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Steph Groten

Instructional Strategies Chart




-Skill instruction or

Teacher presents a skill or

technique to the class.
This may involve
questions and class
discussions. Action: You
have to show a physical
example of a process or
2. Verbal Explanation: You
have to explain the
concepts that link the
process and technique
also describing the
reasons why.
3. Student Audience: have
the students gathered
round, prepared and
4. Student Action and
response: After the
demonstration, students
display competency of the
skills and concepts they

This is a way of showing

students how to perform
skills by modelling skills.
Students can learn more
from watching your stepby-step demonstration
and hearing your thinking
processes, than just
reading it on a handout.
Demonstration engages
the student intrinsically;
they dont know they are
learning when they are. A
limitation could be that
when showing a step-bystep demonstration you
might move on to the next
step too fast when a low
capability learner hasnt
grasped the previous one,
thus they fall behind. In
demonstration, the
teacher holds the power
and you would want to
demonstrate slowly and
clearly to benefit each
student while ensuring

Class discussions

The teacher leads the

detailed examination of a
topic, question or issue;
promotes student

This is a way of assessing

student learning,
development of student
understanding, decision
making, involvement and
motivation. However, It
becomes difficult for each
perspective to be heard.
You may only hear from
one or two students
raising their hand. As a
teacher, you would want
to lead the discussion and
keep the topic focused;

Steph Groten
Instructional Strategies Chart
therefore, it is both the
students and teacher who
hold the power.

Learning games

Students play curriculumbased learning games as

a class, individually, or in
small groups. These
games can be based on
existing board, card, TV
game shows, or teacher
developed games. You
could use sticks as a way
to create new groups for
the students to work with
new people.

Using games in the

classroom lends itself to
engaging the learners as
well as creates an
environment of
experiential learning. The
interaction in these games
creates a better
understanding for the
learners in regards to
information, tools,
materials, and even the
other learners. Learning
games provide new ways
of learning for differing
styles. Most games will
need to be customized to
the curriculum goals or to
meet the needs of the
students depending on
their learning abilities.
The right blend of
competition and
cooperation is needed. A
limitation could be that
games create a series of
developmental challenges
for the learners. Game
culture and play could be
a disadvantage to the
learner if not designed
correctly. Learning games
hold the power to the
students who will gain
from it what they put into


Students learn a section

of material on their own.
They then share this
information with a group
of students who have

This activity would work

best with older students
and a classroom that does
not consist of a lot of ESL
students so they can work

Steph Groten
Instructional Strategies Chart
become experts on the
same topic. Students then
move into groups of
different topics to share
what they have learned
with each other. You could
provide a sheet with the
different topics for the
students so it is easy to
gain all of the information
from the other experts in
the group.

Group projects

Groups of 4-6 students.

This can be in the form of
presentations, poster
work, PowerPoints, etc.
I would suggest using
popsicle sticks as a way to
create groups to split up
people in the classroom
and allow them to get to
know others.

Learning centres

Small groups of students

work on several sites
provided with materials
and learning tasks

individually first. Students

have an opportunity to
hold the power in their
groups, it is a quick and
efficient way of learning
new information,
encourages students to
listen to each other. Some
limitations could be that
students will misinterpret
information given, or lack
of participation by
students. Since the
students hold the power
in this activity, if they do
not participate
intentionally, they will not
gain anything from it and
neither will their
Group projects are ways
of collaborating with other
students and learning how
to use teamwork to
complete a task. A
limitation is that group
projects would require a
lot of time to work on it.
Group projects would be
most beneficial in higher
grade levels. The students
take control of their own
learning and participation.
Fosters autonomy and
choice and promotes
differentiation. As the
teacher, you would want
to walk around to each
group center to ensure
each student is on task
and engaged. Finding
enough space for the
centers is probably the
largest limitation. The
students hold the power
in this activity.

Steph Groten
Instructional Strategies Chart

Think Pair Share


Think: Teachers begin by

asking a specific higherlevel question about the
text or topic students will
be discussing. Students
"think" about what they
know or have learned
about the topic for a given
amount of time (usually 13 minutes). Pair: Each
student should be paired
with another student.
Students share their
thinking with their
partner, discuss ideas,
and ask questions of their
partner about their
thoughts on the topic (2-5
minutes). Share: Once
partners have had ample
time to share their
thoughts and have a
discussion, teachers
expand the "share" into a
whole-class discussion.
Allow each group to
choose who will present
their thoughts, ideas, and
questions they had to the
rest of the class. Designed
to differentiate
Brainstorming is an
intense experience that is
strongly focused on a
single topic for a limited
period of time. Students
are asked to generate as
many creative ideas as
possible without
evaluating the ideas. It is
important to note that no
idea or thought is a bad
one. Divide the class into
small groups (4-6).
Arrange them in separate

This learning strategy

promotes classroom
participation by
encouraging a high
degree of student
response, rather than
using a basic method
where a teacher poses a
question and one student
offers a response.
Additionally, this strategy
provides an opportunity
for all students to share
their thinking with at least
one other student which,
in turn, increases their
sense of involvement in
classroom learning.
Think-Pair-Share can also
be used as an information
assessment tool. As
students discuss their
ideas, the teacher can
circulate and listen to the
conversations taking
place and respond
accordingly. The teachers
and students hold the
power in this activity.

Is stimulating and
provides a varied
instructional approach. It
generates enthusiasm and
eagerness to join in by its
open invitation to
participate and its rapid,
free-wheeling approach.
Brainstorming is also very
motivating and creates
creativity. It is important
to ensure a positive
classroom climate where

Steph Groten
Instructional Strategies Chart
sections of the classroom,
making sure that
someone in the group has
paper and pencil to write
down the ideas suggested
in the brainstorming
session (a recorder).

Students record their

thoughts, feelings, and
reflections on various
topics or experiences.
Teachers can use journals
to meet specific goals or
to keep it wide open to
creative ideas. Students
are able to relate to the
topic or you can gain an
understanding of where
they are at in regards to
prior knowledge to
addressing a new topic.

Direct instruction

Teacher presents
information or explains
concepts to students.
Includes questioning and
active learning. You could
use powerpoints for a
visual while lecturing

all ideas are accepted and

everyone participates.

Journal writing enables

students to organize,
develop their ideas, and
improve their
understanding. This is a
way of communicating
through writing and allows
for individual
assessments. A limitation
is that it requires ongoing
feedback from peers and
the teacher. Also
important to remember
that student abilities vary
greatly so it is important
to be aware of the
students who may need
extra assistance. Ask
guiding questions on
journals to direct their
writing and thinking.
Focus on the expression of
ideas and selves.
Direct instruction is an
efficient way to deliver
information, explanation
and illustration of
concepts. Can lead to
boredom if overdone or if
the visual aspect is not
present. This is a teacher
driven strategy.