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qarTveluri memkvidreoba (akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo

universitetis qarTveluri dialeqtologiis samecniero-kvleviTi


institutis perioduli samecniero Jurnali) tomi XII, gv., 271-276

madona robaqiZe,
sulxan kupraSvili

qarTuli avtokefaluri eklesiis istoriidan

saqarTvelos marTlmadidebeli eklesia erT-erTi uZvelesia


qristianul samyaroSi. samecniero literaturaSi miRebuli mosazrebiT,
igi Camoyalibda IV saukunis 20-ian wlebSi, roca qarTlis samefoSi mirian
mefis dros qristianoba saxelmwifo religiad gamocxadda. qarTuli
saeklesio tradiciis mixedviT, es moxda 326 wels, magram saqarTveloSi
qristianobis qadageba da gavrceleba amaze gacilebiT adre dawyebula.
pirvel mqadageblad dasavleT saqarTveloSi mosulan mociqulebi wminda
andria pirvelwodebuli da wminda svimon kananeli (qarTlis cxovreba,
1955, gv. 38).
andria mociquls saqarTveloSi ramdenimejer umogzauria da mesame
mogzaurobis dros mas Tan Camouyvania svimon kananeli da mociquli
mataTa - amis Sesaxeb wers merve saukunis avtori epifane
konstantinopoleli (efrem mcire, 1959, gv. 4). yuradReba unda mieqces,
rom wminda andria mociqulma ara marto gaaqristiana qarTvelebi, aramed
daaarsa kidec pirveli qarTuli saepiskoposo qalaq awyurSi. am
saepiskoposos meTaurad daniSna episkoposi, iqve datova ramdenime
mRvdeli da diakoni. qarTuli saeklesio tradiciis mixedviT, faqtiurad
es iyo daarseba, dafuZvneba da Seqmna qarTuli eklesiisa Tavisi
ierarqiiT. matiane wers: `daudgina episkoposi mRvdelni da diakonni
(anania jafariZe, 1983-1988, gv. 38).
cnobili moRvawe efrem mcire berZnul wyaroebze dayrdnobiT
aRniSnavda, rom saqarTveloSi maTTan erTad iqadaga mociqulma
barTlomemac afxazeTSi, oseTsa da qarTlSi. mociqul barTlomes
saqarTveloSi moRvaweoba Cans laTinur wyaroebSic. amis Sesaxeb
aRniSnavda arqanjelo lamberti (T. Jordania, 1892, gv. 34).
sxva mosazrebis Tanaxmad, saqarTveloSi iqadages mociqulebma mataTam
da kabadokiaSi - petrem (i. tabaRua, 1982, gv. 56). imaves adasturebs
epifane kviproselic. me-4 s-is avtori, romelic Tvlida, rom
saqarTveloSi dakrZalulia mociquli mataTa (n. kelenjeriZe, 1949, gv. 7-
8). amasve aRniSnavs mTavarepiskoposi a. jafariZec:
`qarTveli mRvdelmTavrebi Camolocvis an puris kurTxevis dros
ixseniebdnen mociqulebs, romelTac uqadagiaT am qveyanaSi, es faqti
daculia uZveles teqstebSi"... wmidaTa didebulTa da yovlad qebulTa
mociqulTa - andria pirvelwodebulisa da svimon kananelisaTa, Tadeozisa
da barTlomesiTa"... (anania jafariZe, 1983-1988, gv. 3).
es imas niSnavs, rom saukuneTa manZilze qarTuli oficialuri
eklesia aRiarebda, rom saqarTvelos ganmanaTleblebi arian locvisas
moxseniebuli es mociqulebi (iqve, gv. 56).
amdenad, saqarTvelos eklesia qristes mociqulTa mieraa daarsebuli
da, aqedan gamomdinare, igi samociqulo eklesiaa (iqve, gv. 59).
radgan mociqulebs ekuTvnodaT mTeli Zalaufleba miwieri eklesiisa,
amitomac maT daaarses pirveli avtokefaluri eklesiebi". igive azri
gatarebulia XVI saukunis slavur wyaroSi, romelic qarTul eklesias
miiCnevs Toma mociqulis mier daarsebulad (anania jafariZe, 1983-1988, gv.
60).
zemoaRniSnuli faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebiT, qarTuli eklesiis
avtokefalurobis sawyisi saqarTveloSi mociqulTa moRvaweobis
periodidan iRebs saTaves.
325 wlis nikeis I msoflio saeklesio krebas eswreboda biWvinTis
episkoposi stratofile da trapezunis episkoposi damnusi. marTalia,
varaudoben, rom dasaxelebuli mRvdelmTavrebi iyvnen berZenTa tomisani,
magram maT mrevls, berZen moaxalSeneTa garda, qarTveli mosaxleobac
Seadgenda.
`qarTlis cxovreba" gadmogvcems, rom `axladdaarsebulma iberiis
eklesiam pirveli samRvdeloeba miiRo konstantinepolidan. wminda nino
ganmanaTleblis rCeviT qarTvelTa mefe miriani iTxovs konstantine
imperatorTan, raTa axlad moqceuli eris mosanaTlad da dasamoZRvrad
gamogzavnos sasuliero piri. wminda konstantine didi moavlens
saqarTveloSi ioane episkoposs mRvdlebiT da diakonebiT, romlebic jer
didebulT, xolo Semdgom ubralo ers naTlaven mtkvrisa da aragvis
SesarTavSi e. w. `qarTvelTa iordaneSi".
saistorio tradiciis Tanaxmad, aqedan iRebs saTaves qarTuli
eklesiis istoria, TumcaRa winare saukunis ganmavlobaSi saqarTveloSi
qristianuli Temebisa da saeklesio ierarqiis arseboba gansxvavebuli
mosazrebisaTvis sakmaod myar safuZvels qmnis.
axladdaarsebuli qarTuli eklesia, rogorc uZvelesi wyaroebidan
Cans, Tavidan daeqvemdebara antioqiis sapatriarqos, rogorc uaxloes
sapatriarqos, xolo eklesiis meTauri atarebda mTavarepiskoposis
tituls.
qarTuli eklesiis aseTi uflebrivi mdgomareoba gagrZelda V
saukunis II naxevramde. V saukunidan qarTulma eklesiam antioqiisagan
miiRo avtokefalia. misi meTauri iyo qarTlis kaTalikosi, xolo XI
saukunis 10-iani wlebidan _ sruliad saqarTvelos patriarqi.
qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis dawesebis TariRad V saukune
miaCniaT m. broses, T. Jordanias, m. TamaraSvils, i. sokolovs, iv.
javaxiSvils... es TariRi gaziarebulia Tanamedrove mkvlevarTa mier.
istorikos juanSerTan daculia cnoba, rom saqarTvelos eklesiis
axali formireba moxda im droisaTvis miRebuli yvela kanonieri wesis
dacviT. mefem saberZneTidan gamoiTxova Tormeti episkoposi
kaTalikosiTurT da miiRo kidec. swored Tormeti, radgan sul mcire
Tormeti episkoposi iyo saWiro, raTa adgilobriv eklesias Tavisi
funqcia normalurad Seesrulebina (qarTlis cxovreba, 1955, gv. 198-199).
juanSeris gadmocemiT, RvTis gangebiT vaxtangi naxulobs sakvirvel
Cvenebas, ramac didi gavlena moaxdina mTels mis mermindel cxovrebaze. man
ixila qarTvelTa ganmanaTlebeli wminda nino, eklesiis didi moZRvari da
maswavlebeli wminda grigori RvTismetyveli. bizantiis keisari petre da
samoeli, romelTagan SemdegSi pirveli gaxda kaTalikosi, meore -
episkoposi. wminda grigoris locva-kurTxeviT vaxtangi naTlis gvirgvins
daadgams petres, xolo es ukanaskneli gvirgvins adgams samoel monazons,
keisari ki vaxtangs amboriTa da mefuri pativiT moikiTxavs, rogorc
Tanaswors. aRniSnuli Cvenebisas gorgasali ixilavs jvars gvirgviniT,
romelsac adgamen Tavze sityvebiT: `umetesmorwmune iyo Sen yovelTa
Soris naTesavsa sparsTasa", `Sengan aReSennen eklesiani da ganewesnen
episkoposni da episkoposTa mTavari", `gvirgvinica wamebisa miiRo"
(qarTlis cxovreba, 1955, gv. 199).
istoria adasturebs, rom yovelive zustad ganxorcielda momavalSi.
mefe daemorCila RvTis nebas, saqarTvelo ki oficialurad avtokefaluri
gaxda.
juanSeri garkveviT mianiSnebs, rom kaTalikosobaze vaxtangma locva-
kurTxeva zecidan miiRo. niSandoblivia isic, rom Tavis droze wminda
ninomac Tavisi mociquleobrivi moRvaweobac zeciuri locva-kurTxeviT
daiwyo.
Zveli qarTuli literaturuli Zegli `SuSanikis wameba" kidev
erTxel adasturebs me-5 s-Si saqarTvelos eklesiis avtokefalurobas
misTvis aucilebeli yvela niSan-TvisebebiT. am TxzulebaSi personalurad
naxsenebia im drois kaTalikosi samoeli epiTetiT: `Tavi episkoposTai"
(episkoposi zosime, 1990, gv. 3). es ukanaskneli rigiT meore kaTalikosia
petres Semdeg. sxva wyaros mixedviTac am periodSi kaTalikoss ewodeba
`episkoposTmTavari" (Zeglebi, 1918, gv. 27). es saxelwodebani pirdapir
gviCveneben kaTalikosis daniSnulebas, magram gvaqvs cnoba imis Sesaxebac,
rom mas hyavs xelqveiTi episkoposebi - `episkoposi misive moyuvasi"
(qarTlis cxovreba, 1955, gv. 168-197).
am mxriv CvenTvis sainteresoa X saukunis qarTveli mwerlis giorgi
merCulis `grigol xanZTelis cxovreba", sadac aRwerilia IX saukuneSi
adgilobriv saeklesio krebaze qarTuli eklesiis meTauris, kaTalikosis
arCeva. saqarTvelos eklesiis mRvdelmTavarTagan Semdgari saeklesio kreba
ucxo sapatriarqoebTan SeTanxmebis gareSe, sruliad damoukideblad
irCevs eklesiis mamamTavars, riTac kidev erTxel dasturdeba qarTuli
eklesiis sruli avtokefaluroba.
V saukunidan qarTulma eklesiam miiRo erovnuli saxe. aRmocenda
erovnuli kultura, sasuliero mwerloba, xuroTmoZRvreba, samonastro
cxovreba. VI-VII saukuneebSi qarTuli eklesia aerTianebda 33-35
saepiskoposo eparqias.
qarTuli eklesiis gafarToebisa da qristianobis ganmtkicebisaTvis
didi mniSvneloba hqonda saqarTveloSi monastrebis mSeneblobas,
romelsac ganuzomeli Rvawli dasdo `aTcametma" asurelma mamam. sirieli
mamebis moRvaweoba daemTxva qarTlSi iranelTa batonobis periods.
qristianobis ganmtkicebiT maT xeli Seuwyves qarTvelTa erovnuli
Segnebis amaRlebas. asurelma mamebma aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi daaarses
Teqvsmetze meti monasteri: ioane zedaznis, SiomRvimis, alaverdis,
martyofis, iyalTos, samTavisis, garejis saarqimandrito, romelic Tavis
mxriv aerTianebda ramdenime monasters.
VIII saukunis bolodan farTo samonastro moZraoba daiwyo tao-
klarjeTSi. aq daarsda xanZTis saarqimandrito. xanZTa, Satberdi, mTeli es
samonastro centri VIII-X saukuneebSi iqcnen TvalsaCino mwignobrul-
saganmanaTleblo centrebad, sadac moRvaweobdnen cnobili mecnieri da
mwignobari saeklesio mamebi: grigol xanZTeli, miqael modrekili, ioane
minCxi, ioane mtbevari, ioane zosime, saba mtbevari, serapion zarzmeli da
sxva. X saukunisaTvis qarTul enaze ukve Seqmnili iyo mdidari
hagiografiuli da saistorio mwerloba, berZnulidan iTargmna TiTqmis
mTeli ZiriTadi literatura, liturgikis, dogmatikis, hagiografiis da
sxva dargebSi. maRal dones miaRwia saeklesio arqiteqturam, risi
dasturicaa - oSki, bana, xaxuli da sxva.
qarTuli eklesiis avtoriteti da gavlena gascda saqarTvelos
farglebs. jer kidev V saukunidan mWidro urTierToba damyarda romis,
antioqiis, ierusalimis sapatriarqoebis saeklesio centrebTan. amasTan,
qarTuli samonastro centrebi daarsda siria-palestinaSi, xolo X
saukuneSi aRmocenda qarTvelTa monasteri aTonze (Zeglebi, 1918, gv. 17).
yovelive es xels uwyobda gareSe saqristianosTan saqarTvelos intensiur
kontaqtebs, rac ormxriv xasiaTs iZens: qarTuli qristianuli eklesia
mdidrdeba qristianul samyarosTan urTierTobiT, xolo Tavad
qristianuli samyaro arcTu naklebad ikvebeba qarTuli qristianuli
kulturuli tradiciebiT, rac araerTxelaa miniSnebuli literaturaSi.
amis dasturad me-6 saukunis avtori prokofi kesarieli gamodgeba
(qarTlis cxovreba, 1955, gv. 168).
qarTuli eklesiis avtoritetis zrdis maCvenebelia Semdegi faqtic:
daaxloebiT VIII saukunis Sua wlebSi saqarTveloSi Camovida guTeli
ioane, romelmac episkoposis xeldasxma mcxeTis kaTalikosisagan miiRo.
guTeli episkoposi sakurTxevlad jer konstantinopolis patriarqTan
gaemgzavra, romelsac is ierarqiulad emorCileboda, magram radgan iq
maSin xatmebrZoloba iyo gabatonebuli 725-843 ww. ukurTxeblad ukan
gamobrunebula. maSin ioane saqarTveloSi gamoagzavnes (saqarTvelos
istoria, 1990, gv. 80-81).
aseve qarTuli eklesiis maRali avtoritetis dadasturebaa is
faqtic, rom IX saukuneSi ierusalimis patriarqis - sergis TanxmobiT
qarTulma eklesiam miiRo mironis kurTxevis ufleba mcxeTis
sveticxovelSi (b. lominaZe, 1992, gv. 87-88).
qarTuli ena eklesiis erTaderT sayovelTao enad gavrcelda. VIII-X
ss. Jamis wirva da locva qarTulad sruldeboda. XI-XII ss-Si farTo
muSaoba gaCaRda qarTul enaze axali bizantiuri mwerlobis
TargmanisaTvis. am saqmianobaSi TavianTi wvlili Seitanes eqvTime da
giorgi aTonelebma, giorgi mcirem, leonti mrovelma, juanSerma, arsen
iyalToelma, efrem mcirem, ioane petriwma da sxvebma. amgvari muSaoba
warmoebda rogorc saqarTveloSi, ise sazRvargareTis qarTul centrebSi -
aTonze, petriwonis monasterSi, ierusalimis jvris monasterSi.
qarTuli eklesia daarsebis dRidanve gaxda mflobeli organizacia,
misi Semosavlis wyaros Semowiruli, nasyidi mamulebi Seadgenda.
monastrebs ki hqondaT sakuTari meurneoba. X-XI ss-Si eklesiam did
ekonomiur Zlierebas miaRwia.
XI s-Si saqarTvelos eklesiis kaTalikos-patriarqs eWira VI adgili
romis papis CaTvliT. eklesiaTa ganyofis Semdeg saqarTvelos eklesias
ekava me-5 adgili. xolo XVI saukunis dasasruls, rodesac aRmosavleTis
patriarqebma ruseTis eklesias mianiWes me-5 adgili, saqarTvelos eklesiam
daikava me-6 adgili, romelic uWiravs dRemde. saqarTvelos eklesiis
kaTalikos-patriarqis meeqvse adgilis Sesaxeb cnoba daculia XIII saukunis
dokumentSi (1259 w). ` ...Cvenca glaxaki qristes mier Semdgomad xuTTa
patriarqTa... da suetis cxovelis meequsisa patriarqisa da qristesmier
yovlisa saqarTvelos kaTalikosi nikoloz vamtkiceb da warvwer"... (b.
lominaZe, 1992, gv. 87-88).
sruliad saqarTvelos sapatriarqo teritoriulad Semcirda XVI
saukunis miwuruls Turqebis mier samcxe-saaTabagos mitacebisa da iq
islamis gavrcelebis gamo. aqtiur taZrebSi TandaTan gauqmda qristianuli
wirva-locva, qristianuli mrevli Semcirda, daifanta. XVIII saukuneSi,
roca saqarTvelo gaTavisuflda iranisa da TurqeTis batonobisagan,
imereTSi solomon pirvelma da qarTl-kaxeTSi erekle meorem scades
sxvadasxva RonisZiebebiT qarTuli marTlmadidebluri eklesiis Seryeuli
mdgomareobis gaumjobeseba.
XIX saukunis dasawyisSi ruseTma moaxdina saqarTvelos aneqsia. aTi
wlis Semdeg, 1811 wels ruseTis imperatoris brZanebiT qarTul eklesias
waerTva damoukidebloba da daqvemdebarebul iqna rusuli eklesiis
`uwmindesi da umarTebulesi sinodisadmi". aqedan moyolebuli vidre 1918
wlamde (?) saqarTvelos eklesiurad marTavdnen rusi egzarqosebi.

damowmebuli literatura

episkoposi zosime, 1990 - episkoposi zosime (SioSvili), saqarTvelos


eklesiis avtokefaliisaTvis: Jurn. "jvari vazisa", 1990, #3.
efrem mcire, 1959 - efrem mcire, uwyebaT mizezisa qarTvelTa
moqcevisasa Tu romelTa wignTa Sina moixsenebis, Tb., 1959.
n. kelenjeriZe, 1949 - n. kelenjeriZe, saqarTvelos sakaTalikoso
eklesiis mokle istoria, Tb., 1949.
b. lominaZe, 1992 - b. lominaZe, saqarTvelos sapatriarqo da misi
avtokefalia: religia, 1992, #12.
T. Jordania, 1892 - T. Jordania, qronikebi, t. I, tf., 1892.
saqarTvelos istoria, 1990 - saqarTvelos istoria (saskolo
saxlmZRvanelo), Tb., 1990.
i. tabaRua, 1982 - i. tabaRua, saqarTvelo evropis arqivebsa da
wignTsacavebSi, t. I, Tb., 1982.
qarTlis cxovreba, 1955 - qarTlis cxovreba, t. I, Tb., 1955.
Zeglebi, 1918 - Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli Zeglebi, t. I, tf., 1918.
anania jafariZe, 1983-1988 - episkoposi anania jafariZe, saqarTvelos
samociqulo eklesiis istoria, axalcixe, 1983-1988.

SULKHAN KUPRASHVILI, MADONA ROBAKIDZE

RUSSIA’S IMPERIAL POLICY AND THE GEORGIAN CHURCH AUTOCEPHALY


IN 1801-1811

In the late half of the 19th century Tsarist Russia waged consistent fight for
trapping the Georgian Church into her ideological grips.
In September 12, 1801 the Emperor signed a manifest by force of which on April
12th of the next year, in the Tbilisi Sioni Cathedral surrounded by Russian troops, Russia
imposed the representatives of the Georgian nobility to sign the document of abolishing
Bagrationi House prerogatives. David who had been proclaimed the heir of Giorgi XII by
Russia when the king was still alive was sent in exile. The same fate shared Mariam, the
last queen of Georgia, wife of Giorgi XII. Some eight years later the lot of Kartlo-
Kakheti kingdom extended on Imereti kingdom that accomplished Russia’s footing in
Georgia.
The establishment of the Tsarist government in Georgia would not complete only
with the abolishment of the Georgian statehood. Now Russia began to interfere in the
affairs of the Georgian Church for its subjugation. The government issued a reform
anticipating organization of religious diskateria which would be entitled to lead
Religious-educational activities. The primary task of the diskateria was to count and
register the property of the Georgian Church to figure out all incomes and determine the
number of clergy and make order in the parishes. The government appointed General
Tormasov with personal responsibilities for the implementation of the reform.
Earlier to these events, in February 1801, Russian Emperor issued the order
obliging Catholicos Anton II to draw up the complete data of the real situation of the
Georgian Church and its clergy. The latter did not carry out the task. In November 3,
1810 Tormasov sent Catholicos Anton II in exile and in February 10, 1811 he presented
Golitsin new project of organizing the Georgian Church. According to the project the
bishop of Mtskheta and Kartli should be at the head of the Georgian Church who would
be given a title of Metropolitan of Mtskheta and Kartli and the Exarches of the Synod.
In 1811 the institution of Catholicos was replaced by Exarches, subordinated to
diskateria. The first exarches of Georgia became Bishop Varlam Eristavi, a man educated
in Russia. The abolishment of autocephaly of the Georgian Church marked the new and
different stage of Georgia’s occupation by Russia.