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English 417, Diane Galbo

Brave Heart Sanchez

[THE NEW YORKER SYLE


SHEET]

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction and example............................................................................................................................4
Introduction.............................................................................................................................................4
Example...................................................................................................................................................4
An Example.........................................................................................................................................4
Capitalization..............................................................................................................................................5
8.4 Capitalization of personal names...................................................................................................5
8.18 Titles and officesthe general rule.............................................................................................5
8.44Continents, countries, cities, oceans, and such.............................................................................5
8.47Popular place-names or epithets..................................................................................................5
8.50Political divisionscapitalization...............................................................................................6
8.52Mountains, rivers, and the like.....................................................................................................6
8.55Thoroughfares and the like..........................................................................................................6
8.56Buildings and monuments............................................................................................................6
8.62Administrative bodies..................................................................................................................7
8.63Judicial bodies..............................................................................................................................7
8.79Formal names of acts, treaties, and so forth.................................................................................7
8.87Days of the week, months, and seasons.......................................................................................7
10.35 Compass points in mailing addresses.........................................................................................7
Numerals.....................................................................................................................................................8
9.2Chicagos general rulezero through one hundred.......................................................................8
9.4Hundreds, thousands, and hundred thousands................................................................................8
9.6Ordinals.........................................................................................................................................8
9.8 Millions, billions, and so forth.......................................................................................................9
9.18Percentages..................................................................................................................................9
9.21Words versus monetary symbols and numerals.............................................................................9
9.25Large monetary amounts............................................................................................................10
9.30The year alone...........................................................................................................................10
9.32 Month and day...........................................................................................................................10
9.38 Numerals versus words for time of day.....................................................................................10
9.52Numbered streets.......................................................................................................................11
Punctuation................................................................................................................................................11
Commas.................................................................................................................................................11

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6.9 Periods and commas in relation to closing quotation marks.........................................................11
6.13Periods in relation to parentheses and brackets..........................................................................12
6.17Commas in pairs........................................................................................................................12
6.18Serial commas............................................................................................................................12
6.22 Restrictive and nonrestrictive clauseswhich versus that..................................................12
6.23Restrictive and nonrestrictive appositives..................................................................................13
6.24Commas with parenthetical elements.........................................................................................13
6.25Commas with however, therefore, indeed, and so forth...................................................13
6.26Commas with restrictive and nonrestrictive phrases..................................................................13
6.28Commas with independent clauses joined by conjunctions........................................................14
6.29Commas with compound predicates..........................................................................................14
6.30Comma preceding main clause..................................................................................................14
6.31 Comma following main clause..................................................................................................14
6.33Commas with coordinate adjectives...........................................................................................15
6.36Commas with introductory adverbial phrases............................................................................15
6.38Commas with direct address.......................................................................................................15
6.45Commas with dates....................................................................................................................15
6.49 Commas to indicate elision........................................................................................................16
6.50Commas with quotations............................................................................................................16
Semicolon..............................................................................................................................................16
6.54Use of the semicolon..................................................................................................................16
Colon.....................................................................................................................................................16
6.59Use of the colon.........................................................................................................................16
13.17 Colon preceding a quotation....................................................................................................17
Question Marks and Exclamation Points...............................................................................................17
6.70Question marks in relation to surrounding text and punctuation................................................17
En Dash, Em Dash, and Hyphen............................................................................................................17
6.82 Em dashes instead of commas, parentheses, or colons...............................................................17
6.76Hyphens in compound words......................................................................................................18
Parentheses............................................................................................................................................18
6.92Use of parentheses.....................................................................................................................18
6.96Parentheses with other punctuation............................................................................................18
Apostrophes...........................................................................................................................................18
7.15Possessive form of most nouns..................................................................................................19

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7.16Possessive of proper nouns, letters, and numbers......................................................................19
7.29Contractions...............................................................................................................................19
7.60Scholastic grades........................................................................................................................19
Abbreviations........................................................................................................................................19
10.3When to use abbreviations.........................................................................................................20
10.4Periods with abbreviations.........................................................................................................20
10.33USversusUnitedStates...........................................................................................................21
Spelling.....................................................................................................................................................21
Hyphenation and Compounds................................................................................................................21
7.79The trend toward closed compounds..........................................................................................21
7.85Hyphenation guide for compounds and words formed with prefixes.........................................21
House style................................................................................................................................................22
Fonts......................................................................................................................................................22
Italics.....................................................................................................................................................22
7.47Italics for emphasis.....................................................................................................................22
8.166Treatment of book and periodical titles.....................................................................................22
Size........................................................................................................................................................23
Beginning of Article Sections................................................................................................................23
AppenIndix................................................................................................................................................24

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INTRODUCTION AND EXAMPLE


INTRODUCTION
This styles guide, for The New Yorker magazine, was created in accordance with the 16 th edition
of the Chicago Manual of Style. The rule numbers were left in for easy reference to the Manual. For
spelling errors and inconsistencies, the Merriam Websters Collegiate Dictionary, 11th Edition was
consulted.

EXAMPLE
A note on how to read this style guide:

AN EXAMPLE
The contents of the rule will appear under its heading, with the rule number still intact for cross-reference
with the Chicago Manual of Style. Beneath the rule will be an example.
The numbers refer to the page, column and paragraph to find the example (4.1.2)

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CAPITALIZATION
8.4 CAPITALIZATION OF PERSONAL NAMES
Namesandinitialsofpersons,realorfictitious,arecapitalized.Aspaceshouldbeusedbetweenany
initials,exceptwheninitialsareusedalone.
KaliefBrowder(1.1.1)
BrendanOMeara(2.1.2)
RobertoBautista(3.1.2)

8.18 TITLES AND OFFICESTHE GENERAL RULE


Civil,military,religious,andprofessionaltitlesarecapitalizedwhentheyimmediatelyprecedea
personalnameandarethususedaspartofthename(typicallyreplacingthetitleholdersfirstname).
Informalproseandothergenerictext(asopposedtopromotionalorceremonialcontextsora
heading),titlesarenormallylowercasedwhenfollowinganameorusedinplaceofaname.
Althoughbothfirstandsecondnamesmaybeusedafteracapitalizedtitle(PresidentAbraham
Lincoln;butsee8.20)andthoughitisperfectlycorrecttodosoChicagopreferstoavoidsuch
usageinformalprose,especiallywithcivil,corporate,andacademictitles.Notealsothatonceatitle
hasbeengiven,itneednotberepeatedeachtimeapersonsnameismentioned.
MayorBilldeBlasio(4.1.3)
8.44CONTINENTS, COUNTRIES, CITIES, OCEANS, AND SUCH
Entitiesthatappearonmapsarealwayscapitalized,asareadjectivesandnounsderivedfromthem.
Aninitialtheaspartofanameislowercasedinrunningtext,exceptintherarecaseofan
initialtheinthenameofacity
NewYorkers(1.3.4)
8.47POPULAR PLACE-NAMES OR EPITHETS
Popularnamesofplaces,orepithets,areusuallycapitalized.Quotationmarksarenotneeded.Some
ofthefollowingexamplesmaybeusedofmorethanoneplace.Noneshouldbeusedincontexts
wheretheywillnotbereadilyunderstood.Seealso8.33.

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theBelmontsectionoftheBronx(1.1.1)
themainstreetofLittleItaly
theBing(4.1.2)
8.50POLITICAL DIVISIONSCAPITALIZATION
Wordsdenotingpoliticaldivisionsfromempire,republic,andstatedowntowardandprecinct
arecapitalizedwhentheyfollowanameandareusedasanacceptedpartofthename.When
precedingthename,suchtermsareusuallycapitalizedinnamesofcountriesbutlowercasedin
entitiesbelowthenationallevel(butsee8.51).Usedalone,theyareusuallylowercased.
FortyeighthPrecinct(1.3.1)
Departmentofcorrection(1.3.3)
8.52MOUNTAINS, RIVERS, AND THE LIKE
Namesofmountains,rivers,oceans,islands,andsofortharecapitalized.Thegenericterm
(mountain,etc.)isalsocapitalizedwhenusedaspartofthename.Intheplural,itiscapitalizedwhen
itispartofasinglename(HawaiianIslands)andwhenitisusedoftwoormorenames,whether
beginningwiththegenericterm(MountsWashingtonandRainier)orinareturntoearliereditions
ofthismanualwhenthegenerictermcomessecondandappliestotwoormorenames(e.g.,the
IllinoisandtheChicagoRivers).Suchcapitalizationsignalsunambiguouslythatthegenericterm
formspartofeachpropernoun.
RikersIsland(1.3.3)
Rikers(2.3.1)
EastRiver(1.3.4)
8.55THOROUGHFARES AND THE LIKE
Thenamesofstreets,avenues,squares,parks,andsofortharecapitalized.Thegenerictermis
lowercasedwhenusedalonebutinareturntoearliereditionsofthismanualcapitalizedwhen
usedaspartofapluralname.
East185thStreet(1.1.1)

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8.56BUILDINGS AND MONUMENTS


Thenamesofbuildingsandmonumentsaregenerallycapitalized.Thegenerictermisusually
lowercasedwhenusedalonebutcapitalizedwhenusedaspartofapluralname
BronxCountryCriminalCourt(1.3.1)
BronxZoo(2.1.3)
NewDayAcademy(2.2.1)
8.62ADMINISTRATIVE BODIES
Thefullnamesofadministrativebodiesarecapitalized.Adjectivesderivedfromthemareusually
lowercased,asaremanyofthegenericnamesforsuchbodieswhenusedalone.
U.S.AttorneyfortheSouthernDistrictofNewYork(2.1.1)
TheDepartmentofProbation(3.1.3)

8.63JUDICIAL BODIES
Thefullnameofacourt,oftenincludingaplacename,iscapitalized.Subsequentreferencestoa
court(ordistrictcourt,supremecourt,etc.)arelowercased,exceptforthephraseSupremeCourtat
thenationallevel.
WestchesterCountryCourt(3.3.1)
8.79FORMAL NAMES OF ACTS, TREATIES, AND SO FORTH
Formaloracceptedtitlesofpacts,plans,policies,treaties,acts,programs,andsimilardocumentsor
agreementsarecapitalized.Incompleteorgenericformsareusuallylowercased.
SixthAmendment(2.1.2)
8.87DAYS OF THE WEEK, MONTHS, AND SEASONS
Namesofdaysandmonthsarecapitalized.Thefourseasonsarelowercased(exceptwhenusedto
denoteanissueofajournal).

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Saturday,May15,2010(1.1.1)
July28,2010(2.3.4)
March9th(3.2.2)

10.35 COMPASS POINTS IN MAILING ADDRESSES


Singlelettercompasspointsaccompanyingastreetnamearenormallyfollowedbyaperiod;two
letteronesarenot.(TheUSPostalServicedoesnotuseperiodsforeither;see10.34;seealso10.4.)
Notethatwhenusedinanaddress,theabbreviationsNE,NW,SE,andSWremainabbreviatedeven
inrunningtext(thereisnocommabeforethemwhentheyfollowastreetname).TheNinthethird
exampleisastreetnameandnotacompasspoint.
Acompasspointthatisthename(orpartofthename)ofastreetoraplacenamemustneverbe
abbreviated(e.g.,SouthAve.,NorthwestHwy.,SouthShoreDr.,WestBend,EastOrange).
East186thStreet(1.1.1)

NUMERALS
9.2CHICAGOS GENERAL RULEZERO THROUGH ONE HUNDRED
Innontechnicalcontexts,Chicagoadvisesspellingoutwholenumbersfromzerothroughone
hundredandcertainroundmultiplesofthosenumbers.Mostoftherestofthischapterdealswiththe
exceptionstothisruleandspecialcases.Forhyphensusedwithspelledoutnumbers,see7.85,
section1.Forsomeadditionalconsiderations,consulttheindex,undernumbers.
tendays(1.1.1)
sixteentoeighteen(2.1.1)
thirtyfour(2.1.3)
9.4HUNDREDS, THOUSANDS, AND HUNDRED THOUSANDS
Anyofthewholenumbersmentionedin9.2followedbyhundred,thousand,orhundred
thousandareusuallyspelledout(exceptinthesciences)whetherusedexactlyoras
approximations.
eleventhousand(1.3.4)

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fourhundredcells(4.1.2)
9.6ORDINALS
Thegeneralruleappliestoordinalaswellascardinalnumbers.NotethatChicagoprefers,for
example,122ndand123rd(withannandanr)over122dand123d.Thelatter,however,arecommon
especiallyinlegalstyle(see14.281317).Thelettersinordinalnumbersshouldnotappearas
superscripts(e.g.,122ndnot122nd).
seventeenthbirthday(3.1.1)
seconddegree(3.1.3)

9.8 MILLIONS, BILLIONS, AND SO FORTH


Wholenumbersusedincombinationwithmillion,billion,andsoforthusuallyfollowthegeneral
rule(see9.2).Seealso9.4.Formonetaryamounts,see9.2126;fortheuseofsuperscriptsin
scientificcontexts,see9.9.
Toexpressfractionalquantitiesinthemillionsormore,amixtureofnumeralsandspelledout
numbersisused.Inthesecondexamplebelow,thenumberfourteenisexpressedasanumeralforthe
sakeofconsistency(see9.7).
Notethatbillioninsomecountries(including,untilrecently,GreatBritain)meansamillionmillion
(atrillioninAmericanusage),not,asinAmericanusage,athousandmillion;inthisalternatesystem,
theprefixbiindicatestwelvezeros(ratherthantheAmericannine),ortwicethenumberofzerosin
onemillion.Likewise,trillionindicateseighteenzeros(ratherthantheAmerican
twelve),quadrilliontwentyfour(ratherthantheAmericanfifteen),andsoon.Editorsworkingwith
materialbyBritishorotherEuropeanwritersmayneedtoquerytheuseoftheseterms.
See5.220underbillion;trillion.
eightmillionpeople(1.3.4)
9.18PERCENTAGES
Exceptatthebeginningofasentence,percentagesareusuallyexpressedinnumerals.Innontechnical
contexts,thewordpercentisgenerallyused;inscientificandstatisticalcopy,thesymbol%ismore
common.
Error:seventyfourpercent(3.2.1)

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Error:sixtypercent(4.1.3)
SeealsoCompoundsandHyphenation
9.21WORDS VERSUS MONETARY SYMBOLS AND NUMERALS
Isolatedreferencestoamountsofmoneyarespelledoutforwholenumbersofonehundredorless,in
accordancewiththegeneralprinciplepresentedin9.2.
Wholeamountsexpressednumericallyshouldincludezerosandadecimalpointonlywhenthey
appearinthesamecontextwithfractionalamounts(seealso9.19).Notethesingularverbinthe
secondexample.
seventyfivedollars(3.3.2)
sixtydollars(3.3.2)
9.25LARGE MONETARY AMOUNTS
Sumsofmoneyofmorethanonehundreddollarsarenormallyexpressedbynumeralsor,for
numbersofamillionormore,byamixtureofnumeralsandspelledoutnumbers,evenforwhole
numbers.
Error:threethousanddollars(1.3.3)
Error:sevenhundreddollars(3.1.2)
9.30THE YEAR ALONE
Yearsareexpressedinnumeralsunlesstheystandatthebeginningofasentence,inwhichcase
rewordingmaybeabetteroption.
In2011(4.1.1)
Between2007andmid2013(4.1.3)
since2000(1.3.4)

9.32 MONTH AND DAY

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Whenspecificdatesareexpressed,cardinalnumbersareused,althoughthesemaybepronouncedas
ordinals.Forthemonthdayyeardateformversusthedaymonthyearform,see6.45.
Whenadayismentionedwithoutthemonthoryear,thenumberisusuallyspelledoutinordinal
form.
Saturday,May15,2010(1.1.1)
July28,2010(2.3.4)
January28,2011(3.2.2)

9.38 NUMERALS VERSUS WORDS FOR TIME OF DAY


Timesofdayineven,half,andquarterhoursareusuallyspelledoutintext.Withoclock,the
numberisalwaysspelledout.
Numeralsareused(withzerosforevenhours)whenexacttimesareemphasized.Chicago
recommendslowercasea.m.(antemeridiem)andp.m.(postmeridiem),thoughthesesometimes
appearinsmallcapitals,withorwithoutperiods.
halfpastfour(2.3.4)
9.52NUMBERED STREETS
Namesofnumberedstreets,avenues,andsoforthareusuallyspelledoutifonehundredorless..
East186thStreet(1.1.1)

PUNCTUATION
COMMAS

6.9 PERIODS AND COMMAS IN RELATION TO CLOSING QUOTATION MARKS


Periodsandcommasprecedeclosingquotationmarks,whetherdoubleorsingle.(Anapostropheat
theendofawordshouldneverbeconfusedwithaclosingsinglequotationmark;see6.115.)Thisis
atraditionalstyle,inusewellbeforethefirsteditionofthismanual(1906).

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Inanalternativesystem,sometimescalledBritishstyle,singlequotationmarksareused,andonly
thosepunctuationpointsthatappearedintheoriginalmaterialshouldbeincludedwithinthe
quotationmarks;allothersfollowtheclosingquotationmarks.(Exceptionstotheruleare
widespread:periods,forexample,areroutinelyplacedinsideanyquotationthatbeginswithacapital
letterandformsagrammaticallycompletesentence.)Doublequotationmarksarereservedfor
quotationswithinquotations.Thissystemoravariationmaybeappropriateinsomeworksoftextual
criticism.
thatiswasarelativelystraightforwardcase.(2.1.2)
rememberedhimasafunguy,thetypeofkidotherswantedaround.(2.2.2)
andisknownasthereadyrule.(3.1.6)
6.13PERIODS IN RELATION TO PARENTHESES AND BRACKETS
Whenanentireindependentsentenceisenclosedinparenthesesorsquarebrackets,theperiod
belongsinsidetheclosingparenthesisorbracket.Whenmatterinparenthesesorbrackets,evena
grammaticallycompletesentence,isincludedwithinanothersentence,theperiodbelongsoutside.
Avoidenclosingmorethanonecompletesentencewithinanothersentence.
(TheoriginalpolicereportsaidonoraboutMay2,butBaustistalatertoldadetectivethatit
happenedonMay8th.)(3.1.5)
(inMarch,MayorBilldeBlasioappointedanewjailscommissioner,JosephPonte,who
promisedtoendthecultureofexcessivesolitaryconfinement.)(4.1.3)
6.17COMMAS IN PAIRS
Wheneveracommaisusedtosetoffanelement(suchas1928orMinnesotainthefirsttwo
examplesbelow),asecondcommaisrequiredifthephraseorsentencecontinuesbeyondtheelement
beingsetoff.Thisprincipleappliestomanyoftheusesforcommasdescribedinthissection.
Kaliefwasthesmallest,herecalled,somymomcalledhimPeanut.(2.2.1)
6.18SERIAL COMMAS
Itemsinaseriesarenormallyseparatedbycommas.Whenaconjunctionjoinsthelasttwoelements
inaseriesofthreeormore,acommaknownastheserialorseriescommaortheOxfordcomma
shouldappearbeforetheconjunction.Chicagostronglyrecommendsthiswidelypracticedusage,

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blessedbyFowlerandotherauthorities,sinceitpreventsambiguity.Ifthelastelementconsistsofa
pairjoinedbyand,thepairshouldstillbeprecededbyaserialcommaandthefirstand.
chargeswithrobbery,grandlarceny,andassault.(1.3.3)
Thereportfeaturedalistofinmateinjuries:brokenjaws,brokenorbitalbones,broken
noses,longbonefractures,andlacerationsrequiringstiches.(2.1.1)
backpackcontainedacreditcard,adebitcard,adigitalcamera,aniPodTouch,andseven
hundreddollars.(3.1.2)

6.22 RESTRICTIVE AND NONRESTRICTIVE CLAUSESWHICH VERSUS THAT


Arelativeclauseissaidtoberestrictiveifitprovidesinformationthatisessentialtothemeaningof
thesentence.Restrictiverelativeclausesareusuallyintroducedbythat(orwho/whom/whose)andare
neversetoffbycommasfromtherestofthesentence.Thepronounthatmayoccasionallybeomitted
(butneednotbe)ifthesentenceisjustasclearwithoutit.
throughtheBronxcriminalcourts,whicharechronicallyoverwhelmed.
theirfather,whoworkedasasubwaycleaner,movedout(2.2.2)
Selling,whoservedastheexecutivedirectorofmentalhealthfortheNewYorkCitysjails,
toldme(4.1.3)
6.23RESTRICTIVE AND NONRESTRICTIVE APPOSITIVES
Aword,abbreviation,phrase,orclausethatisinappositiontoanoun(i.e.,providesanexplanatory
equivalent)isnormallysetoffbycommasifitisnonrestrictivethatis,ifitcanbeomittedwithout
obscuringtheidentityofthenountowhichitrefers.
appointedanewjailscommissioner,JosephPonte,whopromised(4.1.3)
ArthurAvenue,thepainstreetofLittleItaly,pastbakeriesandcafes.(1.1.1)
6.24COMMAS WITH PARENTHETICAL ELEMENTS
Ifonlyaslightbreakisintended,commasshouldbeusedtosetoffaparentheticalelementinserted
intoasentenceasanexplanationorcomment.Ifastrongerbreakisneededoriftherearecommas
withintheparentheticalelement,emdashesorparenthesesshouldbeused.
walkedbacktohiscar,wheretheallegedvictimwas,andreturned(1.2.1)

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toldOMeara,hiscourtappointedlayer,thathewouldneverpleadguilty(3.1.3)
6.25COMMAS WITH HOWEVER, THEREFORE, INDEED, AND SO FORTH
Commassometimespairedwithsemicolons(see6.55)aretraditionallyusedtosetoffadverbs
suchashowever,therefore,andindeed.Whentheadverbisessentialtothemeaningoftheclause,or
ifnopauseisintendedordesired,commasarenotneeded.
Meanwhile,otherinmatesadvisedBrowder(3.3.3)
Mostofthetime,however,BrowderhadnodirectcontactwithOMeara(3.3.3)
6.26COMMAS WITH RESTRICTIVE AND NONRESTRICTIVE PHRASES
Aphrasethatisrestrictivethatis,essentialtothemeaning(andoftentheidentity)ofthenounit
belongstoshouldnotbesetoffbycommas.Anonrestrictivephrase,however,shouldbeenclosed
incommas(or,ifattheendofasentence,precededbyacomma).
runinswiththepolice,includinganincidenteightmonthsearlier(1.3.2)
LateonSaturday,seventeenhoursafterthepolicepickedBrowderup(1.3.3)
anopenroom,eachwithaplasticbuckettostorehispossessionsin.(2.2.3)
6.28COMMAS WITH INDEPENDENT CLAUSES JOINED BY CONJUNCTIONS
Whenindependentclausesarejoinedbyand,but,or,so,yet,oranyotherconjunction,acomma
usuallyprecedestheconjunction.Iftheclausesareveryshortandcloselyconnected,thecommamay
beomittedunlesstheclausesarepartofaseries.Theserecommendationsapplyequallytoimperative
sentences,inwhichthesubject(you)isomittedbutunderstood(asinthefifthandlastexamples).
andthathehadonlywatched,buthefiguredthathehasnodefense(1.3.2)
HetoldmethathisreportcardswerefullofCs,butthestaffmemberIspoketosaid,I
thoughthewasverysmart.(2.2.3)
6.29COMMAS WITH COMPOUND PREDICATES
Acommaisnotnormallyusedbetweenthepartsofacompoundpredicatethatis,twoormore
verbshavingthesamesubject,asdistinctfromtwoindependentclauses(see6.28).Acommamay
occasionallybeneeded,however,topreventamisreading(asinthelastexample).

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theywouldwriteupchargesagainstthemandgetthemsenttosolitaryconfinement(2.3.3)
6.30COMMA PRECEDING MAIN CLAUSE
Adependentclausethatprecedesamainclauseshouldbefollowedbyacomma.
buthefiguredthathehadnodefense,andsohepleadedguilty(1.3.2)
WhenBrowderwasten,theirfather(2.2.2)

6.31 COMMA FOLLOWING MAIN CLAUSE


Adependentclausethatfollowsamainclauseshouldnotbeprecededbyacommaifitisrestrictive,
thatis,essentialtothemeaningofthemainclause.
WhenBrowderaskedaguardhowtheinmatesweresupposedtogettheirclothescleaned,he
wastoldthattheyhadtowashthemthemselves.(2.2.4)

6.33COMMAS WITH COORDINATE ADJECTIVES


Asageneralrule,whenanounisprecededbytwoormoreadjectivesthatcould,withoutaffecting
themeaning,bejoinedbyand,theadjectivesarenormallyseparatedbycommas.Suchadjectives,
whicharecalledcoordinateadjectives,canalsousuallybereversedinorderandstillmakesense.If,
ontheotherhand,theadjectivesarenotcoordinatethatis,ifoneormoreoftheadjectivesis
essentialto(i.e.,formsaunitwith)thenounbeingmodifiednocommasareused.
wenttothesmall,progressiveNewDayAcademy.(2.2.3)
6.36COMMAS WITH INTRODUCTORY ADVERBIAL PHRASES
Anintroductoryadverbialphraseisoftensetoffbyacommabutneednotbeunlessmisreadingis
likely.Shorteradverbialphrasesarelesslikelytomeritacommathanlongerones.
Inthevisitingroom,hewouldhadherhisdirtyclothes(2.2.4)
TosurviveinsideR.N.D.C.,hedecidedthebeststrategywastokeephimself(2.2.4)
AttheBronxCountryHallofJustice,theyspentthedayinthebasementholdingpen(2.3.4)

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6.38COMMAS WITH DIRECT ADDRESS


Acommaisusedtosetoffnamesorwordsusedindirectaddressandinformalcorrespondence(in
formalcorrespondence,acolonusuallyfollowsthename).
Howdoyouplead,sir,guiltyornotguilty?(3.1.3)
6.45COMMAS WITH DATES
Inthemonthdayyearstyleofdates,commasmustbeusedtosetofftheyear.Inthedaymonthyear
systemusefulinmaterialthatrequiresmanyfulldates(andstandardinBritishEnglish)no
commasareneeded.Wheremonthandyearonlyaregiven,oraspecificday(suchasaholiday)with
ayear,neithersystemusesacomma.
January28,2011,(3.2.2)
Saturday,May15,2010(1.1.1)
July28,2010(2.3.4)

6.49 COMMAS TO INDICATE ELISION


Acommaisoftenusedtoindicatetheomissionofawordorwordsreadilyunderstoodfromthe
context.
Thecommamaybeomittediftheellipticalconstructionisclearwithoutit.
NewYorkCitypayslawyerslikeOMeara[]seventyfivedollarsanhourforafelony
case,sixtydollarsforamisdemeanor.(3.3.2)
6.50COMMAS WITH QUOTATIONS
Materialquotedintheformofdialogueorfromtextistraditionallyintroducedwithacomma(but
see6.63,13.17).Ifaquotationisintroducedbythat,whether,orasimilarconjunction,nocommais
needed.
Heremembersanofficertellingthem,Werejustgoingtotakeyoutotheprecinct.(1.2.2)
herecalled,somymomcalledhimPeanut.(2.2.1)

SEMICOLON

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6.54USE OF THE SEMICOLON


Inregularprose,asemicolonismostcommonlyusedbetweentwoindependentclausesnotjoinedby
aconjunctiontosignalacloserconnectionbetweenthemthanaperiodwould.
Therewerenthoursofwiretapsorpilesofcomplicatedevidencetosiftthrough,therewas
justthememoryofoneallegedvictim.(2.1.2)
Therewerenotnearlyenoughjudgesandcourtstafftohandletheworkload;in2010
Browderscasewasoneoffivethousand,sixhundred,andninetyfivefeloniesthattheBronx
DistrictAttorneysofficeprosecuted.(2.1.2)

COLON

6.59USE OF THE COLON


Acolonintroducesanelementoraseriesofelementsillustratingoramplifyingwhathaspreceded
thecolon.Betweenindependentclausesitfunctionsmuchlikeasemicolon,andinsomecaseseither
markmayworkaswellastheother;useacolonsparingly,however,andonlytoemphasizethatthe
secondclauseillustratesoramplifiesthefirst.(Thecolonshouldgenerallyconveythesenseofas
follows.)Thecolonmaysometimesbeusedinsteadofaperiodtointroduceaseriesofrelated
sentences(asinthethirdexamplebelow).
Thereportfeaturedalistofinmateinjuries:brokenjaws,brokenorbitalbones,broken
noses,longbonefractures,andlacerationsrequiringstiches.(2.1.1)

13.17 COLON PRECEDING A QUOTATION


Aformalintroductoryphrase,suchasthusorasfollows,isusuallyfollowedbyacolon.Growder
jumpedup:Icanleavenow?(1.3.1)

QUESTION MARKS AND EXCLAMATION POINTS

6.70QUESTION MARKS IN RELATION TO SURROUNDING TEXT AND PUNCTUATION

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Aquestionmarkshouldbeplacedinsidequotationmarks,parentheses,orbracketsonlywhenitis
partof(i.e.,appliesto)thequotedorparentheticalmatter.
Browderwhisperedtohisfriend,Areyousureyoudidntdoanything?(1.2.1)
Icanleavenow?(1.3.1)

EN DASH, EM DASH, AND HYPHEN


6.82 EM DASHES INSTEAD OF COMMAS, PARENTHESES, OR COLONS
Theemdash,oftensimplycalledthedash,isthemostcommonlyusedandmostversatileofthe
dashes.Emdashesareusedtosetoffanamplifyingorexplanatoryelementandinthatsensecan
functionasanalternativetoparentheses(secondandthirdexamples),commas(fourthandfifth
examples),oracolon(firstexample)especiallywhenanabruptbreakinthoughtiscalledfor.
RobertN.DavorenCenterKnownasR.N.D.C.(1.3.5)
mymomhasalreadyraisedinfostercareofadoptionatotalofthirtyfourkids.(2.1.3)
ThenextcourtdatewassetbythejudfeMarch9thwasnotoneweekawaybutsix.(3.2.2)
6.76HYPHENS IN COMPOUND WORDS
Theuseofthehyphenincompoundwordsandnamesandinworddivisionisdiscussedin7.79and
7.85

PARENTHESES
6.92USE OF PARENTHESES
Parenthesesstrongerthanacommaandsimilartothedashareusedtosetoffmaterialfromthe
surroundingtext.Likedashesbutunlikecommas,parenthesescansetofftextthathasno
grammaticalrelationshiptotherestofthesentence.
(TheoriginalpolicereportsaidonoraboutMay2,butBautistalatertoldadetectivethatit
happenedonMay8th.)
NewYorkCitypayslawyerslikeOMeara(knownlocallyas18Battorneys)seventyfive
dollarsanhourforafelonycase,sixtydollarsforamisdemeanor.(3.3.2)

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6.96PARENTHESES WITH OTHER PUNCTUATION


Anopeningparenthesisshouldbeprecededbyacommaorasemicolononlyinanenumeration
(see6.123);aclosingparenthesisshouldneverbeprecededbyacomma,asemicolon,oracolon.A
questionmark,anexclamationpoint,andclosingquotationmarksprecedeaclosingparenthesisif
theybelongtotheparentheticalmatter;theyfollowitiftheybelongtothesurroundingsentence.A
periodprecedestheclosingparenthesisiftheentiresentenceisinparentheses;otherwiseitfollows.
(Avoidenclosingmorethanonesentencewithinanothersentence;see6.13.)Parenthesesmayappear
backtoback(withaspaceinbetween)iftheyencloseentirelyunrelatedmaterial;sometimes,
however,suchmaterialcanbeenclosedinasinglesetofparentheses,usuallyseparatedbya
semicolon.
(TheoriginalpolicereportsaidonoraboutMay2,butBautistalatertoldadetectivethatit
happenedonMay8th.)
NewYorkCitypayslawyerslikeOMeara(knownlocallyas18Battorneys)seventyfive
dollarsanhourforafelonycase,sixtydollarsforamisdemeanor.(3.3.2)

APOSTROPHES

7.15POSSESSIVE FORM OF MOST NOUNS


Thepossessiveofmostsingularnounsisformedbyaddinganapostropheandans.Thepossessive
ofpluralnouns(exceptforafewirregularplurals,likechildren,thatdonotendins)isformedby
addinganapostropheonly.
citysjails(1.3.4)
7.16POSSESSIVE OF PROPER NOUNS, LETTERS, AND NUMBERS
Thegeneralruleextendstopropernouns,includingnamesendingins,x,orz,inboththeirsingular
andpluralforms,aswellaslettersandnumbers.
Browdersmother(2.2.5)
NewYorkStatesversion(3.1.6)

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7.29CONTRACTIONS
Incontractions,anapostrophenormallyreplacesomittedletters.Somecontractions,such
aswontoraint,areformedirregularly.Colloquialismssuchasgonnaorwannatakenoapostrophe
(therebeingnoobviousplaceforone).Websterslistsmanycommoncontractions,alongwith
alternativespellingsand,whereappropriate,plurals.Notethatanapostrophetheequivalentofa
rightsinglequotationmark(not)isalwaysusedtoformacontraction(see6.114).
Itsawaytocontrol(4.1.3)
didntdoanything(1.2.1)
wouldnt1.3.2)
7.60SCHOLASTIC GRADES
Lettersusedtodenotegradesareusuallycapitalizedandsetinromantype.Noapostropheisrequired
intheplural.
Error:Cs(2.2.3)

ABBREVIATIONS

10.3WHEN TO USE ABBREVIATIONS


Outsidetheareaofscienceandtechnology,abbreviationsandsymbolsaremostappropriatein
tabularmatter,notes,bibliographies,andparentheticalreferences.Eveninregularprose,anumberof
expressionsarealmostalwaysabbreviatedandmaybeusedwithoutfirstspellingthemout.Manyof
thesewillbelistedasmainentrieswithpronunciation(ratherthanasabbreviations)inthelatest
editionofWebsters(e.g.,DNA,GPS,HMO,HTML,IQ,JPEG,laser,Ms.,NASA).Others,though
inmoreorlesscommonuse(CGI,FDA,HVAC,MLA),shouldgenerallybespelledoutatfirst
occurrenceatleastinformaltextasacourtesytothosereaderswhomightnoteasilyrecognize
them.Theuseoflessfamiliarabbreviationsshouldbelimitedtothosetermsthatoccurfrequently
enoughtowarrantabbreviationroughlyfivetimesormorewithinanarticleorchapterandthe
termsmustbespelledoutontheirfirstoccurrence.(Theabbreviationusuallyfollowsimmediately,in

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parentheses,butitmaybeintroducedinotherways;seeexamples.Suchanabbreviationshouldnot
beofferedonlyonce,nevertobeusedagain.)Writersandeditorsshouldmonitorthenumberof
differentabbreviationsusedinadocument;readerstryingtokeeptrackofalargenumberof
abbreviations,especiallyunfamiliarones,willbenefitfromalistofabbreviations(see1.43,2.21).
Forrulesconcerningthepluralformofvariousabbreviations,see7.14.Forabbreviationspreceded
bya,an,orthe,see7.44,10.9.

10.4PERIODS WITH ABBREVIATIONS


Inusingperiodswithabbreviations,Chicagorecommendsthefollowinggeneralguidelinesin
nontechnicalsettings.Fortheuseofspacebetweenelements,see10.5.
1.
Useperiodswithabbreviationsthatendinalowercaseletter:p.(page),vol.,e.g.,i.e.,etc.,
a.k.a.,a.m.,p.m.,Ms.,Dr.,etal.(etisnotanabbreviation;al.is).Anexceptionmaybemadeforthe
fewacademicdegreesthatendinalowercaseletter(e.g.,DLitt,DMin);see10.20andrule3.
2.
Useperiodsforinitialsstandingforgivennames:E.B.White;donotuseperiodsforan
entirenamereplacedbyinitials:JFK.
3.
Usenoperiodswithabbreviationsthatappearinfullcapitals,whethertwolettersormoreand
eveniflowercaselettersappearwithintheabbreviation:VP,CEO,MA,MD,PhD,UK,US,NY,IL
(butseerule4).
4.
Inpublicationsusingtraditionalstateabbreviations,useperiodstoabbreviateUnited
Statesanditsstatesandterritories:U.S.,N.Y.,Ill.Note,however,thatChicagorecommendsusing
thetwoletterpostalcodes(andthereforeUS)whereverabbreviationsareused;see10.28.For
Canadianprovincesandterritories,see10.29.Seealso14.286.
NotethattheBritishandtheFrench(amongothers)omitperiodsfromcontractions(Dr,assn,Mme).
Notealsothataslashisoccasionallyusedinsteadofperiods(asinc/oorn/a)butmoreoften
denotesper(see6.107).Unitsofmeasureinnontechnicalsettingsareusuallyspelledout.In
scientificusage,periodsaregenerallyomittedforabbreviatedunitsofmeasureandothertechnical
terms:see10.5271.
R.N.D.C.(1.3.5)
10.33USVERSUSUNITEDSTATES

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Inrunningtext,spelloutUnitedStatesasanoun;reserveUSfortheadjectiveformonly(inwhich
positiontheabbreviationisgenerallypreferred).
U.S.AttorneyfortheSouthernDistrictofNewYork(1.1.1)

SPELLING
HYPHENATION AND COMPOUNDS
7.79THE TREND TOWARD CLOSED COMPOUNDS
Withfrequentuse,openorhyphenatedcompoundstendtobecomeclosed(onlinetoon
linetoonline).ChicagosgeneraladherencetoWebstersdoesnotprecludeoccasionalexceptions
whentheclosedspellingshavebecomewidelypreferredbywriters(e.g.,website)andpronunciation
andreadabilityarenotatstake.TheNewYorker,generally,resistssuchchanges.see7.85
7.85HYPHENATION GUIDE FOR COMPOUNDS AND WORDS FORMED WITH
PREFIXES
Whenusingthisguide(areturntothetabularformatofearliereditionsofthismanual),consultthe
precedingparagraphsinthissection(7.7784)especiallyifarelevantexamplecannotbefound.In
general,Chicagoprefersasparehyphenationstyle:ifnosuitableexampleoranalogycanbefound
eitherinthissectionorinthedictionary,hyphenateonlyifdoingsowillaidreadability.Eachofthe
foursectionsofthefollowingtableisarrangedalphabetically(byfirstcolumn).Thefirstsection
dealswithcompoundsaccordingtocategory;thesecondsection,withcompoundsaccordingtoparts
ofspeech.Thethirdsectionlistsexamplesforwordscommonlyusedaselementsincompounds.The
fourthsectionlistscommonprefixes,mostofwhichjointoanotherwordtoformoneunhyphenated
word;noteespeciallythehyphenatedexceptions,notallofwhichagreewithWebsters.(Compounds
formedwithsuffixese.g.,nationhood,pennilessarealmostalwaysclosed.)Seeappendix
ErrorPushups(2.3.1)
ErrorPullups(2.3.1)
Errorpercent(3.2.1)
seventyfour

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sixmonths

HOUSE STYLE
FONTS
For section titles, article, titles, authors, captions, page numbers and footer-ed dates and titles, use the
New Yorker style font. For subtitles, and running text, use Roman, and for photographic authorship, use
Arial.

ITALICS
Subtitles and captions are italicized.
A boy was accused of taking a backpack. The courts took the next three years of his life. (1)
Kalief Browder spent more than a thousand days confined on Rikers Island. (1)

7.47ITALICS FOR EMPHASIS


Useitalicsforemphasisonlyasanoccasionaladjuncttoefficientsentencestructure.Overused,
italicsquicklylosetheirforce.Seldomshouldasmuchasasentencebeitalicizedforemphasis,and
neverawholepassage.Inthefirstexamplebelow,thelastthreewords,thoughclearlyemphatic,do
notrequireitalicsbecauseoftheirdramaticpositionattheendofthesentence.
Are you sure you didnt do anything? (1.2.1)

8.166TREATMENT OF BOOK AND PERIODICAL TITLES


Whenmentionedintext,notes,orbibliography,thetitlesandsubtitlesofbooksandperiodicalsare
italicizedandcapitalizedheadlinestylethoughsomepublicationsmayrequiresentencestylefor
referencelists.Abooktitlecitedinfullinthenotesorbibliographymaybeshortenedintext(e.g.,a
subtitlemaybeomitted).
theTimes,(2.1.2)

SIZE
In descending order of size: title, section title, author, subtitle, caption, footer

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Before the Law (1)


Our local correspondents (1)
By Gennifer Gonnerman (1)
A boy was accused of taking a backpack. The courts took the next three years of his life. ( 1)
Kalief Browder spent more than a thousand days confined on Rikers Island. (1)
The New Yorker, October 6, 2014 (1)

BEGINNING OF ARTICLE SECTIONS


For the first letter of an article, and after a section break, use drop caps.
In the early hours of Saturday, May 15, 2010 (1.1.1)
Not long after arriving on Rikers, Browder made his first trip to solitary confinement. (4.1.2)

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APPENINDIX

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