicle 2 2 [nado often occur with # (ya or = 2 (oka without changing the meaning, asin the following BADR EBNY VI PRS EBA TET (22) Ror. ‘Sor o/h hend-bage sa a ering ado) oka. bought things like a sweater, a handbag, and a pair of caring, 4 Selecive Listing: ha. 29 (rari ‘The panicles (La) and 2) (rari} may be used inte changealy to indicate “or.” However, 0 (nai sully in- icates «election from a category of two or mare specific itm while > ha} may simply Usa suggestion from «ran ‘om grovp of tems. (9 Pi ROM / 2D, BA Kona a/c os afar, odenva kudasa Pai call me tonight or tomorow. <9 Fee aro uT we (cm kesoeper. Naasuyestni ni wa, Nyiftando ka Osucoraria ka (doko 1a) ike tsumor desu. 1m planieg to go tomewhere lke New Zealand or Ave: tna (or someplace ese) during summer vacation OR ROT RED, BIEREHE MOTE, Pen aacimanner-itsu wat onl na Bo tort kus Please take a per ora founai pn, whichever you peter In sestence (9), the choice is speific, 3 # (ha i inter cthangeable with £1) (nari In (though, ts eter to we fa) because itis merely a random isk. fe), 29 (nar {isthe most appropriate because it indicates choiee from category of wo specific ters. ‘Formal Connections In formal spech or writing the following expressions ‘may be used instead ofthe parle mentioned above, Ab, MSH e SME EU ‘Shimet, naz jisho oka kudesa Please write you ame ad aes MERUEEAN ERAT ELE, Seine! oni seinen goppi ony sur oto in your ame and ate of birth Sh, LAMA, MEME aT. Rater mata sien kien ure te deena ‘Weare plaming open teste ext yea cre yet aternext PBATCME, REDE, MMC ERC ED, oka made ni dene, cua shor de gohen a ese espendby telephone or leterby he th ‘> Conversational Connectors: € LT (ashitel, £41055 ore kara} ‘When listing things and names in conversation, the con junctive € UC [sosie or #146 [sore Aaa] ray also be wie, Some example: WRF: Frommace AemmetO? Fant BOR, MAMERTLELIBADIF LKAIPS PERL Tom, Eth, Ehbeot, Hravaho: Vie no dity aide donna mono ga det no? Jé: Ano ne, nomimono to ovath to sOmen-sarada ‘ro pat srada o sash. Nan dle, wasu- recht. anako: What was served a lst nights clas reunion? Joe: Well, drinks, sushi, sdmen salad, pst salad, sd. What as i forget. TAY AOS TILE IH KO? PY7OYYRD, BYFE-F, hy Bey aan-z, 45: American nigh kigan de wa do ns no? Hanako: Sanfurashisuto, Longubt, ioe Sara Santa- surzen Joe: Where id you go onthe West Coast of the us? anato: San Francisco, Long Beach, and Sarta Cr ELT loshie| and £425 wore ara ae often ine changesble, but 226 [sore kara) usually iss items in Sequesal order, shown in (, '=Connecting Verbs or Verb Phrases The panicle £ [to is used only to conpeet nouns of noun prses. It cannot link clauses of tentencs, Ths sentences The B29 LAL EO 9 6-CF [ul ga formas te samulana desu, I snowed and was cod), though often headin the spect of keginning sues, ae incomeet. ‘The most common paterns for linking verbs and verb phrases use the" (1) form ofthe ver. ‘= Listing Sequential or Cancerrent Actions Events ete ‘Te basi function ofthe [-e] form sto connect vers ot verb phrases. In this pater (A - lB), the action or fever represented by A usually precedes Bin tine, though in fom cafes A and B ae concuret, EFI AI ROL Le Masako wa kazou no tame ni yshoku me shit. shite debabta Masako prepared ianer fr ber fay and ten) went ct ) FvidD—e—beAT By Et phen, ‘Ken wo Adhto nonde sandoichl taba Ken dank coffee and ate a sandvich Jn example (a), Masako did the two things sequent while in () Kee di th wo things concurenty Noes on -¢ Porm (0) The A~< [te] B pattem cannot be reversed. That 1s, B never pecedes (2) The -€ [-4e] form of B/C [da/desu} is [ae the (te form of "2 & (de ara} eC 5-9 | fade ane andthe (el form of adjectives is << (el CR EOBS, (MAB) ENE, Kore wa Nikon no hanashi de, "Momotar6” to ima ‘This isa Japanese tle, and it ical "Momotard™ SRNR HS BO, Kono heya wa shcuba de agama mo “This room is quit and has aie view. be LOMB CHL. Watashi no heya wa rote cash ‘My rooms spacious and cool, Roce eRMMM EMTs tO eR oT, Me SRME URINATE, ‘Kontai no ko wa hick-mondat ni mo kansura mono dente aman havc tshite asa bel de wana ‘This incidents also related to the his issue, 0 i ‘should at be handed just as crime, ‘The stem of the B+ (mast form is used to connect verbs and ver phates in formal speech and wen. ‘The next example from a news broads: Tee, Liem ED. MICA D ua Sakina, Joetswchihd ni Buk ga fur, Shinkansen ga ‘sn narinashia {as ight, heavy snow fel inthe Jet area, andthe ‘Shinkansen (il train) was ales, ‘Stem of 8 [mau] Form of 1° [ira] ‘Tae -# 4 [amas] fre of 1% (iu) Yo exists 98 “F Ga) so the stem of its ¥ Lomas form is .3- (id. However, 2 D- fori) is more commonly used “This 8 1 (ot is derived from the ver 2 & [os], “which the humble form of fi). When “C9 [ote orf is used to connect verbs of verb phrases, thoegh, it des not express any humility REDS EL, AORN CD, BIC EA BeATU Zann na foo ni, tomodachi wa detakee gx, au koto ‘ta dekimasen deshita ‘Unfortunately. my fiend was ao at home, and (6) 1 ‘ould not se him. ‘s¢ Restrictions onthe “© Form, ‘The basic function ofthe -T[-e] form so comnet two sen- ences that dseribesucessiveorconcurent evens, actions 1, 50 its nt appropriate to use ~C [te] form when the two somences ae et relsted, Nor can you we the = [-e} form tink wo statements when on ofthe statment a lve and the othe indicates ston, mation, ec except when ‘he fst sentence explaies the direct ease fr te Second, ‘The folowing examples se comet BMS CREE Samo, ‘Avana ga tala oirarenaktta Thad a headache, nd oF couldnt get wp. ‘fled RAMICILANLS CMU EM CLR ote Gila o shita tol ni wa ureshkuetbiogtte shina. ‘When eared hat passed the exams, jumped fr oy. ALORS RMMWEL SoTL TEMLD OR, ibs no kasha kara saiye-tsici © morte totemo ures ‘ata received notice of employment from he company where hoped o work, so Twas very happy. ‘The nex tree examples not acceptable ()PRLASHMERLADEM ST, LOT CRT Wrsoenet. Sorsugy shar sigs 0 sogashia to omote, sono sug ‘to de helkon sure tumor dena in hing of Looking fora job when I geadot, and ‘con afer that intend to gt mared O) BAO TERME, MIRE oH. ‘Nihon no tret-hanguni omit, xn gaat I watched some Ipanese TV programs, ard found them interesting. ORCHARD, Yasolte kata T's inexpensive, and I want to buy Sentence (et ncoret because there tno cause-and feat elation between the t9 clases linked by the Le] form, An appropriae sentence might be RLS F Ct WEHLT, (ROD ORO)EDHCHMT SINCE [Sorsugy8 shtara sugu shigro 0 sogashte,(nlsanara) sono ato de kekhon suru smor desu] “Soon afte 'l grad- tue I'm ging ofa fra jb (find one) then Vinten to get maried "Inds case, nding a job a prerequisite 10 the speaker geting marred. ‘Sentences (P) and (6) are incorrect because one of the clauses is stave GRU 2 % lox ga ata and $8 < (yasukuteD while the other uses an action ve (BED 7 {CABKLE RE [Nihon no terebianguni omit and 3% > Gaba). In aditon the Fst clause isnot pereived as the direct caste ofthe second, The comect sentences might beDARDT V CRME REMODEL NC A (When no tereb-bangun omit ym ga waite kta} "I watched some Japanese TV programs and ey aroused my interes” and #2 bo / EO CM U9 asl lar /yasl mo de kta) “Tanto buy it because it iinexpensive.” ‘96 Tlomatie Usage ofthe [1e] Form ‘The -C [te form may be used with another ver o indicate ditional informatica, describe emotions, SAT 4B ‘The C [te] form may indice a reason ease, excuse, ee fr the stement immediately following. Therefor, i the following example LBC (kre o hie i the ea- Sen for 2350 HF nesu ga arimase but na for HE ‘EL usumasemasht). The compound cause UB VTA AS [Razeo hte nes ga and) states why the speaker de her son mis Sebo BFE, MEOH S SOTEER LA. Musik wa, hase o Kite netw ga ar no de ysumase rash My son had fever because be had caught a col, $0 1 sae him say bore. ‘The [te] form inthe AC [eB pater describes & reason ese, et, bu oly impliciy, not deel. Te = te} form suggests that A is the reason for B, while 2° & ara). 2°C no del, PAB: [ame ni, and £0 [mon de expe spesity the reason for Co Frit AMIRI EAEATLR, Saluya wa yin ga he delakerarematen desta Las night end came to visit meando) Twas unable ‘ogo (POI A RIDE /OR/ RiIE/ LOCI BREEATLE, Seatuya wa yijin ga Kia kara/ node tame i mano de dekakeraremasen desta Because a fiend came 1 see me lastnight was unable ‘0 pout. Example (a) with [1 is es direct, soit sounds softer and less assertive. Example (b) may ply that the speaker tying to avoid taking blame by puting responsibilty on his frend rater han hime TING (te tea) /E 6% Ee bury) ‘The verbs (9 < (Ua) and < 8 (hr efter the “© [te] {om indent te direction of the action or motion expresied bythe preceding ver. Some examples: HO°CIE (mote a tte (oF nana objets) #8.5°CRE (mone fara] wo brng (of inanimate cbc) PRET (turer) ake (of asimate objects) ERE suet hurd to bsng (of animate objects) ‘The phrase M2 CFF & [mote ha Iterally means “to bold a go" while #9-°CR 8 (morte kuru) means Wo hold and come,” while itt CAF [sures tu) nd CHS [eurete kira] mean “to tke along and go” and “io take slong and come” In Japanese, the CK (te hua) and 5 < [ee tka endings fnctonsimiely 10 the English adverbs i and “ou” Compare the flowing RAS TRE, Heya ni ate ht He came int the room, (es, be entered the room and came towards the speaker) BREATH Ot, Heya wi hie ita He went it the room. (Ce, he entered the room and went away fom the speaker) ere are some more examples of the CAE [te kuna) and CHF (eda ening: MD LIDS, meet CHER, Ame g furs dakar, kasa0 mt ikinasa TeTooks ike is going to ai, stake your umbrella with you HEHE OUD LOK, Ho TRE! “Kuru tol soko no tute noe no hon, mote Kite! 1 book on the desk forme when you came! FS Em CHE ET, BYONAF (KARMA THT LODE, Asuna par yj tsuree kite mot desu ka, May ting rent the party tomorow? NAR CR TOKE Bothy CEP ORAT fiotL boty ‘Kotor ga tonde kite nwa no kin tmatta, Demo sug ‘onde ite smart, ‘A small bid flew in and perched in rein or yar But itsoon ew sa, In English its quite natural o say “'m going ost to eat” witoot adding “and then Pl come back,” snc tix clesly derstood thet the speaker wil return. The opposite f he ‘casein Japanese, where the emphasis spaced onthe coming bck Instead, ts the going tat is aken as understood. For example MERCK BMEMEMOB ZO, ® Boku wa tabee burs kara ban-ghon wa iran Thea oat, st won't nce super. (Lit, eat and come (ack), 51 don't need supper) LOT C HME EME, Beets, Mo sugu han ga dere kara, abet itara ‘Sopper will oon be ready, so why don't you eat with we (bofoe you 30) we CC /-0 6 & [He thuite kara) with Momentary Verbs When he [te] form is momentary ver tindicates that «change will occur or that an ation or mction will begin For example Sem, Mao TES Teasuzen. ae ge ft ita Soddenly it started rain PBRGE SEERA TCS, gure ni nara tanzoko kaa iri g tate ura ALtwlight the mist begins to rise fom the Bostom ofthe valley, ‘+ Examples of Momentary Verbs ‘Transition from One State to Another $8 (hin) wreaize RRS (lowarers) so tectk pan | Feta (shin) ode XB hain} wenter FE lei) —toclose WK Isla) to boom 126 lot) toecome vacant ‘Star of Action or Motion from Stal State 1% [chiral seater (as of flower pets) (HH (acreni) —tfallover £2 (tam) tostand up 52 lockin) wall (romabeigh} Arrival or Completion $86 (emku] tae (ata destination) FB (toda) toreach, tobe delivered Akt (urers]—wtoueh ‘= Movementin Time (2 kul and < % (haa may also suggest movement in time: from the past tears the present, ct fom the present toward he fate, pst esent fate C6 B [telaru] TUG [eal ‘The choice between +9 (du) aed & & (kur may also ‘vary depending onthe speaker's psychological or emotional involvement inthe mater. Statements wih > [te a) usually more objective, For instance, sentence (a) below isa statement based onan observation, while () shows the speaker's concer and axity. @ FOMOACIE RTE AMA TOC E33. ono machine ski wa masumas fut ku dor ‘The population ofthis town wil robb keep ncesing. © TOMOMORAT AELLMA TS BEARES ‘Rono machi no kuruma no kau ga hore i fucte kuru to tathen da. ‘Thre wil be problems ithe umber of care i thie town increases any move ‘9 Manner of Action ‘The - [1e] form may indicate how a metion, ation, oF rmoverent occurs. In sentence (a) below, ARIK (= > T [denaha ni not] tells bow the speaker traveled, while in () YY ORE BAT [yashi no hao ande) tells bow te speaker made the basket (MMR THA. Denshani note i. vent by tin, (Lit, 1 wen by siding on tain) OrvOmEDATMETD, Yash no ha 0 andekagoo suka ‘made a tasket by weaving palm fds. ONG [te i) Bear) ‘When non-native speakers ofIpanese ae aked 344 “C118 > [boon shite manuka] “Are you mae” they often answer 002, AIMGL 8A. le, hekdon sh maser} intending to say “No, 'm pot mari" However, #8 SL EAE A [elton simasen] does noc have this meaning: stead, it means “Twill nt pet maried.” Two appropiate faniwerstothe question would be OU. ARAHL “Ch at 4. Ui, hon shite imasen} “No, Iam not mae” and 12 (3, REMI UCI [a kethon shite mesa) "Yes, am smaried” In English, “I work atthe Bank of Tokyo" and “I am ‘working atthe Bank of Tokyo” are nearly interchangeable. In Sapanese, though, HCH SLAT "CM & EF [Tokyd-gnkd de etaraimau) and YORSEEG-C MC 8 (Takin cde hotorate ima) have vey diferent meanings. The former Sentence says hut the speaker will work atthe Bank of “Tokyo a some point in he future, while the lar says that the speaker is working athe bank now. $2088 (vera) ‘When attached tothe [1] foe of transitive vets, the verb 188 [in “to be, exis (f animate objects)" usally hows tha something isin progress oe hat oceus spt of a regularroutne. When ¥>% [ia s appended othe fe) fom of intransitive oc momentary verbs, though, itindiwtes {constant sate that isthe consequence ofa pest occurence. ‘Thisusage of C103 [-e is posible only when the con- sequence is known o visible othe sper ‘Some examples Wot ake CHS, Kei ga hon o youd iru Kay trending book RECREAANMERA CHRD, Otaku de wa donne shinbun o onde ina ha Which newspaper do you read? (@ Pamocec Ann, To ga shat te hairenat “The doors closed, 01 cannot eater. wxRORARA CHS. ‘Suis no sakona ga shinde ina ‘The fishin the anki dead. ln a),-"C404 (te ra ndiates that the action of reading is in progress, while in () the speaker is asking what news. per the other person reeds iy, ot what hat person is do- Ing eight now. Example (e) describes the consequence of an event that has happened in the past. the losing of he ‘oor. In (8), the speaker's mesiage i thatthe fish is dead andthe ead body f the fish is sil inthe water tank. ‘The ver ending - [1a ees only to what happened or What the subject id inthe pas, ile C> tia eters to ste that exists as consequence of something eater Forename BIN ICTERLES (Chichi wa gore nt iimashit, My father went wo ply pl. emo BLEU. BREA, BST a: bna, RETAT EHO at CChichioya no yin: Moshimoshi. Odeon, iu? Musume Ie, Chichi wa gor ite ima Fer frend: Hello Is your father there? augue 1No,he hs gne to play gol In this example, the daughter Is emphasizing tat ber fathers not at home, ‘The ending 1% [te ir] may be used with a wansive verb to indicate an event that occurred inthe past but stil has consequences inthe present: 20%, Filit [MOK] EMTS. Sano toi Abutagae wa “Kim no Ho" alter In that yea, Akatagawa wrote “Kum no Ito” (and iti sil ea by peop tod. Bxereive Z For each ofthe following sentences, identify whether the meaning ofthe ¢& [4 ira form is progres- sive, routine, or esutative. Example SanaencewoumeLcoRt, Haha wa ta deldotoro de shokuj no shiak 0 ahle Answer: Progressive L mmonwcBo—wMCS aT ORE. Kentd no tame ni maiich ihikan gural aru 2 gUNBAeMTet, Chichi wa ik goska nf tant man, SOR, Og? Yamade-hur kei? A DRURB Ir ALS MRR 9 CHER voces arash taht wa, agen mi tehdo wa ansumane tho o kok shite imasu. 5 BAD CREMATHSOUIECONT, O Asolo de hon okt i no wa boku no oxo dese 9-88 [ean When # & [ara] “wo exst (inanimate) follows the {e}fem ofa tanstive ver, it indicates a reslative state Compare the elowing: FM TS, Topaate iu “The doo Is open, FM TS, To peatete ane ‘The door has been opened (by someone) (and is open 0). eo remices, Too ete era ‘Someone, mest key the speaker) let the door ope, thee examples, the outcome is the same: the opening ‘of a door. However, the speakers focus is diferent. In 3), the agent—ha is, the prion o thing tht opened the door— isnot important Wt cancers the speaks hee ithe fact. thatthe door is open. In () he agent may or may not be ‘known tothe sper, but the spear atleast ealizes that somgone has opesed i. Ia tis consructon, ~ #1 8 [go -tand the subject i ways inanimate, In (e) and simi lar sentences, the subjects usally Known, The ~ CS [-0-e ara pattem is less common than ~ a & & (ga ara, probably because ~ & -C 3 & [-0-te alu] is used more oes for he same station The pate ~€ “CS [-o aru lke ~& “CHS [-0 te oa), suggests that he subject of the verb has done sore- thing fora fue purpose. Thus (4) and (e) have neatly the same meaning orem caDEt, Too ate erinatu Fem cae Ln, To. abet okimasita, (opened the door (and have lett ope for fuse con- venice). 1 (and (the speker's meseage may be, “I'ma keeping the dor open, 0 you may come in whenever you want 2” nthe nex example, the C18 [te ira] constacion de- secbes either that Mr. Sasaki poseses a cetin past exper ence or his present state: terkeAMtBichio ths, ‘Sasat-san wa Nihon nite ru Me, esa hasbeen Japa, ‘or Mr. Sasaki went o Japan andi il hee ‘The following example with-"C& [tear] means that the speaker doesnot have to goto the bank anymere Because he or she has already gone, DAUR IMEH THB. Watashi wa gink ni ite ar, vent to the bank already (40 dont have t go there anymore 98S [4eohy} ‘When use by isl the yeeb 28 < ola] means to place” cor" pat down.” Afterthe [te] form, india that the subject des something fer a future pupose or convenience. ‘The consrction may aso indicate & favor done for another person. ECMOTEN TRE, Soko i cit ote kudos Pease (place it and leave it thee (30 that can use it Ise HP RACMME ON THEET, Heanaho-san ni dena 0 hake olimana. Tl all Hansko (co hat she wil know about he plan in vance) ounccrina woros Neguive Forms of C856 [te ola When negated the C8 ¢ [ola constmtin takes ‘on a iferet meaning depending on whether the [el form ve or #< (ola s negated. Consider tbe following @ Feemyen cee eLn, Tegari wa lena de okimasia, id not open he eter. O HERA thmem RD, Hn oyoude olanakana no de [id not read the book (0 1am unprepared) 1 he speaker bas kept he Jeter without opening fi, probably because she was asked not 10 open it at because she judged tat it would be beter to Keep it sealed. Tn (), the 35220 (ohana pattern ‘merely indiates that he subject did nt read the book {in vance although he had been told do 30. CURD [oe shina) ‘The € LES [te shimau) constuction indicates hat an action, mation, eis completed Tis pte often expresies {he speakers regret or dsappintment, especially when the verb isinansve. BONO TLE A. Gnarsive ver) Ano ito wa ite shina ess pone (and sd), Da-MBBRCTLE SR, (eanstive er) 1 ga cebu tober shinai, Jos ae tall (or (U wanted 0 eat some, but) Joe at ital Inthe second example, ET L > # (abee shimano] ‘may simply mean thi Toe ate i up, ot may aso indicate ‘he speaker's emotional reaction, OCHRE [Hemiens When 4 £ & {mira “canbe seen, appear” follows the °C [te] frm of vers, tienes the speaker's impression ‘oc assesimeat of the subje’s conn. This patter is ap- propriate only with descrpive verbs, such as & & (fora) “become fa," = [yoporen| wo become dit.” ot Dar [rsukarerl “to become tied” In oer words 38 expression suchas "CRB (taete ier] i inappeo- Prat sine #2°<% [ber] isnot descriptive. ‘Some exemple REEAUENTAART, Yoko-san afte miemavu ‘Yoko loos old. ode than her actual age). BATALS, Takarete mera He loks ted 2 CHS [4 mina] When used after the © [te] form, & & (mira to see” kes ona meaning closer "oy." In other werd, the sub- {et caries out an ston tose the reste. For example LEwT HA eReTAR LA, Hajimete poo tabete mimashita. {have ean pol for he int ne (ose how it tte). 1 Suoess and Flare CAE [te mit} indicates that he subject actully tried and achieved ihe result, When the speaker tried sr intended todo something bt failed, ~ 3. L [8to shia) ised FO7A%, RETARYEDRLISEM FET (0 PE/RAGREO/ BDU CEL ee). ‘Sono kai, abete ita hedo watashi ni wa amasugie (ia da/taberarenat/oihi nal). 1 ased he cake, but it was too sweet for me (60 1 don't kei eannot eat t's not ait) ADICREDLMOROTT A, BEATLE, Hlayame i boy to omotts no dew ga, Ayan hora ‘te deraemasen deshita had intended to come ear, but a customer came and 50 ould’ leave RHO. MEREIELAOTE A, wit ABTLE, UL, ARBNERA TLR) leshi-kermei, nat 0 tabey to shia no desu ga, yop- ari dame desta 1 ied my best to et nao, bat jot could sich ‘96 Review of Use of -© [el Forms Read the following pasage and note ow the (te) forms seuss, ‘Bee (vik omel HAMM FOMM MEADE LA. 280% MELE, BFORMAO ES CL Rempel, BEL UIOSAK RUCIGR SZEELELA, DADO THIMED. BES SE, Tom DIRC RaTLEDELA, 886 BUS MaTL ba TORLE, ADESEIEIE knee. ADESMIEDELTNSE, HOM HAMA, RE FOR ECOMEBUTHCE. 68 COMZENEE KAMIELE, BOBBED LECMEME LAT Li, LEST EL, MADE SOMERSET AVECE, MEE TEBE SOEMo eT HE, FMOT EBMIeBoTBON AVE) 2. aw Oxdid, RoKALLETIT. MELADAVEH HELE, MATH OFMRADR SRBUTE BKDEL SH aTARL: BMEMOERRE ECL IF OM DME UR suse, ARPE—ERS RBs ADE BADKDE LI, BEMVAOR, ADEE DOLE CLBEL, SDE, MORE HMLE LI, Bato MRAZ LAmtrvro EBOGHEREMUTRSL, —ADKLY, GOH DiMarco tek UA, MME [MIRTH s 9 5K WCRI CLEDR LR, 29 FMC CIIRDT ES DL EMALLAL MHLAIBEB LAOS BIE, MeIMBTPSCEELELA, ERMPARS ELE, AOUS ERPR CRB AOBSOM Ba CVELE, WEAPEEI BMT Lite SEAOMOIETLE, AABVSD ORIEL WELCOELA, MEAATA FOR LMERTO RADUGIL, (ARE. CARE) LORONE Li, CREM AAAS Mab otk CTH, BL EGHED) EBVELE, AD8SRI Oo DHME BAX, SBMLELEOR UK. ZOMASIBOR LA, [BMABDK AL, WHERKTLE SH, RODE Sue. MEST RRGRAN) Ly AF. SHWE RD SL, cron de® BUR, HER ROMIZED ELIS Makai, aru toto ni apako no rthi 2 aunde in ‘sha. Chichoya no namae wa Mose, musiho no namae wa Minotich desta. ‘Ara fg no hi, Mosak wo Minokichi wa yam ni kar ni Aekakemashit. Fart ga emono 0 ate yama no ol no ho i hae ro, kimi ura nae bite, dkae ge fuidasi imashit.Ainih yok mo frihajimemashita. Yuin tjilome Tarts fart yamageya ni tomara kote i shinashia. Thor nok de harada ga etasakak pate hur to outkrt ne- ‘mu nae shimaimashia. Mosaka wa, m5 emu shinate Imashita. Mincichi mo wowo sie imashia ‘Minolichi ga wow shite ir to, 10 mo naka to ga ai kosher itor no muse ge hate tina ‘hte, Musume wo masoupu Mazak no tokor marae te 1, Mosalu no ka ni shia iio fukikakemashta, Minokicht ‘wa osorothiza de hoe mo demasen desha. Shiberatu suru to, mucume wo Minokck no vokoro mi yat ite mash, ree mize CONNECTING VERES OF vets puRAtes omae wa toteme it oko dahara inochi wa tran ered, 4on'ya no ko wa dere ni mo ite wr kent yo" 10. Mino- Aichi a, wareta oto 0 mamete, dare ni mo ivanal Yaka solu shimashita. Muse ga dete yuku noo mia Minolich wa anide Masa no thorn ie mimashia. Shiol ht kakevare Meso we md sar teumeta ate shimateimashira, Sorelaa Ichinen tchimashia, Minokicht wa ano yoru koto wa, dave mimo ivanaiyé mi shite mashita ‘Anu samuifayu no yore Minolici ga ior no soba de shigoto 0 sii to, dare ke 2 0 9 ttaku ot a shina shia “Kona esolu uate kara hto ga kit hwo ark noi rol. dare dar" 0 omotnagara to oak mir hor ro utsulushit iro no shir muse ga tat imashita. Muse Yea "Michi ni you tru uch! ri, yoru mi nate shina masta. Dézo ton'ye toto m omete tudes” 10 tanomi- Imathta. Kawaisd da to omotta Minolichi wa, mune 0 ‘ante yaa kot shia "Mota nannen go tackimashito, Minotick otzanee ies Imusune we Minokihi no tuna ni atte imashita, Tur wa Yukito te namae deh ‘Anu fy no yoru no koto desta, Yuki wa ior no soba de hari-shigoro o shite imashta NekorondeYaki no wtb Shi kao o mite ta Minokih wa, “Are ma, kona yoru atta” 10 teubuyalimashite. Kove o Kita Yull ga "Nani ga ata»? ‘lew ka. Hanashite kudos" 10 linac, Minotich a ari yotnsokuo wasuee, zenbu hanashie simamasha Sono toki Yul gatimashia. "Ona wa inareta ko 0 anutete yakusotno yabute simata. Kodomo no tame, Inachi wa tranai kredo,watashi wa mo koko ni wa irae Yuki wa, harishigote 0 yamera to hicks mito no soo ¢ ate mash Soto wa mata ful mariachi __conuscrine woros mts olen days Bem tomtom) acral ple BF tsa) fant nde) Ce te mo ee em, fae id iis 2) ol focuser oN lanohs) feat depts EUEbS (ollomen) — tcotine {iA panagel mountain sack (40 lio) fireplace FE SETS wowoswn) todoceoft LMS [otomo naka} without asound 8 (rusume) maiden ‘ai beat RE ANIY& (idaho) tobreathe on, to Blow on BALE [osornhsa de) because of fear 995 (otto) ‘rndsome an ERS inochi ton) —_totukelife, 10k) FE (maronl to keep (promise), to prove MB (esalu) to kao at to beat oit FATS low go evra) there is asound BHISIB (mich ni mayou) to lose one's way # (ews) wife 4 Yar) reeale SHEE [har:shigot]——_eailework WEBS (nehorau) toledown DER [tebwolal ——tomanmar KM Yon) bizar, snowstorm CONJUNCTIVE EXPRESSIONS: COMMON MISTAKES AND TROUBLESOME USAGES. = Conjunctions: ‘90 Sucrence 1 [ga]/1¥ 2 [Redo) (144. 2 [heredom), PAE eredo) ‘The conjunction # [ya] can asully be translated as "bu." but mot always. Here ae some examples where [ga is diferent meaning ALRMEDEM THY, FADE, Wotashi wa hae no shufe dex ga, kadomo ga fei {ama bomemaie, and bve to chien, AkqUEOwCHEKS, coToMETHERD Ltoszn, ‘yoanj wa ish no aiva de imei da ga, kono thi no rma a whi o arate rut i -RyGanj is fens Frits rock garden. This rock eden i Said repesent he wives Rit (ROA) LEbACHAs, #6 204 ADLOATB EES TBS, Issa wa "ano ho" to inarete re ga, mata Kono no nl fsavash ity de tay dear Issa is called a "nan of fection.” It seams that he realy was smeane wh deserved th As you can se, 2° go] may also be trnslated as “and” ‘emo tal, Tas 2 [ga] may simply join two separate or n- ‘Seely relted surement. "Now compar the following variations of sentence all) ROAM E crBeTO LS. ‘Boku mo Hoktaidé ni da kee Walhanal made wa kanal 30, (eRe tba HER at EMPIRE A Go the stannic Cattins a Tifa Bourne Holialdén la ga Watkana mode wa ana 2 (o) Oee Aeon CAME Ceti RA Bolumo Hotiaid6 mi dua Waban made wa onan, (UMAR sa era CEL, ‘Bokume Hohner Minas ga Wathanl made wa ana 9 EAM CERNE CER BAA. ‘Bolume Holdaid ni ukeda Wothanai made wa ings. Iso goto Hokkai, bt I wont go as faras Waban, Versions (a) and (&) are the most appropriate and natural sounding. Version (is grammatically correc, bt te se of 2° (ga wit the informal form of 2 ver, adjetv, or he copula © [do} may sound stiff or awkward. The use of # [ga] after an informal ending is most common in the speech fede men, a inthe next example: DAL UDLEMEEC THI ERR EDEM, FEL I me, Watashi mo / Washi mo mukahi wa yokx goa 0 yaa ‘mone da go ina m0 1 aso used to golf ot, bu not anymore. ‘Versions () and 2) sbove are very awkward de tothe inixng ofthe formal and informa forms. Version () i imie Jaro (d, buts accepaie, probably because IY 2 (kedo| ‘makes the expression sera es form, To surmarize, IoRNAL (YE (edo + INFORMAL and Forwal 1 / 2 [kedofga) + FosMAL are the mest appro- rite combinations. Te conjunctions 1741 & [keredome] tnd 11412 [redo] are es colloguil than FE (edo 1? {22 (dered and 1F 2 (Reo) are mere common in conver- ston than in wrtng, Summary of ga) Noww # (ga) ‘After nerogatves and 0 Point Out «Specific Ob eet Math ota AaB 08. ‘Nani ge arimasu ba Hon ga armas. What do you have? We have tooks, ereree A Bhateyt-thm, Brat, As Dore ga mangd desu ka B: Kore desu ‘A: Which i the mango? B: This one. AD Manarete, B thane, As Non gait dem ta, Bs Sore giidesu ‘A: Which would youtke? Be Thatove To Introduce a New and Unfamiliar Subject MH. BUDEALBIERZAMEL CELE, Mutashi, ela to obaasan ga sure ima. ‘Once upon e time thee live an old man and an old HIRE Faldo Lee LAS Tanaka oi kata ga irasshaimashia. ‘Apersen named Tanaka has ave. 4 Subject of Noun Modifier: Noun # [ga] Vena! AD} -ecrvt/AnmerWal. Now + Now ARSIMIRS LI RASS, yoga ga ura ota seta ga are ‘Ther’ theory that aie age i coming SHE MASEL hg och mise «shop with good coer Bo L AOE FO ‘hash ga subi na tosomo fen who lke sweets SENTINGE Ago}. SeariENCE B But AUMEDAOUCTH, DRUGS L OLET mt Tasha ni hore wa i desu ga, watasi ml ws chotto talaagimase ‘Ws ha this sce, tuts abit oo expen for HS CLUM RACH, RABMORATH Ti hve wa itn dese go aenahataw desu Ti go, but I wasn't able to meet he. (© *Aad” or Not Translated MEDS RALOTHD, SMKGOTREOBRIS HIIPEBITHBLESTH, Asu lava yasum nano desa ga, san-renty mano de Teno onsen mi a moti thor de We haves vacation from tomorrow, and ts thee- day vocation, so Tam wondering iT shoud yo to & hot spring in a, BeaoNemotoata, ETEOOATHES. Woraskimo ano ho wa shite tase ga toemo i hto dest 0, eno ee, too, She's ely ne PURGE RT, RBOMMI LOK ath. ‘Ken va doigaku ine imasu ga ego no Bend ga shy desu. ‘en's going to colege, He seem t0 wart fo study English, BLADEMOILTEH, MMH ECL EIA, Asano mensetuno os dese gran ara des ha. egating tomortom’sintrview-—when does it start? 4 Deletion of Searece B to Soften a Saterent ISEB TH (RhoA NAHORLA), ‘eer ioomoimasa ga. (ada hair wa wakarima Think ean go (ut dont know for sure yed), DALEC MILI Tato (BD ETH) Watashi mo kore a hoki dee ga. (rina Ka T would ls ike this one (do you have i), WOEALSLERSEM AEDS A THM: (omer), Yamaguehisan mo ashite kare ina wo omoun’ desu (2 (chigaimaru ha). Tihink Ms. Yamaguchi sid tht she would come to rmorow, fo (am wrong”), $015 noni} ‘The conjnstion = {non expresses the speake's ti tude, such a surprise, envy, amifution, of eseoument This conitats with (F (edo) and (gl, which just connect ‘vo sentences Inthe following examples, de = no ni} in () and () shows the speaker's esing, in conzast 10 the ror bjectve {32 (Redo) in (2) an) @) FOaAMM STOLL, Polk HCO? Zaibw omega fate ‘redo, appar ikuno? 1's taining hard. Ae ou stil going (as you planed)? OCA EI AAMS TED, (ANTE) Poi C5.0CH ROI A: Ohi e ine te kara kind ano restora ni ita edo yas data wa yo. £B Datara,Getiyd-i wa shimare ete en. ‘A: You sid that resturant was good, so I went thee yesterday, but it was closed, Bs That's why [old you that he restaurant is closed on Mondays! (Why dint you Ista to mel Yesterday was Mondey!) WE BOEERRTHOL BET AM om He ROE, EDA, EOLOU EE EMM HEA £.D C: Chitome rabete nat ja nai? Hito ga seth sutra : Gomen. Olsit kedo m6 nota ga ppc nan day. © You've eaten almost noting. (Why?) I made a spe- ial effort to make i Ds Fm sor. I's delicous, but I'm steady al © (da and (na) ‘Tae copula # [de] becomes % [na] before 1: bno rij Belore 12 (edo), though, # (da emai #8 KONE KOAGOI ‘onan bitoda = ommaro hte na non KOKEDE ‘oma no bite da kad aes shngor Fire da ve na BROKE vel dadede Exercue 6 Fl inthe aks with eer © (2 fo ni on 19 & tea), et the opal # da or @ [el where p- rome. LALAIWCREH OL, AY SMT TOS, Tata sgt de me nal dgesa cova P2itlnar, XmEeyRot, Sok Emma, Togas» mont bola! We, cht hat rata RRA’ ene sumer? ‘Ame ganda, torosore dbakeal? RMS AiRwALOS 29 UcwICMbEO bar Wades wa Mo, Ashe mina ir waren kana? thesia, MaMOKA, Farad wa chal — char tayo da 0. OA AA IMEC, no hit wa kite, bono itn MAGS, RUB LAUT, RRC THREES? Rnb far, (SERN Teli ga tle de gogo hina de, sanpo nt (io ad? A BOFRREATUTIE AD, PEBEAL ns. Ano 19 wa ona go sate. Ynez ‘et Grinten Weary (oordee ceo pay SD HEMBPUTOAWY, ee SMD CCE EMER LEE, naka wa sate er —— aber hima go nakateKyd ahinegohan mute tina, 10, Mito THEME, Meat TReD, Ame wa fut iru — asa 02004 hoo de wa nak ‘Reason and Cause (oF SeaTeNGe A. 186% (daara) SeerENCE By When te conjunctive 5 [dakara joins sentences A and B, sentence A expresses a retson ot catse, whl he sntence B expresses the rest or effect. It can often be tasted us "oy" therefore” ar that’s why." OT big “ty REWED" BATH oC, Hoe SAUMA EOE, D Koro apaio wa “pettoolotowar” nan desu te, Dakara in wa kaenai no yo. We've been to that pets are no allowed in this apart- ‘men. That's why ween’ have » dog, MORTL RTH, m5 BM BORE, Fake, Kyi ni go dete shimote ns, Dakara by wa issho ni kena hed, kondo mata ne Some arges busines as come up, so ean't go with you today. Nex time, 1g. 0 ‘im 6 (datara is move commonly vod in casual o in- forma sivations. us in erences Ike the following may scund rou, impo, or awkward FB, RANG SE OI MBMBEORAE ELAS BSED ERO CHINE, ‘yd, mensesu ga ane to lu dennarrenrak 0 tadakima- ‘hte. Dahara mairimasia no desu heredo "received a message saying that there would be an nter- ‘ew today, same AmB, FE 2 caRME LEBEL RECEP LCA S, B aka is ok dering to we ma a ado, fete el algo bast oe af dare Theor is impose forme) 0 provide a dessve defniton of “eis rit ere a oe 5 Se ie The situation in (a is formal andthe speaker is trying to speak politely. £117 (sore de] would more appropriate than £0 © (dolar). Sesence (bs not conversational and the top is not caan, 29 LB!2T [ahiagete more appro pine 1m he following examples, 282 5 (datara shows the speakers fstaton, offended atiude or disgust Ema, MRO CHIA CHO? alana, nan date ian desu ka? So, what? (What ae you grumbling about?) COR oRitmD ROLE, RAACO? Ebb. FORWRSTHORTL ED! Kono cid ita baka nano ni, mata iu no? Dakar, tu no yameta ete desks? ‘Are os going again You've just ben thee! 1 decided not to go. Led you ta, dnt I? ‘What B relly wants to say may be, "Don't exp asking me the same question! You're diving me eazy." we J debate) deenive) emies J Pasrdewe jim ¢ (ne Sentence A 15/0 [lara /no de] Sentence B ‘The conjctves #6 (kara) and OT Ino de are translated as "Wecause," where sentence As reason orca fr sen- tence B. In Iapanese, the sentence describing a reason or ‘euus always pocedes the sentence giving thereat ef feot Por example RI TRRE/OS, Kbemoe. Takasugita tara nade, tawanakara reason result 1 id’ buy ic esas I was wo expensive, result reason ‘6 (kara) and °C node) ae sed similarly, but they te not always imerchangeble. For example, 2 © (n> de) Sounds softer than #6 kare). The origin of °C no del is the -€ [1] form of 2 5 (nod) rd 0 it fansions Tike te [tel form, As mentioned inthe] section the basic function of [-] io conjoin two seatences. The fist Sen- tence mayo show reson or cae forthe second, bt Hot dely 0° expicly. Sometimes indretness and vagueness ae considered les aggresive and therefore desirable. ‘0 Ino del is more spproeate than & (bar in for smal sentences and plite speech. Consider the folowing ex- amp: Ki ShoTRR LAAT B92, Te ara ole Kinase har, 400 “These were seater by my family. Please have some. “The speaker is offering 2 guest some fut oF oer food that has been seat trom the speaker's family. Here, 2 6 Gara] sounds rough or impolite. A beter version would be m5 Bo CRALADL, U9 ¥ [le lara lute ke mash wo de, do) Inthe A °C Ino de}. B ptern, the sentences A and B te connected sequentially or concurrent, and ther topic is the same or related The i similar tothe A= [te] B pats ter Inte following examples, either pater acceptable pe eee ee Ressha go clavate, njhan matesaret. MARCOS, SHAM EH. Aessha go ohare no de ni-han masa “The train was delayed, so we had to wal for (wo hours Inthe sentence shove, 26 [Aara) would sound awkward or ‘ish. It might even suggest tha the speaker is implying thatthe delay was the tans fat. the next sentence, for example, the speaker blames his delay on the bus: YARTA, NAME RAO SMN ELE Sumimasen Basu gota kita kore okuremasht Sony. I'm late because the bus was at Despite thee rues, somtimes the choice Retween 2 (Baral and 0° (no de is ony © mater of personal prefer ‘ence oc epional variation Resection on 6 (tara) 296 (lara clearly spells ou aresson or cnse, 0 itis ot appropriate to use 95 [Aaa] (especialy with A “TF [oe dene) wo expres a deste or guest oro ai for permission. Such setences may sound artogant and se centered, For example, the next ssemen very avkwvac DALEPERDA THA, MH TEDOT FH “Watashi mo Wan desu kar stho mite mo des ‘a. 1 wantto go, 16,50 can go with you? (RE Hered), [bed], oF (ga) would be ‘more appropriate here: DRLEREROA THRE, Wi oTEND chi Watashi mo ital n' desu keed,issho i ite mo i est ka DRLEBERVARLZ. Mf oTEUNT Watashi mo ian’ da kel iso nite mo i? DRLEMARUATH A, “MH TEUUTL, 5% Watashi moti’ des ga, issho nite moi desht ha "Wham two sentences ar inked by © [no dete rea son or cause provide inthe fs sentence shoul be well rounded and factual, and abjecively aceepted by oes. "The reson provided by 5 (har on the other hand, may be invalid or unccavincng, such 2 an opinion or conectre ofthe speakers For example FEARS ED 5 ARRON CHUL MES I. B Kotosh wa taf go 8:3 da kara, hist 0 kate ota i i dard “Thee seem likely to be 3 Int of typhoons tis year. x01 ‘Bink we should stock up on emergency ratios oe iTS /~ #0 rotage dese Bath ofthese expressions mean “because of,” but ~25 414 °C (make deli usualy used when the speck is ying to show appreciation, while ~ 1 [ei] is used when the spears ying to place bane on something or someone, IMO HO RAIToMMD ELA, BREST aves ‘pat no minasama no olage de tasikarimarhta, Ar- a0 goss 1 was saved because of the efforts ofthe rescue team Thank you very much, AYI—h, WE obekE, ML HERE HT shake. © onsite, hajmatchata yo. Kimi ga senuppun mo okurele ita eda ‘The concer has sae already. 1s you fault (hat we ‘mised the beginning) because you came thinty minutes late Sometimes, though, 2 217 fokage del can also be sed o place blame: By 959 PORK GAs tab BE. Onsestb. © Pini mo saichi mi Game ni farce. Qhage de ‘eaze,hichata wa Because of the heavy ain during our enc, I ended up caohing eo As shown by the shove example, 82177 [okage de] canbe unmodified. However, #811°C [oe de] must have 2 modifier Mote metunosetde because of fever REL ORT sothiotona sel de because of growing old feats haar st ha ‘rbebly Bacau it wa to expensive + 60 (nom) ‘The sentence particle & © (mono) also expresses & reason or an excise It often used by women when trying to evade responsibilty. Hae eLL, NAmRM ROE AALED, ‘Shika ge nat desho. Basu gx nakanaka kona ‘de ono can’t hep i. The bus dda come for a Tong. ine (and that's why F'n a), ChE, BOREL, Mote tO. CGomennasat. Kyi ni kyatu ge Kia mono de, derarena- ata no ‘Ym sony. I had an unexpected gust, $0 I could Tene on tie) "Partial Negation t3¢ Sexresce (18) 5 £092 T ldo) kara ite, Sexe mace (8)26 49 ldo) ara ine isa set phrase meaning roughly “while it may be true tha” or “just because.” Its ‘often wed with negative endings such as E (2H 21, (203) BEER [to we kagiona (on) wake Was cel dts aay rete lgeeibet lag) iw ihanail of EW3 EE /BA-CIAEE to koto/ woke de wa nal). MOnMeke koe, oh ORRRORED: mu nDNeia. ‘amen oak ite tore de mi uso ro moda go lah hawk de ne at Simply bens ned see ein a ow dws ‘hea tht he wstershonape oben hes een soe SHS E DE RoHS ERMS BOTH IO ANGLO, ‘Kanemochi atau ite Kat de to wa hagiranai te lino wa hon ashi It seems to be tue tht being rich doesn’t necessarily ‘mean that you'ehapy. (Rate EVO OML TIED OZ BIERMAN, Yasuda barat ite axon Bakr ra wake nw anc Just because T'm on vacation doesn’t mesh that Ian spend all my time playing around (S)46 219. © (fda ara to ite) ay alo be wed without a preceding clans to mean “nevertheless” or "not neces DRLEAOARWOE, CORMERIOT. Hf WE Sono THA bHNMENTLE. B Watashi mo ano hito wa Kiri yo. Demo ne da kara to ite, sha}0 moratara Hara wake nikon devia. 1 do’ keine, eter. But, sl if we get an nv tion, wel have no choice But go, ight? OAH OIE, HOG kino TR EMBERS. RLe ‘Ki Tashika iano ito wa crept kedo, da karate ‘wart da 0 wa hava oom Helse cerainly i rough but I dont think that necessr- ily makes hime a bad pron, (ab Pe LAN (uh ni} Serene A H1/ HF ga Rev. Sterance B. PLANE Washiha ni] SexTENCE A.C /LISL Kdemo shitashil, SENTENCE. "These pater inticae that he speaker agrees wih stateent [A but does ot accep the conclusions dawn from it Sate, rent B express thse reservations. peep CHRRLAZbOAe. 6 eo eMANETT eaAv eR? Kore wa taaida i mono ga ikea chowo ne ge har ‘ugrun'Jonal? ‘This certainly 16 of good quality, but don't you think ‘oats oo much? LMT IBUSLEL, LETATARTH OE READ RHA, ‘ashitani 5 imathite yo. Demo sonna il de ta! Ja ‘Certinly thus what sad, but I dia’t mean i in that way fo Semence A, PeTE/Pe PE da tadashi SENTENCE This pater indicates that Bi conto or equement fo A. PoTHHETE, AK, ALARTINELUONS, ZOKIED TIE ns, Yan agemau yo. Tada, esta made wa iogashl kar, ‘ono at ni norma kedo TH doi fr you, bat 1 be busy unl tomorow, $0 it ‘wll have o beater ta. RUALBMARS, ALL, AMBOMECIite MUTRED, ‘ashidash wa dekimass. Tadashi, GetsuySb no asa made ria hemo shite dasa, We can lend you th book. However, pleat retum it by ‘Monday moming. (26 Sexrmcr A EU smo}, SENTENCE B In these patems, B partly negates A. With 21-5°C & to lie mo, te information i A is fatal but very general, so the speaker provises more speci information in B. Tn the ELT E oshite mo patter, sentence A incites an as sumption about some possibe event ce situation. BLEDEL ITE, WOROME IRI, obi Unerren, Mut sw 1 ite ma, TokyS no natsu to kurabereba, _zuto sugusi desu kedo ne Even thowph itis bot and humid here, compared tothe summer in Tokyo. ts much cooler BY LUMA CU OTH, CAREERONE bbs. © Osu ga das da tote me, sonna ni wataberarenai 1 oie sushi ao, buteven so cart et that much LommACHOSELTE. & MIDE Reed, ex Nikon i thera ws axa, mada ni, samen sok ro koto dat oo B/ELTE Woite mo toshie Even if Lam able to gto Japan someday, I imagine it ‘will te two or thee yeas from now, PROREE LEE, COMMIEALAES I. @ Tati ga tte sites, kono tatenono wa dijo dard Even if typhoos were co come, tis building should be safe ELA BET RIE/ EF BE [to share /t0 sureba osuruto} vs. C4 (toshite mo] ‘The connecives ELS /EPRUE/ E48 E [to shitara Lo sure /10 suru 1) see often confused with = LT wos ma, probably because both canbe translated 35 “i However, thee ae distinctions dha ust be kept in min. + 2F6 (osm) 14574 [osu ie wed for making sn assumption. ALBORERHLULOLTS, ‘A to Bo nagasa wa hitoshii mono to sur ‘Weassume tat he lengths of A and B are the same, Inthe pater Sunrence A EPHIE/E LEB /EVS [tosurebo/1 shiara /to suru to, SENTENCE B, Statement B describes how the statement wil be fulfilled, satisfied, correaized, In SENTENCE A LT & (loshite mo} SENTENCE B, satemantB des not atsy the asumptions of statement [8 Inter words, B does not flly full o suppor thea: sumption or condins sated by A. Inthe & LC, [ose ‘mol pate, statement 8 may aso sugges the speaker's r- Fnotange or unlingness BARC LUA, =, SMe cr, ‘Mihon mete shiara, san shakan wall des ne. Assuming that I goto Japan (IC | got pan, L want o stay fora east oor hee wees BURON“F 4-1 AC ELTERCDEMIEE bb, © Ashita no pat? I och ma naga irk wo nal wa ‘Tomorrow's pany? Even i go I ave no intention of saying long, ‘Idiomatic Expressions: ‘The following ae some examples of oat expressions similar othe pater inthe preceding sections. SDAA MMDELENMOEMS AEDS, RO HAREM TOSI ZIDELIT. SB Sm 5WEZOUL SEL, Sorosorenako-nari mi shit ho ga © cmou n’ da kedo, Tare no hd wa mada okote iru rash. Sika i Ite Iochira hare eyamarano we shal da shi. "thinks about ime for sto make up, but he ti tobe angry at me. Buti That to apologies, Rok IMR kok, RBME NT, 7 MCL EBA ED, Yao dora ge taku mata, Sia 0 i kono jos ga tug 10 mo omaena Finally, the dolar wert up, bus don't expect this it usin oat BALLEL. ARRAS TERA TEM OAT ae Nawal itemo dao ni nara nl nde yan desu ne ee any cvea I pad you dia’ get involved in a sexe ‘es ace A MIRC AL ED B: 8). ECM RCE LCA ERO Te BTS, Istho ni ta’ desi? abun. Teniak ni shite mo ikanal ni shite mo denva tune ‘You're going with us aent you? Probably. Anyway, whaher Lge ro el you. BOA, MLO THAUE, Mo T8O? Mea e—Mie 80k, EREUTA, E SUTHELOEM. MoTROMLS. O ‘Ano ho, hanash ater kta kedo, Shite ‘ru no? Tokidoi basa de ish ni nara wo yo ne. Soren site tno déshite waask no race, shite "a no kasha. ‘A: Do you know the guy who came over to speak with you? 'B: Sometimes we'e on the same bus. xen so | wonder ow be knew myname, we ope we + ZEST Votorode) %£.5°C (olor de after he [10 form may r= Place LT & ltoshite mol. n the & = 4° (totoro le) pater, though the © © AC [tokoro de indicates the speaker's tense of resignation or hopelessness. HoREEAR, USHRLEbNEREDORNS a takowo de dseaeru woke ja nal no da bara Even i go, there's lite chance that I'l beable to rect them snyay DOACMEMSRECATMORICEREAD, ‘Ano io ni nan teatro de nan no yaka i mo Nomalter what you tll er, i's nous. ‘Purpose and Reason: SENTENCE I= [no nil/ SenTence f=1bI= [tame ni} Both 4 [noni] ard 0: [ame ni] are wed withthe di SHELCA ndaninl btn mimenye aes ee eee nee {da kedo] or “C (demo), It may emphasize the importance ‘of fulfilling the purpose rather than the purpose itself, ie vlecnctatnaontetceacaae tom tienen iaciegeemta esa Pere era ARGLTAROMEDA, StH REALE mis Skaasent. 8 doy a 79 MRCRBDICRSE, Nee a Samrvsonnascuy! ba TIERRA EOLA: ‘ary forms of verb and canbe iste as “in err." Keep in mind, though that (= (non ees the process there de Bata dea ante It sar o get on he ain ring as Row. Ws realy incredible! Imagine runing into you in the is rdw on eto same spot ae thy yeu! Inthe nextexample, the speaker ass 202 [tame Indicate the purpose of geting up at four o'clock (that 610 catch tbe six lock bas) Hee, what shard is geting up at four o'clock, net aching the bs AMOR IAS LaPICIA OUR ISNA A IT MiadzneexeaOe. © okt no basu ni nora tame ni wa yo made ni wa oi- ‘nakereba maniewanai har tahen nao yo. Whar, because IFT don't getup by four ook, I wil rise hex oelck bos. cause Dt= (non sefers to he proces of doing some- thingie sferto use 151 tame nl indcae& reason lorpurpose. A sentence ike ARETE DIZARIRS#I< om o ‘a no ni hoy sa) awkward, because © (= [no ni) seems to indie the purpose of going toa bookstore, not the process of buying a bok. Her, 7:39 I= [tame ni} would be beter. However, i the fllowing sentence inate neces- iy, obligation, equirement, dee, or suggestion, thn 2 [no ni is atrland not avkvard, Some empl (@ CARI DEUMEK HME TA SAD, ore o kev wan wa Asakusa made kanakereba nareni We haveto goas far as Asakusa to buy this. ©) COKPEDRTSDEAMER SO? Kono daigak 0 sosugyd sur noninansan't iru no? iow many cei 6 you need to graduate from this ol- ieee? (ART SABLCIED LOMO? Sons sr tame awa ao nana ru mo? How many mere edit do you need in oder to prada? ‘The focus of sentence (the proces of completing the graduation requirements, 50 & (noni is used. In ©, he focus ison the goal of graduating, 29 7991= (ame ni ed Exercise 7 illin the blanks with either D1 oe 2 1 294 saves __LR EM HII, D Furaidochiin 6 tabera wate o toukau 5 32 ra da. COT PENS, LOCK OMMAIDDDE Ute, RAR ELIS ey FOMEM OT RE, enban sla o tara maken de nit 0 lee ita HESS It bEDEREEE TH ORO HERLIEIREMHOR, Tomadach nin —warawaca Shbupa-ki made ‘ne nom anojo wa Wt honda. CONAY 2 OMFS id. 2 EM AOMDEIE, D ‘Kono machi ga subkor fd sura wa, made ‘mada tanga hakarsd da ARIE soc SMUT. ‘Nettuno subus — kf oonega shimasu FaReA. MORSE. ESE HOvOeLE DH Heth fidactosticocdthen'y rwasjenniGers Suoimasen. Tlyd-dimu ni a, db bebo ne des ha, 8 AAOKUMEDSEIERS eB eHH B29eh. Kali no bi ga mio tubers y8 ni nar wa hachtnen kaka 8 desu. 9. ROG AME THES _RRMEENC ECS bamsoaes, B Tok kara Osaka made Shinkon-tn de to | tare gra kaka no hash 10, SFO AT EEES SeueMOCCNL at sun shiken ni pase suru _, tom'ya wa tes ‘de bey shinass, ML OEMMAIEE DER RARCAS NS ER DRA, MROMMERS AEC fagngesmomessns. D Toshino hararereba mont yatuk fe gate ihr Jara to gnta nda hed, shiatsu no dent ni mort melasa hayalu olinahereba naranal no de tera yo, 1 VO EMU E CHT CAROL, 972 a OREAREX. RE_ME tO MELIC neDLT. @) “> ernie 9 weno Gia made chikateto de tan’ dake, rasshu no tot wa tathen da yo, Hearsay: [248 & [ni yoru tol ‘The comectng phrse souree of information, For expe EB E [nl yoru to) indicates a Dom RER, Keno teCT, Fojio sari, Kyoto wa ina sakura ga manta dese ‘According tothe radio the chery blossoms are now in {all bloom in Kyoto Do not confuse {2 & & {yoru to) with 23°C fn yo], which means “by means of” or “depending on" The ext two sentences ae incorrect because (=> T (niet), is being sted indict sure of information RRMMBoT. SLNRERMEAMICES ED ete Tenk-yoh6 niyo, asia wa gogo kara Game ni nara yo den APRA, MRO ET, Tegan tsb hare a ripe ken shimas Replacing the 12 -2°C (ni yore with 2 & Unt yom to} wld make the above sentences comet FRPMLAL, BLEW ERM SAME BLS ch. Tenk-yohé a steuta ashita wa goge kara Game ni nara yodesn ‘According tothe weuher forecast, here shouldbe heavy rain bepnning tomorow aferooon PRLS. MIEKAREL ET. Tegan nisonuto kare wa rigeeukekion shimasu, ‘According othe ltr ei eng mare next mosh ‘The connective {= > (ni yore indicates the means by which something is accomplished. Inthe following exam le. itshows how the speaker leamed of te earthquake WML OT. AYES TERECERM AOR cebiiok. ‘Shinbun asst Karforania ni dina ishing ata kote sia [ound out rom the ewspaper that there was a ig eat ‘quake in Califia, Another way to indicate hearsay isto use the dictionary form ofa verb fellowed by €3°C¥ [36 des]. This pats {rather colloquial end more commonly wed in conversation nd nation, For example: muonmEbiTs esc, ‘Astro shiten wa chsh sur dente "hear that tomorrow's testis going to be cancelled. In wing, £199 (ZETA) (ol (Koo de aru] and 2 HDMTS (wo ware ira] are more commonly used 5 ERO EME Rloak-9277: SEDICLTAS. Datot no sipCtsian n yor to kakubakudan no shia hats suru a nko de ae ‘According tthe county's spokesman, the use of naclear bombs willbe benne. MAC OMDONTEBSMRAKLAbATLS, ‘Mukashi wa Kono atari no kana demo sakin a torts to arte Wis said that inthe old cays they were able 10 collect, 08 dst even from the rivers in his ea. ‘When the information source i a person, the formula is sally A O12 LCLR Ano hanashi de wo} of ADR L 1 (A no hanashi da} Acconing to what Tim sys, the yen as ge down, ‘Assen inthe above example this pater is often used with ‘one ofthe hearsay endings, in is ease % 9 [5 de + em Woke) When 2 4 [ok is used instead of & (to) asthe par ticle of quotation, the quote information is uncerin or inexact. The speaker snot sue or doesnot remem be the statement exacy, mM: MTRAMTRoTR? WE! RUAN EbEoTRbR, Akira: Kaguto-ran nate ite ta? ‘Reo: Ashita i ok te awa yo ‘Akira: What did Kezako say? Keike: She sid she'll be going tomorow or some ‘hing ke that Volition, intention, Trial > Venn $15 (£B.5) [mal (te mou) ‘This pater expresses the speaker's strong will not to do something The sae isin he irs person. SUOMI TEER, Warenare wa ndo to sens wa oko mai chit ‘We vowed not o bring about a war ever agai, BAROPEALIE DERC EDEMA, Anna iy na hit 10 we mo kuch oki mal 1 ono | mae up my mind sever to talk again to such e nasty REE Rtas acts Veale vos he the subject of the Sentence i nt the fst person, 1 (ma) i equivalent to ~ 221978 4 9 [ona dar nd means "probably 20": AA GCRUMEME RD LOEB THAORIN 2. RIED KOS Ut. Ana nl taal kunamo wa kere mo kau mai to omote ite od ered, appar kata rash [tought tht even fe probably wouldn’ buy an expen Spee tbat tse ey aera She BEES MEET o> Seviids ATHY (Rogir] SevreNcE 1 his patern, sentence A indicates a condion o state and senlence B shows the speaker's song intention orexoton MMT SRD IBM S ELLA. ‘Renker hat hava zo to ch pt. ‘My father sid, "As ong as Lam healthy, Iwill work” ROM THOME £0, cx RLY HIF xe Wotashitachi wa zesunetsiesunzen mae no Abbas 0 sul tame dekin kag doryok suet de We should ty 10 do at much as we ean 1 save endo ered animal, Inthe next sentence the clause & D A3NIH S [ano hit ‘ir indicts an undesirable o inconvenient st: ROAM SMD, MEHR (EHS), ‘Ano hto ga I halen to ku mai (to ono). ‘Aslong as tha person is there, Il never go again. When the clase preceding BR [hag bas negative ving, means “ules AMUAS ERD, COP KF LITLEIEAD. ame ga franat kag, kono damu wa Nagate shina ark, Unless there's a heavy un tis am wil probly go dry. Sukh Lat Blo RMR BOO, ‘Shachd pa shasok shinai agi! kg we hajimaranal Unles the resident atends, the mesting wo tart. 19 Seerence 26 9 1 (rumor da “his ptterm expresses the spec's intetion, so the subject £2 € D4 [numor da] shold be "Tor" BHC EDK Bm {eh ku tsar de edo. Tinterd to go. but Beokitlons, SMM AoE Der hot isogoshi ara, Knka wa shutseki shina temo leo am litle bes, 501 do not itend wo ated this ie When th sentence ening isin the pst et the rth is ‘sully opposite to wha is sain the sentence DELEAMAND ITIL DED ORATH Waaashi mo Onworari itu tumor dattan dsm. Twas als planing t go w Australia (out | did't go aera). MURDEH2EDOAOE, ToIEDRoTLE ots Katsu wa tawanaltsamor data no ni, appari tite shi 1 tended not to buy any soes, but I ended up buying ‘When > & 9 (sumoril is used after the [a] form of ‘vet teen expresses the speaker ietaton: SHORE APH CRE Eo CHR DE DE GB ons esa heya obatzatte onal na suman da ed. ought {old you this moming to clean up your room. (Why dnt you doi Did you forget?) et 1 Preencing with 26 (lonor) ‘The A960 # [te mor da} patie may aso ex press a kind of play-icting onthe speaker's pat. NBL, FEE ERLE OED OREM erected. Kane ga nai kar, kyo wa bine norda tsumori de ‘haat aera koto ni suru Yo. 1 don't have any money today, s I'l go home ery, ‘pretending tht i rink some boot. “Thepaltem 2 1 L220 ltrumori we nas more emt Batic and shows the speaker's strong deteeinaton nt 10 ‘do something. F-3-2 & 17121» (suru sumort wa mls stronger than L219 6 9 75 [shina tumor de) RUBETS OLDER, Watashi wa ral tre tumor wana ‘have ro imtnton to study boo, ‘(iis vometimes used in place of 2% 9 (teumon ia this pater: SOE CRT SAUD: ‘Kono gakase nwa manaku bent sure Ki go nai yb da ‘This todent sem to have no intention otal a all. The pate 6D Uw Mt4/-CE EE [tumor jana? le wa na] means “I 6 not meavntend..” Its often used in apologies: COAEED, BEMPOE DU RtmoRKERE Gomen nase. Odokar rumor ja naka nda hed. Pm sory. ide't mean to sate yu, ‘subjunctive, Conditional: & / #25 /1L/ 7185 {to/tara/oa/nara} This section presets the four basic pater for expresing subjunctive and eooditioeal concep, o> Sentence A & [lol SENTENCE ‘The ellowingare the basic pater forthe contonal & tl Vera Vera & to ADIECTVAL NOU a = ADIECTWAL NOUN PEE (a) Noun = Noun #& [dato] ADKECTIVES> Anieerve & (to) CoE ductus Wiow o Bhi shiakanac seule dato MIBOMBAL — auras daw REVSAEVE alirootiio “This & (o] expresses a repented facwal condition, a hae bitual occurence, cr an immediate sequence of events, Here ae ome examples ofeach “+Repested Factual Conon WM SL, CODY ARS CHD, Maitshinasw i naruto, kono atari wa haiktach de ivan ‘When summer comes ech earths area becomes crowded wid kere AAGANES EZ, HOIEL CIOBIS. ame ga fur, ono kana we yok hanran sar ‘When ear ein fall that iver often floods over COMELDINDSL, KC WARES. “Kono sakao ageisumeru to, you uni ge mies Ifyou go upto he top ofthis slope, you can see the ocean gate wel, sel + Habitual Occurence IBISEES B, OO OMEMENB AT ‘Kyo uo, ismo Sago ototuremast ‘Whenever oto Kyoto, Lalas vist Saga, DOMBASE, VITA OTLED. ‘Ano io ga hain, tion kenka ni nate shina ‘Whenever he joins, we always end up arguing. ‘Immediate Sequence of Events RMSE (FO) MBA TERS ‘Kare wa hae to (sug) Rigaete mats debokes ‘As $000 a be came home, he change his clothes and went ot agi, ROMEHTMNSE, GOMMOBSARA LT. Taugi no kao o migin nagar 1, shirt yane no kyokat amlemase [AS soon os you tr right atthe next corer youl se & hanch with a white rok 2 Pt ba inaye) Inwriting C6) POLE [ya inael: WHOM ST VERREAE LAD IATER, ‘Ressha ga tomar ya nay jdkyaku pa doto moron. debt As son asthe tai ule, passengers came rashing in. to (augu may be replaces by 4 Ser Phrases with & (1) $A THIE [dee] Tn this pater, Ais an example or analogy. Bet Hh, ERA TOAD BoC oho bam, REND EL RMI ARM, PETRIE, am oRMEA. Ji: Rares, donna tapu no ito? [Nant tara it haa. ru de tt, Boro ‘mia. Yasete raked eg tokakute satel ra ito Bik; What ype ot persons he? ‘Shawn: What sould Tsay. Ihe were dog, he'd ‘be eborzni, Hes skinny, bu tll and good- teoking FA CREE (deminwol B In this aterm, Bis what he speaker leaned from look ing A MICHEL, WAREMD OMIA DIC oe srHBnIch 5. Chic de mira to, Nihon wa hot kara nansel ni yumi arin raat shimagun de ar “Te map shows tht Jepin ian sand county runing fom northeast o soutien he shape ofa Bow. CORMTRSLRALROTES LO. Kono shashin de ira to amin wa wha danse ash Inthe pict, the spect seems tobe a young man, SAMS TSE (hora mri}. B In this pen, B is a inference or conjecture mate by the speaker based on A. ROML EDA EMSTSEMRISGHLELD Kare no ueshisd na you kara surat shiken ni gkok shia da adging from he happy lok, he seems te have pase the $A E@SE llonarusol. B Here, A refers toa hypothetical idea, and B isthe result orcutcome of A Garay LE SL, RREREES EB huze5 an, {Ima Yoroppa nt ku to aru to, chokino zen orosana- ere nora IFT g010 Europe now, have to withdraw ll my savings POLOETSE /ELOTEE / sure to moshka sur to kotan yoru] ‘These interchangeable expressions are ote translated as BE Uhyoto *pethaps.” "maybe." and “possibly.” They show the speaker's Wish atcpation, song hope, or fear and worry about romething. Desk PSE, MMMLICRT HEMELAAD, yt surat, kare ga mugen kite hurera ku mo shire 1's just possible that he wil eome o pick me up. bLosse, FRaGaMELAgK, Moshi ka suru to, kotoshi wa ikea kame shirena "am fa that Tray not be abet go ths yer. CEASE, MARTE OL Lh EMA, Koto ni yoru to, Nara made ashi o nabasu ko ma shire Its possible that I may extend my tip to Nara, + 82 (an 5 4 (abun), “maybe, probably." soften used with expressions indiating uncertain about he future, AS shown by the folowing examples, the degre of un cern is determined by the context Bo, gee Ome LER, abun, kates wa ena ka mo shirena- ‘may net beable to go tere this year Ba, quataens). Tabi, htoshi wa ena dare [probably won't beable to go thee this year, SAEED & [nae ba it) “This phase indicates that he following sentence isan ex ‘planation for wat came before. As inthe next example, it fanfes be tansaed as "becase™ DALILSOF— b CME LEC BD EA. Bem ERS Ee, SME RMBET ORES ERS Enset, Watashi wa ano depato de wa kainonoo sha arin: sen Nace ha oi, nid mo ost osurareta Koo ara kara desu 1 dot want to go shopping a tht departnent store an more, bectse had my’ pure picked nt once bul twice there. Buercive 8 “Trarlate the following vestences into English LmMaeSe, COBCATHOOS. ‘Ame ge aga 1, ko an nl ji ga kara 2 ADLORMLOGERSE, ECE, ‘Av ht yoshi edo donaru to ttemo ka LFLLORMART ESL. mmo mMIS. Terebi no oto ga dkisugir to, tnar kara kal go era A BONEN, bo TEMENMHED 5. B Konime ku ya Totema cmasrleiga de her. 5S. REORRERSLTOEACHTRARTE, Kancj wa shashin de mir to zibun fet miema 20 Searence Af: [tara SexraNce B ‘The folowing are the basic patems for f° [tara Vora 2 Vina 5 oa) [ra ADIECTVAL NOUN 2 = ADIECTVAL NOUN #2245, (na) [dartare} Nouns Now #835 [dara Agena b= ADicnvE #525, fo) (atara} fioh Hoke (ita) lira tee > Minions (ahi may [uhluta dana) mB 2 BESS fara) [asu dattara KE RBH iow (stitanara) Tnan Acf5 [ara], B sentence, A and B ae not sieul- tancoss or corning. The speaker is ndesing that when A nas actully cid i completed B follows, For example: yn oRAC AITO T HRT. Marge kara 6 te ohimas ‘When Mase comes, ltl he, ‘This 6 [tara pater similar in meaning to ~28P 15 [a tok ni C225 (te kara}, of B (-1 ato de), ‘The following Sentence haste sare meaning a above: VINNIE IR TBAT, ‘Marga kta ohn 50 ite kinase ‘When Marie comes, el ex, In these sentences, Marie's comings nat provisional or ADSECTVAL NOUN 26 (nara) Navn e> Nowe 2 5 Inara Apwecive-1> [=> Abwecrve 196 (nara) FF oP Una} 86 5 (hx nara) bo te (hit) = MOVE 6 (ahead nara] Het [sence] HCE (senset nara BU aka] a4 (aka nar “The 8 6 (nara) cause Is condlonal. In other words, in ‘A226 [nara 8, Ais te only condition fr B to ceca, SURES, BREWER RT Zo, Ashita nara, tetsuaidetimasu kad itis tomorrow. Iwill beable t lp you (but 01 oa). BREESE. MONTH TS‘. BD ‘Kind ga hur nara, dekaezu ni mate "yo If you're coming. won't goout I'll wait fr you Inthe last example shove, fr instance, the speaker may have plansed ongoing out but changed hs mind because the ober son sid that he would becoming © Oniginot 835 [aydnara) ‘The Japanese precing 8 £3 216 [sayinara contains the -2 © (nara) suffix. Ke originally meant “fi is 1." The word suggests thatthe speaker doesnot went to be separated fom the oer person, but ithe fe ‘sto be separated, then the speaker mast leave. Now ‘hat original meaning hasbeen nearly forgotten, and 96 [saynara] meas only “goodbye.” Bxercce 9 (Change ec ofthe ener ers tothe appropri (to) P06 [ara if (a) or-2 5 [naa] form 1 BME. (|) Ne ROTM euet. Haha wa Ginza ni iu) sumo ano mise de Ieainonoo shimase RP EAM OMBMD OTC ( TBBSLBOTFED, Hanak-sa hava denwe 2 kakate kau ( if goro int ite hada SLpkamemaes ( MALTESE SADR, “Mesh ima Skna fishing aru ¢ Dinu wa hai shite shina ni hig na BOT ERE (DELI ReaD, ‘Ano ito a pa i kuru (wash wr ‘eta i kan. F100 Meats ( —) AICI T A {me haladoru mate ru (Yann sae smatuka TARHET OMAR (). SUERIRL wene, Soma foto 0 suru hima ga acu), subosht wa bent shinasa so, eusas(), “Hifroconeenn REFN Eo, Moshi dekine (sho i ite adataln desu hed 8 Bam (— ), Eoemomimons. ‘Mlenai(—),meto mae noha nt sewrtara, 8. MLLER (AARC TENAT ER, ‘inal tabenalace mo in’ des yo. 0, aT (), BLEDDELSILAR th, Aigausal( —)oshOo md sukosh irene mTime-related Expressions. 120 When: SENTENCE. ABE (I=) lok (ni)]. SeaTENCE B ‘While one meaning ofthe noun HF ok i time” when it comes afer clause or other modifier it usally means ms In English the tense of subordinate clauses mut agree with he tes ofthe man clause, while in Japanese there i ho sich agreetent of tase. This difference often creates problems for students In Japanese the ease isindiewed only bythe main verb, Other ver encings merely ell relative ime. ‘When the subordinate ver before BF (ois inthe non- ‘past (ctionary) foe, it indicates tat the action ofthe verb {eno ot completed. Consider the next thee examples @ AT LERCEMEI, Raabe While B/AN18 AIC 7-865 (ald ald wa lida ‘a /-nagoral “The concept “wile” can be expressed by Maida} othe verb sui 2285 [-nagora), Like rt, the word aida is & noun, ae 0 he clause precelig ts aaoun modi. “The two clases conected by Hl [aida] must have the same time drtion snd be concactent, For example: BAICOSM, CEOAUHAMCEL ET. [Nihon nr ida, deka dake Nihongo de hanaohimase, ‘While Iam in Japan, I'l speak in Japanese as much a posible FRACS, MOIELTOTC ERD, oom go ete ir ida, shicuk ni sitet dara Wile the children are sleeping, please keep gut. When Mt (ida is replaced by M2 ida wo, he speaker is implying that when he setion of the fst clase is om ltd, heaton ofthe second clause may be discontinued. FRAMTOSMS, MOL TOTFED, Koviomo ga meter aida wa, shiek mst te kus While th children are sleeping, please Keep que. (Alter ‘they wake up, you may make noise). ‘The connective ME I= [ada mi incictes that the two lass oveclap only partly. For example BAI SMI, MONRO. IED, ‘Nihon in aida i, Chgolu ni asin a tramon da, Wile tam in Japan, am planning to vist China. ‘Only = (aida mi is posible this case, A semen like BORIC GHOMIMEUE FF <6 0 (Nthon nie ida, Chigot i aso ni uum da] woul be imposs be, because it would suggest that the speaker will be (China forthe entre ime of hissy in Japan Anotber way to sy “while” withthe ver sui #4 © (nagara), which attaches tothe sem of the “8 [mas] form of the verb, Keep in mind that BU [aida] and 28 5 [pnagaral ae nt interchangeable, For example, the follow. ing sentences inappropriate: Cbevit, paamseere on, Yara we, arinagors sense ni ata. ‘While Twas walking sw my teacher, ‘The-£885 -magare is wed to indicate tat one person or group is doing two or more things simultaneously and in ‘esionaly, The example immedistely above i inappropriate, because 1 se someone on the way i not intention but co: incidental In the case of (ai) (or EE aide wa} or BK aida ri) the sbject of he two clases canbe differen, With-2 © [-nagaral, though the subjects must be the sre, In cher words, -2 5" 5 [naga] is sed to indicate that one person or group is doing two oF more thing these ine HiRRE AeA, 2 OREM. ‘Watashi wa hon o yominegara, yok ongok oki. ‘often tien to muse whe Pm reuing, fo Before: FL (1=)/~%2095 615 mae (i) / nai uch ni ‘The word 8 [ze expreses the concept “befor.” Like # (ot and 8 aida}, B [mae sw noun 9 team be preceded by # moving clause. The verb ofthat peced- ing clause is alvays inthe nonpast form When the parle {2 ff fellows mae particle point in time, usta in phrases like BPC (iit hi "atone o elk.” BME: a FEHB IRIE [leo dere tok ni) (the pot a ime) when gout” ECIEMEM, FA ICEA TOR LAL oko nt hura ma, Dos ni snd nasi. Before came hee, [ved Germany. moms, MeAeA BAD, Nera mae i hao ganas Brush your teeth before you ota slep. ‘Anothe way say “before” is with he negative (28% {nai form ofa verb followed by 3 8 [uch ml, Compare the following INDE CgaMtis. MokHAN, ‘Ame eo hidla naruanen Kort Be i. BALERS RAL MokmAND, Ame bid naval uch ni koe hs gai. Both (a) and () mean “you'd beter go home before it stats pouring." However, there is ference in mance, Sentence (Gi simple suggestion, while (b) expresses the spenker's concer and worry fo the ober person. In other words, A=? 659 Be (ona ol nf] sentences imply that dere wil be oem FA happens, 9 VeawMovriete, EAT Ini ite] ‘The expression X (EAT (a hale) Iierally means “ex- vered X and.” The X inthis formula must bea speific ime perio, suchas a month, yar, ea, vacation es. This expres- sion is more commonly used in writing o indicate a change or shift time. Some examples: ARIEKST, PoEMLG to CHELE, augers ni ane, yao sushi nate Rima, imal stated to get cooler begining in erly Septem bet MNRAS T, KA TLEMARH ONS bok. Mei jidat ni ite, dare de mo kyu ga werarer 8 In the early Meiji Period it became posible for anyone to receive an education, ‘Disappointment, Annoyance, Regret 0 Venn CL 5 [te shimau|/ Ven 1.8 (era) ‘This section describes tw puters for expressing disappoint ‘ment annoyance, or egret mn the first pattern, the C [-e} form ofthe ver is fot lowed bythe vet L & 3 [shimax). Tis paste indicates tha the speaker is upst or dsappinte about what hes bap- posed. For example: ROT ERTL BOK. Bl de Ann ate shat.