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The English alphabet

To spell[tu spel] a spune pe litere, a ortografia


Double[dabl] == dublu
Ex.: Please spell your name, sir.=Spuneti-va numele pe litere , domnule
My name is Francis
Steel.= Numele meu este Francis Steel.
Ef ar ei en si ai es
es ti dabl i el
Tt: se pronunta [dabl ti]
First
Name/Christian
Name
Elizabeth
John

Middle
(Middle
or
Name
Initial)
Mary
Wesley

M
W

Last
Name/Surname
Windsor
Sinclair

Ex. 1: Spuneti pe litere urmatoarele nume:


Susan Brown:
Michael Slevin:
Catherine Foster:
Sunetele urmate de : sunt mai lungi.Litera anterioara se pronunta mai lung:
Feel[fi:l], school[sku:l], sheaf[i:f]

Numeralul cardinal (The cardinal numeral)


1.one
2.two
3.three (thir*)
4.four
5. five(fif*)
6. six
7. seven
8. eight
9. nine
10. ten

11. eleven
12. twelve
13. thirteen
14. fourteen
15. fifteen
16. sixteen
17. seventeen
18. eighteen
19. nineteen
20. twenty

10. ten
20 twenty
30. thirty
40. forty
50. fifty
60. sixty
70. seventy
80. eighty
90. ninety
100. hundred
1000. thousand

Million = million
Billion= milliard
Numerele de la 1 la 12 se invata pe dinafara.
Pentru formarea numerelor de la 13 la 19 se adauga terminatia TEEN[ti:n] la sfarsitul
cifrei ce corespunde unitatilor.
Ex:
Four+TEEN=> fourteen
Six + TEEN=> sixteen
Seven + TEEN=> seventeen
Atentie la modificarile survenite in radacina cuvantului datorita adaugarii lui TEEN.
Astfel, pentru
13 .thir+ TEEN=>thirteen
15. fif+TEEN=> fifteen
18. se ortografiaza cu un singur T: eighteen
Pentru formarea zecillor de la 20 la 90 se adauga TY[ti]
Ex: six+TY= sixty
Seven+TY= seventy
Atentie la :
20. twenty
30. thir+TY
40. for+ TY
3

50. fif+TY
80. ortografiat cu un singur T: eighty
Pentru formarea numerelor se procedeaza astfel:
24= douazeci si patru= twenty four sau twenty-four
73=saptezeci si trei= seventy three
1245= one thousand two hundred and forty five
7865= seven thousand eight hundred and sixty five
Sau seven thousand eight hundred and sixty- five
Numerele se compun la fel ca in limba romana.
OBSERVATIE:
1. Intotdeauna HUNDRED este urmat de AND. (and=si)
2. Hundred, thousand, million, billion nu iau forma de plural daca sunt folosite in
formarea numeralelor:
200= two hundred (nu hundreds)
3000=three thousand (nu thousands)
456.579=four hundred AND fifty six thousand five hundred and seventy nine
CITIREA ANILOR:
Intai se citesc primele 2 cifre(ca numar), apoi urmatoarele doua. Anii se vor citii ca un
numar obisnuit in cazul in care cifra sutelor sau cifra zecilor este zero.
Ex:
1998= nineteen (19) ninety eight (98)
1585= fifteen(15) eighty five(85)
1659=sixteen(16) fifty nine(59)
Dar:
2001= two thousand and one
2008=two thousand and eight
703= seven hundred three
A.D.[ei di]= Anno Domini= dupa Christos
B.C.[bi si]= Before Christ= inainte de Cristos
Virgula si punctul zecimal:
1.700.000 dolari = $ 1,700,000 ----in romana folosim punctul iar in engleza virgula
pentru delimitare.
3,52%= 3.52% (per cent)= three point five two per cent
0,3=0.3= nought point three
Pentru citirea numerelor de telefon fiecare cifra se spune separat.
Cifra zero se citeste Oh.
105 - one oh five

Se face pauza dupa grupuri de 3 sau 4 cifre.


376 4705 - three seven six, four seven oh five
Scrieti urmatoarele numere:
13=
15=
18=
27=
76=
176=
475=
4367=
98.765=
6,75%=
0.23=
1.784.325=
Scrieti urmatorii ani:
1988=
1659=
2005=
1900=

Pronumele personal (personal pronoun)


I (ai)= eu se scrie intotdeauna cu litera mare
You= tu, dumneavoastra
He =el folosit pentru persoane de sex masculin
She =ea - folosit pentru persoane de sex feminin
It = el/ ea folosit pentru animale, obiecte , bebelusi, fenomene ale naturii, impersonal
We =noi
You= voi
They =ei/ ele

YOU tu , voi, dumneavoastra


Pentru exprimarea politicoasa se foloseste you dar pe cat posibil folosim, in
adresare directa : DOMNULE, DOAMNA, DOMNISOARA astfel:
-Daca nu urmeaza numele persoanei:
SIR[sr] =domnule
MADAM[mdm]= doamna
MISS[mis]= domnisoara
-Daca urmeaza numele persoanei folosim:
MR.[mistr]= d-le
MRS[misiz]= d-na
MISS[mis]= d-ra
5

-Lady[leidi] si gentleman[gentlmn] se foloseste cand se face referire la alta


persoana decat interlocutorul si nu urmeaza numele persoanei.
Ex: Thank you, sir= multumesc domnule
Good bye, madam= la revedere doamna
How are you, miss?= Ce mai faceti domnisoara?
Sau Thank you, Mr. Smith= multumesc domnule Smith
Good bye, Mrs. Johnson= la revedere doamna Johnson
How are you, miss Carter?= Ce mai faceti domnisoara Carter?
I know the lady= O cunosc pe doamna
The gentleman is Spanish= domnul este spaniol

It : pentru animale: Where is the cat? It is here. =Unde este pisica? Este aici.
pentru obiecte: This is a book. It is blue.= Aceasta este o carte. Este albastra.
pentru bebelusi:The baby is happy. It is smiling. Bebelasul este fericit.
Zambeste.
Pentru fenomene ale naturii: It is snowing.
Impersonal: It is real.

Verbul to be (a fi)

Verbul to have(a avea)

I am[ai m]= eu sunt


You are[iu ar]=tu esti
He is[hi iz]=el este
She is[i is]=ea este
It is [it is]=el/ea este
We are[ui ar]=noi suntem
You are[iu ar]=voi sunteti
They are[dei ar]=ei/ele sunt

I have[ai hv]= eu am
You have [iu hv] tu ai
He has[hi hz]= el are
She has[I hz]=ea are
It has[it hz]=el/ea are
We have[ui hv]=noi avem
You have[iu hv]=voi aveti
They have[dei hv]=ei /ele au

Varsta in limba engleza se exprima cu verbul to be(a fi) si nu cu to have(a avea):


How old are you?(hau uld ar iu )= Ce varsta aveti?/ Cati ani ai?
I am _____ years old. (ai m ____ irz uld)= Eu am.ani.
Ex:. I am 43 years old.[irz uld]
He is 32 years old.
Katy is 5 years old.
Mr. Carter is 55 years old.
Ex: Traduceti in limba engleza:
1. Steve are 27 de ani.
2. Dumneavoastra aveti 36 de ani.
3. Domnul Art are 45 de ani
4. Cati ani are domnul Brown?
5. Domnisoara Jackson este aici(here).
6. Noi avem carti(books).

7. Ei au solutii(solutions).
Exercitii :
1. 876=
2. 25.898=
3. 112.977=
4. 1967(an)=
5. 2004(an)=
6. 7.65 %=
7. 0.45=
8. Spuneti pe litere propriul nume:
9. Doamna Smith are 38 de ani.
10. Noi avem calculatoare.(computers).
Vocabulary :
Tall(t :l)= inalt
Short(ort )= scund, scurt
Nice[nais]=frumos
Smart(smart)=destept
A /an = un, o
Car[ca:r]= masina
long[l ng]= lung
Many friends[mni frndz] = multi
prieteni
Products=produse

A brother[brar]=un frate
A computer=un calculator
Company= companie, firma
Manufacturer= producator
Turnover=cifra de afaceri
Of= de
Employees=angajati
From= din, de la

Exercitii:
Faceti propozitii cu cuvintele de la vocabular folosind verbele to be si to have:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
9.
10.
Translate into Romanian :
1. The company has a turnover of four million euros.
2. The company has forty-eight employees.
3. The manufacturer is from Romania.

Obs. Adjectivele in limba engleza se plaseaza in fata substantivelor ale caror insusiri
le determina.
A good product= un produs bun
a-articol nehotarat---un/ o
good- adjectiv
product- substantivul
In consecinta si adjectivele ce arata posesia se vor plasa in fata substantivelor.

Adjective posesive
My[mai]= meu, mea, mei , mele
My computer is black.
My lamp is nice.
My job is good.
My secretary is here.
Your[ior]=tau, ta, tai, tale
Your brother is a manager.
Your friend is 35 years old.
Your hobby is football.
Your products are expensive.
His[his]=lui
His oppinions are good.
His job is near here.
His wife is a nurse.
His bussines is successful.
Her[hr]=ei
Her account is 125452
Her offer is more interesting.
Her agenda is full.
Her job is interesting.
Its[itz]=lui/ei
Its failure is predictable.
Its walls are blue.
Its leaves are green.
Its cover is white.
Our[aur]=nostru, noastra, nostri, noastre
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Our company has 1200 employees.


Our schedule is full.
Our desks are here.
Our office has four rooms.
Your[ior]=vostru, voastra, vostri, voastre
Your coats are green.
Your education is good.
Your phone number is 114578
Your books are at home.
Their[er]=lor
Their structure is complicated.
Their wages are low.
Their inner coating is brown.
Their secretary is very intelligent.
Vocabulary:
Agency[eiginsi]=agentie
Project[pr gct]=proiect
Office [fis]=birou la serviciu (incapere)
Study [stadi]=birou acasa
Desk [birou]=birou, pupitru
Ex:. Traduceti in engleza:
Slujba lui
Salarul ei
Secretara lor
Directorul nostru
Produsele voastre
Parerile lor
Proiectul meu
Biroul nostru
Pupitrul tau

Colours
White[uait]=alb
Pink[pinc]=roz
Red[red]=rosu
Orange[ringi]=portocaliu

Green[gri:n]=verde
Yellow[ilu]=galben
Brown[braun]=maro
Blue[blu:]=albastru
9

Gray[grei]=gri
Black[blc]=negru
Dark[darc]------intuneric, inchis(in cazul in care se combina cu culorile)
Light[lait] ------lumina, bec, usor ( greutate),deschis (folosit cu culorile)
Dark brown= maro inchis
Light blue = albastru deschis
Ex: Scrieti :
Roz deschis
Rosu inchis
Portocaliu inchis
Maro deschis
Vocabulary :
Cable [cheibl]=cablu
And [nd]=si
Insulation[insulein]= izolatie
Wood[u:d]=lemn
Envelope[nvlop]=plic

Plastic=plastic
Paper=hartie
Wool=lana
Leather=piele

The colour of the cable is green and yellow.= Culoarea cablului este galben cu verde
The wood is brown.=Lemnul este maro.
The colour of the insulation is light blue= Culoarea izolatiei este albastru deschis.
The envelope is white.= Plicul este alb.
Traduceti:
Plicul este albastru.
Culoarea cablului este verde cu rosu.
Maro cu verde
Galben cu rosu
Albastru cu gri
To be[ tu bi]- a fi
Prezent
Afirmativ

----aceasta forma corespunde formei de infinitiv a verbului

I am=
You are=
He is=
She is =
It is=
We are=
You are=
They are=

10

Negativ : se formeaza adaugand particula not[n t] dupa verb.


I am not= Im not=
You are not=youre not=you arent=
He is not=hes not= he isnt=
She is not=shes not= she isnt=
It is not=its not=it isnt=
We are not=were not=we arent=
You are not=youre not= you arent=
They are not= theyre not=they arent=
Formele contrase isnt si arent:
-Verbul si particula not se scriu intr-un cuvant iar in loc de o se pune .
-Se pronunta [iznt] si [arnt]
Interogativ : se face prin inversiune
Am I?=
Are you?=
Is he?=
Is she?=
Is it?=
Are we?=
Are you?=
Are they?=
To have [hv] a avea
Afirmativ
I have=
You have=
He has=
She has=
It has=
We have=
You have=
They have=
Negativ : adaugam not dupa verb
I have not= I havent=
You have not= you havent=
He has not=he hasnt=
She has not= she hasnt=
It has not=it hasnt=
We have not=we havent=
You have not= you havent=
They have not=they havent=

11

Formele contrase se fac prin alipirea lui have cu particula not ;in loc de o se pune .
Se pronunta:
Havent[hvnt]
Hasnt[hznt]
Interogativ : se face prin inversiune
Have I?=
Have you? =
Has he? =
Has she? =
Has it? =
Have we? =
Have you? =
Have they? =
To do[du] = a face
Afirmativ
I do[du]=
You do=
He does[daz]=
She does=
It does=
We do
You do=
They do=
Negativ : se adauga not
I do not= I dont[dunt]=
You do not= you dont=
He does not= he doesnt[daznt]=
She does not=she doesnt=
It does not= it doesnt=
We do not= we dont=
You do not=you dont=
They do not= they dot=
Interogativ: se face inversiune
Do I?=
Do you?=
Does he?=

12

Does she?=
Does it?=
Do we?=
Do you?=
Do they?=
Exercitiu: Traduceti verbele to be, to do , to have- conjugate la prezent

Who , what, where, when, why, how


Who [hu:]= cine folosit pentru
persoane
What[u t]= ce
What time[taim]=la ce ora
Where[uer]=unde
When[un]=cand
Why[uai]=de ce
How[hau]=cat, cum
Whose[hu:z]=ale/ai/a cuipentru
persoane
Whom[hu:m]=pe care/cine, carui
pentru persoane
Whoever [huevr]= oricine
Whenever[uenvr]=oricand
Whatever[uatvr]=orice/ ma rog,in fine
Whichever[uicivr]=oricare
Wherever[urevr]=oriunde

However[hauvr]=oricum, totusi
How se foloseste in combinatii cu
unele adjective
How much? [hau maci]= cat de mult, cat
How much is?=cat costa?
How many? [hau mni]= cat de multe
How long?[hau l ng]=cat de lung
How tall?[hau t l]= cat de inalt
How short?[hau ort ]= cat de scurt/
scund
How low?[hau lau]= cat de jos
How high?[hau hai]= cat de sus
How strong?[hau str ng]=cat de
puternic
How far ?[hau far]=cat de departe

Vocabulary:
Wire[uai]=sarma
Building[bilding]=cladire
Temperature[tempricir]=temperatura
Signal[signal]=semnal
Decision[disijn]=decizie
Thread[red]=ata, fir
Cable[cheibl]=cablu
Wave[ueiv]=unda, val
Good[gu:d]=bun
Factory[fctri]=fabrica
Plant[plnt]=uzina, fabrica, planta
There[der]=acolo
Here[hir]=aici
Free[fri:]=gratuit, liber
Letter(s)[ltr(z)]=scrisoare(scrisori)
Meeting[mi:ting]=sedinta, intrunire

Indoor= interior
Outdoor= exterior
Flame retardant= cu intarziere marita la
propagarea flacarii
Power energy distribution= distributia
energiei electrice
Fixed installations= instalatii fixe
Underground= impamantat,
metrou(engl)
Aluminium foil=folie de aluminiu
Copper tape= banda de cupru
Outer diameter= diametrul exterior
Single core=unifilar
Multicore= multifilar
Flexible cables= cabluri flexibile
Inner sheath= manta interioara

13

Obs.: adjectivele in limba engleza au forme invariabile de singular si plural, masculin,


feminin.
Exceptie fac: much=mult,multa si many=multi, multe
This[dis]= aceasta, acesta indica apropierea
That [dt]=acela, aceea- indica departarea
These[di:z]=acestea, acestia pentru apropiere
Those[duz]=aceia, acelea- pentru departare
Few[fiu]=cateva, cativa
Little[litl]=putin, putina
Traduceti in romana:
Who is this?=
Where are those?=
Whose are these?=
When is the show?=
What is there?=
Why is it free?=
How much is the wire?=
How high is the building?=
How low is the temperature?=
How long is the cable?=
How strong is the wave?=
How far is the factory?=
Traduceti in engleza:
Cine sunt aceia?=
Ei sunt domnul si doamna Smith.=
Ale cui sunt acestea?=
Ale cui sunt aceste scrisori?=
Cand este sedinta?=
Unde este fabrica?=
De ce este ?=
Cat costa cablul?=
Cat de sus este temperatura?=
Cat de buna este decizia?=
Cat de departe este uzina?=
Cat de puternic este semnalul?=
Cat de lung este firul?=
Ce este mantaua interioara?=
Cat costa banda de cupru si folia de aluminiu?
Vocabulary
Documents= documente
Key=cheie
Colleague = coleg
Step=pas

Career=cariera
Expensive=scump
Cheap=ieftin
Necessary= necesar

14

Interesting=interesant
Interested= interesat
Show on TV= emisiune la TV/ spectacol
de televiziune
Favourite= preferat
Apartment/flat=apartament
Bussiness= afacere
Letters=scrisori/ litere
For me =pentru mine

Client=client
Customer= client
Customs =vama
Idea= idee
Solution= solutie
Offer=oferta
Last offer= ultima oferta
Best= cel mai bun, cea mai buna

Traduceti si faceti conform modelului :


Este acesta domnul Brown?=Is this Mr. Brown?
Yes , this is Mr. Brown.
No , this isnt/ is not Mr. Brown.
Sunt acestea documentele voastre?=
Este acela colegul nostru?=
Este acesta un pas important in cariera ta?=
Este aceasta cheia de la biroul nostru?=
Este aceasta afacere buna pentru tine?=
Sunt aceste scrisori pentru mine?=
Sunt acesti domni(gentlemen) clientii nostri?=
Sunt aceste carti interesante?=
Este aceasta necesara?=
Sunt acele hartii importante?=
Este acel barbat seful tau?=
Este aceasta ideea ta?=
Este aceea cea mai buna solutie?=
Este aceasta ultima ta oferta?=

Can, must, may


Se numesc verbe modale sau modal defective.
Se aseamana cu verbele auxiliare prin faptul ca:
- se folosesc cu inca un verb
- isi fac singure negativul prin adaugarea negatiei not
- isi fac singure interogativul prin inversiune cu subiectul
Nu se aseamana cu auxiliarele in sensul ca:
- se traduc
- nu formeaza timpuri ci arata abilitatea, capacitatea, posibilitea etc ca o actiune
sa se intample
- nu au forma de infinitiv
- au aceesai forma la toate persoanele
15

au expresii verbale care le inlocuiesc la timpurile la care nu au forma


nu sunt niciodata urmate de to

can[chn]=be able[eibl] to= a putea, a fi in stare sa, a fi capabil sa


can not= cant[cant]= cannot[chn t]
may[mei]= be allowed[laud] to= be permitted[prmitid] to= a putea, a i se da voie, a-i fi
pemis
may not =maynt[meint]
must[mast]=have to=a trebui
must not=mustnt[masnt]
Vocabulary:
to read[ri:d]= a citi
to write[rait]= a scrie
to listen[lisn]= a asculta
to speak[spic]= a vorbi
to talk[t c]= a vorvi, a discuta
to ring[ring]= a suna
to accept[cspt]= a accepta
to sign[sain]= a semna

to meet[mi:t]= a intalni
to ask[asc]= a cere , a intreba, a ruga
to answer[ansr]= a raspunde
to test[tst]= a testa
to drink[drinc]= a bea
to put[put]= a pune
to hear[hir]= a auzi
to see[si:]= a vedea

Rooms can be bright or dark, large or small.


Houses may be big or small, high or low, new or old.
Persons may be young or old, strong or weak, fat or thin, tall or short.
Maountains may be high or low, young or old.
Streets may be long or short, wide or narrow.
Windows may be wide or narrow, open or shut.
Books may be open or shut, good or bad, thick or thin.
Tables may be round, oval, square or rectangular.
An exercise may be easy or difficult.
We are always present; we are never absent. We are always early; we are never late.
They may be merry or sad, happy or unhappy.
Traduceti :
She must accept the present.=
Can I see your project?=
Yes, you can.=
Can I take your dictionary?=
No, you cannot.=
Can he speak German?=
Must you sign the papers?=
No, I mustnt.=
Can they hear a sound?=
May I answer your question[cucin]?=

16

Pot sa inchid usa?=


Am voie sa inchid usa?
Pot sa va intreb ceva?
Am voie sa va intreb ceva?
Pot sa intru?
Am voie sa intru?
Pot sa deshid fereastra?
Am voie sa deschid fereastra?
Pot sa folosesc telefonul tau?
Am voie sa folosesc telefonul tau?
Pot sa iau loc?
Am voie sa iau loc?
Pot sa folosesc calculatorul tau?
Am voie sa folosesc calculatorul tau?
Trebuie sa terminam proiectul la timp.
Trebuie sa studiem pentru examen.
Trebuie sa vorbim despre contract.
Trebuie sa-si caute alta slujba.
Trebuie sa inveti engleza.
Poti sa ma ajuti?
Sigur ca pot.
Imi pare rau, nu pot.
Poti sa fi la timp acolo?
Probabil ca pot.
Imi pare rau , nu pot.
Poti sa-mi spui cat e ceasul?
Desigur ca pot.
Poti sa vorbesti cu John?
Nu pot, nu am timp.

Formule de salut:
Meeting people :cand te intalnesti cu lume
When you meet somenone:cand intalnesti pe cineva
Good morning=buna dimineata
Good afternoon= buna ziua
Good evening= buna seara
How are you?= Ce mai faceti?
How do you do= Incantat de cunostinta/ imi pare bine
Nice to meet you=Incantat de cunostinta/ imi pare bine
Hello = salut
Hi = buna, salut
When you part with somenone: cand te desparti de cineva
Good bye= la revedere
Good night= noapte buna
See you later= pe mai tarziu
17

See you soon= pe curand


See you= pa
Bye, bye= pa
Formulae of courtesy: formule de politete
Please = te rog, va rog
Thank you/ thanks= multumesc/merci
I am much obliged to you= va raman foarte indatorat
I am very grateful to you= va sunt foarte recunoscator
Answers to thank you= raspunsuri la multumesc
You are welcome= cu placere
Any time= oricand/ si alta data
It is my pleasure=e placerea mea
Dont mention it= n-ai pentru ce
When you apologize:cand iti ceri iertare
Excuse me =iertati-ma../ nu va suparati..
I am so sorry = imi pare asa de rau
I beg your pardon=va rog sa ma scuzati/ imi cer iertare
Please accept my apologies= va rog, acceptati scuzele mele
Answers to an apology: raspunsuri la o scuza
Never mind= nu-i nimic
Its OK= e in regula
Its all right= e in regula, nu-i nimic
Not at all= nu face nimic
Forget it= nu-i nimic, nu conteaza, las-o balta
When you dont understand: cand nu intelegi
I beg your pardon?= poftim?
Pardon me?=poftim
Sorry?= poftim
What did you say?= ce ati spus?
What?= ce?
Can you repeat, please?= Puteti repeta, va rog?
Please, can you speak a bit louder?= va rog, puteti vorbi putin mai tare?
Please, can you slow down a bit?= puteti vorbi un pic mai rar?
When you are late: cand intarzii
Im sorry Im late= imi pare rau ca am intarziat
Im sorry for keeping you waiting= imi pare rau ca v-am facut sa asteptati
Introducing people: cand prezinti pe cineva
What's your name?= Cum va numiti?
Who are you?= Cine sunteti dumneavoastra?
My name is ...=Numele meu este/ Ma numesc
I am ...= Eu sunt
My friends call me ...= Prietenii imi spun..
You can call me ...= Imi poti spune
Haven't we met (before)?= Nu ne-am mai intalnit(inainte)?

18

Yes, I think we have.= Cred ca da.


No, I don't think we have.= Nu, nu cred .
I think we've already met.= Cred ca deja ne-am intalnit/ ne cunoastem
I don't think we've met (before).= Nu cred ca ne-am mai intalnit inainte.
This is ...= Acesta este..
Meet ...= Ti-l prezint pe
Have you met ...?= V-ati intalnit?/ Va cunoasteti?
Nice to meet you. (informal)
Pleased to meet you.
How do you do? (formal)
Nice to see you.
Nice to see you again.
Health:
How are you?
How are you today?
Fine, thank you/thanks.
Not too bad.
Very well.
I'm okay / all right.
Not too well, actually.
What's wrong with you?
What's the matter with you?
Are you all right?
I'm tired
.
I'm exhausted
.
I've got a cold.
Congratulations : felicitari
Congratulations on the occasion of your promotion/ your success= felicitari cu ocazia
promovarii tale/ succesului tau
Happy birthday!= La multi ani!
Many happy returns of the day!=La multi ani!
A happy New Year!=La multi ani!/Un an nou fericit!
Merry Christmas!= Craciun fericit!
Happy Easter!=Paste fericit!
My best wishes!= cele mai bune urari
I wish you good luck/a Merry Christmas/ happiness= va doresc noroc/Craciun fericit /
fericire
Dear Jack,
On the occasion of this special day, your Birthday, let me send you my very best wishes
of happiness, good health and succes in everything you do!
May all your wishes come true, my dear friend!
Happy Birthday!
Yours truly,

19

Cynthia
Dear Ms. Spilt ,
We take great pleasure in congratulating you on your recent promotion to the position of
Marketing Director . We are sure that our excellent commercial relations will continue to
be as mutually beneficial and pleasant as before!
Dear Mr. Hush,
We would like to take the opportunity of the Winter holidays to wish you Merry
Christmas and a Happy New Year, as well as the best of luck in the new season when we
hope that our increased collaboration will strenghten to success of our both companies!
Yours sicerely,
Marina del Rosario
President of PHINMA
Traduceti si puneti la forma de interogativ si negativ propozitiile:
Frank is our partner.=

You are ready for the interview.=

The weather is good.=

Mr. Peterson is our consultant.=

Our strategy is modern.=

Their management is eficient.=

My plans are for a long period of time.=

20

Acesta este partenerul meu, domnul Brown=

Dosarele voastre sunt pe biroul acela=


Acestia sunt prietenii mei.=

Contractul acesta este foarte bun.=

Ce este aceea? Aceea este agenda ei.=

Acesta este numarul lui de telefon.=

Jobs:
Doctor/Medical doctor/Physician=medic
Engineer= inginer
Teacher=profesor
Professor=profesor universitar
Accountant=contabil
Chief accountant= contabil sef
P.C. operator= operator calculator
Secretary/ assistant= secretara
Programmer= programator
Economist= economist
Sales agent/ salesman=agent de vanzari
Businessman= om de afaceri
Architect= arhitect
Designer=proiectant
Fashion designer= creator de moda
Judge=judecator
Attorney= procuror
Lawyer=avocat
Legal adviser= consilier juridic

Sailor=marinar
Administrator= administrator
Financial administrator= gestionar
Weatherman/ weather forecaster =
meteorolog
Waiter=chelner
Waitress= chelnerita
Bartender=barman
Translator=translator
Shop assistant= vanzator
Actor/ actress= actor/ actrita
Film director= regizor
Cook=bucatar
Baker=brutar
Painter=pictor
Drawer=desenator
Office clerk= =functionar
Psychologist=psiholog
Psychiatrist= psihiatru

21

Scientist=om de stiinta
Shoemaker=pantofar
Policeman=politist
Hairdresser=coafeza
Editor=redactor
Mail clerk=functionar cu corespondenta

Miner=miner
Writer=scriitor
Sportsman=sportiv
Trainer/ coach= antrenor
Priest= preot

What is this table made of?


What is this table made of? This table is made of wood. It isnt made of steel. What may
watches be made of? Watches may be made of gold, silver, nickel, steel, or aluminium.
What is your watch made of? My watch is made of silver, it isnt made of gold.
What is her handbag made of? Her handbag is made of leather, it is not made of plastic
material.
What are books made of? Books are made of paper.
Is your dress made of silk, cotton or wool? My dress is made of wool. It isnt made of
silk.
Those houses are made of brick and stone. They are not made of concrete. Plates and
cups are made of china. The insulation of the cable is made of rubber.

The definite and indefinite article(articolul


hotarat si nehotarat)
Articolul nehotarat in engleza este a, an=un,o ; some= niste
A- [] se foloseste in fata cuvintelor ce incep cu consoana sau cu sunetelor
semiconsonatice (la pronuntie): iu , uo, u, i
An [n] se foloseste in fata cuvintelor ce incep cu vocala sau h mut
A car
A year
A university
A good year
Romania is a European country.

An umbrella
An hour
An actor
A good actor

Adjectivul se plaseaza in fata substantivului, intre articol si substantiv.


La plural : some=niste
Some sponsors
Some jokes
Some actors
Some keys
Articolul hotarat este the(d) atat la singular cat si la plural
Daca cuvantul incepe cu vocala sau h mut se pronunta [di]
Means of transport
The car
The bus

The trolley-bus
The auto

22

The train
The bike (bycicle)
The tram

The plane
The coach
=autocar

Obs. Cu meseriile se foloseste in mod obligatoriu a/an


He is an engineer.=El este inginer.
She is a teacher.= Ea este profesoara.
Exercise :
Transformati conform modelului folosind cuvintele de mai sus.
This is an engineer. This is a good engineer. The engineer is this.
Exercise :
1. un calculator, calculatorul
2. o imprimanta, imprimanta
3. un copiator, copiatorul
4. un telefon, telefonul
5. un fax, faxul
6. o lampa, lampa
7. un birou, biroul
8. un scaun, scaunul
9. o masa, masa
10. un fotoliu, fotoliul
11. o biblioteca, biblioteca
bookcase=biblioteca
Sensitivity= sensibilitate
To withstand= a se opune
Below= de mai jos
Spark gap= interval de scanteiere
Electrode= electrod
Link= plasa de sarma
Mesh=priza, plasa, a face priza
To pass through= a trece prin
Supply= furnizare
Fault= defect

12. un dosar, dosarul


13. un pix, pixul
14. o guma, guma
15. o rigla, rigla
16. un covor, covorul
17. o perdea, perdeaua
18. o vaza, vaza
19. o scrumiera, scrumiera
20. o femeie, femeia
To arrange= a aranja
Capacity= capacitate
To spark= a scanteia
Failure= defect, esec
Needle= ac
Twin= geaman
Dry= uscat
Wave= val, unda
Full value= valoare maxima
Breakdown= cadere, intrerupere
Capacitor= condensator

Prezentare generala verb


Un verb se da la forma de infinitiv lung, adica forma precedata de to.
Pentru un verb cele mai importante forme ale sale sunt:
Infinitivul - forma de baza de la care se pleaca pentru formarea prezentului,
viitorului, folosita impreuna cu verbele modale
Trecutul forma de trecut simplu
Participiul trecut-forma folosita la formarea timpurilor perfecte, sau la diateza pasiva

23

Verbele , din punct de vedere al celei de-a doua forme, se impart in 2 categorii:
regulate, neregulate. Pentru verbele regulate forma a doua si a treia sunt identice:verb+ed.
Pentru verbele neregulate cele trei forme se invata pe de rost.
Verbe regulate:
Verb
verb+ed
verb+ed
To help
Helped
Helped
To like
Liked
Liked
To look
Looked
Looked
To visit
Visited
Visited
Verbe neregulate:
Infinitive

Present

Past

Participle

Be

Am, is,
are

Was
were

been

Beat

Beat, -s

/bi:t/

become

Become,
-s

/b
became
'km/

/b
become
'kem/

/b 'km/

Begin

Begin,-s

/b
'gn/

/b
'gn/

begun

/b 'gn/

Bend

Bend,-s

/bend/ bent

/bent/

bent

Bind

Bind, -s

/band/ bound

Bite

Bite, -s

/bat/ bit

/bt/

bitten

/'btn/

A musca

Bleed

Bleed, -s

/bli:d/ bled

/bled/

bled

/bled/

A sangera

Blow

Blow, -s

/blou/ blew

/blu:/

blown

/bloun/

A sufla

Break

Break,
-s

/brek/ broke

/brouk/ broken

Bring

Bring, -s

/br/ brought

/br:t/ brought

/br:t/

A aduce

Build

Build, -s

/bld/ built

/blt/

/blt/

A construi

Burn

Burn,-s

/b:rn/ burnt

/b:rnt/ burnt

/b:rnt/

A arde

/b:rn/ burned

/b:rnd/ burned

/b:rnd/

A arde

Burn

beat

began

/bi:t/

beaten

/band/ bound

built

A fi
/'bi:tn/

A incepe
A indoi

/band/

A lega

/'broukn/

Buy,-s

/ba/

bought

/b:t/

bought

/b:t/

Catch

Catch,es

/kt/ caught

/k:t/

caught

/k:t/

Choose

Choose,- /tu:z/ chose

24

A deveni

/bent/

Buy

/touz/ chosen

A bate

A sparge, a
rupe

A cumpara
A prinde

/'touzn/ A alege

s
Come

Come, -s /km/ came

/kem/ come

/km/

A veni

Cost

Cost,-s

/kst/ cost

/kst/

cost

/kst/

A costa

Cut

Cur, -s

/kt/

cut

/kt/

cut

/kt/

A taia

Dig

Dig, -s

/dg/

dug

/dg/

dug

/dg/

A sapa

Exercise :
Scrieti formele care lipsesc ale verbelor:
To buy
To dig
To cut
To choose
To become
To beat
To bend
To cost
To bleed
To break
To burn
To bring
To blow
Anotimpurile, lunile anului, zilele saptamanii, ceasul
The seasons:
Spring= primavara
Summer= vara
The months of the year:
January
February
March
April
The days of the week:
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday

Autumn=toamna
Winter=iarna
May
June
July
August

September
October
November
December

25

There + to be cand apare in aceasta combinatie there nu se traduce


There is= este, exista, se afla
There are=sunt, exista, se afla
In limba engleza se scriu cu majuscule: I, zilele saptamanii, lunile anului, sarbatorile
legale, numele de popoare si nationalitatile.
Time=timp
Clock=ceas de masa sau de perete
Watch =ceas de mana
Weather= vreme
Tense= timp gramatical
Cloudy=innorat
Sunny=insorit
Stormy=de furtuna
Windy=cu vant, vantos
Snowy=cu ninsoare
Warm=cald ( timp de primavara)
Hot =cald, fierbinte(timp de vara)
Cold= rece, frig (timp de iarna)
Freezing=inghetat
Chilly=rece, umed si rece(timp de toamna)
Weather forecast= starea vremii

Expressing the time in English:


What time is it?= cat este ceasul?
What is the time?=cat este ceasul?
Your watch is five minutes slow.
Your watch is five minutes fast.

26

There are two common ways of telling the time.

Formal but easier way


Spunem orele si apoi minutele.(oficial)
Example: 7:45 - seven forty-five
Pentru minutele de la 01 la 09, putem pronunta '0' ca oh.
Example: 11:06 - eleven (oh) six

More popular way


Pentru ore fixe :
It is oclock.[A.M./P.M.].
Past=dupa, si = de obicei folosit pana la jumatate
To = pana la , fara
Quarter=sfert
Half=jumatate
It is ..minute past ora .[A.M./P.M.]
It is ..minute to ora .[A.M./P.M.]
In vorbirea curenta se folosesc 12 ore pentru exprimarea timpului. Pentru exprimarea
activitatilor programate conform unui orar (timetable) folosim sistemul cu 24 de
ore. Oricum, in vorbirea directa nu se folosesc 24 de ore decat daca se fac
anunturi oficiale.
17:20 It is twenty past five.
00:00 midnight
12:00 - midday sau noon
Pentru claritate se poate folosi : in the morning(0-12), in the afternoon(12-18), in the
evening(18, 21),at night.
Exercises :
Este ora 2 fix:
Este ora 2:15.
Este ora 3:25.
Este ora 4:17.
Este ora 5:23.
Este ora 18.32.

Este ora 19:45


Este ora 21:30.
Este ora 22:58
Este ora 23:52.
Este ora 12:00.
Este ora 24:00.
27

Este ora 13:26.


Este ora 14:11

Este ora 16:39.

Pluralul substantivelor(The plural of the nouns)


Pluralul substantivelor se face adaugand s la farsitul substantivului.
Se adauga es in unul din urmatoarele cazuri:
1. daca substantivul se termina in : s, z, x, sh, ch
box- boxes, fox- foxes, fax faxes, slash - slashes
2. pentru unele substantive terminate in o: echo= ecou, hero=erou, Negro=negru,
mosquito=tantar, cargo=incarcatura, tomato= tomatoes, potato -potatoes
Restul substantivelor terminate in o fac pluralul urmand regula generala:
Radio- radios, kilo kilos
3. 12 substantive terminate in f, fe fac pluralul transformand f/fe in v +es. Restul
substantivelor terminate in f/fe il fac adaugand s :
Elf, self,shelf,loaf, leaf,life, half, calf, wife, wolf, thief, knife
4. pentru substantivele terminate in Y precedat de consoana Y se transforma in I+
ES
cherry cherries, entry entries, copy -copies
dar: alloy- alloys, key -keys
5. substantive cu plural neregulat:
ox- oxen
child children
man men
woman women
foot feet

goose geese
tooth teeth
mouse mice
louse lice

numai cu forma de singular: fish , deer


numai cu forma de plural : news
Exercise: Scrieti alaturat pluralul cuvintelor
Vocabulary
Tyre- cauciuc de masina
Pipe= teava
Pressure= presiune
Chapter= capitol
Term=trimestru, termen
Booklet= brosura
Overhead line= linie aeriana
Feature= trasatura , caracteristica
Component= componenta

Property= proprietate
Line= linie
Transmission = transmisie
Discharge = descarcare
Radiation= radiatie
Power= putere, energie
Damage=paguba
Load= incarcatura
Stage= stadiu, scena
28

Screw= surub
Composite= amestec
Resin=rasina
Fibre=fibra
Housing= carcasa
Bending= indoire
Powder= praf, pudra
Layer= strat
Drawing= desen, schita
Shape= forma

Aim=scop
Manufacturing defect= defect de
fabricatie
Test report= raportul testului
Crack= crapatura
Accuracy= precizie
Failure= esec
Copper conductor= conductor de cupru
Nail= cui, unghie

Members of a Family
father
= tata
dad
= tata, tatic
mother
= mama
mum
, mummy
,
mom
(amerik.)= mamica
parent
= parinte
parents=parinti
child
= copil
children
= copii
son
=fiu
daughter
= fiica
brother
=frate
sister
= sora
grandfather
=bunic
granddad
, grandpa
= bunic
grandmother
=
bunica
grandma
, granny
=buni, bunica
grandson
= nepot
granddaughter
=nepoata
grandchild
= nepot
uncle
=unchi

aunt
=matusa
cousin
=var, verisoara
nephew
=nepot de unchi
niece
=nepoata de unchi
boyfriend
=prieten
girlfriend
=prietena
fianc
=logodnic
fiance
=logodnica
bride
= mireasa
groom, bridegroom
=mire
wife
=sotie
husband
=sot
spouse
=sotie/sot, partener
father-in-law
=socru
mother-in-law=soacra
parents-in-law=socri
son-in-law= ginere
daughter-in-law=nora
brother-in-law=cumnat
sister-in-law=cumnata
godfather
=nas
godmother=nasa
godson =fin
goddaughter=fina
godchild=fin

Exercise :
Faceti pluralul substantivelor de la vocabular.
Scrieti cuvintele opuse si forma de plural a lor:

29

1. mum - dad
2. brother 3. son 4. uncle 5. grandmother 6. granddaughter 7. nephew 8. wife 9. boyfriend 10. cousin

The equipment in the office


Electric &
electromic
equipment
Computer(PC)
Printer
Copier
Phone
Fax(machine)
Pocket calculator
Desk/wall lamp
Radio/TV set
Speakers
Wall watch
Air conditioner
Heater= calorifer
Furniture
Desk
Ergonomic chairs
Table
Coach/sofa
Bookcase

Peg
Hat tree
Mirror
Safe
Bookstand
Coffee table
Fireplace
Armchairs
Bar
Stationary items
(Sheets of) paper
file=dosar
file holder
Marker
Rubber
Ruler
Cutter
Glue
Stapler
Hole maker
Scissors

Stamp
agenda
folder= dosar
Carpet, rug
Curtains
Flower vase
Ashtray
Lighter
Calendar
Business card=
carte de vizita
Map
Fizzy/soft drinks
Cups
Glasses
Pictures
Organizational
chart
Label=eticheta

At the office
I work for a foreign trade company. I have a big office there. In the office there is
a desk with a chair, a black leather sofa, a red carpet and a bookcase. There are also two
large windows with white curtains. On the desk there is a lamp. There are also my files,

30

and some documents, five or six pens or pencils, a rubber, white sheets of paper, the
phone and a picture of my family. On the wall there is a large world map and a chart
which shows the evolution of our bussiness.
Sometimes I have visitors from outside the company (clients, parteners,
suppliers,agents) or from inside the company (meetings with subordinates, colleagues or
with my boss). My secretary makes the appointments.
Most of the time I am very busy but I am satisfied with my job.
Vocabulary:
Foreign trade= comert exterior
Leather= piele (prelucrata industrial)
Skin=piele (anatomic)
Sofa=canapea
chart=schema, grafic
sometimes=uneori, cateodata
subordinate=subordonat
supplier= furnizor
results=rezultate
Translate the text.

The office
Like most offices, my office is a place where I can concentrate on my work and feel
comfortable at the same time. Of course, I have all the necessary equipment on my desk.
I have the telephone next to the fax machine on the right side of my desk. My computer is
in the center of my desk with the monitor directly in front of me. I have a comfortable
office chair to sit on and a mouse pad between the computer and the telephone. In order
to help me read, I also have a lamp near my computer. There is plenty of paper in one of
the cabinet drawers. There are also staples and a stapler, paper clips, highlighters, pens
and erasers in the other drawer. In the room, there is a comfortable armchair and a sofa to
sit on. I also have a low table in front of the sofa on which there are some industry
magazines.
Choose the correct answer based on the reading.
1. What do I need to do in my office? ANSWER:
A) relax B) concentrate C) study D) read magazines
2. Which piece of equipment do I NOT have on my desk? ANSWER:
A) fax B) computer C) lamp D) photocopier
3. Where is the mouse pad located? ANSWER:
A) on the wall B) next to the lamp C) between the computer and the telephone D)
near the fax

31

4. Where do I keep the paperclips? ANSWER:


A) on the desk B) next to the lamp C) in a cabinet drawer D) next to the telephone
5.What do I keep on the table in front of the sofa? ANSWER:
A) company reports B) fashion magazines C) books D) industry magazines
Useful Vocabulary
Armchair=fotoliu
cabinet=dulap de birou
desk=pupitru, birou
drawer= sertar
equipment=echipament

furniture=mobila
highlighter=carioca de subliniat
laptop=laptop
paperclip=agrafa de birou
stapler=capsator

The Meeting
(Two workers in an office)
James: Hi Alice. How are you today?
Alice: Hi James. I'm fine, and you?
James: Great, thank you. Remember, the meeting is at 3 o'clock.
Alice: Excuse me, which meeting?
James: Which meeting?! The meeting with the boss!
Alice: Are you sure there is a meeting today?
James: Alice, Alice, every month there is a meeting with the boss. This month that
meeting is this afternoon.
Alice: Calm down. OK, there's a meeting this afternoon. What time is it?
James: Alice, this is important. The meeting is at three o'clock sharp!
Alice: Thank you James... By the way, what time is it now?
James: It's quarter past eleven.
Alice: It's time for lunch!
James: Lunch, now? Lunch time is at twelve.
Alice: Well, I'm hungry now.
James: You're funny Alice. This is an office.
Alice: I'm hungry ... it's just a snack ...

32

1. Which statement is true?

3 a.m.
3:15
3 p.m.

Alice isn't coming to the meeting.


Alice doesn't remember the meeting.
James isn't coming to the meeting.

4. Alice is _____.

2. How often do they have a meeting


with the boss?

hungry
thirsty
angry

Every week
Every month
Every year

5. What time is it?

3. When is the meeting?

Twelve o'clock
Three o'clock
11:15

The simple present tense

Se foloseste pentru a arata


actiuni generale, repetate, obisnuite care se petrec pe o perioada de timp prezenta.
La afirmativ: Subiect+ verb la infinitiv scurt+.
Pentru persoana a III-a singular (he, she, it) sa adauga s, es la finalul verbului pentru a
face acordul. Astfel:
1 . se adauga s ca regula generala : He writes; She manages; It barks.
2. se adauga es daca verbul se termina in O, S, Z, X, SH, CH: She goes; He does, She
washes.
3. daca verbul se termina in Y precedat de consoana atunci y->I si + es
To copy : She copies; to fly: It flies.

33

Affirmative
I/you/we/they I play.
he/she/it
He plays.

negative
I do not play.
He does not play.

question
Do I play?
Does he play?

Pentru formarea negativului si interogativului folosim auxiliarul to do:


Prezent simplu negativ:
Subiect+ do/does+ not+ verb la infinitiv scurt
Prezent simplu interogativ :
Do/ does + subiect + verb la infinitiv scurt+.?
Exercitiu: Formati propozitii la present simplu:
1. I / to collect stamps I collect stamps.
2. we / to produce cables 3. he / to lead the team4. the company / to pays the rate of freight (pretul transportului) 5. we / to calculate the wholesale price (pretul cu ridicata) 6. Andy and John / to like to study market economy7. the company /to be bankrupt(falimentata) last year8. they / to help their parteners 9. the workers / not to speak English 10. I / to buy a an industrial magazine every Saturday Puneti propozitiile la interogativ si negativ:.
I watch TV. ,Do you watch T.V.?; I dont watch T.V.
We import goods. It is boring. She wants to know the market price. You work on the computer every weekend. Sandy is a good technologist. They open the parcels. He buys a new CD. It is good to be punctual. Our partener is interested in this project . Traduceti in limba engleza:
34

1. Ce vrei?
2. Unde te duci in weekend?
3. Ce calificare ai?(qualification)
4. Ce limba vorbesti?
5. Unde locuiesti?(to live)
6. Cand mergi la conferinta?(conference)
7. Ce fonduri aveti? (funds= fonduri)
8. Cand terminati proiectul?
Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii, apoi inlocuiti persoana I cu persoana a III-a singular:
1. Eu vorbesc engleza si franceza.
2. Eu locuiesc in Bucuresti.
3. Eu ma duc la serviciu cu autobuzul.(to go to office = a merge la munca)
4. Eu vorbesc engleza foarte bine.
5. La servici lucrez pe calculator.(at office)
6. Eu fac un contract in fiecare luna.
7. Eu am multi prieteni.
8. Eu am cursuri de engleza in fiecare zi.(English classes).
9. Eu citesc mult in timpul liber.
10. Eu ma uit la TV in fiecare seara.
Puneti intrebari in asa fel incat cuvintele scrise ingrosat sa fie raspunsul:
Julia likes making jokes. What does Julia like?
Maria comes from Spain. They talk to the manager in hall of the company. -

35

Many wholesalers(en-grosisti) dont work on Saturdays. We go to Mallorca because it is warm there.. Joe wants his credit card. Robin drives his car carefully. Peter reads the newspapers every day. Cuvinte ce se folosesc cu prezentul simplu:

always= intotdeauna
every ...= in fiecare
often= des, adesea
normally= normal, in mod normal
usually= de obicei
sometimes= uneori
seldom= uneori, mai rar, cateodata
never= niciodata

Cold preasure but-welding= sudare prin


presare la rece
Tensile strenght= forta de intindere
To fulfill= a indeplini
Agreement= intelegere, acord
Suitable= corespunzator
To grease= a gresa
To cover= a acoperi
Coating= invelis
Right- handed= spre dreapta
Corrosion= coroziune, erodare
To permit= a permite
Rod=bara
Joint= incheietura, imbinare
Evenly= in mod egal distribuit

Mass= masa
Dirty= murdar
Oil=ulei
Grit= granulatie, nisip grosier, pietris fin
Deposit= depunere
Completion= complectare
To remain= a ramane
Group= grup
DC= curent continuu
AC= curent alternativ
Factory length= lunfime de fabricatie
Shape= forma
Average= medie
Displacement= dispozitie, amplasare
To reveal= a pune in evidenta
To emboss= a imprima
Sample= mostra
Each= fiecare
Armour= armura, armatura

Zinc coating= invelis de zinc


Closely stranded= strans cablate
To require= a cere
To strand= a cabla
Outermost= cel mai dinafara
To connect= a conecta
Error= eroare
36

To place= a plasa
To check= a verifica
To substract= a scadea
Excentricity= excentricitate
Purchaser= beneficiar
To exceed= a intrece
Periphery= periferie
To reinforce= a intari , a arma
Overhead= aerian
Purpose= scop
Outer= exterior
Hard drawn= trefilat
Helix= elice
Turn= tura, rand
To depend= a depinde
To hold= a tine

Present continuous tense


(Timpul prezent continuu)
Prezentul continuu arata o actiune in desfasurare in momentul prezent, sau o actiune de
scurta durata.

Forma : to be conjugat la prezent + verb+ ing


Verbul to be este verb auxiliar si ajuta atat la formarea afirmativului , cat si la formarea
negativului si interogativului.
Afirmativ:
Subiect+ to be + verb+ ing.

37

Negativ :
Subiect + to be + not+ verb+ ing.
Interogativ:
To be + subiect+ verb+ ing?
affirmative
negative
question
I
I am talking.
I am not talking
Am I talking?
he, she, it
He is talking.
He is not talking
Is he talking?
you, we, they You are talking. You are not talking. Are you talking?
Ortografia participiului prezent: verb+ing
1 . In general se adauga ing la sfarsitul formei de infinitiv scurt al verbului
2. Daca verbul se termina in e , e-se taie + ing
To move--- moving
Exceptie de la aceasta regula fac verbele: to be, cele terminate in ee, oe, ye
To be--- being, to see ---seeing
3. Daca verbul se termina in ie , ie se transforma in Y +ing
To die--- dying
4. Daca verbul se termina in c, ic atunci se adauga K+ing
To picnic-picnicking
5. Daca verbul se termina in consoana precedata de vocala accentuata atunci consoana
finala se dubleaza si apoi se adauga ing.
To sit sitting

Exercitii:
Complectati tabelul cu forma corecta a verbului:

affirmative
I am working.

negative

38

question

you
He is signing the
documents

He
she
It

Are we complainig
about the retail
price?(pret cu
amanuntul)

we
you
they

Folositi cuvintele de mai jos pentru a face propozitii la timpul prezent continuu:
I / to read a newspaper I am reading a newspaper.
it / to rain he / to repair his car they / to watch news on TV Jane and Emily / to work hard on the projectBill / to wait at the bus stop we / to listen to the radio the market price/ to rise too high Transformati propozitiile de mai jos in propozitii negative:
I am watching TV. I am not watching T.V.
I am talking. They are working on a project He is opening the window. Angela is cleaning the office. Faceti intrebari cu cuvintele de mai jos:

39

Peter / to go / to the cinema Is Peter going to the cinema?


they / to learn/ English she / to listen /to the radio I / to translate they / to pack / their bags we / to talk / too slow they / to clean / the windows she / to watch / the news -

Transformati Present Simple in Present Continuous(schimband si adverbul de timp


NOW, RIGHT NOW, IN THIS MOMENT)
Ex: I speak on the phone every day-> I am speaking on the phone right now.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

My neighbour washes his car every Sunday


We play tennis every afternoon.
You never watch TV but you listen to the radio.
My secretary sends faxes every day.
Mr. And Mrs. Jones take a walk every evening.
I talk to my parents very often.
Barbara works on the computer every day at the office.
My boss organizes press conferences every month.

Scrieti formele interogative, negative si integogativ-negative ale urmatoarelor propozitii:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Miss Keits is playing the piano.


It is raining.
Our Director is speaking in the conference hall with the guests.
Andy is preparing his interview for the new job.
The phone is ringing.
The manager is talking to his assistant.
The weather is changing.

Traduceti folosind Present Simple (in general) sau Present Continuous (acum):

40

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Mario este italian dar vorbeste engleza foarte bine.


Ce mai faceti d-le OBrien?
Mike, ce faci acolo? Ai nevoi de ajutor?(to need= a avea nevoie)
In fiecare zi ea se duce la serviciu cu autobuzul.
Domnul Benton vorbeste acum la telefon cu directorul de vanzari.
Ploua si este foarte frig.
Aceasta afacere este foarte importanta pentru firma noastra.
Lui Tony ii place sa joace basket.
Lucrez pe calculator acum;nu am timp sa discut cu el.

Faceti intrebari astfel incat expresiile sau cuvintele scrise ingrosat sa fie raspunsul:
Ashley is going to a restaurant. Where is Ashley going?
Gareth is reading the paper. Stacey is repairing the heating system. She is wearing a red jacket. Britney is doing her job Mandy is leaving at nine. Amanda is going out with Dan. They are meeting at two o'clock. Sandy is looking for Phil.

Scrieti forma in ing pentru urmatoarele verbe acordand atentie regulilor de ortografiere:
1. make - making
2. have 3. sit 4. run 5. lie 6. stop 7. model 8. get 9. travel
10. tie 1. He / to get / pretty nervous He is getting pretty nervous.

41

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

She / to write / a letter We / not / to work They / to argue He / to travel / a lot She / to enter / the building
to complain=a se plange, a se lamenta
to get a promotion=a obtine o promovare

Cuvinte folosite cu prezentul continuu(progresiv)


at the moment= in acest moment
now / just now / right now= acum/ chiar acum
Listen!= asculta!
Look!= priveste!
The meals of the day
Breakfast = mic dejun
Lunch= pranz
Dinner=cina (ora 18-20)
Supper = cina(ora 21-22)

Cateva verbe neregulate


did

/dd/

done

/dn/

/dru:/

drawn

/dr:n/

/dremt/ dreamt

/dremt/

Do es

/du:/

draw
s

/dr:/ drew

Dream
s

/dri:m/ dreamt

Dream
s

/dri:m/ dreamed /dri:md/ dreamed

/dri:md/

Drink
/drk/ drank
s

/drk/ drunk

/drk/

Drive
s

/drouv/ driven

/'drvn/

/et, et/ eaten

/'i:tn/

Eat s

/drav/ drove
/i:t/

ate

42

A face
A desena
A visa
A visa
A bea
A conduce
A manca

Fall s

/f:l/

fell

/fel/

fallen

Feed s

/fi:d/

fed

/fed/

fed

/fed/

A se hrani

Feel s

/fi:l/

felt

/felt/

felt

/felt/

A simti

Fight
s

/fat/ fought

/f:t/

fought

/f:t/

Find s /fand/ found

/fand/ found

/'f:ln/ A cadea

/fand/

A(se) lupta
A gasi

Fly
flies

/fla/ flew

Forget
s

/fr
'get/

forgot

Forgive
s

/fr
'gv/

forgave

Freeze
s

/fri:z/ froze

Get s

/get/

got

/gt/

got

Get s

/get/

got

/gt/

gotten

Give s

/gv/

gave

/gev/

given

Go
-goes

/gou/ went

/went/ gone

Grow
s

/grou/ grew

/gru:/

grown

/groun/

Hang
s

/h/ hung

/h/

hung

/h/

Have
has

/hv/ had

/hd/

had

/hd/

Hear s

/hr/ heard

/h:rd/ heard

/h:rd/

A auzi

Hide s

/had/ hid

/hd/

/'hdn/

A ascunde

/flu:/

flown

/floun/

/fr 'gt/ forgotten /fr 'gtn/


/fr
'gev/

forgiven

/frouz/ frozen

hidden

/fr
'gvn/
/'frouzn/

A zbura
A uita
A ierta
A ingheta

/gt/

A obtine

/'gtn/

A obtine

/'gvn/ A da
/gn/

A merge
A creste
A atarna
A avea

Complectati cu forma de infinitiv, prezent, participiu prezent, trecut, participiu


trecut:
Infinitiv

To do

Prezent

Trecut

Do, does

did

Participiul
Prezent
Participiul
trecut
continuu
prezent
(he,she,it)
done

43

doing

Is doing

A face

to draw

Draw, draws

drew

Drawn

drawing

Is drawing

A desena
A visa
A visa
A bea
A conduce
A manca
A cadea
A se hrani
A simti
A(se) lupta
A gasi
A zbura
A uita
A ierta
A ingheta
A obtine
A obtine
A da
A merge
A creste
A atarna
A avea
A auzi
A ascunde

Transportation words, means of transport:

44

Car=masina
pick up truck=camioneta
truck=camion
truck tank= cisterna
motorcycle=motocicleta
airplane=avion
jet=avion cu reactie
bus=autobus
train=train
bicycle= bike=bicicleta
van=dubita
tractor=tractor
trolley bus=troleu
tram=tramvai
tube/underground=metrou

45

Asking and Giving Directions


To turn (the first ) to the right/left=ia-o (prima) la stanga/ dreapta
How do I get to ?= Cum ajung la?
What's the best way to ?= Care e cel mai bun drum la?
Where is ?= Unde este?
Go straight on (until you come to ).= Mergi drept inainte pana ce ajungi la
Turn back./Go back.= mergi inapoi; intoarce-te
Turn left/right (into -street).- ia-o la stranga/ dreapta (in strada)
Go along .=mergi de-a -lungul
Cross = traverseaza
Take the first/second road on the left/right= ia-o prima / a doua strada la
stanga/dreapta
It's on the left/right.= E pe stanga/ Dreapta
straight
on= direct inainte
opposite
=vizavi
near
=langa
next to=langa
between
= intre
at the end (of)=la sfarsit
on/at the corner=la colt
behind
= in spatele
in front of= in fata
(just) around the corner= tocmai dupa colt
traffic lights= semafor
crossroads, junction
= intersectie
signpost
=semn de circulatie
Police= politie
Shop= magazin
Supermarket= supermagazin
Cinema= cinematograf
Station= gara
Bus station= statie de autobus

Hospital= spital
Market= piata
Park= parc
Church= biserica
Post Office= posta

Exercise on Asking and Giving Directions


1.For each question choose the one correct answer.:
1: If you go up to the fifth floor, you'll find his office ____ your right as you come out
the elevator.
a: on
b: in
c: by
2: Go to the end of the road and ____ left by the traffic lights.
a: bend

b: turn
c: twist
3: _____ a right just after the supermarket.
a: Have
b: Take
c: Give
4: You ____ his house, it's painted bright pink!
a: cant find
b: cant miss
c: can't lose
5: Go ____ on to the end of the road.
a: straight
b: near
c: towards
2.Traduceti:
1. Excuse me. Is there a grocery store Yeah. There's one right across the street.
around here?
Sorry. I don't live around here.
2. Can you tell me how to get to the police?
It's on the corner of Holly and Vine. Next
3. Where's supermarket?
to the library.

4. How do you get to the bank?

Go straight down this street for two


blocks. Turn left when you get to Maple
Street. Stay on Maple for half a block.
It's on the left hand side.

3.Whats the best way to the post office?


Excuse me, where is the post office, please?
.at the next corner.
Then ..until you come to the traffic lights.
..there.
The post office is ..the cinema.

4.Where is the Post Office:

A: Hello, excuse me, can you tell me how to get to the nearest Post Office?
B: Erm, yea, sure you go straight up this street. Take the second turn on the right. Keep
going along there, across one junction, and its right there on your left.
A: Thanks
B: Oh, no, hang on, wait a minute, theres a closer one. Walk up this street, take the first
left
and theres a Post Office on your right at the next junction, sorry, I forgot about that one.
A: Thanks again
Purchaser= cumparator
To measure= a masura
Manufacturer= producator
Multicore= multifilar
Unarmoured cable= cablu nearmat
Lay= strat
Copper wire armour= armatura din
Plain= plat, plan
sarma de cupru
Bedding= strat
Galvanized steel wire= sarma de otel
Sheath= manta
galvanizat
To strand= a cabla
Marking= marcaj
To shape= a da forma
Either= unul sau altul; fiefie
In accordance= in conformitate
Binder=liant
To fall= a cadea
Annealed=calire, recoacere
Body= corp
To comply= a fi in conformitate cu
Average= medie
Filler= material de umplutura
Homogenous= omogen
To strip= a indeparta
To meet the requirements= a indeplini
Damage= paguba
cerintele
To damage= a strica, a distruge
To set out= a stabili
To consist= a fi alcatuit din
Copper= cupru
Thickness= grosime
Nominal tolerance= toleranta nominala

Future simple tense (viitor simplu)


Folosit pentru a exprima ideea de viitor sau decizii luate in momentul vorbirii:
Verbul auxiliar folosit este will (shall pentru I/ We dar numai in scris)
Afirmativ :
Subiect+ will+ verb la infinitiv scurt
We shall translate this text.
We will translate this text. In vorbirea directa este corecta si aceasta exprimare.
Forma prescurtata pentru shall sau will este ll
We ll translate this text.

Negativ :
Subiect+ will +not+ verb la infinitiv scurt
We shall not translate this text.
We will not translate this text.
Forma prescurtata : shall not= shant; will not= wont
Interogativ :
Will + subiect+ verb la infinitiv scurt .?
Will we translate this text?
Expresii sau cuvinte ce insotesc viitorul:
Next week
Next month ..
Tomorrow
Next summer
Exercises:
Rewrite the following present tense sentences in the future tense by using
will.
1. Every week the administrator buys new stationery supplies.(next
week)
2. Two times a month we have a general meeting with the entire staff of
the company.(on Monday)
3. Claude sends a sales report by e-mail every Wednesday(next
Wednesday)
4. I visit them when I have time. (on Christmas)
5. I always try to be on time for my meetings.(the day after tomorrow)
6. We are not home on time.
7. Do you recognize him?
8. The men work many hours.
9. She flies to London every year.(next month)

10.Every day I go to the office by car.(tomorrow)

Translate:
1. Eu voi servi o prajitura si un suc. Tu ce vei servi? (to have= a servi, a avea)
2. Daca am timp maine voi participa la sedinta. (to participate= a participa; the day
after tomorrow= poimaine)
3. Ce veti face maine la negocierea cu noii dumneavoastra parteneri? (negociation=
negociere)
4. Ce veti face maine la targ? (fair=1. targ; 2. corect 3. balai, blond)
5. Peste doua luni vom participa la licitatie. (in two months= peste 2 luni; auction=
licitatie)
6. Vom discuta termenii contractului intr-o saptamana. (in a week= intr=o
saptamana)
7. Zambeste, maine va fi mai rau.(to smile= a zambi, worse= mai rau)
Scrieti forma interogativa, negativa si interogativ-negativa pentru urmatoarele
propozitii:
Your boss will meet the representatives of P&G the day after tomorrow.

She will read all these projects if she has enough time.

The accountant will check again all the figures on the payroll.(payroll stat de plata)

They will come to the party if we invite them.

You will make all the arrangements for the presentation of our new products.

The company will cover all the expenses of the business trip.

Prepozitions:
English
on

in

Usage
days of the week
months / seasons
time of day
year

after a certain period of


time (when?)
for night

at

since

for

ago

before

to
past
to /
till /
until
till /
until

Example
on Monday

in August / in winter
in the morning
in 2006

in an hour

at night

for weekend

at the weekend

a certain point of time (when?)


from a certain point of time
(past till now)
over a certain period of
time (past till now)
a certain time in the past
earlier than a certain point
of time
telling the time
telling the time

at half past nine

marking the beginning and


end of a period of time

in the sense of how long


something is going to last

since 1980

for 2 years

2 years ago

before 2004

ten to six (5:50)


ten past six (6:10)

from Monday to/till Friday

He is on holiday until
Friday.

English

Usage

in the sense of at the latest

up to a certain time

by

Example
I will be back by 6 oclock.
By 11 o'clock, I had read
five pages.

De loc pozitie si directie


English

in

in the kitchen, in London


in the book
in the car, in a taxi

in the picture, in the world

at the door, at the station


at the table
at a concert, at the party

at the cinema, at school, at


work

place where you are to do


something typical (watch a
film, study, work)
attached
for a place with a river
being on a surface
for a certain side (left,
right)
for a floor in a house
for public transport

the picture on the wall


London lies on the
Thames.
on the table
on the left
on the first floor
on the bus, on a plane

for television, radio

on TV, on the radio

left or right of somebody


or something

Jane is standing by / next


to / beside the car.

on the ground, lower than


(or covered by) something
else
lower than something else
but above ground
covered by something else
meaning more than

the bag is under the table

the temperature is below 0

put a jacket over your shirt


over 16 years of age

at

on

by, next
to,
beside

under

below

over

Example

Usage
room, building, street,
town, country
book, paper etc.
car, taxi

picture, world
meaning next to, by an
object
for table
for events

English

above

across

through

to

into

towards

onto

from

Usage
getting to the other side
(also across)
overcoming an obstacle
higher than something
else, but not directly over
it
getting to the other side
(also over)
getting to the other side
something with limits on
top, bottom and the sides
movement to person or
building
movement to a place or
country

for bed

enter a room / a building

movement in the direction


of something (but not
directly to it)
movement to the top of
something
in the sense of where from

Example

walk over the bridge

climb over the wall

above all expectations

walk across the bridge

swim across the lake

drive through the tunnel

go to the cinema
go to London / Ireland

go to bed

go into the kitchen / the


house

go 5 steps towards the


building

jump onto the table

a flower from the garden

Alte prepozitii importante


English
from

by

what does it show


who made it
walking or riding on
horseback

the picture of a palace


a book by Mark Twain

on foot, on horseback

entering a public transport


vehicle
entering a car / Taxi
leaving a public transport

get on the bus

get in the car


get off the train

on

Example
a present from Jane
a page of the book

of

Usage
who gave it
who/what does it belong to

in
off

English

Usage

Example

vehicle

out
of
by
at

leaving a car / Taxi

get out of the taxi

rise or fall of something

prices have risen by 10


percent

travelling (other than


walking or horseriding)
for age
for topics, meaning what
about

by car, by bus
she learned Russian at 45

we were talking about you

about

Exercise on Prepositions Place


Fill the gaps with the correct prepositions.
1. We live -----------London.
2. Would you like to go -----------the cinema tonight?
3. No, thanks. I was -----------the cinema yesterday.
4. We are going -----------holiday next week.
5. There is a bridge -----------the river.
6. The flight from Leipzig to London was -----------Frankfurt.
7. -----------my wall, there are many picture postcards.
8. Who is the person -----------this picture?
9. Come -----------the sitting room, we want to watch TV.
10. Munich lies 530 meters -----------sea level.
Cateva verbe neregulate
Have has /hv/ had

/hd/ had

/hd/ A avea

Hear s

/hr/ heard

/h:rd/ heard

/h:rd/ A auzi

Hide s

/had/ hid

/hd/

hidden

/'hdn/ A ascunde

/ht/

hit

Hit s

/ht/

hit

/ht/

A lovi

Hold -s

/hould/ held

/held/ held

/held/ A tine

Hurt s

/h:rt/ hurt

/h:rt/ hurt

/h:rt/ A rani

Keep s

/ki:p/ kept

/kept/ kept

/kept/ A tine

Know s

/nou/ knew

/nu:/

/noun/ A sti

Lay s

/le/

/led/ laid

laid

known

/led/ A intinde

Lead s

/li:d/

led

/led/

led

Learn s

/l:rn/ learnt

Learn

/l:rn/ learned /l:rnd/ learned /l:rnd/ A invata

Leave s

/li:v/

left

/left/

left

/left/

A pleca

Lend s

/lend/ lent

/lent/

lent

/lent/

A da
cuimprumut

/let/

A lasa, a
permite

/l:rnt/ learnt

/led/

A conduce

/l:rnt/ A invata

Let s

/let/

let

/let/

let

Lie s

/la/

lay

/le/

lain

/len/ A se intinde

Lose s

/lu:z/ lost

/lst/

lost

/lst/

Make s

/mek/ made

/med/ made

A pierde

/med/ A face

Scrieti formele verbelor


Present
simple

Past simple

Past participle

Translation
A auzi
A ascunde
A lovi
A tine
A rani
A tine
A sti
A intinde
A conduce
A invata
A invata
A pleca
A da cuimprumut
A lasa, a permite

A se intinde
A pierde
A face

GRADELE DE COMPARATIE ALE


ADJECTIVELOR
GRADUL POZITIV: happy, good, tall, thin,
GRADUL COMPARATIV DE INFERIORITATE
Not as ..adj..as = nu la fel de..ca
Less .adjthan= mai putin .decat
Example: John is not as tall as Arnie.
GRADUL COMPARATIV DE EGALITATE
As ..adj. as= la fel de.adj ca
Example: Jane is as tall as John.
GRADUL COMPARATIV DE SUPERIORITATE
Pentru adjective scurte formate din 1-2 silabe se formeaza adaugand ER la sfarsitul
adjectivului.
Tall taller, thinthinner
Pentru adjective lungi, polisilabice, se formeaza punand more in fata adjectivului:
More intelligent, more beautiful
Than= decat
GRADUL SUPERLATIV RELATIV
DE SUPERIORITATE
Pentru adjective scurte formate din 1-2 silabe se formeaza adaugand EST la sfarsitul
adjectivului.
Tall the tallest, thinthe thinnest
Pentru adjective lungi, polisilabice, se formeaza punand the most in fata adjectivului:
The most intelligent, the most beautiful
DE INFERIORITATE:
The least + adjectiv.
The least important= cel mai putin important
The least valuable= cel mai putin valoros

GRADUL SUPERLATIV ABSOLUT


Adjectivul e precedat de unul dintre cuvintele:
Very
Extremely
Extraordinarily etc..
Very thin, very tall,
Reguli de adaugare er/ est:
-daca adjectivul se termina in e- e se taie si se adauga er/ est
Late-later-the latest
- daca adjectivul se termina in y precedat de consoana y devine i si se adauga er/ est
Easy easier- the easiest
- daca adjectivul se termina in consoana precedat de vocala accentuata , atunci se
dubleaza consoana finala si se adauga er/est
Thin- thinner-the thinnest
Urmatoarele adjective au grade neregulate de comparatie:

positive form
Good
bad / ill
little (amount)
little (size)
much / many
far (place + time)
far (place)
late (time)
late (order)
near (place)
near (order)
old (people and things)
old (people)

comparative
form
better
worse
Less
smaller
More
Further
Farther
Later
Latter
Nearer
Older
Elder

superlative
form
best
worst
least
smallest
most
furthest
farthest
latest
last
nearest
next
oldest
eldest

Scrieti gradele de comparatie pentru urmatoarele adjective:


Small
Late
Difficult
Strong
Quick
Busy
Noisy

Close
Silly

Fill in the correct form of the words in brackets (comparative or superlative).


1. My house is (big) bigger than yours.
2. This flower is (beautiful) -----------than that one.
3. This is the (interesting) -----------book I have ever read.
4. Non-smokers usually live (long) -----------than smokers.
5. Which is the (dangerous) -----------animal in the world?
6. A holiday by the sea is (good) -----------than a holiday in the mountains.
7. It is strange but often a coke is (expensive) -----------than a beer.
8. Who is the (rich) -----------woman on earth?
9. The weather this summer is even (bad) -----------than last summer.
10. He was the (clever) -----------thief of all.
Translate:
1. Arnold este mai inalt decat John
2. Sugestia dumneavoastra este foarte interesanta si o vom lua in considerare.
3. Aceasta problema este mai putin importanta, o vom discuta mai tarziu.
Transform : Alice/smart/Joe- Alice is smarter than Joe; Joe is less smart than Alice
1.
2.
3.
4.

the Black Sea/deep/ the Red Sea


An armchair/ confortable/ a chair
Jack / polite/ Frank
New York/ big/ Paris

Viitorul continuu (Future continuous)


Se formeaza cu ajutorul auxiliarului to be + VB+ing, la fel ca toate timpurile
continue. To be se pune la viitor: will/shall be
Negativul se face prin adaugarea lui not la auxiliar: will not= wont, shall not= shant
Interogativul se face prin inversiune auxiliar subiect.
Timpul arata o actiune in desfasurare intr-un moment sau perioada de timp din viitor.
Se foloseste cu adverbe sau locutiuni adverbiale ce arata un moment de timp viitor.
Afirmativ:
I will/shall be teaching English by 10 oclock on Wednesday morning
In the first person, will is more usual than shall, except in the interrogative.
Negativ

I will/shall not be teaching English by 10 oclock Wednesday morning.


I wont/shant be teaching English by 10 oclock Wednesday morning.
Interogativ
Will you be teaching English by 10 oclock Wednesday morning?
Where will you be teaching English by 10 oclock Wednesday morning?
Wont you be teaching English by 10 oclock Wednesday morning?
Alte modalitati de exprimare a viitorului:
Future simple: will/ shall+verb= > folosit pentru a arata ideea de viitor, predictii
despre vreme, decizii luate in momentul vorbirii.
I ll bring you a glass of water!
Be going to+ verb=> viitorul de intentie, arata intentia vorbitorului.
Is he going to lecture in English?
Be on the point of + vb + ing= a fi pe punctul de a
Be on the verge of+ vb + ing= a fi pe punctul de a
Be to+ verb= a fi pe punctul de a
Prezent simplu: pentru a arata actiuni prezente/viitoare : in programari oficiale
The train leaves at seven. (decizie, program oficial)
Prezentul continuu cu valoare de viitor : arata actiuni viitoare PLANIFICATE de
vorbitor: I am leaving tomorrow morning. (decizia vorbitorului)
Exercise :
Inlocuiti Future Simple (will+vb) cu expresia BE GOING TO +VB in urmatoarele
propozitii:
Example: I will call Sam later-> I am going to call Sam later.
1. The president will sign the document next week.
2. The meeting will be canceled.
3. The course will be extended.(to extend a prelungi)
4. We will work more hours during the promotional campaign.
5. They will come back earlier.
6. Mr. Von Hayden will become our project director in October.
7. I will introduce you to my team members.
8. The new product will be a success on the Romanian market.

Trecutul verbelor auxiliare: to be, to have, to do


To be , was/were, been
To have, had, had
To do, did, done
Acestea sunt cele 3 forme importante ale verbelor: infinitiv, trecut simplu, participiu
trecut.
Trecutul verbelor il reprezinta forma a doua.
To be la trecut : was ---pentru I/ he/ she/ it

Werepentru restul persoanelor


La negativ: was not=wasnt; were not= werent
To have la trecut are o singura forma folosita la toate persoanele: had
La negativ : had not= hadnt
To do la trecut: did
La negativ: did not= didnt
Unitati de masura
Inch [in] = 2.54 cm
Foot [ft] =12 in= 0.3048 m
Yard [yd] =3 ft= 0.9144 m
Mile =1760 yd= 1.6093 km
Nautical Mile =2025.4 yd =1.852 km
Nationalitati(scrise cu majuscula)
America- American
France- French
Spain Spanish,Spaniard
China- Chinese
Hungary- Hungarian
Holland- Dutch

Verbele modale , numite si modal defective, nu au forme la toate persoanele


si de aceea la trecut se inlocuiesc si cu expresiile:
Can, could, could
Was/ were able to- poate inlocui pe can la trecut
May, might(rar folosit la trecut), Was/ were permitted to -poate inlocui pe may la trecut
Must , -, Had to -- inlocuieste pe must la trecut
Exercises:
Traduceti :
1. Numai tu poti semna contractul.
2. A trebuit sa studiezi pentru examen.
3. El putea vorbi olandeza.
4. Ea a fost in stare sa tina un discurs in fata multimii. (to hold a speech= a tine un
discurs; Crowd=multime)
5. Noi am fost acolo.
6. Ei au avut succese.(to be successful)

7. Anul trecut domnul String era Directorul General al acelei firme(company).


Alternatively- alternativ
To subject= a supune
Resistivity test= test de rezistenta
Compliance= corespunzator
To desire= a dori
Wrapping test= test de infasurare
To request= a cere
To furnish=a furniza
Test de tensiune(rupere)= tensile test
Test de infasurare= wrapping test
Test de galvanizare= galvanizing test
compound= componenta
Primarily=initial, la inceput
To be designed= a fi destinat
Suitable= corespunzator
Within= interior
Lighting fitting= dispozitiv de iluminare
Flexing= incovoiere, flexibilitate
Rated voltage= tensiune nominala
Below=sub, mai, jos
Appliance=aplicare, adaptare
To vulcanize= a vulcaniza
Annealed= calit, recopt
To pass= a trece

Intended= proiectat
Envisaged=prevazut, preconizat
To twist= a rasuci, a impleti
Ordinary= normala
To heat= a incalzi
Unkindable=necorespunzator
To include= a include
Fibre= fibra
Braid= impletitura
Twin= pereche
Duty= executie, datorie
To screen= a ecrana
Tinning test= test de cositorire
Tinsel conductor= conductor acoperit
Tinsel cord= sarma laminata pentru lita
Extrusion= extrudare
Tinned=cositorit
Plain= plan
To fit= a potrivi
Closely= strans

Cazul genitiv
Posesor s

Obiect posedat

Pentru formarea cazului genitiv (aplicabil la substantive) se adauga s in cazul in care


posesorul este la singular sau la plural dar nu se termina in s.
Marys job
The woman s books
The womens books
Posesors
Obiect posedat
Daca posesorul este un substantiv terminat in s atunci se pune doar
De obicei folosim aceasta exprimare daca posesorul este o persoana.
Aceasta forma mai apare in expresii ce implica, timp, distanta, vreme:
Its five miles walk.
Its two hourstime.
Its five meters long.
Pentru obiecte/ lucruri sau cand substantivele sunt insotite de adjective :
Theof the

The numbers of the houses


The lights of the houses
The lights of the red houses
Exercises:

Change the italicized possessive phrase to a possessive ending in -s.


EXAMPLE: The color of the car is red.
The cars color is red.
1. The center of the storm was just north of the city.
2. The condition of the victims was very serious.
3.The equipment of the lab was outdated(depasit).
4.The efforts of each man helped to make the project a success.
5.The documents of the young lawyer were very impressive.
6.The room was filled with the scent of the roses.
7.A hunter captured the mother of the little bear cub.
8.We drove to the northern border of the town.

Translate :
1. Mama tatalui meu este bunica.
2. Sora mamei tale este matusa ta.
3. Fiica unchiului este verisoara ei.
4. Biroul directorului este vizavi de posta.
5. Titlul acestei carti este Strazile din San Francisco.
Vocabulary:
Rubber=cauciuc
Ground=tarana, teren
Distribution panel= panou/tablou de
Wooden pallets= paleti de lemn
distributie
Range= marja, variatie
Concrete= beton
Copper wire lace=tresa din sarma de
Steel= otel
cupru
Steel cables for traction=cabluri de otel
Weight= greutate
pentru tractiune
Length=lungime
Environment= mediu inconjurator
Width=latime
Electroinsulating materials= materiale
Height= inaltime
electroizolante
Depth= adancime
Electrical cablings=panou electric
Screen= ecran
PVC jacket= manta de PVC
The thickness of zinc coating= grosimea stratului de zinc
Traduceti :
1. Latimea terenului este 20 m.
2. Inaltimea panoului electric este 2 m.
3. Greutatea paletilor de lemn este 100 kg.
4. Adancimea stratului de beton este 10 cm.
5. Lungimea tresei din sarma de cupru este .
6. Promovarea fratelui meu a fost rapida.(promotion=promovare)

7. Compania sotiei mele este profitabila. (profitable)


Alte verbe neregulate
Spit s

/spt/ spat

/spt/ spat

/spt/

A scuipa

Spit

/spt/ spit

/spt/

spit

/spt/

A scuipa

split s

/splt/ split

/splt/ split

/splt/

A imparti

Spoil s

/spol/ spoilt

/spolt/ spoilt

/spolt/

A rasfata

Spoil s

/spol/ spoiled

/spold/ spoiled

/spold/ A rasfata

Stand s

/stnd/ stood

/std/ stood

Steal s

/sti:l/ stole

/stoul/ stolen

Strike s

/strak/ struck

/strk/ struck

/strk/

A lovi

Swim s

/swm/ swam

/swm/ swum

/swm/

A inota

Take s

/tek/ took

/tk/

taken

Teach es

/ti:t/ taught

/t:t/

taught

/t:t/

A preda

Tear s

/ter/ tore

/tr/

torn

/trn/

A rupe

Tell s

/tel/

/tould/ told

/tould/

A povesti, a
spune
A gandi

told

/std/

A sta(in
picioare)

/'stouln/ A fura

/'tekn/ A lua

Think s

/k/ thought

/:t/

thought

/:t/

Throw s

/rou/ threw

/ru:/

thrown

/roun/

A arunca

/ndr
'std/

A intelege

/ndr
Understand /ndr
understood
understood
s
'std/
'stnd/
Wake s

/wek/ woke

Wear s

/wer/ wore

/wr/

Win s

/wn/ won
/rat/ wrote

Write

/wouk/ woken

/'woukn/ A se trezi
/wrn/

A purta

/wn/ won

/wn/

A castiga

/rout/

/'rtn/

worn

written

Complectati formele care lipsesc:


Iinfinitiv

Prezent
simplu

Trecut

Participiu
trecut

Participiu
prezent

Prezent
continuu
(he/she/it)

A scrie

To spit
To split

Spit, -s

Spat

Spat

spitting

Split, -s

Split

Split

Splitting

Is spitting A scuipa
Is
splitting

A imparti
A rasfata
A rasfata
A sta(in
picioare)
A fura
A lovi
A inota
A lua
A preda
A rupe
A povesti,
a spune
A gandi
A arunca
A intelege
A se trezi
A purta
A castiga
A scrie

Numeralul ordinal
Numeralul ordinal se formeaza din numeralul cardinal + TH
Primele 3 forme se invata pe dinafara.. In exprimare este precedat de THE
Ex: first---The first= primul= 1st
The second= al doilea=2rd
The third= al treilea=3rd
Forma prescurtata se foloseste in exprimarea datei.

De la al 4-lea in sus se adauga TH. Forma prescurtata se formeaza scriind cifra sau
numarul si TH sus.
Atentie la modificari:
Fivethe fifth
Ninethe ninth
Twelve the twelfth
Pentru zeci: cand se adauga th in cazul zecilor, Y final se transforma in ie
1 through 10
One
Two
three
four
Five
six
seven
eight
nine
ten

first
second
third
fourth
fifth
sixth
seventh
eighth
ninth
tenth

11 through 19
eleven
Twelve
thirteen
fourteen
fifteen
Sixteen
seventeen
eighteen
nineteen

eleventh
twelfth
thirteenth
fourteenth
fifteenth
sixteenth
seventeenth
eighteenth
nineteenth

20 through 100
twenty
thirty
forty
Fifty
sixty
Seventy
eighty
ninety

twentieth
thirtieth
fortieth
fiftieth
sixtieth
seventieth
eightieth
ninetieth

hundred

hundredth

1000 and 1,000,000


thousand
Million

thousandth
millionth

Numeralul fractional
1/5= a/ one fifth
2/5=two fifths
3/5= three fifths etc..
Numeralul multiplicativ
Once = o data
Twice = two times= de 2 ori
Thrice = three times = de 3 ori
Pentru restul numeralelor se formeaza adaugand TIMES la numeralul ordinal.
Exercises:
3 zecimi=
de 12 ori=
al 127-lea=
al 34-lea=
al 151-lea=
4/6=
de 156 ori=
al 9-lea=
al 12-lea=
al 167-lea=
al 97-lea=
al 32-lea=
al 143-lea=

The date
Example: 5(th) (of) October(,) 2004=== 5 th October 2008
se citeste the fifth of October 2004
In American English the month is usually put before the day. If you wish, you can put the
definite article before the day. It is common to write a comma before the year.
Example: October (the) 5(th), 2004
Exercises:

Change the cardinal number in parentheses to the appropriate ordinal


number.
1. Mr. Woo was born on the (2) of October.
2. Im sitting in the (4) row.
3. My birthday was on the (21) of July.
4. This is only the (3) time we met.
5. The old woman died on her (100) birthday.
6. Theyre celebrating their (30) anniversary.
7. Whos the (5) boy in line?
8. That was her (10) phone call today.
9. Mr. Burton was their (1,000) customer and won a prize.
10. Adam scored in the (99) percentile.
11. I think I was (1) in line.
12. Our seats are in the (12) row.
13. Christmas Day is always on the (25) .
14. The old woman died on her (86) birthday.
15. Our new car arrived on the (22) of August.
Complete each sentence with the date shown in parentheses written as
words. In each case the month precedes the day
(e.g., 5/2 _ May second).
1. (8/10) She was born on .
2. (10/12) Hell arrive on .
3. (11/11) The party will be .
4. (2/16/1999) He died on .
5. (4/1/2002) They met on .
6. (12/24) Christmas Eve is .
7. (7/4) Where will you spend ?
8. (1492) Columbus arrived in the New World in .
9. (2/14/2004) The meeting is .
10. (6/2) Was the writer born on ?

Verbe neregulate
Pay pays /pe/ paid

/ped/

paid

/ped/

A plati

Put s

/pt/ put

/pt/

put

/pt/

A pune

Read s

/ri:d/ read

/red/

read

/red/

A citi

Ride s

/rad/ rode

/roud/

ridden

/'rdn/

A calari

Ring s

/r/ rang

/r/

rung

/r/

A suna

Rise s

/raz/ rose

/rouz/

risen

/'rzn/

Run s

/rn/ ran

/rn/

run

/rn/

A fugi,a alerga

Say says

/se/ said

/sed/

said

/sed/

A spune

See s

/si:/

/s:/

seen

/si:n/

A vedea

saw

A se ridica, a
rasari

Sell s

/sel/ sold

/sould/

sold

/sould/

A vinde

Send s

/send/ sent

/sent/

sent

/sent/

A trimite

/set/ set

/set/

set

/set/

A stabili

/k/

shaken

Set s
Shake s

/ek/ shook

Shine s

/an/ shone

Shoot s

/u:t/ shot

Show s

/ou/ showed

Shut s

/t/ shut

/t/

shut

/t/

A inchide

Sing s

/s/ sang

/s/

sung

/s/

A canta

Sink s

/sk/ sank

/sk/

sunk

/sk/

A se scufunda

/st/ sat

/st/

sat

/st/

A sta (jos)

/sli:p/ slept

/slept/

slept

/slept/

A dormi

Sit s
Sleep s

/oun, n/ shone
/t/
/oud/

/'ekn/

A scutura

/oun, n/ A straluci

shot
shown

/t/
/oun/

A trage cu arma
A arata

Complectati cu formele ce lipsesc:


Iinfinitiv

Prezent
simplu

Trecut

To put

Put, -s

put

To read

Read, -s read

To ride

Ride, -s

rode

Participiu
trecut

Participiu
prezent

Prezent
continuu
(he/she/it)

put

putting

Is putting

A pune

read

reading

Is reading

A citi

ridden

riding

Is riding

A calari
A suna
A se ridica, a
rasari
A fugi,a alerga
A spune
A vedea
A vinde
A trimite
A stabili
A scutura

A straluci
A trage cu arma
A arata
A inchide
A canta
A se scufunda
A sta (jos)
A dormi

The past simple tense(Trecutul simplu regulat)


Trecutul simplu se formeaza in modul urmator:
1. pentru verbe regulate : se adauga ed la finalul verbului si se obtine forma a doua
a verbului, identica cu forma a treia(participiul trecut). Aceasta forma este aceeasi
la toate persoanele.
2. pentru verbele neregulate trecutul simplu il reprezinta forma a doua data in tabele.
Se invata pe de rost.
Ortografia (ED)
1. in general se adauga ED la finalul formei de infinitiv a verbului/ prima forma
to learn - learned
2. daca verbul se termina in e e se taie + ED
to move-- moved
3. daca verbul se termina in y precedat de consoana , y devine I si se adauga ED
to copy -- copied
4. daca verbul se termina in c, ic se adauga K +ED
to picnic- picnicked
5. daca verbul se termina in consoana precedata de vocala accentuata(accentul cade
pe ultima silaba), se dubleaza consoana finala +ED
to prefer - preferred
ED- se pronunta ID daca verbul de baza se termina in T sau D; in restul cazurilor se
pronunta fie T fie D
Timpul trecut simplu se foloseste pentru a exprima actiuni terminate, incheiate.
Perioada de timp in care se incadreaza actiunea este trecuta.

Se foloseste cu expresii sau locutiuni adverbiale de timp ce arata o perioada de timp


terminata: last week/ month
Yesterday
Two weeks ago ..etc
In 1976
Afirmativ
Subiect +verb+ed(verbe regulate)
Sau
Subiect +forma a 2-a verb(din tabele-verbe neregulate)
Negativ:
Subiect+ did+ not+ infinitiv scurt verb+
Did+ not= didnt
Interogativ :
Did+ subiect+ verb la infinitiv scurt+.?
I
You
He
arrived late at the meeting. (regular verb)
She
It
We came back late. (irregular verb)
You
They
I
You
He
She
didn't go to New York last week.
It
We
You
They
I
You
He
She
Did
leave yesterday?
It
We
You
They

Exercises:
Transformati de la present Simple
la Past Simple:
1. We have to participate in the
meeting today
2. My neighbour works in the
Ministry of Tourism
3. They go to the seaside every
summer.
4. I want to buy a DVD unit for
my computer.

5. The news reports on this TV station are very updated.(updated=actualizat, de


ultima ora, la zi, TV station-post de televiziune)
Traduceti :
1. Ieri directorul a cumparat un calculator si o imprimanta pentru biroul nostru.
2. Imi pare rau dar alaltaieri nu am avut timp sa vorbesc cu d-na Peterson.

3. Luna trecuta nu a plouat in Bucuresti dar a plouat in Brasov.


4. Seful meu a scris o carte despre noile metode de management si marketing.
5. Anul trecut am vizitat New York-ul cu prietenii mei si am vazut Statuia Libertatii.
6. Acum doua saptamani am fost foarte ocupati cu negocierile pentru noul contract
cu partenerii nostri francezi.
Traduceti si scrieti formele lor negative si interogative:
1. Doamna Wellington era in sufragerie cand a sunat telefonul.(living
room=sugragerie)

2. Jonny a sarbatorit ziua de nastere cu prietenii si familia lui. (to celebrate= a


sarbatori)

3. Anul trecut domnul Popescu a fost directorul general al acelei firme.

4. Secretara a dactilografiat scrisoarea si a transmis-o prin fax.(to type= a


dactilografia)

Pronumele personal in cazul dativ si acuzativ


Pronumele personal in cazul nominativ se foloseste doar pe post de subiect.
In celelalte cazuri folosim forma pronumelor pentru cazul dativ sau acuzativ(aceeasi)
Pronume personal
in cazul nominativ
in cazul dativ- acuzativ
I = eu
You =tu
He=el
She =ea
It=el/ea
We=noi
You=voi
They =ei/ele

Me =mie, ..mine
You=tie, tine
Him=lui,el
Her=ei, ea
It=ei/lui, ea/el
Us =noua, .noi
You =voua, voi
Them =lor, ele/ei

Pronumele personale in cazul acuzativ sunt insotite de obicei de prepozitii: with, at, for,
under, near, .
Exercises:
Traduceti :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

They met him at the airport.


She gave you the letter.
We wrote the new words instead of him.
She went shopping with them.
I listened to it .
She gave it to me.
They spoke to her.

Pronumele posesiv si adjectivul posesiv


Adjectivul posesiv
My
Your
His
Her
Its
Our
Your
Their
Exercise:

Pronumele posesiv
Mine
Yours
His
Hers
Ours
Yours
Theirs

Traduceti :
This is my briefcase.
This briefcase is mine.
These are your files.
These files are yours.
It is his office.
The office is his.
It is her responsibility.
The responsibility is hers.
This is its component part.
This is our advantage.
The advantage is ours.
Those are your accounts.
The accounts are yours.
This is their company.
The company is theirs.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Cartea aceasta este a mea, nu a ei.


Cea mai buna lucrare a fost a ta.
Cumpara masina mea daca nu-ti place a lui.
Joe este un prieten de-al nostru.
Locul acela de parcare este al lor.
Mobilul meu nu functioneaza(to work= a munci; a functiona).Il pot folosi pe al
tau?
7. Vreau sa stiu daca ideea asta a fost a ta sau a lui.

Past continuous tense (trecutul continuu)


Arata o actiune in desfasurare intr-un anumit moment din trecut.
Se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar to be(la trecut: was/ were) + Verb+ing
Afirmativ :
Subiect+ was/were+ verb+ing+
Negativ:
Subiect+ was/were+not+ verb+ing+
Interogativ :

Subiect+ was/were+ verb+ing+


Example:
He was driving
He wasnt driving.
Was he driving?
Wasnt he driving?
Where was he driving?
Exercise : Conjugati 2 verbe la trecut continuu
Exercises:
Scrieti formele interogative, negative si interogativ-negative pentru urmatoarele
propozitii:
1. He was speaking on the phone when I entered the office.

2. My neighbour was washing his car when I went out.

3. Chris was looking for Jane when he came here.

4. They were watching TV when I called them.

5. The assistant was printing a document when the phone rang.

6. I was driving the car when the policeman asked me to stop.

7. It was raining when I arrived at the hotel.

8. She was telling you something important when I interrupted her.

9. The plane was taking off when we arrived at the airport.(to take off=a decola)

10. He was working on the computer when I went to his place.

Traduceti folosind Past Simple sau Past Continuous.


1. Am vorbit cu contabilul
2. Vorbeam cu contabilul (atunci)
3. Teddy m-a ajutat.
4. Teddy ma ajuta.
5. M-am uitat la TV.
6. Ma uitam la TV.
7. A plouat mult anul trecut.
8. Ploua mult cand ai sosit.
9. Ai trimis un e-mail cu 5 minute in urma.
10. Trimiteai un e-mail cand ea a intrat in birou.

VIPS
President =presedinte
Vice president= vice-presedinte
Prime minister= prim ministru
Minister of Tourism= Ministrul Comertului
Minister of Education= Ministrul Educatiei
Minister of Comerce and Industry= Ministrul Comertului si Industriei
Minister of Difence= Ministrul apararii
Minister of Internal Affairs= Ministrul Afacerilor interne
Minister of Foreign Affairs= Ministrul Afacerilor externe
Minister of Agriculture= Ministrul Agriculturii
Minister of Labour and Social Protection=Ministrul Muncii si Protectiei Sociale

Minister of Culture= Ministrul Culturii


Minister of Health= Ministrul Sanatatii
Minister of Reform= Ministrul Reformei
Minister of European Integration=Ministrul Integrarii Europene
Minister of State Administration= Ministrul Administratie de Stat
Secretary of State=secretar de stat
Senator= senator
Member of Parliament(MP)=membru al parlamentului
Ambassador(His/ Her Excellence)= ambasador /Excelenta sa
Concilor /Adviser=consilier
Mayer= primar
Prefect= prefect
Qualities and skills= calitati si abilitati
Intellingent=inteligent
Clever/smart=destept
Hard working=muncitor
Patient=rabdator
Loyal =loial
Persuasive=convingator
Determined=hotarat
Self possesed=stapan pe sine
Ambiltious=ambitios
Flexible=flexibil
Balanced=echilibrat
Healthy=sanatos
Rapid/quick=rapid
Polite=politicos
Courteous=curtenitor
Educated= educat , instruit
Shortcomings =defecte
Stubborb=incapatanat
Timid=timid
Envious=invidios
Gelous=gelos
Lazy=lenes
Absent-minded= uituc, neatent
Greedy=lacom
Revengeful=razbunator
Lier=mincinos
Rude=obraznic
Lonely=singuratic
Dishonest=necinstit
Inconsistent=inconsecvent

Discret=discret
Reliable=de incredere
Kind=amabil
Funny=amuzant
Tidy=ordonat
Friendly/sociable=prietenos
Forgiving=iertator
Understanding=intelegator
Generous=generos
Consistent=consecvent
Self-motivated=auto-motivat
Decent=decent
Organized=organizat
Good-looking=aratos, frumos la
infatisare
Dull=morocanos
Boring=plictisitor
Stupid=prost
Indecent=indecent
Sick/ill=bolnav
Selfish=egoist
Superficial=superficial
Ugly=urat

Exercise:
Describe a VIP that you have met before.What are his/her qualities and shortcomings?
Wire= sarma
To galvanize=a galvaniza
Steel= otel
Joint= imbinare
To braze= alipi cu aliaj tare
Upright= vertical
Overall= peste tot
Whichever= oricare
To remove= a indeparta
To distinguish= a deosebi
Bearing= sustinator, care suporta
Wide= lat
To mark= a marca
Size= marime
Legibly= vizibil, citet

Core=miez
Left= stanga
Right= dreapta
Letter= litera, scrisoare
Figure= cifra
To weld= a suda
Great= mare, maret
To varnish= a avertiza
Yellow= galben
Hole= gaura
Space= spatiu
Strip= banda
Ribbon= panglica
To emboss= a imprima

Jobs related concepts in Human Resources


(job analysis, job description, job specification)
Job description (fisa postului)
The job description is a document which specifies
1. the objectives of a job
2. the work that must be performed(task by task)
3. the responsabilities involved
4. the necessary skills
5. the relationship of the job with other jobs
6. the working conditions.
Job specifications (specificatiile/cerintele postului)
The job specifications is a written description of the special qualifications required of a
worker in a particular job. It includes:
1. education
2. experience
3. special skills
4. other requirements
Meant to= menit sa
To require= a cere, anecesita
To assign= a desemna
To perform= a desfasura
Task =sarcina, indatorire
To involve= a implica

Specification=specificatie
Particular= specific, anume
To pass a law= a vota o lege
To prohibit= a interzice
Positions available= Oferte de munca

Present perfect simple


Se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar to have+ participiul trecut al verbului de
conjugat.
Arata de obicei o actiune terminata recent, eventual subliniaza efectul in prezent al
acelei actiuni tocmai terminate. Se traduce prin trecut , la fel ca past simple. Perioada
de timp cu care se foloseste este prezenta.: today, this week, this month;
just=tocmai, already=deja,yet=inca
Afirmativ :
Subiect+ have/has+ participiul trecut
I have built a house.=Am construit o casa.
She has seen a film.=Ea a vazut un film.
Negativ :
Subiect+ have/has+ not+participiul trecut
I have not built a house.
She has not seen a film.
Interogativ:
Subiect+ have/has+ participiul trecut
I have built a house.
She has seen a film.
Exercise :
Traduceti :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

I havent met him today


Have you typed the whole text yet?
He has seen the presentation.
We havent known about this.
She has come just to talk to you.
I have washed my car today.
I have just translated the letter.
He has already sent the e-mails.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Saptamana aceasta am vazut filmul


Phil tocmai a ajuns la birou.
Am invitat-o deja.
I-am spus sa coopereze cu compania noastra.
Nu te-am mai vazut de mult timp. (for a long time)

Puneti propozitiile la interogativ si negativ:


1. John has booked tickets for the show.

2. Jane has typed a lot of letters today.

3. He has signed the contract.

4. They have learned the vocabulary for today.

5. She has taken the course on management.

To supply= a furniza
Requirement= cerinta
Insulation=izolatie
Cables=cabluri
Operation=functionare
Voltage=tensiune
Armour=armatura
Earth=pamant
A.C.= curent alternativ
Underground= subteran
Continuously=continuu
Guidance=conducere, ghidare
To exceed= a depasi

Appropriate=potrivit, propriu
Purpose=scop
To apply= a aplica
Rated= nominal
To express= a exprima
To assume= a asuma, a atribui
Load= sarcina
To armour= a arma
Rated voltage= tensiune nominala
%= per cent
designed = destinat (aici)
the cable is designed= cablul este
destinat

Present perfect continuous


Arata continuitatea, caracterul neintrerupt al unei actiuni incepute in trecut, pana in
momentul prezent.Tradus in general prin prezent; insotit adesea de since si for
Since= incepand cu
For= pentru
Afirmativ :

Subiect + have/has+been+verb+ing
They have been sending letters since this morning.
Negativ :
Subiect + have/has+not+been+verb+ing
They have not been sending letters since this morning.
Interogativ :
Have/has +subiect +been+verb+ing?
Have they been sending letters since this morning?
Exercises :
Traduceti si puneti la interogativ si negativ urmatoarele propozitii:
1. She has been writing for six minutes

2. They have been waiting for a long time.

3. John has been reading since ten oclock

4. Mary has been answering questions since she entered the office.

5. Gregory and Dan have been working on the computer for almost 8 hours .

Past perfect simple


Se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar to have(had)+ participiul trecut al verbului
de conjugat.
Arata o actiune terminata inaintea unei alte actiuni terminate. Se traduce prin mai
mult ca perfect.
Afirmativ :
Subiect+ have/has+ participiul trecut

I had built a house before coming here=Construisem o casa inainte sa vin aici.
She had seen a film.=Ea vazuse un film.
Negativ :
Subiect+ have/has+ not+participiul trecut
I had not built a house.
She had not seen a film.
Interogativ:
Subiect+ have/has+ participiul trecut
I had built a house.
She had seen a film.
Exercises:
Traduceti si scrieti formele interogative, negative si interogativ-negative:
1. Eu vorbisem deja cu el cand tu ai sunat.

2. Ei mancasera inainte sa venim noi.

3. Mary nu scrisese mai mult de 3 pagini cand a sunat telefonul.

4. Ieri dimineata Sam nu se intorsese inca de la Chicago.

5. Joe fusese promovat director de marketing dar el nu era multumit (to promote= a
promova; to satisfy= a fi multumit)

A telephone conversation:
(company). Good morning.= Buna dimineata
(company). Good afternoon.= buna ziua
(company). How can I help you?= Cu ce va pot ajuta?
I'm afraid you have dialled the wrong number.= Ma tem ca ati format un numar
gresit.
Who would you like to speak to?= Cu cine doriti sa vorbiti?
What does it concern, please?=In legatura cu ce?/ La ce se refera?
Would you mind telling me what you're calling about?= Va deranjeaza sa-mi
spuneti in legatura cu ce sunati?
Hold the line, I'll put you through.= stati pe fir, va fac legatura
I'll pass you over to (department).= va fac legatura la..
is speaking on another line.=. Vorbeste pe alta linie
isn't in (yet).= .nu a venit/ intrat inca
is away on business.= . Este plecat cu afaceri
is on holiday (this week).= .. este in vacanta/ concediu saptamana aceasta
is out for lunch.= a iesit sa manance(pranzul)
I'm afraid, is not available at the moment=Mi-e teama ca nu e disponibil in
acest moment
will be back any minute= . Se va intoarce intr-un minut..
I'm sorry, but the line is engaged.= Imi pare rau dar linia este ocupata
There's no reply.= Nu raspunde nimeni
If you hold the line, I'll try again.= daca nu inchideti , voi incerca din nou
Would you like to hold?=Asteptati va rog?
Could you try again later / tomorrow?= Puteti reveni mai tarziu/ maine?
Can I take a message?= Pot sa iau un mesaj?
Would you like to leave a message for ?= Doriti sa lasati un mesaj pentru..?
If you give me your phone number, will call you back.=Daca-mi lasati
numarul de telefon, .va voi suna.
Could I have your name, please?= Imi spuneti numele, va rog?
Could I help you? / Maybe I can help you?= Va pot ajuta cu ceva?
2.
here. / speaking. / This is =poftiti /vorbeste/ acesta este
This is (company), (name) speaking.
Sorry, I must have dialled the wrong number.= Imi pare rau, cred ca am gresit
numarul
Could I speak to , please?= as putea vorbi cu, , va rog
Am I speaking to ?= Vorbesc cu?
Could you put me through to , please?= Imi puteti face legatura, va rog
It's about = este legat de/ despre
I'm calling about =sun in legatura cu
Could you please tell I phoned?= Ii puteti spune .ca am sunat?
Could you give a message, please?= Ii puteti da. un mesaj va rog?
Do you know when will be back?
Will be in the office tomorrow?

I'll try again later / tomorrow.= Voi reveni mai tarziu/ maine.
Daca sunt probleme:
My English isn't very good.= Engleza mea nu e prea buna/ Nu vorbesc prea bine
engleza.
The line is bad.= Linia e rea/ legatura e rea
I can hardly hear you.= Deabea te aud.
I didn't get that.= Nu am obtinut asta/ N-am prins/inteles asta.
Could you speak more slowly, please?= Puteti vorbi mai rar, va rog?
Could you speak louder, please?=
Could you repeat that, please?
Could you spell that, please?
Sorry? / Pardon?
Departments of a company
accounting department / accounts department=contabilitate
export department / export team / export sales department= export
administrative accounting= contabilitate
research and development team= echipa de cercetare si dezvoltare
management=conducere
import department / import team= import
IT department (IT = information technology)= informatica
customer service / service team=serviciul clienti
marketing=marketing
personnel department / staff department / human resources= resurse umane
public relations team / public relations department=relatii cu publicul
manufacturing department / production department=productie
secretary's office=secretariat
technical support team=suport tehnic
sales department=vanzari

Jobs and functions


Analyst=analist
director of boards= director al comitetului director
CEO (Chief Executive Officer)
Buyer=cumparator
purchasing manager= manager aprovizionare
treasurer, CFO (Chief Financial Officer)= sef financiar
codirector=director adjunct
commercial agent=agent comercial
assistant (e.g. purchasing assistant)=asistent
sales representative=reprezentat de vanzari
export sales manager= director de vanzari/ export
Economist=economist
management board=comitet director
accountant=contabil

Conversation :
Speaking on the phone
This is one of the Oscar Group Offices. In the office there is Mrs. Brown , the
secretary. She is typing a letter for her boss. There is also Mr Kerrington, working on
some documents at the desk.The phone is ringing. The secretary picks up the receiver and
says:
- Oscar Group, good morning.
- Good morning, this is Mr. Johnson.
- Yes, sir, can I hel you?
- Can I speak to Mr. Wendall, please?
- Im sorry sir, but Mr. Wendall is not available for the moment. He is
engaged in a meeting with some clients. But you can talk to Mr.
Kerrington, the manager assistant, or you can leave a message to me for
Mr. Wendall.
- OK madam. I will leave a message. Please tell him that we will meet on
the 24th of November at ten oclock with the Presdent of the Chambers of
Comerce and two of his advisors. We will discuss about the incentives for
forein investors in the area. Please remind him to prepare all the papers till
then.
- Very well Mr. Johnson, I will tell the manager about your message and
Mr. Wendall will call you back as soon as possible.
- Thank you madam. Have a nice day.
- You,too, sir. Good bye.

Engaged= 1.ocupat,angajat, prins 2. logodit


Incentives= facilitati, stimulente, avantaje
To dial a number= a forma un numar
Phone card= cartela telefonica
Local call/national call= apel local/ national
Fixed phone= telefon fix
Mobile phone=telefon mobil
Answer the following questions:
1. Who was in the office when the phone called?
2. Who answered the phone?
3. Was the manager, Mr. Wendall, available? Why?

4. What was the message left for Mr. Wendall?

5. How do you introduce yourself in English when you call somebody

6. Can you spell your name?


2: Take a message for someone:
Message for :
Department :
Person who called:
Company:
Telephone no.:
Message:
Person who took the message:
Date and time:

The reflexive and emphasizing pronoun


Pronumele reflexiv si de intarire
Pronumele reflexiv- actiunea se reflecta asupra subiectului
Pronumele de intarire- accentueaza o actiune a subiectului
Myself= ma/ insumi, insami
Yourself=te/insuti, insati
Himself=se/insusi
Herself=se/insasi
Itself=se/insusi, insasi
Ourselves=ne/insine, insene
Yourselves=va/insiva,inseva
Themselves=se/insisi, insele
Translate:
1. Lor le place sa se spele cu apa rece.
2. Sam s-a taiat intr-o bucata de geam
3. Ma intreb ce as putea sa fac in aceasta situatie.
4. Directorul insusi a semnat invitatiile.
5. Strang bani pentru ca vreau sa-mi cumpar o masina noua.
6. Poarta-te frumos!
7. Ai spus ceva? Nu, vorbeam cu mine insumi.

The interview
Necessary papers
1.
2.
3.
4.

Curriculum vitae
Letters of recommendation
Letter of intention
Diplomas and qualifications certificates.

The CV
1. CV stands for curriculum vitae (also known as a resum).
A CV is a summary of your education and work experience, often
requested by employers. Most professionals store their CVs
electronically so that they can be updated when necessary.
2. There is considerable debate about the format of CVs, and much
depends on your experience and the area you are working in.

Name:
Date of birth:
Place of birth:
Citizenship:
Nationality:
Marital status: single/ married/engaged
Address:
Phone number:
Education:year, training, institution,specialization
Professional activity:year, position, company
Foreign languages:language level (beginner/elementary/intermediate/upperintermediate, advanced)
Computer knowledge:
References:name, position,company, telephone
Hobby:sports, other activities
Skills:ex(communication skills, team worker, experience in working with people,
flexibility, adaptability, creativity, self-control, quick learner,sense of humor)

Vocabulary:
Position=functie, post de lucru
Reliable= de incredere
Enthusiastic=entuziast
Determined= hotarat
Nature=caracter, fire, natura
During=pe perioada, pe durata
While=in timp ce

Resourceful=inventiv, plin de resure


To excel= a excela
Proof=dovada
Valuable=valoros
Professional=profesionist

The letter of intention


To : HRS Services, Madrid, Spain
Attn : Mr. Brendan Lowe
Human Resources Director
Date : June 30, 2008
Dear Mr. Lowe,
My name is Jennifer Baxan, and I would like to take the opportunity to introduce myself
to you in view of applying to the position of Coordinator in HR Services.
I am 29 years old and I graduated in 2002 The University of Marketing and Management
from Boston, Massachusetts. After graduation I moved to Sudan where I joined for two
years the Khaortum Institute for Market Studies, working as the assistant of prof. James
Burr from the Marketing Strategies Department. At the end of 2004 I decided to get more
practical experience and I started my collaboration with S&T Computers based in
London, which has sales and distribution operations throughout Europe. I started as sales
executives in Vienna, responsible for Central Eastern Europe operations, and in 2003 I
was promoted to the position of Sales Consultant, travelling on a regular basis to the
European branches of S&T Computers in order to organize training courses for the local
personnel.
I heard of the opening that you have for a Coordinator in HR Services and I believe it is
an excellent professional opportunity and personal challenge for me. I am sure that my
theoretical and practical experience in marketing and sales , as well my knowledge of the
American, African and European markets will make our collaboration a very successful
one. You will also notice that my language skills meet your expectations since I am fluent
in English (native), German, French, and I understand Greek and Spanish.
I look forward to meeting you in person for a more detailed conversation. In the
meantime, please find attached my Curriculum Vitae for further information.
Thank you in advance for your kind reply, I remain
Yours sincerely,
Jennis Baxan

Tel.:43-91-432-7531
Email: Jennybaxan@hotmail.com
Position=functie, post
Reliable= de incredere
Determined=hotarat
Enthusiastic=entuziast
Nature= fire, caracter, natura
During=in timp ce, pe perioada, pe
durata
Meanwhile= intre timp
Resourceful= inventiv, plin de resurse
To excel= a excela
Proof= dovada
Valuable= valoros, de valoare
Professional= profesionist
Opportunity=ocazie, oportunitate
In view of|+ verb+ing= in vederea, cu
scopul
To graduate= a absolvi
To move= a se muta, a se misca
Practical= practic
Theoretical= teoretic

To be promoted to the position of= a fi


promovat pe pozitia de
To travel= a calatori
On regular basis= in mod regulat,
frecvent
Branch= ramura, filiala
Training course= curs de pregatire
Personnel= angajati, personal
Opening= deschidere, post liber
Challenge= provocare, stimulare
Knowledge= cunostinte, notiuni,
informatii
Expectations= asteptari
To look forward to + verb+ ing= a
astepta ciu nerabdare sa
In the meantime= intre timp
Please fin attached= va rog sa primiti
alaturat
Further information= informatii
suplimentare
In advance= in avans, anticipat

Reply= raspuns, replica

Imperativul
Modul imperativ e folosit pentru a exprima comenzi, ordine, interdictii, indemnuri
Afirmativ :
Go ! Sing!
Lets go! Lets sing!
Do go!
Negativ:
Dont go!
Dont sing!
Translate:
1. Nu te duce acolo; stai aici.
2. Nu vorbi germana; nu inteleg.Te rog vorbeste engleza.

3.
4.
5.
6.

Nu cumpara o masina sport, cumpara un jeep .(sports car=masina sport)


Nu trimite documentatia, tradu-o mai intai.
Raspunde la telefon; te rog.
Nu uita sa cumperi un cartus de imprimanta cand te intorci. (cartridge= cartus de
imprimanta)
7. Adu-mi raportul pe aprilie, te rog.
8. Nu-I spune directorului despre proiect, nu e gata inca.
9. Spune-I lui Frank sa vina devreme maine dimineata.
10. Dactilografiaza aceasta scrisoare; am nevoie de ea in 10 minute.
Vocabulary :
Hierarchy= ierarhie
Need= nevoie
Shelter=adapost
High order= de rang superior
To consider= a lua in calcul, a considera
Security= securitate, siguranta
Harm= rau, daunare
Avoidance= evitare
Common sense= bun simt
To accomplish = a realiza, a indeplini
To achieve= a obtine
Achievement= realizare
To fulfill= a indeplini
Fulfillment= indeplinire

To use= a folosi
To realize= a realiza
Counting devices=instrumente de calcul
To count= a numara
Frame= rama
Perishable materials= materiale
perisabile
To diminish= a diminua
Frame= rama
Square root= radacina patrata
Cubic root= radacina cubica
Switch= comutator

Conditional prezent si perfect


Would=as; could=as putea; should= ar trebui; might=s-ar putea
Conditional prezent:
Afirmativ :
Subiect+ auxiliar+vb la infinitv scurt
You would play tennis if you wanted.
Negativ :
Subiect+ auxiliar+not+vb la infinitv scurt
You would not play tennis if you didnt want.
Interogativ:
Auxiliar + subiect+verb?
Would you play tennis?
Exercises:
1. Te-as ajuta dar nu am timp= I would help you but I dont have time.

2. Ti-ar placea sa lucrezi la firma noastra?


3. N-as vrea sa fac asta , dar trebuie.
4. Am dori sa colaboram cu firma dumneavoastra.
5. As merge la teatru in seara aceasta.
6. Tu ce ai face in aceasta situatie?
7. Nu mi-ar placea sa lucrez acolo.
8. Ea ar vrea sa lucreze ca secretara.
9. Joe ar vrea sa invete Italiana.
10. Ei ar vrea sa vina la sedinta.
Traduceti , apoi puneti la interogativ si negativ:
1. Ai putea sa-l ajuti pe mecanic.
2. Directorul ar putea sa participe la negociere.
3. Tom s-ar putea supara.
4. Ar trebui sa vorbesc cu membri echipei despre ce s-a intamplat.
5. Crezi ca s-ar putea sa ploua maine dimineata?
6. Ai putea sa-l convingi sa se lase de fumat.
7. Ei ar putea sa rezerve 2 bilete pentru concert.
8. Voi ar trebui sa-mi spuneti ce s-a intamplat la sedinta.
9.
To maintain= a mentine
Marking= marcare
Legend= legenda, inscriptie
To fill = a umple
To consist= a consta
Spindle= ax, pivot
Tape= banda

To spark= a scanteia
Below=de mai jos
Failure=defect, esec
Fault=defect
Spark gap= interval de scanteiere
Sine wive= unda sinusoidala
Full value= valoare maxima
Mesh= priza
Breakdown= intrerupere
Electrode voltage=tensiunea electrodului
the capacity of the capacitor= capacitatea condensatorului
Toate cordoanele vor fi supuse testului de scanteiere.
All cords shall be subjected to spark test.
To stretch= a intinde
Clamp=1.brida,2.carlig,3.clema
Hook=carlig
Section= sectiune
To superimpose= a imprima
Grain= granula
Colouring matter= colorant
Fabric= tesatura
Angle= unghi
Sheet= strat, foaie
Drawn= tras , laminat
Veneer= furnir, placaj
Felt= pasla
Flatwise= pe lat
Three phase electric power= curent electric trifazic
Mono phase electric power= curent electric monofazic
Steel= otel
Aluminium=aluminiu
Plastic=plastic
Strand= fir , lita sarma, fascicul,toron (de cablu),
strand of a cable/rope =toron de cablu
stranded wire= lita
stranded=toronat; cablat (la cablu)
stranded (wire) rope= funie din toroane impletite
stranded aluminium= wire cablu de aluminiu
stranded cable= cablu torsadat

Conditional perfect:
have+participiul trecut= participiul perfect al verbului
Ex: have gone= fi plecat
Afirmativ :

Subiect+ auxiliar+have+participiul trecut


You would have played tennis if you had wanted.
Negativ :
Subiect+ auxiliar+not+ participiul trecut
You would not have played tennis if you hadnt wanted.
Interogativ:
Auxiliar + subiect+ participiul trecut?
Would you have played tennis?
Would not= wouldnt
Could not= couldnt
Should not=shouldnt
Exercises:
1. As fi participat la sedinta , dar nu am avut timp.
2. Ce ai fi facut tu in situatia mea?
3. Nu as fi avut timp sa vorbesc cu el pentru ca era tarziu.
4. As fi preferat sa lucrez ca inginer, dar salariul era prea mic.
5. El ar fi venit sa se intalneasca cu noi dar a fost foarte ocupat.
6. Am fi putut sa-l ajutam dar ne-a refuzat.

7. Ar fi fost mai bine sa vorbim la telefon in loc sa ne intalnim aici.


8. M-as fi dus la teatru aseara dar nu am avut bilete.
9. Ma intreb ce as fi putut face fara ajutorul tau.
10. As fi putut sa traduc textul dar eram prea obosit.

BUSINESS LETTERS

British English
Position: In British English, the sender's address is usually placed in the top right corner
of the letter.

American English
Position: In American English the sender's address is usually placed in the top left
corner, below the date, or at the end of the letter, below the signature..
Sender's address below the date:

Sender's address below the signature:

British English

Position: In British English, the sender's address is usually placed in the top right corner
of the letter.

American English
Position: In American English the sender's address is usually placed in the top left
corner, below the date, or at the end of the letter, below the signature..
Sender's address below the date:

Sender's address below the signature:

Recipient's Address in a Business Letter


Ms / Miss / Mrs / Mr / Dr ...
house number, street
place
area code
COUNTRY (in capital letters)

In American English, the area code is usually at the same level as the place, separated by
a comma.
Position: on the left

British English
In British English, the recipient's address starts on the same line as the date or one line
below the date.

American English
In American English, the recipient's address starts two lines below the sender's address
(or two lines below the date if the sender's address isn't placed in the top left corner).

Salutation in a Business Letter

If you know the person's name:


Dear Ms / Miss / Mrs / Mr / Dr + surname
Dear Mr Miller
You can also write the person's full name. In this case, leave out the title (Mr/Mrs). This
way of writing the salutation is very handy if you don't know the gender of the person.
Dear Chris Miller

If you don't know the person's name:


There are several possibilities to address people that you don't know by name:
Salutation
when to use
Dear Sir / Dear Sirs
male addressee (esp. in British English)
Gentlemen
male addressee (esp. in American English)
Dear Madam
female addressee (esp. in British English)
Ladies
female addressee (esp. in American English)
Dear Sir or Madam
gender unknown (esp. in British English)
Ladies and Gentlemen gender unknown (esp. in American English)
To whom it may concern gender unknown (esp. in American English)
Business partners often call each other by their first names. In this case, write the
salutation as follows:
Dear Sue

Punctuation
In British English, don't use any punctuation mark or use a comma.
Dear Mr Miller or Dear Mr Miller,
In American English, use a colon:
Dear Mr. Miller:

Ms, Miss or Mrs?

Mrs to address a married woman


Miss to address an unmarried woman (rarely used now)
Ms to address a woman whose marital status you don't know; also used to
address an unmarried woman

Note: The abrreviations Mr, Mrs etc. are usually written without full stops (Mr) in British
English and with full stops (Mr.) in American English.

Subject Line in a Business Letter


A subject line is not really necessary. You may want to use one, however, so that the
reader immediately knows what your letter is about. There are three common methods to
distinguish the subject line from the body of the letter:

Use "Subject:" or "Re:"


Type the subject in bold letters
Type the subject in capital letters

British English
The subject line is usually placed between the salutation and the body of the letter (with a
blank line in between).

American English
In American English, the subject line can also be placed between the recipient's address
and the salutation (with a blank line in between).

Body of a Business Letter


Capitalise the first word of the text (even if the salutation ends with a comma). The text is
left-justified and a blank line is put after each paragraph. It is not common to indent the
first line of a paragraph.

Content

first paragraph: introduction and reason for writing


following paragraphs: explain your reasons for writing in more detail, provide
background information etc.
last paragraph: summarise your reason for writing again and make clear what you
want the recipient to do

Greeting in a Business Letter

British English
If you used the recipient's name in the salutation, use 'sincerely'.
If you did not use the recipient's name in the salutation, use 'faithfully'.

American English
Use 'sincerely', no matter if you used the recipient's name in the salutation or not
('faithfully' is not common in American English).

Salutation - Greeting
British English
Salutation
Dear Ms Wexley
Dear Jane Wexley
Dear Jane
Dear Sir
Dear Sirs
Dear Madam
Dear Sir or Madam

Greeting
Yours sincerely / Sincerely yours

Yours faithfully / Faithfully yours

American English
Salutation
Dear Ms. Wexley:
Dear Jane Wexley:
Dear Jane:
Gentlemen:
Ladies:
Ladies and Gentlemen:

Greeting
Sincerely, / Sincerely yours,
Sincerely, / Sincerely yours,

To whom it may concern:


In emails you could also write:

Regards
Kind regards
Best wishes

Note: If you end the salutation with a comma or colon, use a comma after the greeting. If
you didn't punctuate the salutation, don't punctuate the greeting.
Position: Write the greeting two lines below the last paragraph and left-justify it. If the
date is centre-justified, however, do also centre-justify the greeting.
Leave 4 blank lines after the greeting (space for the signature) and write the sender's
name below that space.

Enclosure in a Business Letter


If you wish to enclose documents, you can either list all enclosed documents separately
or just write the word 'Enclosure' below the signature.

Request

We got your address from


Your advertisement has come to our attention.
We were told that you produce
We intend to buy / We are considering the purchase of
We have a steady demand for
We would like to know more about
Could you please send us information about ?
Please send us your catalogue/catalog.
Offer
We are pleased to hear that you are interested in our products.
We hereby send you our offer.
Enclosed please find our offer. / Enclosed you will find our offer.
We are pleased to make the following offer:
We assure you that your order will be dealt with promptly.
Please let us know your requirements as soon as possible.
We look forward to receiving your order.
Order
Enclosed please find our order. / Our order is enclosed.
We would like to place the following order:
We herewith order the following items:
We require the goods urgently.
We would be grateful if you could deliver as soon as possible.
Please let us know when we can expect the delivery.

Word List on Opinion and Statements


Stating your Opinion
It seems to me that
In my opinion,
I am of the opinion that / I take the view that ..
My personal view is that
In my experience
As far as I understand / can see,
As I see it, / From my point of view
As far as I know / From what I know
I might be wrong but
If I am not mistaken
I believe one can (safely) say
It is claimed that
I must admit that
I cannot deny that
I can imagine that
I think/believe/suppose
Personally, I think
That is why I think
I am sure/certain/convinced that

I am not sure/certain, but


I am not sure, because I don't know the situation exactly.
I am not convinced that
I have read that
I am of mixed opinions (about / on)
I am of mixed opinions about / on this.
I have no opinion in this matter.
Outlining Facts
The fact is that
The (main) point is that
This proves that
What it comes down to is that
It is obvious that
It is certain that
One can say that
It is clear that
There is no doubt that

Sample Business Letter

Your street address


City, State Zip
Date
Recipient name and surname
Job title (Sales Manager etc.)
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip
Dear Mr. __________
Your message here. Use short paragraphs - 3 to 4 lines each. Triplecheck your business letter for bad grammar. Keep your business letter
short and formal.

Sincerely,
Your signature
Your name and surname

A cable is one or more wires or optical fibers bound together, typically in a common
protective jacket or sheath.
The individual wires or fibers inside the jacket may be covered or insulated.
Combination cables may contain both electrical wires and optical fibers.
Electrical wire is usually copper because of its excellent conductivity, but aluminium is
sometimes used because it costs less.
Electrical cables may be made flexible by stranding the wires.
In this process, smaller individual wires are twisted or braided together to produce larger
wires that are more flexible than solid wires of similar size.
Bunching small wires before stranding adds the most flexibility.
A thin coat of a specific material , usually tin-which improves the solderability of the
bunch-, but it could be silver, gold and another materials.
Stranding= rasucire,toronare

cable tier= parama. magazie de parame

stranding machine= masina de cablat /


de toronat

cable lay= rasucirea in garlin,pas de


torsadare a c

bunch =inmanunchia (a se)

cable laying= intindere/instalare/pozare


a cablului

bunch=legatura
cable lay_up= cablaj
bunch=legatura de chei
cable lay_up= torsiune a cablului
bunch=legatura,balot,colac
cable lead_in=intrare de cablu
bunch=manunchi;ciorchine (de struguri)
cable line= linie de cablu
bunch=manunchi /manson de cablu
cable loop= bucla de cablu
unplated=negalvanizat, neplacat
tin=staniu, cositor
bundling= legare, balotare
bend= curba , curba (a), curbura,
derivatie .face un nod (a), incovoia,
indoi (a se)

wiring =legare, cuplare,racordare la


retea,cablare,montaj,circuit,schema
device= dispozitiv ,instrument
,mecanism ,mijloc, plan, procedeu,
mijloc; dispozitiv; mecanism; plan,
proiect, schema

radius= raza

exposed= a expune (unui pericol, risc);a


abandona, expune (a)

power cable=cablu de energie

tool=unealta, scula, instrument

Lace=tresa , a uni cabluri


machinery =mecanism; masinarie;
instalatie de exploatat, piesa/organ de
masina, utilaj(e)

to cope with= a se descurca la, a


functiona la, a rezista la
firm= fix; rigid; tare ,intari (a se),
consolida (a se),compacta ,neclintit (de)

braided wire= lita, fir impletit, sarma


impletita
Bundling the conductors and eliminating multi-layers ensures a uniform bend radius for
each conductor.
A power cable is an assembly of two or more electrical conductors, usually held together
with an overall sheath.
The assembly is used for transmission of electrical power.
Power cables may be installed as permanent wiring within buildings, buried in the
ground, run overhead, or exposed.
Flexible power cables are used for portable devices, mobile tools and machinery.
Flexible cables can be divided into two genres: those with conductors stranded in layers
inside the cable and those which have bundled/braided rather than layered conductors.
Stranding in layers is significantly easier to produce and is therefore usually offered on
the market at low cost.
The cable cores are stranded firmly and left relatively long in several layers around the
centre and are then enclosed in an extruded tube shaped jacket.
In the case of shielded cables, the cores are wrapped up with fleece or foils.
However, this type of cable construction means that, during the bending process, the
inner radius of the cable is compressed and the outer radius stretched as the cable core
moves.
Initially, this works quite well, because the elasticity of the material is still sufficient, but
soon material fatigue can set in and cause permanent deformations.
At any point where the cable is flexed, the path of any core moves quickly from the
inside to the outside of the cable.
The result is that no single core stays near the inside of the bend to be compressed or near
the outside of the bend to be stretched and overall the stresses are much reduced.
An outer jacket is still required to prevent the cores untwisting.

electrical panels= tablouri electrice


An overhead power line is an electric power transmission line suspended by towers or
poles. Towers for support of the lines are made of wood (as-grown or laminated), steel
(either lattice structures or tubular poles), concrete, aluminum.
Structures for overhead lines take a variety of shapes depending on the type of line.
Aluminum conductors reinforced with steel (known as ACSR) are primarily used for
medium and high voltage lines and may also be used for overhead services to individual
customers.
Aluminum conductors are used as it has the advantage of better resistivity/weight than
copper, as well as being cheaper. Some copper cable is still used, especially at lower
voltages.
Overhead lines or overhead wires are used to transmit electrical energy to trams,
trolleybuses or trains.
A multicore cable is a generic term for an electrical cable that has multiple cores.
The term is normally only used in relation to a cable that has more cores than commonly
encountered. A cable comprising three coaxial cables in a single sheath would be
considered a multicore.
Insulating and jacketing of wires and cables is done by passing them through an extruder.
Since the mid-1960s, the insulation has been plastic or polymers exhibiting properties
similar to rubber.
Technical specification
Type : Izolator electric compozit tija/ Composite Suspension insulator
Maira H 24.80.445
Items

Specification

Standard to be applied: Standard

Nominal System Voltage: Tensiune

3
4
5
6
7
8
9

nominala a retelei
Highest Voltage of System: Tensiunea maxima de serviciu a retelei
Nominal System frequency: Frecventa nominala a sistemului
Number of phase of the network: Numar de faze ale retelei
Minimum ambient temperature: Temperatura minima
Maximum ambient temperature: 55 Temperatura maxima
Altitude above sea level: Inaltimea maxima deasupra nivelului marii
Radiation of sun: Radiatie Solara

Factory data
IEC 1109
20 KV
24 KV
50 Hz
3
-55
+50
2500 m
Strong:puternica

10
11

Position of installation: Locul instalarii


Withstanding voltage with frequency power during 1 minute in dry condition (to earth & between

Tensiunea de tinere la frecventa industriala in mediu uscat


de
tinere la frecventa industriala in mediu umedsub ploaie
Lightning impulse Flashover voltage (positive): Tensiunea de tinere la impuls de
trasnet(pozitiv)
Lightning impulse Flashover voltage (Negative): Tensiunea de tinere la impuls de
trasnet(negativ)
Thickness of galvanization of metal part: Grosimea galvanizarii partii de metal
Fittings: Tip prezoane prindere
Kind of material: Material

Outdoor: afara
131 KV

phases):
12
13
14
15
16
17

Withstanding voltage with frequency power during 1 minute in wet condition: Tensiunea

85 KV
292 KV
303 KV
70 Micro
TT
Silicone rubber: Cauciuc

siliconat
18
19
20
21
22

Sarcina maxima specificata


Leakage distance: Distanta de descarcare a arcului
Exceptional Maximum Tensile Strength: Sarcina maxima admisibila
(exceptionala)
Length: Lungime
Weight: Greutate
Specified mechanical load:

80 KN
783 mm
97 KN
445 mm
2,1 Kg

Standardul Britanic indica conditiile si dimensiunile pentru cabluri izolate in PVC.


The British Standard gives requirements and dimensions for PVC insulated cables.
Cablurile functioneaza pana la tensiuni de 1900 V inclusiv la armatura si pamant si 3300
intre conductoare.
The cables operate at voltages up and including 1900 V to armour and earth and 3300 V
between conductors.
In scopul acestui standard sunt aplicate urmatoarele definitii.
For the purpose of this standard the following definitions apply.
Numarul si diametrul nominal al sarmelor pentru conductoarele circulare vor respecta
cerintele din tabelul urmator.
The number and nominal diameter of the wires in shaped stranded and compacted
circular copper conductors shall be in acordance to the values given in the appropriate
table.
Numarul minim de sarme utilizate pentru conductoarele circulare vor fi in conformitate
cu BS 6360.
The minimum number of wires used for the circular conductors shall be in accordance
with BS 6360.
Conductorii din aluminiu cu forme de sector circular sunt alcatuiti din 4 sectoare puse in
forma si aranjate conform cu BS 6791.
The shaped circular solid aluminium conductors consist of four conductor shaped solid
conductors laid up together with BS 6791.

Nu este permisa existenta adeziunii intre strat si manta si izolatie.


There shall be no adhesion between the bedding or the sheath and the insulation.
Valoarea minima a grosimii stratului nu va scadea sub valorile din urmatorul tabel.
The minimum thickness of the bedding shall not fall bellow the value given in the
following table.
Armatura sarmei consta dintr-un singur strat de sarme de otel galvanizate avand
dimensiunea indicata in tabelul urmator.
Wire armour shall consist of a single layer of galvanized steel wires of size indicated in
the appropriate table.
Directia stratului armaturii cablurilor din pana la 7 fire va fi spre stanga.
The direction of lay of the armour in cables having up to including seven wires shall be
left hand.
Pentru a deosebi cablurile cu o tensiune de 6000/1000 V de cablurile cu o tensiune mai
mare, primele vor fi marcate cu o hartie de atentionare galbena.
In order to distinguish between 600/1000 cables and cables of higher voltage rating, the
first shall be further identified by varnished yellow paper.
Dimesiunea maxima a caracterelor va fi de 13 mm. The maximum size of the letters shall
be of 13 mm.
Toate cordoanele vor fi supuse testului de scanteiere.
All cords shall be subjected to the spark test.
Este preferabil ca electrodul sa fie in plasa de sarma astfel incat sa realizeze un contact
direct cu conductoarele.
It is advisable that the electrode should be a fine link mesh so that it shall intimate contact
with the core.
Tensiunea electrodului va fi de 6Kv RMS iar capacitatea condensatorului va fi de 35 PF
The voltage carried out by the electrode shall be of 6 KV and the capacitor capacity of 35
Pf.
Testul de tensiune se va face la temperatura camerei cu o tensiune de 500 V.
The voltage test shall be made at room temperature with a voltage of 500 V.
Masurarea rezistentei izolatiei va fi facuta dupa electrificare cu curent continuu pentru 1
minut la nu mai putin de 500 V
The measurement of the resistence of the insulation shall be determined after applying
the sample to DC for 1 minute for a power that shall be at least 500V.
Grosimea izolatiei va fi determinata de probe reprezentative de mieZ luate nu mai putin
de 300 mm de la capatul unei lungimi de fabricatie.

The thickness of the insulation shall be determined by representative core samples taken
no more than 300mm from the end of a factory length.
Media masuratorilor si cea mai mica masuratoare vor fi inregistrate pentru verificarea
conformitatii cu clauza 6 .
The average measure and the lowest of the measurements shall be recorded for checking
compliance with clause 6.
Diametrul masurat al conductorului se va scadea din media celor 2 masuratori iar
diferenta va fi impartita la 2.
The measured conductor diameter shall be substracted from the average of the 2
measurements and the difference divided by 2.
In cazul in care este utilizata tiparirea in conformitate cu 14.2 punctele in care sunt
realizate masuratorile nu se vor suprapune peste imprimare.
When embossing in accordance with 14.2 is used the points at which measurements are
made shall not coincide with any embossing.
Aluminium conductors and aluminium conductors steel reinforced for overhead
transmission lines= conductori de aluminiu si conductori de aluminiu cu armatura de otel
pentru inii de transmisie aeriene
Galvanized steel wire= sarma de otel galvanizat
Hard drawn aluminium wire=
sarma trefilata de aluminiu
Conductorul din aluminiu cu armatura de otel este alcatuit din 7 sau mai multe sarme din
otel galvanizate.
The aluminium conductor steel reinforced is made up of seven or more aluminum
galvanized steel wires.
Directia de infasurare a stratului este spre dreapta sau spre stanga.
The direction of lay is defined as right hand or left hand.
Rezistivitatea sarmelor de aluminiu depinde de puritatea materialului si de conditiile
fizice.
The resistivity of aluminium wires depends upon its purity and its physical conditions.
Coeficientul liniar de expensiune al sarmelor de aluminiu se va lui 23*10 6C.
The coeficient of linear expansionof aluminium wires is to be taken as 23*10-6.
In vederea obtinerii uniformitatii in calcule o valoare de 11.5*10-6/C poate fi luata ca
valoare pentru coeficientul de expansiune liniar al sarmelor de otel galvanizate.
To obtain calculation uniformity, a value of 11.5*10-6/C can be taken as a value of the
expansion linear coeficient of the galvanized steel wires.
Sarmele de otel galvanizate vor fi de gradul de tensiune standard indicat in BS4565 atata
timp cat beneficiarul nu cere un grad mai mare.
The galvanized steel wires shall be of standard tensile strenght grade given in BS4565
unless the purchaser requires a higher tensile strenght grade.
La intelegere intre producator si beneficiar pe sarma centrala poate fi aplicata o gresare
corespunzatoare.
By ageement between the purchaser and the manufacturer a suitable grease may be
applied to the centre of the wire.
In cazul sarmelor de otel imbinarile sunt permise numai in bara de baza.
For steel wires there are no joints except those in the base rod.
In alternativa in care beneficiarul stabileste in timpul comenzii ca doreste sa faca testele
in prezenta unui reprezentant, probele vor fi luate pe lungimi de conductor cablat.

Alternatively, when the purchaser states at the time of ordering that he desires test to be
taken in the presence of hisrepresentatives, samples of wire shall be taken from lenghts of
stranded conductor.
Braid twisted twin flexible cords=cordoanele flexibile impletite perechi
Standardul britanic da indicatii referitoare la tipul izolatiei, la dimensiunile cordoanelor.
The british standard gives requirements concerning the type of insulation and the
dimension of the insulated cords.
Cordoanele sunt in principal proiectate in vederea utilizarii lor in conditiile prevazute in
regulile pentru echipamentul electric pentru cladiri.
The cords are primarily intended for use under the conditions envisaged in the
Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of buildings.
Tensiunea nominala E este tensiunea putere frecventa de impamantare pentru care
cablurile flexibile sunt destinate.
The rated voltage E is the power frequency voltage to earth for which the flexible cords
are designed.
Tipurile de cordoane descrise in acest standard se vor utiliza unde combinatia dintre
temperatura ambianta si cresterea de temperatura nu depasesc 60o C.
Types of flexible cords described in this standard are suitable for use where the
combination of ambient temperature and the temperature rise dont exceed 600C.
Corzile flexibile nu vor fi utilizate la temperaturi de sub 00C decat dupa consultarea
producatorului.
Flexible cords are to be used in ambient temperatures below 00 C, the manufacturer
should be consulted.
Determinarea fortei de 1%alungire= determination of stress at 1% elongation
Vulvanized rubber insulated cords=cordoane izolate in cauciuc vulcanizat
Cordoanele izolate in cauciuc vulcanizat sunt conductoare cositorite din cupru .
The vulcanized rubber insulated cords are tinned annealed copper conductors.
Izolatia va fi in general conform normei.
The insulation shall mainly be complying to the standard.
Izolatia va fi aplicata prin extrudare si va fi potrivita strans dar nu va adera la conductor.
The insulation shall be applied by extrusion process and shall fit closely on but not
adhere to the conductor .
Mantaua pentru cordoane cu izolatie de PVC rezistenta la caldura va fi de tipul 4.
The sheath for heat resisting PVC insulated cords shall be type four.
Grosimea mantalei determinata prin realizarea unui numar de masuratori nu va fi mai
mica decat valoarea indicata in tabel 1.
The thickness of the sheath determined by making the average of a number of
measurements shall be no less than the standard value in table 2.
Presentations
Introduction
I want to give you a short presentation about ...
My presentation is about ...
I'd like to tell you something about ...
I think everybody has heard about ..., but hardly anyone knows a lot about it.
That's why I'd like to tell you something about it.

Did you know that ...?


Introducing sub-topics
Let me begin by explaining why / how ...
First / Now I want to talk about ...
First / Now I want to give you an insight into ...
Let's (now) find out why / how ...
Let's now move to ...
As I already indicated ...
Another aspect / point is that ...
The roots of ... go back to ...
... began when ...
Legend has it that ...
As you probably know, ...
You probably know that ...
Maybe you've already heard about ...
You might have seen that already.
At the beginning there was / were ...
Many people knew / know ...
Hardly anyone knew / knows ...
... hit the idea to ...
... was the first to ...
It is claimed that ...
One can say that ...
I have read that ...
Pictures and graphics
Let me use a graphic to explain this.
The graphic shows that ...
As you can see (in the picture) ...
In the next / following picture, you can see ...
Here is another picture.
The next picture shows how ...
Let the pictures speak for themselves.
I think the picture perfectly shows how / that ...
Now, here you can see ...
Final thoughts on a sub-topic
It was a great success for ...
It is a very important day in the history of ...
It was / is a very important / special event.
This proves that ...
The reason is that ...
The result of this is that ...
It's because ...
In other words, ...
I want to repeat that ...
I'd (just) like to add ...
Conclusion

... should not be forgotten.


... has really impressed me.
I hope that one day ...
We should not forget ...
All in all I believe that...
Summing up / Finally it can be said that ...
Let me close by quoting ... who said, ...
That was my presentation on ...
I am now prepared to answer your questions.
Do you have any questions?
Exercise : write a presentation

REQUEST BANK TO CLOSE ACCOUNT


[DATE, ex. Wednesday, June 11, 1998]
[NAME, COMPANY AND ADDRESS, ex.
John Smith
XYZ Bank
1234 First Street
Suite 567
Anycity, Anystate 85245]
Dear [NAME, ex. John Smith],
I request that you close the following accounts I have at your branch:
TYPE
ACCOUNT #
[LIST ACCOUNT TYPES AND NUMBERS, ex.
Savings
2342342-234
Checking
2343433-432]
[MENTION WHAT SHOULD BE DONE WITH BALANCES, ex. Kindly prepare a
money order in the amount of the balance outstanding for me to pick up on Monday, June
16, 1998.] Allow me to thank you in advance for your consideration.

Sincerely,
[YOUR NAME, ex. Jill Jones]

REQUEST BANK FOR COPY OF CREDIT RATING REPORT


[DATE, ex. Wednesday, June 11, 1998]
[NAME, COMPANY AND ADDRESS, ex.
John Smith
XYZ Bank
1234 First Street
Suite 567
Anycity, Anystate 85245]
Dear [NAME, ex. John Smith],
We have recently applied for credit at [FIRM, ex. ABC Supplies] and have listed your
bank as a reference. I kindly request that a copy of all documents you plan to send to
[FIRM, ex. ABC Supplies] in their investigation of my credit rating be forwarded to me
at:
[ADDRESS, ex.
Jill Jones
PowerAccount Software
4321 Second Street
Suite 545
Anycity, Anystate 85254]
Allow me to thank you in advance. Please me at XXX-XXXX if there are any concerns.
Sincerely,
[YOUR NAME, ex. Jill Jones]

INQUIRE BANK REGARDING FOREIGN CURRENCY ACCOUNTS


[DATE, ex. Wednesday, June 11, 1998]

[NAME, COMPANY AND ADDRESS, ex.


John Smith
XYZ Bank
1234 First Street
Suite 567
Anycity, Anystate 85245]
Dear [NAME, ex. John Smith],
We are interested in whether your bank offers interest-bearing [CURRENCY, ex.
Sterling Pound] accounts. Please forward any information regarding the availability of
such accounts, as well as the current rates paid thereon, to me at:
[ADDRESS, ex.
Attention: Jill Jones
PowerAccount Industries
4312 Third Street
Anycity, Anystate 85245]
Allow me to thank you in advance for your consideration.
Sincerely,
[YOUR NAME, ex. Jill Jones]

REQUEST PERMANENT INCREASE IN CREDIT LIMIT


[DATE, ex. Wednesday, June 11, 1998]
[NAME, BANK AND ADDRESS, ex.
John Smith
XYZ Bank
1234 First Street
Suite 567
Anycity, Anystate 85245]
Dear [NAME, ex. John Smith],
We hereby request that you permanently increase the limit on our credit facility to
[REQESTED AMOUNT OF CREDIT LIMIT, ex. $750,000].
[EXPLAIN REASONS FOR INCREASE, ex. As you are aware, our business has
experienced tremendous growth over the past few years, and although this is a positive

and desirable trend, we require additional credit in order to allow us to adequately


increase production to meet customer demand.]
You already have our financial information and related materials. Please feel free to call
me if you have any questions or comments or if you require any additional information.
We anxiously await your response.
Sincerely,
[YOUR NAME, ex. Jill Jones]

REQUEST PROPOSAL FOR CREDIT FACILITY


[DATE, ex. Wednesday, June 11, 1998]
[NAME, BANK AND ADDRESS, ex.
John Smith
XYZ Bank
1234 First Street
Suite 567
Anycity, Anystate 85245]
Dear [NAME, ex. John Smith],
I refer to our recent telephone conversation regarding our company's credit and banking
requirements.
As you are aware, we are a growing business with correspondingly increasing capital
requirements. We have enclosed for your information, our recent financial statements
along with our business plan and budget for the forthcoming fiscal year.
Based upon our forecasts, we anticipate requiring a credit facility of approximately
[AMOUNT OF CREDIT FACILITY, ex. $750,000].
Would you kindly provide us with a financing proposal which you believe would satisfy
our requirements. Please feel free to call me if you have any questions or comments, or if
you require additional information.
We anxiously await your response.
Sincerely,
[YOUR NAME, ex. Jill Jones]

AUTHORIZATION TO BANK TO RELEASE


INFORMATION TO FINANCIAL ADVISER

ACCOUNT

[DATE, ex. Wednesday, June 11, 1998]


[NAME, BANK AND ADDRESS, ex.
John Smith
XYZ Bank
1234 First Street
Suite 567
Anycity, Anystate 85245]
Dear [NAME, ex. John Smith],
You are hereby authorized to release to [NAME OF INDIVIDUAL OR COMPANY] all
banking information requested by [him / her / it] relating to our Account No.
[ACCOUNT NO., ex. 12345678].
This shall be your good and sufficient authority for so doing.
Sincerely,
[YOUR NAME, ex. Jill Jones]
CUSTOMER CREDIT APPROVAL
[DATE, ex. Wednesday, June 11, 1998]
[NAME, COMPANY AND ADDRESS, ex.
John Smith
XYZ Inc.
1234 First Street
Suite 567
Anycity, Anystate 85245]
Dear [NAME, ex. John Smith],
We are happy to inform you that your credit application has been approved. We hope
that you will enjoy the benefits of a [STATE TERMS $10,000 maximum 2/10 net 30]
account, and we are certain that these terms will better facilitate doing business together.
Enclosed, please find a copy of our credit terms. This document explains in detail how
your account will be billed each month.

Feel free to contact me at XXX-XXXX should you have any concerns or questions.
Sincerely,
[YOUR NAME, ex. Jill Jones]
REQUEST DELAY IN PROVIDING FINANCIAL STATEMENT
[DATE, ex. Wednesday, June 11, 1998]
[NAME, BANK AND ADDRESS, ex.
John Smith
XYZ Bank
1234 First Street
Suite 567
Anycity, Anystate 85245]
Dear [NAME, ex. John Smith],
According to the terms of our credit facility, we are required to provide you with our
annual financial statements within 90 days following our fiscal year end ([DATE OF
YEAR END, ex. March 31, 1998]).
[EXPLAIN REASON FOR DELAY IN PREPARATION OF STATEMENTS, ex. As
you are aware, we have recently updated our accounting system software, and have been
experiencing some difficulties in reconciling accounts. Our technicians are working with
the software vendor to address these problems, however we do not anticipate having this
resolved for a few more weeks].
We would therefore respectfully request that you provide us with an additional
[ADDITIONAL DELAY PERIOD REQUESTED, ex. sixty (60) days] to provide you
with the statements. We will, of course, try to provide you with them earlier, however we
are confident that the delays will not set us back any longer than this.
Thank you in advance for your anticipated co-operation. Please feel free to call me if you
have any questions.
Sincerely,
[YOUR NAME, ex. Jill Jones]
APPROVAL OF REQUEST TO INCREASE CREDIT LIMIT

[DATE, ex. Wednesday, June 11, 1998]


[NAME, COMPANY AND ADDRESS, ex.
John Smith
XYZ Inc.
1234 First Street
Suite 567
Anycity, Anystate 85245]
Dear [NAME, ex. John Smith],
We are happy to inform you that your request to increase your credit limit has been
approved. Accordingly, your new credit limit is $[AMOUNT]. Enclosed, please find a
detailed copy of our credit terms. This document explains in detail how your account
will be billed each month.
We are certain that these terms will better facilitate doing business together.
Sincerely,
[YOUR NAME, ex. Jill Jones]
CUSTOMER CREDIT REFUSAL
[DATE, ex. Wednesday, June 11, 1998]
[NAME, COMPANY AND ADDRESS, ex.
John Smith
XYZ Inc.
1234 First Street
Suite 567
Anycity, Anystate 85245]
Dear [NAME, ex. John Smith],
We thank you for your credit application and your interest in our [products/services]. We
look forward to doing business with you.
As you understand, to maintain reasonable and competitive prices, we are unable to
approve many credit applications. Although we cannot offer you credit terms at this
moment, we are certain that, as we do business together and a favorable history is
established, we will be able to accept credit orders from you in the future. {OFFER
INCENTIVE, ex. Meanwhile, may I extend to you a discount of [X]% for cash orders?}

{Since you are a busy person, I will automatically review your account in [X] months and
gladly offer you credit when we are able to do so.}
It will be a pleasure to do business with you.
Sincerely,
[YOUR NAME, ex. Jill Jones]
A letter of credit is a letter from a bank guaranteeing that a buyer's payment to a seller
will be received on time and for the correct amount. In the event that the buyer is unable
to make payment on the purchase, the bank will be required to cover the full or remaining
amount of the purchase.
Letters of credit are often used in international transactions to ensure that payment will be
received. Due to the nature of international dealings including factors such as distance,
differing laws in each country and difficulty in knowing each party personally, the use of
letters of credit has become a very important aspect of international trade. The bank also
acts on behalf of the buyer (holder of letter of credit) by ensuring that the supplier will
not be paid until the bank receives a confirmation that the goods have been shipped.
LC.

SAMPLE
IRREVOCABLE LETTER OF CREDIT FOR A
NEW YORK CAPTIVE INSURANCE COMPANY
FOR INTERNAL
IDENTIFICATION PURPOSES
ONLY:
Applicant

Bank
Address
City
State
Issue Date

Zip
Letter of Credit No.

Superintendent of Insurance
Insurance Department
State of New York
25 Beaver Street,
New York, New York 10004

Superintendent:

1. We hereby establish this IRREVOCABLE LETTER OF CREDIT in your favor for


drawings up to the aggregate amount of United States $
(Amount)
, effective
immediately. This LETTER OF CREDIT is issued, presentable and payable at our office at

(Address)

and expires with our close of business on (Expiration Date) unless as


hereinafter extended.
2. We hereby undertake to promptly honor your sight draft(s) drawn on us, indicating
our IRREVOCABLE LETTER OF CREDIT No.
, for all or any part of this LETTER OF
CREDIT upon presentation at our office specified in paragraph one on or before the expiration
date or any automatically extended expiration date.

3. Except as expressly stated herein, this undertaking is not subject to any agreement,

(Issuing Bank)
under this LETTER
OF CREDIT is the individual obligation of Issuing Bank), and is in no way contingent upon
condition or qualification. The obligation of
reimbursement with respect thereto.
4. It is a condition of this LETTER OF CREDIT that it is deemed to be automatically
extended without amendment for one year from the expiration date hereof, or any future
expiration date, unless at least thirty days prior to any expiration date we notify you by registered
mail that we elect not to consider this LETTER OF CREDIT renewed for any such additional
period.
5. Unless otherwise expressly stated, this LETTER OF CREDIT is subject to the 1993
Revision of the Uniform Customs and Practices for Commercial Documentary Credits of the
International Chamber of Commerce (Publication No. 500). If this LETTER OF CREDIT
expires during an interruption of business as described in Article 17 of said Publication 500, we
hereby specifically agree to effect payment if this LETTER OF CREDIT is drawn against within
five days after the resumption of business.
Very truly yours,

(Issuing Bank)

The letter of recommendation


C&A Tours
Travelling Agency
Calea Victoriei nr .45 Bucuresti tel.210-4263, fax 210-4266
To whom it may concern:
Letter of recommendation
We confirm that Mrs. Victoria Popescu has worked in our agency in the position of
secretary between June 2006 and June 2008. I am pleased to say that Mrs. Popescu is a
reliable and hard-working person, as well as an enthusiastic and determined nature.
During the time period when she was employed in ou company Mrs. Popescu proved to
be a reliable team member and a resourceful worker. Her good English and computer
skills, as well as her comunication abilities and her determination to excel are also proofs
that Mrs. Popescu is a valuable profesional.

July 05 2008
General Manager
Adrian Dumintrescu

ENGLISH IRREGULAR VERBS WITH PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION


Infinitive Present
To Be

Am is
are

Past

Participle

Was were

been

beat

Beat s

/bi:t/

Become s

/b
became
'km/

/b
become
'kem/

/b 'km/

Begin s

/b
'gn/

/b
'gn/

begun

/b 'gn/

Bend s

/bend/ bent

/bent/

bent

Bind s

/band/ bound

began

/bi:t/

beaten

A fi

/band/ bound

/'bi:tn/

A bate
A deveni
A incepe

/bent/

A indoi

/band/

A lega

Bite s

/bat/ bit

/bt/

bitten

/'btn/

A musca

Bleed s

/bli:d/ bled

/bled/

bled

/bled/

A sangera

Blow s

/blou/ blew

/blu:/

blown

/bloun/

A sufla

Break s

/brek/ broke

/brouk/ broken

Bring s

/br/ brought

/br:t/ brought

/br:t/

A aduce

Build s

/bld/ built

/blt/

/blt/

A construi

burns

/b:rn/ burnt

/b:rnt/ burnt

/b:rnt/

A arde

Burn s

/b:rn/ burned

/b:rnd/ burned

/b:rnd/

A arde

built

/'broukn/

A sparge, a
rupe

Buy s

/ba/

bought

/b:t/

bought

/b:t/

A cumpara

Catch- es

/kt/ caught

/k:t/

caught

/k:t/

A prinde

choose s

/tu:z/ chose

/touz/ chosen

Come s

/km/ came

/kem/ come

/km/

A veni

Cost s

/kst/ cost

/kst/

/kst/

A costa

cost

/'touzn/ A alege

Cut s

/kt/

cut

/kt/

cut

/kt/

A taia

Dig s

/dg/

dug

/dg/

dug

/dg/

A sapa

Do es

/du:/

did

/dd/

done

/dn/

A face

draw s

/dr:/ drew

/dru:/

drawn

/dr:n/

A desena

Dream s

/dri:m/ dreamt

/dremt/ dreamt

/dremt/

A visa

Dream s

/dri:m/ dreamed

/dri:md/ dreamed

/dri:md/ A visa

Drink s

/drk/ drank

/drk/ drunk

/drk/

Drive s

/drav/ drove

/drouv/ driven

/'drvn/ A conduce

/et, et/ eaten

A bea

/'i:tn/

A manca

/'f:ln/

A cadea

Eat s

/i:t/

ate

Fall s

/f:l/

fell

/fel/

fallen

Feed s

/fi:d/

fed

/fed/

fed

/fed/

A se hrani

Feel s

/fi:l/

felt

/felt/

felt

/felt/

A simti

Fight s

/fat/ fought

/f:t/

fought

/f:t/

A(se) lupta

Find s

/fand/ found

/fand/ found

/fand/

A gasi

/floun/

A zbura

Fly flies

/fla/ flew

/flu:/

flown

Forget s

/fr
'get/

forgot

/fr
'gt/

forgotten

/fr 'gtn/

Forgive s

/fr
'gv/

forgave

/fr
'gev/

forgiven

/fr
'gvn/

Freeze s

/fri:z/ froze

Get s

/get/

got

/gt/

got

Get s

/get/

got

/gt/

gotten

Give s

/gv/

gave

/gev/ given

/'gvn/

Go -goes

/gou/ went

/went/ gone

/gn/

A merge

Grow s

/grou/ Grew

/gru:/

grown

/groun/

A creste

Hang s

/h/ hung

/h/

hung

/h/

A atarna

Have has

/hv/ had

/hd/

had

/hd/

A avea

Hear s

/hr/ heard

/h:rd/ heard

/h:rd/

A auzi

Hide s

/had/ hid

/hd/

/'hdn/

A ascunde

/frouz/ frozen

hidden

A uita
A ierta

/'frouzn/ A ingheta
/gt/

A obtine

/'gtn/

A obtine
A da

Hit s

/ht/

hit

/ht/

hit

/ht/

A lovi

Hold -s

/hould/ held

/held/

held

/held/

A tine

Hurt s

/h:rt/ hurt

/h:rt/

hurt

/h:rt/

A rani

Keep s

/ki:p/ kept

/kept/

kept

/kept/

A tine

Know s

/nou/ knew

/nu:/

known

/noun/

A sti

Lay s

/le/

laid

/led/

laid

/led/

A intinde

Lead s

/li:d/

led

/led/

led

/led/

A conduce

Learn s

/l:rn/ learnt

/l:rnt/ learnt

/l:rnt/

A invata

Learn

/l:rn/ learned

/l:rnd/ learned

/l:rnd/

A invata

Leave s

/li:v/

left

/left/

left

/left/

A pleca

Lend s

/lend/ lent

/lent/

lent

/lent/

A da
cuimprumut

/let/

A lasa, a
permite

Let s

/let/

let

/let/

let

Lie s

/la/

lay

/le/

lain

/len/

A se intinde

Lose s

/lu:z/ lost

/lst/

lost

/lst/

A pierde

Make s

/mek/ made

/med/ made

/med/

A face

Mean s

/mi:n/ meant

/ment/ meant

/ment/

A insemna

Meet s

/mi:t/ met

/met/

met

/met/

A intalni

Pay pays

/pe/

paid

/ped/ paid

/ped/

A plati

Put s

/pt/

put

/pt/

put

/pt/

A pune

Read s

/ri:d/

read

/red/

read

/red/

A citi

Ride s

/rad/ rode

/roud/ ridden

/'rdn/

A calari

Ring s

/r/

rang

/r/

rung

/r/

A suna

Rise s

/raz/ rose

/rouz/

risen

/'rzn/

Run s

/rn/

ran

/rn/

run

/rn/

A fugi,a
alerga

Say says

/se/

said

/sed/

said

/sed/

A spune

See s

/si:/

saw

/s:/

seen

/si:n/

A vedea

A se ridica, a
rasari

Sell s
Send s
Set s

/sel/

sold

/send/ sent
/set/

set

/sould/ sold

/sould/

A vinde

/sent/

sent

/sent/

A trimite

/set/

set

/set/

A stabili

shaken

Shake s

/ek/ shook

/k/

Shine s

/an/ shone

/oun,
shone
n/

Shoot s

/u:t/ shot

Show s

/ou/ showed

Shut s

/t/

shut

/t/

shut

/t/

A inchide

Sing s

/s/

sang

/s/

sung

/s/

A canta

Sink s

/sk/ sank

/sk/ sunk

/sk/

A se
scufunda

/st/

A sta (jos)

Sit s

/st/

sat

/t/

shot

/oud/ shown

/st/

sat

/'ekn/ A scutura
/oun,
n/
/t/
/oun/

A straluci
A trage cu
arma
A arata

Sleep s

/sli:p/ slept

/slept/ slept

/slept/

A dormi

smells

/smel/ smelt

/smelt/ smelt

/smelt/

A mirosi

Smell s

/smel/ smelled

/smeld/ smelled

/smeld/

A mirosi

Speak s

/spi:k/ spoke

/spouk/ spoken

Spell s

/spel/ spelt

/spelt/ spelt

/spelt/

A ortografia

spell

/spel/ spelled

/speld/ spelled

/speld/

A ortografia

/spend/ spent

/spent/ spent

/spent/

A petrece

Spill s

/spl/ spilt

/splt/ spilt

/splt/

A varsa

Spill s

/spl/ spilled

/spld/ spilled

/spld/

A varsa

Spit s

/spt/ spat

/spt/ spat

/spt/

A scuipa

Spit

/spt/ spit

/spt/

spit

/spt/

A scuipa

split s

/splt/ split

/splt/ split

/splt/

A imparti

Spoil s

/spol/ spoilt

/spolt/ spoilt

/spolt/

A rasfata

Spoil s

/spol/ spoiled

/spold/ spoiled

/spold/

A rasfata

Stand s

/stnd/ stood

/std/

A sta(in
picioare)

Spend s

/std/

stood

/'spoukn/ A vorbi

Steal s

/sti:l/ stole

/stoul/ stolen

Strike s

/strak/ struck

/strk/ struck

/strk/

A lovi

Swim s

/swm/ swam

/swm/ swum

/swm/

A inota

Take s

/tek/ took

/tk/

taken

Teach es

/ti:t/ taught

/t:t/

taught

/t:t/

A preda

Tear s

/ter/ tore

/tr/

torn

/trn/

A rupe

Tell s

/tel/

/tould/ told

/tould/

A povesti, a
spune
A gandi

told

/'stouln/ A fura

/'tekn/ A lua

Think s

/k/ thought

/:t/

thought

/:t/

Throw s

/rou/ threw

/ru:/

thrown

/roun/

A arunca

/ndr
'std/

A intelege

/ndr
Understand /ndr
understood
understood
s
'std/
'stnd/
Wake s

/wek/ woke

Wear s

/wer/ wore

/wr/

Win s

/wn/ won
/rat/ wrote

Write

/wouk/ woken

/'woukn/ A se trezi
/wrn/

A purta

/wn/ won

/wn/

A castiga

/rout/

/'rtn/

worn

written

A scrie