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0 NOTATIONAL CONVENTIONS: SPELLING, PUNCTUATION, ACCENT, JUNCTURE ‘The Japanese in this book is spelled in roman letters; the standard pronunciation is easy to infer. A serious student of Japanese must be prepared to read the language in @ variety of forms, including the two kinds of romanization distinguished here. In the Bib- Tiography and in the spelling of proper names within English sentences, we use the Hep burn romanization, which tells us to “pronounce the consonants as in English and the vowels as in Italian”; elsewhere the Japanese words and sentences are written lorgely ac: cording to the conventions of the book A Manuel of Japanese Writing, by Chaplin and Martin, conventions which are almost identical with the system used in Spoken Japanese, by Bloch and Jorden, and differ from those used in Beginning Japanese, by Jorden and Chaplin, primarily in neglecting to distinguish nasal from oral g and in writing “ei” for most instances of what is usually pronounced “ee” in most parts of Japan.” In recent loanwords the bilabial fis represented by hw, 2s in hwirumu ‘film’ and hwén ‘fan’ and bytihhwe ‘buffet’, except that fu is written hu, as in hurai-pan frying pan’ and sutéhhu ‘staf’. In this transcription “ti” represents the syllable that Hepburn writes as “chi”; for the non-affricated pronunciation of such English loanwords as that for ‘DDT’ we will separate “t” and "d" from the vowel by an apostrophe: d'i-d'itli for what Hepburn writes 2s diditi, (In A Manual of Japanese Writing this was written d%i-d%i-t°i, taking a hint from the kana spelling, where a small “is inserted after the syllable for “te"” or "de", as if we were to write deli-del-cli,) The apostrophe is also used to indicate the be ginning of a syllable where doubt might arise (see §0.3). The word spelled iu “says' is pro- nounced /yuu/; our spelling follows the native tradition, which is based on the underlying form. In explaining certain etymologies the symbol" is placed in front of a voiceless con- sonant to show secondary voicing (nigori): "pis pronounced /b/,"t/d/,"k /a/,"s [al (But in the Middle Korean forms cited in §2.3.4, the symbol" represents the accent of Which modern Seoul length is a reflex.) 0.1. NAMES AND CITATIONS In the Bibliography and within Japanese sentences a Japanese family name directly pre cedes the personal name and title (if these are present), but in the English translations you will find the order reversed according to the foreign custom. This means that the transla tion of a sentence talking about a man referred to as Tukisima Syunziroo will call him. ‘Shunjird Tsukishima and if he were to turn up as the author of a book listed in the Bib- liography you would find him listed as Tsukishima Shunjiro. Certain authors and works that are quite often cited will be referred to by abbrevia tions, for which the full forms can be found in the Bibliography. This accounts for the frequent mention of "KKK” for Kokuritsu Kokugo Kenkyiijo (National Language Research Institute), of “K” for Kindaichi Haruhiko, of “H” for Hirayama Teruo’s Zenkoku akusento jiten, etc. Many of the example sentences were culled from weekly magazines, such as ‘Sandé Mainichi ("SM") and especially Shakan-Asahi ("SA"), and some are from monthlies 1. But the pronunciation ai ie sill heard in the Ryakyis, Kyishi, southern Shikoku, parts of the peninsula, and the I2u Islands (H 1968.95). 6 16 §0. Notational Conventions such as Chd6-K@ron ("CK")? Others are from the works of modern novelists such as Funabashi Seiichi (“Fn”) or Kubota Mantaro ("Kb"); but many examples from fiction are ‘taken from secondary sources, such as Ishigaki Yukio (“Ig”), Yoshida Kanehiko ("Y"", and I. F. Vardul ("V"), and are so cited. A good many examples were transcribed from tape recordings of radio and television; these are marked "R”. Unmarked examples are mostly the result of elicitation from native speakers, but a few were taken from written sources that I now find difficult to identity. In making the English translations, | have tried to take into account the surrounding context of examples from primary sources; this accounts for the translation of titles such as senséi by ‘you’ in more than one sentence. But | have not gone to the trouble of check- ing the original context of examples quoted from secondary sources, since an inaccurate reconstruction of unexpressed elements will seldom affect the grammatical point under discussion. The purpose of the English translations is simply to help the reader find mean- ing in the Japanese examples; | apologize to those authors and translators who may be dis- tested at my clumsy treatment of familiar sentences. 0.2, WORDS; SPACES; HYPHENS When a Japanese writes a sentence he leaves no spaces between the words. If pressed to do so, he will insert space only where it is possible to hesitate: such points of hesitation represent the surface manifestation of boundaries (called “junctures” by linguists) which separate short phrases within the sentence. In our transcribed sentences, however, you will find the spaces are placed to show a generous division into WORDS as defined partly by rules of accent and partly by versatility of distribution. Rules of accent placement are discussed just below and also later in the book, where you will find grammatical criteria for the various word classes that are needed to describe the sentences. Hyphens call attention to the internal structure of a word for any of a number of rea sons. When cited in isolation the verb ir-u ‘needs’ has @ hyphen to remind you that the in- finitive is ict and the negat otherwise you might confuse it with iru ‘stays’, which hhas the infinitive i and the negative inai. The lack of a hyphen in kéizai saiken ‘to recon- struct the economy’ reflects the underlying juncture that separates the expression into @ ‘two-word phrase; the presence of a hyphen in keizai-séikatu ‘economic life’ tells us that this ig a compound noun made up of the nouns kizai ‘economics’ and seikatu ‘life’, and in keizdi-zin business man’ and keizaiteki ‘economical’ we are reminded that the final ele: ments are suffixes, Although | have tried to use the hyphen with some measure of con- sistency, especially within lists, do not be dismayed to find the same word written some- times solid, sometimes with a hyphen, or even—under special circumstances—as two words. Within a word the morpheme divisions are not marked, When you see (or, for that mat- ‘ter, hear) siki there is no obvious way to tell whether you are confronted with a one-mor- heme word such as that for ‘ceremony’ (written with a single Chinese character) or a two- morpheme word such as that for ‘the four seasons of the year’ (written with two Chinese characters), But in certain compounds the hyphen proves helpful: sikd-i means ‘dentist’, being a compound of the two-morpheme noun sika ‘dentistry’ and the one-morpheme ‘2. The reference "(SA 2653 46c)" is to be read ‘column ¢ (third from top or third from right) on page &6 of issue No, 2653 of Shiikan Asahi (=the issue of 21 November 19631". §0.4, Phrasing and Juncture 7 abbreviation of the two-morpheme noun isya ‘doctor’; sikai means ‘city council’, a two- morpheme noun, The two words sound, of course, exactly the same; you cannot hear @ hyphen. 0. 2. SYLLABLES AND MORAS In reciting poetry or spelling out the sound of a word, a Japanese will allow an equal ‘amount of time for each vowel, so that a long vowel (here written double) counts as two timing units or MORAS: Tookyoo (Tékya) is pronounced as four moras to-o-kyo-o, kéizai ‘economics’ is pronounced ké-e-za-i. When a consonant occurs without a following vowel, it is treated as a separate mora: sinbun ‘newspaper’ is pronounced si-n-bu-n, and gakkoo ‘school’ is pronounced ga-k-ko-o. The Japanese term for mora is onsetu and this is often loosely translated as “syllable”. In speech the Japanese may run two moras together to make a single syllable, so that the difference in length between Tookyoo (Taky6) and Kydoto (Kyoto) owes only to the extra mora, both words consisting of two syllables. We ‘can think of two-mora syllables such as those heard in Too-kyoo, kéi-zai, sin-bun, and gak-koo as HEAVY (or LONG) syllables in contrast with the LIGHT (or SHORT) syllable ‘that consists of a single mora, such as ko or kyo or 0. Foreign loanwords and mimetic ex- pressions even contain EXTRA-HEAVY syllables made up of three moras: héon ‘horn’, booi ‘boy, bellboy’, siin ‘scene’, siin-to ‘very quietly’. The accent never lands on the added mora (or moras) of a heavy syllable. When you see tooi desu ‘it is far’ you know that the syllable structure is too-i-de-su. The adjective ddi “is much, are many’ is pronounced either as three syllables 0-6: or as a heavy syllable followed by a light syllable do-i; oi is the common Takyé version, but doi is more widely heard elsewhere.” For the verb meaning ‘covers’ Tokyé has both the historically expected atonic version oou (two syllables 00-u} and a tonic variant ou (three syllables o-6-u). In general, our notation indicates syllable structure only by implication, but you will notice that an apostrophe marks the beginning of a syllable in certain cases where doubt might arise: tén’i ‘unit’ has three moras, tani ‘val: ley’ has two; ko’oo ‘response’ consists of a short syllable followed by a long, kéo'o ‘likes and dislikes’ consists of a long syllable followed by a short, (But in péat‘ii ‘party’ the apos- ‘trophe shows that the t is not to be affricated; the word contains two long syllables pda-t’i.) 0.4. PHRASING AND JUNCTURE The transcriptions in this book provide a good deal of information about accent and phrasing. If anything, you will probably feel overwhelmed with more information than you want, though you may eventually find reasons to feel grateful for certain of the notations which seem irritating at first. Freely ignore as much of the notation as you see fit, The de vices are intended to be helpful for those interested, not to browbeat those seeking other information; each reader will have his own needs. 3. Hamako Chaplin freely varies the pronuncietion of the infinitive of ookii ‘is big’ between odkiku {four sylables) and dokiky (three syllables), but only the latter is recognized bythe ditionares. A sources give only eck athe infinitive of oosi i brave there is no *Gosiku, K implies that ook {and oosl differ in numberof eilables, but H implies they ar the same. Etymelogically, the former ‘nord igbult on 2 morpheme reduced from two eyllables o[plo- (identical with the base of 65, whi the later i reduplication of a one-sylable morpheme o- ‘mal 8 80. Notational Conventions Every spoken phrase of Japanese displays a tune that is chosen out of a limited stock of, arrangements of stretches of lower and higher pitches. The phrases are separated by boun- aries we call “junctures”. A major juncture (marked by the double bar |i) tells us that the phrases on either side are pronounced rather independently of each other, with full value for each accent phrase, A minar boundary (marked by the single bar |) warns us that the pattern of the later phrase is somewhat altered by the preceding phrase; for example, if there is a fall of pitch it begins from a lower plateau. Depending on speed and emphasis, you may hear the same sentence spoken with somewhat different phrasings. In slow and deliberate speech the sentence will be broken into shorter phrases; in hasty speech phrases will be run together, with the major junctures reduced to minor and the minor junctures often dropping altogether. Some of our examples, especially those taken from recordi are transcribed with typical junctures, but most are not. An appropriate phrasing can usu- ally be inferred from the other information Our punctuation conventions follow familiar English patterns. The capitali proper names and of the first word in a sentence conveys no phonetic information; com- mas and semicolons are used for logical rather than phonetic purposes, though they will often coincide with a major juncture. The original punctuation is usually retained for ex: amples cited from written texts, even when it raises questions; you will find side comments on this from time to time. The sentence-final period is deferred until the end of the Eng- lish translation, which is set off by inverted commas ("...), but a final question mark is in- cluded within the English translation (’..2’), and also at the end of the Japanese sentence whenever the original text contained the mark. The triple dot (...) is used to show omis- sions in a citation and at the end of a list to show that the list is not exhaustive. To save space the triple dot is often omitted, however. when it can easily be supplied by the reader. 0.5. ACCENT IN WORDS AND PHRASES In order to appreciate the devices marking accent and juncture, itis necessary to take @ brief look at certain facts about the way Japanese is spoken. Readers who find themselves puzzled by notations may wish to consult the following information for quidance. 05.1. Inherent word accents. In addition to the consonants and vowels that make up its moras and syllables, each Japanese word has an inherent accent pattern, a tune that is appropriate to it in certain critical contexts. Those words which are TONIC are characterized by an inherent fall of pitch: the point of fall is here marked with an acute accent (') over the vowel, PROTO- TONIC words fall to a lower pitch right after the first syllable: Nara ‘Nara’, Tiba ‘Chiba’, ‘Akasi ‘Akashi’, Méguro ‘Meguro’, ctukisama ‘the moon’, Amano-hasidate ‘Amanohashi: date’. When the first syllable contains two vowels or a vowel followed by n, the fall may bbe heard within that syllable: Kdobe ‘Kobe’, Kydoto ‘Kydto, Sinbasi ‘Shimbashi’, Kydusyuu ‘Kylisha’, Déitu ‘Germany’, Suisu ‘Switzerland’, naiti ‘Japan proper’. MESOTONIC words have their fall of pitch somewhere in the middle of the word; the ist syllable is pronounced rather low, but it often rises when it contains two vowels or a vowel followed by n: Nard'si ‘Nara city’, Tibé-ken ‘Chiba prefecture’, Koobé-eki ‘Kobe station’, Akésaka ‘Akasaka’, Nagasaki ‘Nagasaki’, Hardzyuku ‘Harajuku’, liddbasi ‘lidabast §0.5.1, Inherent word accents 19 ‘Ootémati ‘Otemachi’, Sinzyu-wan ‘Pear! Harbor’, Sendagaya “Sendagaya’, Taihéi-yoo ‘Pa- cific Ocean’; Ikebdkuro ‘Ikebukuro’, Akihabara ‘Akihabara’, Meguré-ku ‘Meguro ward’, .agawé-ku “Shinagawa ward’, Ikebukuré-eki ‘Ikebukuro station’, Nisi-Ogikubd-eki ‘Nishi- Osikubo station’. OXYTONIC words have the fall of pitch on the last syllable, but if that contains a sin- le vowel you will hear the fall only when the word is immediately followed by a particle ‘or copula: ind desu ‘it’s a dog’, onnd wa ‘as for the woman’, otoké mo ‘the man also’, otootd ni “for my younger brother’, Kitizyoozi e ‘to Kichij6ji’, zyuuitigatd made ‘till No- vember’. If the final syllable contains two vowels or a vowel followed by n, you may be able to hear the fall of pitch even without a following particle: koohii [desu] ‘[it is] coffee’, Ryuukydu [mo] ‘the RyGkyls [also]’, Tyoosén [de] ‘Lin] Korea’, takai ‘it is expensi vyasui ‘it is cheap’, kurdi “it is black’. ATONIC words have no fall of pitch even when followed by a particle. All the syllables are pronounced rather high except for the first, which usually starts off low: kore [wa] ‘[as for] this’, Sibuya [e] ‘[to] Shibuye’, Gotanda [ni] ‘[to] Gotanda’, Sinagawa [kara] ‘{froml Shinagawa’, Otyanomizu [mo] ‘Ochanomizu [also]. If the first syllable consists of two vowels or a vowel followed by n you may hear a rise: Oosaka [mo] ‘Osaka [alsol", Taihoku [e] ‘{to] Taipei”, Kanda [de] ‘{in] Kanda’. The inherent accent of a simple word cannot easily be predicted; it is something to learn along with the consonants and vowels. But there are rules by which you can predict the accent of compound words, which are newly created every day, and these rules are mentioned in the appropriate sections of the book. Simple verbs and adjectives show only two TYPES of basic accent: atonic or tonic. If you know the basic type, you can predict the accent of a given form of the verb or adjective by rule or by analogy with similar forms of the same type. Most simple verbs and almost all adjectives are the TONIC type. On the other hand, many nouns of three or four moras—especially and most important- ly those written with two Chinese characters—are atonic. Recent loanwords from English will usually either follow the English patterns or put the accent on the third mora from the end (or one mora earlier if that mora is the second part of a long syl- lable). IT we leave aside certain special types and particular exceptions, the accentuation of compound nouns (N; + Ns) can be described as follows: (1) If Nj is tonic, the accent is removed. (Otherwise we know the structure is @ syntac- tic reduction rather than a compound noun.) The accentuation of a compound noun de- pends on the last element. (2) If Nz contains more than one syllable and has an accent on any mora other than the last, that accent is retained as the accent of the compound. (3) Otherwise the inherent accent is ignored and @ new accent is put on the first syllable of Nz provided that noun contains more than two moras; if Nz is only one or two moras in length the new accent retreats to the LAST syllable of Ny (4) There are a number of ATONICIZING SUFFIXES which exceptionally remove all inherent accents without imparting a new accent. Some of these are derived from froe nouns; those of native origin are mostly oxytonic. There appear to be no more than fifty of these suffixes, but the list may be growing, since several of them (such as sya ‘vehicle’ and -kin ‘money’) exhibit the regular pattern as well as the atonicizing pattern, which is probably the newer variant. 20 §0. Notational Conventions 0.5.2. Variations in inherent word accents. : {In different parts of Japan the same word may be heard with different accent patterns, but the rapid spread of mass communications has led to wider and wider use of the stand- ard accents of Toky& speech, and these are what we mark in this book. But even wit the standard language certain words are said with more than one pattern; older speakers ‘and younger speakers sometimes differ on the pattern they choose for a given word, and one and the same speaker may find himself freely varying the accent of certain of his words. In this book we attempt to show all possible varieties of accent in standard use for each word by placing an accent mark over the vowel at each point where a speaker might choose to locate the fall of pitch. In pronouncing the word kokoro [mo] ‘the heart [also]', some people will say kokord [mo] with the accent on the last syllable of the noun, while others—probably the majority—will say kokcro [mo], with the accent in the middle. In pronouncing zydusén-niti ‘thirteen days' a given speaker may find himself sometimes say- ing zydusan-niti with an accent on the first syllable and sometimes zyuusdn-niti with the ‘accent on the second. Certain tonic words are optionally pronounced as atonic, and this shown by placing a raised minus sign in parentheses at the end of the word: éiga(-) ‘cinema’ is, prototonic for some speakers, atonic for others. The word zidéo-sya(“) ‘automobile’ may be said by @ given speaker sometimes with no fall of pitch and sometimes with the fall at the second syllable just as some English speakers will sometimes put the heavy beat of the English accent at the beginning of ‘AUTomobile’ and other times put ita the end ‘auto moBILE". The expression déno-yéo na ‘what kind of’ will be said as either /4énoyoona/ or as /donoydona/, and that is why we write a single hyphenated word rather than two fe kaneméti(") mo ‘the rich man also’ may be heard with any of three patterns: kanemsti mo, kanemot! mo, or kanemoti mo. Though some patterns are more ‘common than others, our natation offers no prescriptions. As a rule of thumb, the foreign learner would do well to prefer the atonic variant of a noun (whenever one is available) and the tonic variant of a verb or adjective, since this appears to be a trend toward which ‘the language is moving. In Nagoya and Gifu all adjectives are treated as tonic, as are all vowel verbs (Gekkan-Bumpé 2/2.169); this means that all passives, causatives, and desidera- tives (and negatives?) are tonie, even when they are made on an underlying verb tha atonic. 05.3. Variations due to vowel unvoicing. In Taky@ speech when the high vowels i and u appear between voiceless consonants they ace usually unvoiced (whispered): kusd ‘gras’, std ‘tongue’, syuppatu ‘departure, kigpu "ticket, tka ‘uses, htéi ‘one person’, hutarl ‘wo people’ Wk ‘machinery’, uti ‘father’, wtumu ‘wraps’, susumu ‘advances’, sisoo ‘thought’, hisyd ‘secretary’, syusyoo ‘prime minister’, etc. When the unvoiced vowel is to carry an accent in certain verb forms, most Toky6 speakers choose to shift the accent over to the following vowel, 50 that kita ka ‘came?’ is made to sound like kitd ka ‘wore?’ Other speakers leave the ac cent alone, even while unvoicing the vowel: the listener must infer the location of the ac- cent from the surrounding pitch levels. We might show this variation by writing kitd ‘came’. kts ‘cut’, hte “ained’, tiki “arrives',tukeéte ‘attaching’, and the like; but instead we will minimize the clutter of accent marks by regularizing our transcription to accord with those speakers who retain the basic accent (kita, kitta, hutta, tuku, tUkete, ete.) and ignore the 80.5.4, Word accent within phrases a ‘common variant which delays the accent.* Whenever you actually see two accent marks ‘on a verb form, you will know that the basic verb has both tonic and atonie treatments; but two accent marks on an adjective form sometimes indicates variant treatments of cer- ‘ain clases of tonic adjectives, as explained in Martin 1967. (Only the more prevalent ac- centual variants are shown.) Alter a voiceless consonant TOkyS speakers often unvoice i or u at the end of a tonic phrase: Motiron desu ‘Of course’, Yosi ‘OK’, Hayaku ‘Hurry up’, Nagasaki ‘(It's) Nagasaki’. When the accent is expected on the immediately preceding syllable, you will hear no fall of piteh; the only signal that the phrase is tonic will be the whispering of the final syllable itself: Arimésu ‘I've got some’, Kore désu ‘It’s this’ 0.5.4. Word accent within phrases. Within a single phrase the pitch can fall only once. And some phrases have no fall of pitch; they rise and stay up to the very end: kore wa ‘as for this’, sono teeburu mo ‘that table also’, akai denwa o tukau ‘I will use a red (=public) telephone’. That is because the component words are inherently atonic—or because the final word is oxytonic and its final accent must vanish when there is ne further syllable left to carry the fall. When an oxytonie noun or adverb appears at the end of a phrase, we will show that it hasan in: herent accent by placing the accent mark in the appropriate place, but we will put brack- ets around the mark to indicate the automatic cancellation by which it sounds as if it were atonig;, . Hutar{!imdsu There are two people’, Cf. Hutari ga imésu ‘There are the two people’. Takusth tdbeta ‘I ate lots’. Cf. Takusdn desu ‘It’s lots’ Ik-k&i itta ‘I went one time’. Cf. Ik-kai datta ‘It was one time’. Itiedb! sita ‘I did it once’. Cf. Iti-dé datta ‘It was once’ When you have used up the singe fall of pitch allowed within a phrase, each basic ac cent expected to turn up later is automatically cancelled; once your tune goes down, it stays down, We will show this by putting brackets around the cancelled accent marks. But in the extremely common and familar situations of noun + particle and noun + copula we will normally forgo reminding you of the cancelled accent. By recalling the phrases Yokohama ‘made ‘2s far as Yokohama’ and Yokohama désu ka ‘is it Yokohama?” we know that the particle méde and the copula dssu are basically prototonic; accordingly, we will not bother to indicate the cancelled accents in Nagoya made (=Nagoya métie) ‘as far as Nagoya’ and Nagoya desu ka (=Nagoya détu ka) ‘Is it Nagoya?” Moreover, we will mark the final accent of an inherently oxytonie particle only when it is heard. From the phrase Yokohama karé desu ‘itis from Yokohama’ we know that the particle kard is basically oxytonic so we will ‘not bother to indicate the cancelled accent in Nagoya kara desu (=Négoya kar! débu) ‘It is from Nagoya’. The phrase koko dé mo ‘in this place also’ tells us the locative particle dé has an accent—as do all one-syllable particles—but we will not mark the accent wher cancelled at the end of a phrase: koko de asobu = koko dé! [1] asobu ‘we will play in this place’.* 4..ut the phrasal postpositions ni tké, ni taki, and ni tUkéte are cited with both accentuations in §9.7, though elsewhere we write ki o wikete for what Tokyd speakers usually say as ki o tuk '5..But in discussing particles oF citing them in iaolation we wl usually mork the accent, especially for those such as to or nd or made which might otherwise be misreed as English words. And sontence- final particles such abn or y6 are written with the accent to indicate that & minor juncture may precede them. 2 §0. Notational Conventions ‘An atonic phrase often drops its final juncture and gets'pronounced as if part of the following phrase: Akai [|] denwa o [|] tukatta ‘I used a red telephone’ consists of three un- derlying phrases but these are normally run together and pronounced as if one long phrase akaidenwaotukatta, An oxytonie phrase cancels its final accent before juncture and there- fore gets treated as an atonic phrase when the juncture, in turn, drops out: Hutatl! (I) ‘tuketta ‘I used two" is run together and pronounced hutatutukatte, with no fall of pitch. Other tonic phrases, in which the fall of pitch is not exposed to cancellation, will retain their accent under similar conditions and the juncture will less rgadily drop. Should the juncture drop, later tonic words will automatically lose their accents. Instead of brackets ‘around the cancelled accent marks we will sometimes use parentheses, to indicate that the ‘dropping of the juncture is optional; the two phrases need not be run together, though ‘that may be the common practice: Kaesdnai yoo desu ‘Apparently they're not going to re- turn it” can be pronounced Kaesénai | yéodesu in two phrases (with a reduced fallin the second), but, gommonly it is run together asa single phrase Kaeséneiyoodesu. In the sen- tence Kagami’ mite kudasst ‘Look in the mirror’, the brackets around the first accent show that itis automatically cancelled, being at the end of the phrase, which is a short version of kagami 0 and is run together to form a single phrase with mite; the parentheses around the final accent tells us that we can pronounce the sentence either as two phrases kagamimite | kudaséi or as a single phrase kagamimitekudasai, the latter version being more likely.* “The inflected forms of verb and adjective are usually marked for the actual accent heard in the sentence, not for the basic accents from which this derives. The information given will permit you to infer whether the underlying verb or adjective is basically tonic or atonic. There is actually an inherent final accent on the ending of what appear to be un- accented forms of the “atonic” verb, but this will be heard only when a particle follows ‘and we usually omit the suppressed accent, writing Ittd ka ‘Did you go?" but Itta (= Itt!) “Lwent’ and Itta kodomo wa ... (=Itt3! [|] kodomo wa) ‘The child who went’. Inflected forms of “atonic” adjectives are similar, but the final accent is usually heard one mora ‘earlier: Akdi ka ‘Is it red?” and Akai denwa ... (=AKSI [I] denwa) ‘A red telephone’—but Tooi ka ‘Is it distant?" and Tooi kuni ... (=Too! [|] kunt...) “A distant land’. In the infinitive form made with the suffix -ki the final accent, when called for, may optionally ‘occur one syllable early if @ particle is attached: Akak mo néi. ‘It isn't red, either’ but Akaku nétta (=Akakt? |] ndtta) ‘It became red’.” Some verbs and adjectives permit variant accentustions of either type, tonic or atonic. The imperfect and pertect forms of the atonic verb (like suru ‘does’ and sita “did’) and the imperfect and infinitive forms of the atonic adjective (such as akai ‘is red’ and akaku ‘be- ing red") will have basic accents on the endings (for the verb -r and -té: for the adiective + and -kG but with » shift of the accent back one mora under certain circumstances); we will ignore this excapt when the form is followed by a particle or copula. The verb simésu(") ‘reveals’ is treated as either tonic or atonic, and that is what the notation tells us. When @ particle is added, for example kd, the two available pronunciations are marked: simési ka. ‘Other forms will also show two pronunciations, e.g. the conditional simésitara, 6.8u In ceria very commen stations, ach thou lustratd ere, we Wl no ebay ut a rentere aru the mer sxe th eae’ cn ner hem tom en stan, *)satonasde Tooku nina (= Toot {I} nde) ‘t become distant we find thre versions ot T3Sk moni‘ cater, eit’ dependiog on wher the double chen tone heey slice of ‘two light ones as well as an the option of anticipating the accent on -ku. 90.5.5, Regressive cancellations 23 Certain particles ae attached with an underlying juncture (optional or obligatory) which kills the basic final accent on such forms as suru and sita, akai and akaku. The parti- cle 6, for example, whether used as a quotation marker ar inthe meaning ‘when(aver’ is attached like kd by many Tokyo speakers, especially the younger ones, who say /surtito/ and /sitato/ for what other and more traditional speakers say as /suruto/ and /sitato/. In- stead of showing this option every time itis available, we will follow the traditional speak: sand ignore the common veriant in our notation; rather than write “suri(7) to" we will write “suru to” and let the reader remember thatthe other version is posible, Thus when You see “munasit") to” you will know that the adiective enjoys variant INHERENT ac- cents, independent of its occurrence with t in the given sentence. Some speakers will ay unas because they test munasi as tonic everywhere, others because they eccentu- ate ll atonie forms of verbs and adjectives before t6 In general we have tried to let our no- tation maximize the acoentual distinctions and for that reason we choose to ignore those systematic variants which obscure the differences between tonic and atonic verbs and ad- jectives. (See the remarks on accentuating the desiderative forms, §7, and compound verbs, §9.1.10) 0.5.5. Regressive cancellations. Many of the words we call restrictives and quasirestrictives in §2.4 have basic patterns that DOMINATE in that they take precedence over earlier accents within the phrase: such 2 pattern is indicated by putting a raised minus at the beginning of the dominant word, after the space that separates it from the praceding word, When you see a word like “dékoro or ~gurai you know that all proceding words in the same phrase will lose their accents (if any), so wp do not bother to put brackets around the cancelled accent marks: it-zkan ai ( iti-Zikan gurai) ‘about one hour’ is pronounced itizikangurai,iti-zikan “hén pith han) ‘an hour and g halt” is pronounced itizikanhén, and itt-zikan “han “gurai (=iti-zikan hh airs ‘abour an hour and a half" pronounced itizikanhangarai. Nps all of these dominant words have accents; some are atonic: nimotu “nami ni atukatta (=nimotu nami ni atukatta) ‘they treated them like baggage’ is pronounced nimotunamini [I] atukatta. And some are oxytonic, with a final accent that will be automatically cancelled unless followed by a par- ticle or copula: Hanbuin “daké desu ‘It is (exactly) halt” i pronounced hanbundakédesu and Hanbiin “dak¢ herasoo ‘Let’s reduce it by halt” is pronounced henbundake ('] herasoo. The little word nd , regardless of which of its many meanings it is expressing, has a Unique effect. It cancels the final accent of a preceding oxytonic noun (as if it were a june ture), except under certain circumstances. The circumstances permitting the oxytonic ‘noun to retain its final accent require @ retained juncture AFTER né either in the surface form as pronounced or at that level of structure put together just before arriving at the surface form—at the point when last-minute phrasing options are to be selected. Predicting ‘these circumstances is tricky, so we will put brackets around those final accents that are to be cancelled: 1k! no mawari o mawaru ‘We will go around the pond’, Kine na dryoo wa "Yesterday's rainfall’, Nitth no tetudoo wa ‘Japan's railroads’, Ook no gakusei wa ‘Male students’. When the final accent of en oxytonic noun fails to be cancelled before nd, you can usually expect # new phrase to begin after nd: Hutar! no senséi wa ‘The two teachers’ is usually pronounced hutarino | senséewa. But sometimes the two phrases will collapse into one at the last minute: Yuki no yo desu ‘It looks like snow’ may be 24 80. Notetional Conventions pronounced yukino | yéodesu as expected, but the commbnly heard version is yukinoyoodesu. (Ifthe dropping of the juncture had been called for when packaging the constituents at an earlier stage, we would expect sul ‘no yo desu = *yukinoyodesu.) When a dominant word follows an atonic word, application of the regressive cancella- tion is vacuous, since there is no accent for it to cancel. But we will usually indicate the accentual dominance of the word by the raised minus even when it has no work to do: kodomo “nami, nisen-en “girai, etc. 0.5.6. Other accent cancellations. In certain expressions accents are cancelled, obligatorily or optionally, for reasons that can be rather complicated to explain. Obligatory cancellations are indicated by brackets around the accent mark: HitGhu mo kawanskatta ‘I didn’t buy even one’, Hitdti mo kénakatta ‘Not a soul came’, Date mo inai ‘No one is there’. Optional cancellations are shown by parentheses around the accent mark: Nah dé’ mo it ‘Anything will do" can be pronounced as néndemo | fi, as nandémo | ji, or as nandemo[| Ii. 0.5.7. Accent shifts in certain verb forms. The accentuation of a given inflectional form is predictable, once you know whether the verb or the adjective is treated as basically tonic or atonic. The accent will not neces- sarily fall on the same syllable in every form of the paradigm; the imperfect endings -ru (for verbs) and -i (for adjectives) attract the accent of tonic bases to the syllable just be- fore the ending: tabe(te) ‘eating’ but tabéeru ‘eats’, tdkakulte) “being expensive’ but takai ‘is expensive’. Yet for certain verbs, when the accent is expected on the vowel before the ‘ending, itis shifted back to an immediately preceding vowel; the two vowels are treated as, a single “heavy” syllable. The relevant information is stated below. (1) The following verbs always treat the vowel dyad as a single syllable, forcing the ac- cent in the imperfect (-ru) and the provisional (-reba) to retreat one mora: kder-u ‘returns’ (and huri-kéer-u ‘looks back’), kéesu ‘returns it’ (and most tonic compounds with -kdesu such as hiki-kdesu, Kiki-kéesu, etc.); gotta /géer-u ‘gets confused’; hirugder-u ‘flutters, reverses’, hirugdesu ‘reverses/waves it’; hdir-u ‘enters’, mir-u ‘comes/goes’; tGoru ‘passos’, ‘tdosu ‘lets pass’ (and tonic compounds with -téoru and -tdosu). The infinitive, too, will place the accent a mora earlier than expected (kderi, tdori, etc.) as will the imperative (kaere, tdore, etc.). The gerund and related forms (the perfect, etc.) of the potentials will also place the accent a mora earlier than expected: kderete (from kaeréru), hdireta (from hairéru), tooretara (from tooréru), etc. (2) In the following verbs, the vowel dyad is OPTIONALLY treated asa single syllable; ‘most but not al) Toky@ speakers move the aezent back one mora from its expected ace tion in the impertect:® aturdéru ‘orders’, humaéru ‘treads’ Kangiéru ‘thinks’, kordéru ‘withstands’, kotdéru ‘answers’, matigaéru ‘mistakes’, modaéru ‘agonizes’, osdéru ‘restrains’, sakdéru ‘flourishes’, tagaéru ‘violates’ (NHK also recognizes an atonic version), tonaéru ‘chants, advocates’, tordéru ‘captures’, tukderu ‘clogs up’; otordéru ‘is inferior’, totondéru ‘prepares’; si-kaésu ‘redoes'; ? ... Also tonic compounds with -kdéru (such as ki-kdéru, si- kaéru, nori-kaéru, hiki-kaéru)? and with -tigdéru (such as iki-tigaéru), §9.1.10. The {8 And also in the provisional (Kotdirebe) ond, with the exception of si-kdésu (s-kaessnai), the negative forme: Kotdénai, korSénakatts, et ‘9. A distinction is maintained between huri-kééru “transfers (money) with the infinitive hurickde §0.6. Miscellaneous conventions 25 infinitive and the imperative of these verbs (with the exception of si-kaésu) call for the ac- cent to fall on the first vowel of the dyad in any event, but when the particle ro is added ‘to the imperative both options are available: humde yo and huméé ro both mean ‘tread!’ and the second form permits two different accentuations.. (3) Assuming that our lists are comprehensive, all other verbs with vowel dyads treat the two vowels as separate syllables so that the second vowel freely takes the accent: aéru ‘dresses (vegetables)’, haéru ‘grows’, kamaéru ‘builds’, kanaéru ‘grants (a request)’, kitaéru ‘forges’, naéru ‘withers’; migru ‘seems’, maziéru ‘mixes’; huéru ‘grows'; ho¢ru ‘barks’, kazoéru ‘counts’, koéru ‘gets fat’, kokoroéru ‘realizes’, obo¢ru ‘remembers’, ‘omosru ‘seems’, soroéru ‘arranges’, suéru ‘sours’; uresru ‘grieves'; siiru ‘coerces’, hil ‘leads’; nadru ‘recovers’, nadsu ‘repairs’, tadru ‘plucks’, tadsu ‘topples’; kodru ‘packs Uup';.... This group includes the short potentials made fram tonie verbs: aéru ‘can meet’, hhagru ‘can crawl’, kaéru ‘can raise’, kuraéru(") ‘can eat’, naéru ‘can plait’, naraéru ‘can learn’; kiso¢ru ‘can vie’, koéru ‘can love/beg’, tocru(~) ‘can inquire’, tukuro¢ru ‘can mend’; kudru ‘can eat’, nucru ‘can sew’; (4) The following verbs are optionally atonie. When the tonie option is chosen the dyad is treated as two syllables and the second vowel freely takes the accent: amaéru(”) ‘coaxes’, kakaéru(~) ‘embraces’, kosaéru(”) ‘concocts’, kuwaéru(-) ‘adds’, saraéru(”) ‘dredges’, sasaéru(”) ‘supports’, takuwadru(~) ‘hoards’ (K also has takuwaeru and NHK has takuweéru), tatadru(")"brims with; praises’, tukaéru(") ‘serves’, tutadru(") ‘communicates’ (K also has tutéeru), uttaéru(") ‘complains about’ (K and NHK both also have uttéeru): tuiéru(-) “is wasted’, katuéru(") ‘hungers’ [obsolescent] , mi-suéru() ‘gazes’; moyoésu(") ‘holds (a meeting)"; 0.5.8. Accent in dialect forms. Much of the information on dialect forms is taken from secondary sources which failed to note the accent. In isolated citations | have simply omitted information on accent; but in general, especially for sentence examples, | have marked the accent as if the sentences were said by a Toky6 speaker, as an aid to identifying the component words. This com- promise notation is less than satisfactory from a scholarly point of view, but there are two facts which make it seem better than marking no accent at all, One is that sentences with dialect vocabulary and grammar are sometimes heard from the lips of Tokyo speakers, either reading aloud or playing dramatic roles, and few speakers are capable of making the subtle adjustments necessary for an authentic and consistent version of someone else's dialect; none of the accentuations indicated here is totally artificial. Moreover, the accen- tuation across the various dialects is far from random; there is @ correlation by word types, so that a speaker of a given dialect will find that the Tékyé markings provide him with a fairly consistent clue to many of his own pitch falls, even when these occur on a different syllable from the one heard in TOkyé. 0.6, MISCELLANEOUS CONVENTIONS Brackets and parentheses are also used to mark various asides and shortenings in ‘and huri-kéer-u looks back’ withthe infinitive hur:-kiri, (NHK lists only huri-kagru for ‘transfer’, bat H and K give both vorsions.) To the list add hiksiéru ‘efrains' ond sondéru ‘provides. 26 0. Notational Conventions explanatory passages, according to familiar conventions which should cause no difficulty for the reader. In discussions of pronunciation, brackets sometimes enclose a quasi-phonet transcription, as when we say that ee is pronounced (¢:], slashes sometimes enclose a quasi- phonemic transcription, as when we say that ei is to be pronounced /ee/. A slash between ‘two forms is the familiar convention to show optionality: a/b ‘either a orb‘; a(/b) ‘either a ‘or possibly b’: a/b/c(/..) ‘a or b oF c or possibly others unmentioned’. When more than two ‘sets of options are shown in a single formula, they are usually to be taken as independent of one another: Dire ni/ga kodomo ga ind/aru ka ‘Who has children?” tells you there are four Japanese versions of the sentence. ‘The asterisk ” precedes an unattested form. In historical discussions this refers to a form hypothesized to have existed despite the lack of direct evidence, but in descriptive discus- sions an asterisk often marks a sentence (or other formation) presented as an example of ‘ungrammaticality which is intended to shed light on the structure of those sentences ‘which are grammatical.!® Arrows are used to show synchronic relationships, typically those of sentence conversion: a> b ‘a yields b, is converted into b, @ underlies b’ or ("a> b) “b will replace the unacceptable a’; b b ‘the earlier form a developed into the later form b’: b are also used to ‘mark accent shifts.) ‘Abbreviations for grammatical terms are generally explained where they first occur; they will all be found in the Index. Some very frequent designations are S ‘sentence’, N ‘noun’ or ‘nominal sentence (= predicated noun’, A ‘adiective’ or ‘adjectival sentence (predicated adjective)’, V ‘verb’ or ‘verbal sentence (predicated verb)’, VN ‘verbal noun’ cr ‘verbal-noun sentence’, AN ‘adjectival noun or ‘adiectival-noun sentence’, PeN ‘precopu: lar (=quasi-adjectival) noun’, AUX (or Aux) ‘auxiliary’. Although V is also used as an ab- breviation of ‘vowel’ (in contrast with C ‘consonant’), it should be clear when this is to be taken as ‘verb’. VI stands for intransitive verb, VT for transitive verb; VNI for intransitive verbal noun, VNT for transitive verbal noun. In addition to representing ‘adjective’ the letter A is also usad in situational formulas, where A B and C stand for three different people, XY and Z stand for three different things, and P and Q stand for two different places. In the Japanese transcriptions square brackets enclose elements that are potentially or theoretically a part of the sentence, though not necessarily present in the example as siven. When the brackets have a notch (or superimposed hyphen) £ } the material enclosed is optionally sayable; when the brackets have a double notch (or superimposed equal sign) + ¥ the material enclosed must be suppressed. Unnotched brackets can be taken either way; usually they are to be considered optional. They are used, for example, to show vi ous colloquial contractions, as in Mita n[o] desu ‘I’ve seen it’ or Kaerd[o]! ‘Let's leavel’; but sometimes contraction is indicated by an apostrophe: Matte ‘ru = Matte [iru ‘'ll be waiting’. We must be careful not to use the apostrophe after the letter n unless the nasal forms @ mora: the dialect contraction sen{¢b]a cannot be shown as "sen’a™ because itis pronounced /sena/. In mentioning certain endings, a basic form is cited that sometimes in- cludes parentheses or brackets; the hortative is given as -[y]oo because the -y- originated 10. Degrees of unacceptebility are sugeested by marking sentence with (71,2, (2°). (41. iscellaneous conventions 27 the negative is cited as -(a)nai because the -a- is part of the original for- mation. In examples cited from written sources, the bracketed material was usually not present in the original text, but was added here to help explain the overt forms. When the brack- ets enclose a blank ““[ }”" what is omitted is either left unspecified or is presumed to be obvious. Certain short Japanese words have romanized forms that are identical with English words, and this can cause momentary confusion. Whenever it is possible to differentiate ‘such words by writing the basic accent of the Japanese forms, | have done so: nd, t6, made, sité, tamé, .... But for atonic nouns such as sake ‘rice wine’, sore ‘that’, are ‘that’, etc., the ‘accent marking is not available; | have tried to avoid letting such words fall into positions within English sentences where they will mislead the eye of the reader, and | believe there will be few occasions for discomfort.