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Julius Caesar

by William Shakespeare

Literature Guide Developed by Kristen Bowers for Secondary Solutions®

ISBN 13: 978-0-9772295-6-7 ISBN 10: 0-9772295-72

© 2006 Secondary Solutions. All rights reserved. A classroom teacher who has purchased this guide may photocopy the materials in this publication for his/her classroom use only. Use or reproduction by a part of or an entire school or school system, by for-profit tutoring centers and like institutions, or for commercial sale, is strictly prohibited. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, translated or stored without the express written permission of the publisher. Created and printed in the United States of America.

Created and printed in the United States of America. Secondary Solutions ® The First Solution for

Secondary

Solutions®

The First Solution for the Secondary Teacher®

www.4secondarysolutions.com

©2006 Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Julius Caesar

Complete Literature Guide

About This Literature Guide

4

How to Use Our Literature Guides

5

Exploring Expository Writing

6

Author Biography: William Shakespeare

6

Standards Focus: Exploring Expository Writing

7

Standards Focus: Historical Context

8

The Real Julius Caesar

8

Anticipation/Reaction Guide

9

Anticipation/Reaction Guide Response

10

Pre-Reading Individual Reflection

Standards Focus: Elements of Drama

Literary Terms to Know

10

11

11

Standards Focus: Approaching Shakespeare’s Language

12

Shakespeare’s Style

13

The Sonnet Form and Iambic Pentameter

13

Vocabulary List

15

Words and Phrases to Know

16

Allusions throughout the Play

17

Act One

18

Scene Guide

18

Comprehension Check

19

Standards Focus: Setting, Tone, and Mood

20

Assessment Preparation: Word Parts

22

Act Two

24

Scene Guide

24

Comprehension Check

25

Standards Focus: Character Map

26

Standards Focus: Characterization and Character Motivation

27

Assessment Preparation: Vocabulary in Context

29

Act Three

31

Scene Guide

31

Comprehension Check

32

Standards Focus: Rhetoric

33

Standards Focus: Analysis of Rhetoric

35

Assessment Preparation: Word Roots

37

Act Four

39

Scene Guide

39

Comprehension Check

40

Standards Focus: Figurative Language

41

Standards Focus: Dialogue, Monologue, and Soliloquy

43

Assessment Preparation: Connotation/Denotation

45

Act Five

48

Scene Guide

48

Comprehension Check

49

Standards Focus: Tragedy and the Tragic Hero

50

Standards Focus: Theme

52

Assessment Preparation: Analogies

54

Anticipation/Reaction Guide

Post-Reading Individual Reflection

56

56

Act One Quiz Act Two Quiz Act Three Quiz Act Four Quiz

Act One Quiz Act Two Quiz Act Three Quiz Act Four Quiz
Act One Quiz Act Two Quiz Act Three Quiz Act Four Quiz
Act One Quiz Act Two Quiz Act Three Quiz Act Four Quiz

57

58

59

60

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Act Five Quiz

61

Final Test

62

Final Test: Multiple Choice

65

Teacher Guide

68

Summary of the Play

68

Vocabulary List with Definitions

70

Pre-Reading Ideas and Activities

71

Post-Reading Extension Activities and Alternative Assessment

71

Essay/Writing Ideas

73

Project Rubric

74

Response to Literature Rubric

75

Answer Key

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

About This Literature Guide

Secondary Solutions is the endeavor of a high school English teacher who could not seem to find appropriate materials to help her students master the necessary concepts at the secondary level. She grew tired of spending countless hours researching, creating, writing, and revising lesson plans, worksheets, quizzes, tests and extension activities to motivate and inspire her students, and at the same time, address those ominous content standards! Materials that were available were either juvenile in nature, skimpy in content, or were moderately engaging activities that did not come close to meeting the content standards on which her students were being tested. Frustrated and tired of trying to get by with inappropriate, inane lessons, she finally decided that if the right materials were going to be available to her and other teachers, she was going to have to make them herself! Mrs. Bowers set to work to create one of the most comprehensive and innovative Literature Guide sets on the market. Joined by a middle school teacher with 21 years of secondary school experience, Secondary Solutions began, and has matured into a specialized team of intermediate and secondary teachers who have developed for you a set of materials unsurpassed by all others.

Before the innovation of Secondary Solutions, materials that could be purchased offered a reproducible student workbook and a separate set of teacher materials at an additional cost. Other units provided the teacher with student materials only, and very often, the content standards were ignored. Secondary Solutions provides all of the necessary materials for complete coverage of the literature units of study, including author biographies, pre-reading activities, numerous and varied vocabulary and comprehension activities, study-guide questions, graphic organizers, literary analysis and critical thinking activities, essay-writing ideas, extension activities, quizzes, unit tests, alternative assessment, online teacher assistance, and much, much more. Each guide is designed to address the unique learning styles and comprehension levels of every student in your classroom. All materials are written and presented at the grade level of the learner, and include extensive coverage of the content standards. As an added bonus, all teacher materials are included!

As a busy teacher, you don’t have time to waste reinventing the wheel. You want to get down to the business of teaching! With our professionally developed teacher-written literature guides, Secondary Solutions has provided you with the answer to your time management problems, while saving you hours of tedious and exhausting work. Our guides will allow you to focus on the most important aspects of teaching—the personal, one-on-one, hands-on instruction you enjoy most—the reason you became a teacher in the first place.

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

How to Use Our Literature Guides

Our Literature Guides are based upon the National Council of the Teachers of English and the International Readers Association’s national English/Language Arts Curriculum and Content Area Standards. The materials we offer allow you to teach the love and full enjoyment of literature, while still addressing the concepts upon which your students are assessed.

These Guides are designed to be used in their sequential entirety, or may be divided into separate parts. Not all activities must be used, but to achieve full comprehension and mastery of the skills involved, it is recommended that you utilize everything each Guide has to offer. Most importantly, you now have a variety of valuable materials to choose from, and you are not forced into extra work!

There are several distinct categories within each Literature Guide:

Comprehension Check: Exploring Expository Writing—Worksheets designed to

address the exploration and analysis of functional and/or informational materials.

Author Biography

Biographies of non-fiction characters

Relevant news and magazine articles, etc.

Comprehension Check—Similar to Exploring Expository Writing, but designed for

comprehension of narrative text—study questions designed to guide students as they read the text.

Standards Focus—Worksheets and activities that directly address the content standards

and allow students extensive practice in literary skills and analysis. Standards Focus activities are found with every chapter or section. Some examples:

Figurative Language

Irony

Flashback

Assessment Preparation—Vocabulary activities which emulate the types of vocabulary/

grammar proficiency on which students are tested in state and national assessments.

Assessment Preparation activities are found within every chapter or section.

Connotation/Denotation

Context Clues

Word Roots

Some examples:

Quizzes and Tests—Quizzes are included for each chapter or designated section; final tests

as well as alternative assessment are available at the end of each Guide.

These include:

Multiple Choice

Matching

Short Response

Pre-Reading, Post-Reading Activities, Essay/Writing Ideas plus Sample

Rubrics—Each Guide also has its own unique pre-reading, post reading and essay/writing ideas and alternative assessment activities.

Each Guide contains handouts and activities for varied levels of difficulty.

students are alike—nor are all teachers!

Literature Guides have to offer—we want to make things easier on you!

assistance, please email us at info@secondarysolutions.com.

Guides are directly correlated to your state’s content standards, please write us an email including the name of your state to: contentstandards@4secondarysolutions.com. Thank you for choosing

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We know that not all

We hope you can effectively utilize every aspect our

If you need additional

For specific information on how our

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name

Period

Exploring Expository Writing Author Biography: William Shakespeare

Expository Writing Author Biography: William Shakespeare William Shakespeare is widely believed to have been the

William Shakespeare is widely believed to have been the greatest playwright in history. His plays are continually produced and students around the world read his works in school. Shakespeare is known for his ability to depict the depth of human character and his skill in illustrating issues to which for hundreds of years, people around the world can relate.

Shakespeare’s father, John Shakespeare, was a wealthy business owner and active citizen of Stratford-upon-Avon in England. He married Shakespeare’s mother, Mary Arden, in 1557, and they had William on April 23, 1564.

During the sixteenth century, waves of the Black Plague ravaged England and William was lucky to have survived. Two of his sisters, Joan and Margaret, died from the affliction. William’s younger brother, Gilbert, fortunately escaped the deadly epidemic and had a long and successful career as a tradesman. Later, John and Mary Shakespeare had four more children: Joan (named after their firstborn), Anne (who died at age eight), Richard, and Edmund, who eventually followed in William’s footsteps as an actor.

Shakespeare began his education at the age of six or seven at the Stratford grammar school, known as the King’s New School of Stratford-upon-Avon. His lessons were primarily in Latin, but William also likely learned in English. Shakespeare was taken out of school at about the age of thirteen, due to his father’s financial problems at this time. It is believed that William continued his studies on his own, however, educating himself as much as possible. The events of William’s life between the age of thirteen and when he emerged in London as an actor, is generally unknown. However, it is recorded that in 1582, at the age of eighteen he married Anne Hathaway, who was eight years older than him and pregnant at the time.

Shakespeare’s first child, Susanna, was born in 1583. Two years later, twins Hamnet and Judith were born. In 1596, Hamnet died of unknown causes. The loss was said to have affected William deeply; his grief and loss is expressed in his writing.

Little is known about Shakespeare’s life during the years of 1585 to 1592, before he appeared as an actor in London. It is believed he spent this time perfecting his craft as an actor and playwright. By 1592, Shakespeare was already an established and respected actor in London. Productions of Henry IV and The Comedy of Errors were performed by Pembroke’s Men, a popular acting troupe who often performed for Queen Elizabeth. In 1594, Shakespeare joined another acting troupe, Lord Chamberlain’s Men, and it was while he was with this group that Shakespeare wrote Romeo and Juliet, Richard II, King John, and others.

Although Shakespeare was never wealthy, he lived a comfortable life, buying a home in Stratford in

1597. He became part-owner of the most popular theater in London, the Globe Theater, in 1599, and

the Blackfriars Theater in 1603. Shakespeare continued to act until 1613, when he returned to Stratford to retire. Shakespeare is believed to have died on April 23, 1616, exactly 52 years to the day of his birth.

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name

Standards Focus: Exploring Expository Writing

Directions: Answer the following questions using complete sentences.

1. When and where was William Shakespeare born?

Period

2. Write an original thesis statement which best summarizes the article.

3. Rewrite the following paragraph to improve cohesion and logic:

Shakespeare’s first child, Susanna, was born in 1583. Two years later, twins Hamnet and Judith were born. In 1596, Hamnet died of unknown causes. The loss was said to have affected William deeply; his grief and loss is expressed in his writing.

4. If you were given an assignment to find out more information about the life of William

Shakespeare, what 3 questions would you like to find answers for in your research?

5. What is significant about the date of Shakespeare’s death?

6. Does this article primarily contain facts or opinions? How do you know?

7. How is the information in this article arranged: problem/solution, cause/effect,

compare/contrast, or chronological? How can you tell?

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

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Standards Focus: Historical Context The Real Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar born July 12, 100BC, is one of the most well-known political leaders in history. Caesar was considered to be a military genius and brilliant politician, and his life and conquests continue to be widely revered and studied throughout the world.

It was believed that Caesar was a direct descendant of the Trojan prince Aeneas, who was the son of the goddess Venus. His father, whom he was named after, was a war hero and respected politician. Although a member of the aristocracy, Caesar and his family lived in one of the lower-class neighborhoods in Rome. Little is known about Caesar’s early years, other than having two sisters, both of whom were apparently named Julia. Caesar’s father died in 84BC, and Caesar found himself the patriarch of the family at age sixteen. A year later, Caesar married Cornelia, daughter of the famous orator Cinna.

Period

As a young man, Caesar saw plenty of political and social unrest under the harsh dictatorship of Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Shortly after Caesar married Cornelia, Civil War erupted and Cinna was killed, leaving Caesar

without an inheritance.

Thermus. He received numerous honors, including the Civic Crown which was the second highest Roman military award at the time.

In fear for his own life, he fled to Asia and joined the army, serving under Marcus

In 78BC, Sulla died unexpectedly in his sleep, and Caesar returned to Rome. He began his political career, becoming a renowned orator and powerful politician. In 63BC, Caesar was elected to the position of Pontifex Maximus, which gave Caesar great political and religious influence. Three years later, Caesar was elected senior Counsul of the Roman Republic. Needing support both politically and financially, Caesar formed the First Triumvirate with Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great) and Marcus Licinius Crassus, an extremely wealthy businessman.

Caesar then took the post of Proconsular Governor of Gaul and Illyria. Desperate for power, Caesar began the Gallic War, which lasted from 58BC to 49BC. His conquest was successful, and Caesar seized enormous parts of Europe for the Roman Empire. This war would become only one small element of Caesar’s takeover as he continued to annex parts of Europe for Rome.

Despite Caesar’s military and leadership success, he was disliked by many, who believed Caesar wanted to have

solitary rule.

Pompey (who had married Julia) devastated. Later, Pompey married one of Caesar’s enemies’ daughters,

which would prove to drive a wedge into the already crumbling relationship of the triumvirate.

It was at this time that Caesar’s daughter Julia died during childbirth, leaving both Caesar and

In 50BC, Pompey ordered Caesar to disband his army and return to Rome. After Caesar refused, Pompey accused Caesar of treason. In 49BC Caesar returned to Rome with a small faction of his army, igniting civil war. Caesar defeated Pompey in 48BC, although heavily outnumbered by Pompey. Caesar was then appointed sole ruler of Rome. In 47BC, Caesar battled in the Middle East, conquering King Pharneaces II of Pontus. He declared his famous words Veni, Vidi, Vici (I came, I saw, I conquered) after his swift annihilation. His victories in battle made Caesar’s popularity soar; he became an icon and a god to the Romans who immediately built statues and minted coins with his countenance.

Caesar’s growing power and popularity only inflated his ego and personal agenda. He did what he wanted, with no opposition. He erected buildings, enacted laws, pardoned criminals, appointed his friends and followers to important positions in government, and declared holidays in his honor. This disregard for the electoral system that had been in place in Rome incensed many Romans. Caesar became an enemy of the state with a growing number of powerful underground factions.

After Caesar was named dictator for life (Dictator Perpetuus), concern intensified for the future of Rome. Marcus Brutus, once Caesar’s close friend and confidant, began to conspire with his brother-in-law and friend Cassius and others. They called themselves the Liberators, and built a plan to assassinate Caesar.

On March 15 (the Ides of March), Caesar was lured to the forum to discuss a fake petition. Once there and distracted by the petition, Caesar was stabbed to death by his conspirators; by most accounts, he was stabbed twenty-three times, although Shakespeare increased that number to thirty-three wounds. It is reported that over 60 men either witnessed or participated in the assassination of one of the most powerful rulers of all time.

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

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Anticipation/Reaction Guide

Directions: Before reading the play, write “yes” if you agree with the statement, “no” if you disagree with the statement, and “?” if you don’t have a strong opinion about the statement. After reading, you will complete the last column, revisiting your original responses.

Period

Yes = I agree

No = I disagree

? = I don’t know

Before

Statement

After

Reading

Reading

 

1. Be careful whom you trust.

 
 

2. Excessive pride can lead to your own ruin.

 
 

3. Too much ambition can be dangerous.

 
 

4. Good leaders acknowledge their own weaknesses.

 
 

5. We cannot control our fate.

 
 

6. Politicians are only concerned with what the majority of people want.

 
 

7. Superstition can be a powerful driving force.

 
 

8. People want to see the good in others.

 
 

9. Weak people can be easily manipulated.

 
 

10. One man’s hero is another man’s enemy.

 
 

11. Words can be powerful weapons.

 

After completing the “Before Reading” column, get into small groups, and record your group members’ names. As a group, tally (using tic marks: |||| ) the number of “yes”,“no” and “?” responses for each question using the chart below.

“?” responses for each question using the chart below. Group Members: Statement # Yes No I

Group Members:

Statement #

Yes

No

I Don’t Know

1

     

2

     

3

     

4

     

5

     

6

     

7

     

8

     

9

     

10

     

11

     

Once you have collected your data, discuss those issues about which your group was divided. Make your case for your opinions, and pay attention to your classmates’ arguments. Once you have discussed all of the issues, answer the questions on the next page.

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

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Anticipation/Reaction Guide Response Pre-Reading Individual Reflection

Period

Directions: Use the information and discussion from the “Before Reading” responses to answer the following questions. Be sure to use complete sentences.

1. Which statement triggered the most thought-provoking or interesting discussion?

2. Summarize your group’s most interesting discussion/debate.

3. For any of the statements that you discussed, what were some of the strongest or most

memorable points made by your group members?

4. How did you feel when a group member disagreed with the way you feel about an issue? Did they

accept your personal opinion or disrespect it? What was your response?

5. Was any argument strong enough to make you change your mind or want to change any of your

initial responses? Why or why not? What made the argument effective? How could your own

arguments have been more effective?

*Your teacher will collect your chart and responses to be used again when you have finished reading the play.*

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

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Standards Focus: Elements of Drama Literary Terms to Know

Drama is a form of literature designed to be performed in front of an audience. There are two main types of drama: comedy and tragedy. Like fiction, dramatic works have a plot, characters, setting, conflict, and one or more themes. It is essential to know the elements of drama when reading a dramatic work.

Period

1. act: a division within a play, much like chapters of a novel

2. aside: lines that are spoken by a character directly to the audience

3. cast of characters: a list of characters presented before the action begins

4. comedy: a humorous work of drama

5. dialogue: conversation between two or more characters

6. drama: a work of literature designed to be performed in front of an audience

7. dramatic irony: when the audience or reader knows something that the characters in the story

do not know

8. foil: a character who is nearly opposite of another character; the purpose of a foil (or character

foil) is to reveal a stark contrast between the two characters, often the protagonist and

antagonist

9. iambic pentameter: a line of poetry that contains 5 iambs of two syllables each

10. monologue: a long speech spoken by a character to himself, another character, or to the

audience

11. scene: a division of an act into smaller parts

12. soliloquy: thoughts spoken aloud by a character when he/she is alone, or thinks he/she is

alone

13. stage directions: italicized comments that identify parts of the setting or the use of props or

costumes, give further information about a character, or provide background information

14. tragedy: a serious work of drama in which the hero suffers catastrophe or serious misfortune,

usually because of his own actions

15. tragic hero: a protagonist with a fatal flaw which eventually leads to his demise

Activity: Using the words from the list above, create a 15-question Multiple-Choice quiz. You must use the information/definitions from this page, but you may also add your own knowledge to create your questions. Be sure to create an answer key and keep it on a separate piece of paper. For example:

1. The two main types of drama are:

a. plays and monologues

b. comedies and tragedies

c. histories and biographies d. monologues and soliloquies

When you have finished, give the “quiz” to a partner and take his or her quiz. Then, check each other’s answers, and turn in your quizzes, your answer key, and your scores to your teacher. Your teacher can even find the best questions and use them on a real quiz.

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

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Period

Standards Focus: Approaching Shakespeare’s Language

When approaching the works of Shakespeare, it is important to remember that Shakespeare intended his works to be performed in front of an audience. If you are having trouble understanding what you are reading when you are reading silently to yourself, remember that this could be one of the reasons you may be having difficulty. The following are some guidelines to help you approach the language, and to comprehend the reading a little better.

1. blank verse: most of Shakespeare’s plays are written in this form, which is very close to normal speech rhythms and patterns. Often Shakespeare will deviate from this form in order to make a point about the character’s state of mind or for other emphasis, like a change in the mood.

2. double entendre: phrases or words which have double meanings, one of which is usually sexual in nature

3. iambic pentameter: a 10-syllable line divided into 5 iambic feet (one stressed syllable followed by one unstressed syllable). This is the basic rhythm of Shakespeare’s verse.

4. imagery: language which works to evoke images in your mind (i.e. “And with thy bloody and invisible hand / Cancel and tear to pieces that great bond / Which keeps me pale.”)

5. metaphor: a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is replaced by another, often indicating a likeness or similarity between them (ie. “Life’s but a walking shadow, a poor player…”)

6. prose: normal speech rhythm; Shakespeare often wrote certain characters speaking either in all verse or all prose, indicating some personality trait of the character. If the character deviates from its normal form, be aware of a changing state of mind…often prose signals a character slipping into insanity!

7. pun: a play on words that either sound alike or that have multiple meanings

8. rhyming couplet: two rhyming lines at the end of a speech, signaling that a character is leaving the stage or that the scene is ending

9. simile: a figure of speech comparing two unlike things that is often introduced by like or as (i.e. “My love is like a red, red rose”)

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

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Shakespeare’s Style The Sonnet Form and Iambic Pentameter

Period

Shakespeare wrote over 80 sonnets in addition to his plays. In fact, he even added sonnets into his plays. Before we dive into reading an entire play, we will be approaching Shakespeare’s style in a smaller poem, called a sonnet.

The Shakespearean sonnet always follows the same format. It has 14 lines with approximately 10 syllables each line. Each line of the sonnet is written in iambic pentameter. A line of iambic pentameter consists of 10 syllables, or five iambs of two syllables each. An iamb is an “unstressed” syllable followed by a “stressed” syllable. When written, the “U” symbols mean unstressed, and the “/” indicates a stressed syllable.

To understand the idea of a stressed or an unstressed syllable, think about the syllables of some common names. The name Christopher can be divided into three syllables: Chris/to/pher. If we place the stress, or the emphasis, on the “Chris” it would look like this:

/

U

U

Chris / to / pher

If we place the emphasis on the “to” the name would sound odd to our ears, and look like this:

U

/

U

Chris / to / pher

When analyzing a line of Shakespeare’s work, it would look like this:

U

Let

/ U / U / U / U / me not to the mar riage
/
U
/
U
/
U
/
U
/
me
not
to
the
mar
riage
of
true minds

(from Sonnet 116)

Finally, Shakespearean sonnets always follow the same rhyme scheme: ABABCDCDEFEFGG, ending with the rhyming couplet, or two rhyming lines.

Now that the technical terms have been introduced, it is time to put that knowledge to work in a practical activity.

Directions: Read the sonnet on the next page. This sonnet is one of the most famous of Shakespeare’s sonnets: Sonnet 18. Read and analyze this sonnet, paying careful attention to the rhyme scheme and the pattern of syllables. Then, using the chart, divide the sonnet into syllables and label its rhyme scheme. The first line has been done for you.

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

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Shakespeare’s Style The Sonnet Form and Iambic Pentameter

Period

As an imperfect actor on the stage Who with his fear is put beside his part, Or some fierce thing replete with too much rage, Whose strength's abundance weakens his own heart. So I, for fear of trust, forget to say The perfect ceremony of love's rite, And in mine own love's strength seem to decay, O’ercharged with burden of mine own love's might. O, let my books be then the eloquence And dumb presages of my speaking breast, Who plead for love and look for recompense More than that tongue that more hath more express'd. O, learn to read what silent love hath writ:

To hear with eyes belongs to love's fine wit.

Rhyme 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Scheme As an im
Rhyme
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Scheme
As
an
im
per
fect
ac
tor
on
the
stage
A

Now You Try It!

Using the rhyme scheme and form of a Shakespearean sonnet, write your own sonnet about new love, lost love, a beautiful day, a terrible day, or anything you wish! Draw the same grid as above on a separate piece of paper to plan and organize the sonnet. Then rewrite your sonnet and share it with the class for an exercise in public speaking and performance!

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

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Julius Caesar Vocabulary List

Directions: Before you read each act, look up the definitions for each of the vocabulary words below. Be sure to keep all of your definitions for worksheets and quizzes!

Period

Act One

1.

2. chidden

barren

Act Four

1.

2. chastisement

apparition

3. cogitations

3. engendered

4.

exalted

4. ensign

5.

fain

5. envenomed

6.

idle

6. exigent

7.

infused

7. fret

8.

lamented

8. gallant

9.

mettle

9. levying

10.

portentous

10. presume

11.

prodigies

11. provender

12.

tyrant

12. vex

Act Two

Act Five

1. affable

1. assure

2. appertain

2. avenged

3. augmented

3. bidding

4.

beseech

4. bondage

5.

emulation

5. demeanor

6.

imminent

6. fawned

7.

prevail

7. gorging

8.

shrewd

8. misconstrued

9.

spurn

9. peevish

10.

valiant

10. perils

11.

valor

11. spoils

12.

visage

12. virtue

Act Three

1. abide

2. appeased

3. apprehensive

4. banished

5. base

6. coffers

7. compel

8. consent

9. conspirator

10. ingratitude

11. legacy

12. malice

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

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Julius Caesar Words and Phrases to Know

Below are common words and phrases found throughout Shakespeare’s works. Many of these words and phrases were common in the 17 th Century, but may have new meanings today. Use the list below to help you understand these words and phrases as you read Julius Caesar.

Period

1. adieu: goodbye

2. an: if

3. anon: at once

4. attend: listen to

5. betimes: at once

6. bootless: useless

7. break with: discuss; break the news to

8. cobbler: a shoemaker

9. coronets: small crowns or wreaths of vines or flowers

10. counsel: advice

11. crossed: opposed

12. decree: order

13. discourses: speaks

14. dispatch: to send away or to kill

15. doth: does

16. falling sickness: epilepsy

17. falls purpose: is false

18. fashion: to make; to design

19. foe: enemy

20. gentle: noble, prominent; also calm and reserved

21. good-den or do-den: Good Evening

22. hart: a male deer

23. heavy: sad

24. hie: go

25. high-sighted: ambitious

26. hither: here

27. humour: a mood or feeling; “ill humour” may be a bad feeling about something or in a bad mood

28. mark: pay attention to

29. marry: of course; indeed

30. methinks: I think

31. moe: more

32. naught: nothing

33. nay: no

34. praetor: a judge of the court

35. pray: beg

36. quick mettle: mentally sharp; witty

37. rated: reprimanded

38. resolve: plan

39. rheumy: damp

40. sick offence: harmful illness or something that is said that comes across rudely

41. sirrah: fellow

42. soft: hush

43. sounded: proclaimed

44. stay: wait

45. swounded: fainted

46. taper: candle

47. thee: you

48. thither: there

49. thou art: you are

50. thy: your

51. tidings: news

52. vile contagion: something said or done that has the ability to make one physically ill

53. will: desire

54. withal: with

55. woe: grief

56. wot: know

57. would: wish

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

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Julius Caesar Allusions throughout the Play

1. Aenas (or Aeneas): a Greek legend and Trojan hero; son of Anchises and Aphrodite

2. Até: the personification of recklessness and menace and eventual downfall or punishment for this behavior

3. Colossus: the word “colossus” means enormous; in this case, the “Colossus” is the large bronze statue of Apollo at the harbor of Rhodes; it was considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World until it fell in 255BC after an earthquake

4. drachma: ancient currency (money)

5. Epicurus: an ancient Greek philosopher who founded Epicureanism, the idea that one should indulge in the pleasures in life (including materialistic and physical desires) in order to stave away any pain

6. Fates: in Greek mythology, the three goddesses who were believed to control the events and length of one’s life

7. Feast of Lupercal (Lupercalia): an ancient Roman festival held on February 15; it is believed to have been a ceremony to encourage fertility for animals and humans alike; Julius Caesar was crowned at this time

8. Hybla: a city in ancient Sicily

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Period

9. Ides of March: the 15 th of March; the ides are simply the middle of the month

10. Nervii: a group of warriors, considered by Julius Caesar to be one of the most brutal tribes in Gaul (now southern France)

11. Olympus: the mountain in Greece which was believed to have been the home of the twelve gods of Olympus in Greek Mythology

12. Phillipi: an ancient city in Macedonia (now an area in northern Greece)

13. Pluto’s mines: Pluto was the equivalent of the Greek god Hades, the god of the underworld; it was believed that Pluto gave the Romans gold, silver, and other precious metals which he mined from below the surface of the earth

14. Pompey: refers to Pompey the Great, who was defeated by Julius Caesar in 48BC, then later murdered

15. Sardis: an ancient city in what is now Turkey

16. suicide, the Roman’s view of: contrary to the Christian view of suicide, the ancient Romans believed that committing suicide was acceptable and honorable, especially when facing the possibility of capture or enslavement in battle

17. triumvirate: a group of three rulers sharing authority and control

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name

Act One

Scene Guide

Directions: For each act, you will be completing a Scene Guide to help you understand and follow the important elements of your reading. For each scene, in short phrases or words summarize:

1) the setting, 2) the action (plot), and 3) the main characters involved in the action.

Period

Scene One

Scene Two

Scene Three

Now that you have read all of Act One, make a prediction as to what you believe will happen next in the play. Write your prediction on the lines below.

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name

Act One Comprehension Check

Period

To give you a comprehensive understanding of all aspects of the play, answer the following questions for Act One. Write your answers on a separate piece of paper using complete sentences.

Scene One

1. What is the setting of the first scene?

2. Why have the shopkeepers left work?

3. What is Marullus and Flavius’s reaction to the citizens’ behavior? Why?

4. What important information about the political and social atmosphere does Shakespeare provide us in the first scene?

Scene Two

1. What does Caesar want Antony to do when he runs by Calpurnia? Why?

2. What does the soothsayer tell Caesar? What is Caesar’s reaction?

3. How has Brutus been feeling lately? How does this open a door for Cassius?

4. What is your reaction to Brutus’s lines: “Into what dangers would you lead me, Cassius, / that you would have me seek into myself / for that which is not in me?” What might this hesitation or caution foreshadow?

5. What does Brutus love (even more than his own life)?

6. Why does Cassius tell Brutus the story about Caesar swimming the Tiber River? What does this reveal about Caesar? What does this reveal about Cassius?

7. Describe Brutus’ reaction to Cassius’s ideas.

8. Why does Caesar distrust Cassius? Why does Caesar not fear Cassius, however?

9. Why does Caesar tell Antony to “Come on [his] right side”?

10. Explain why the crown was offered to Caesar three times. What is your reaction to this spectacle?

11. Why does Caesar faint? Why does Cassius say: “No, Caesar hath it now; but you, and I / And honest Casca, we have the falling sickness”? To what is Cassius referring?

12. The phrase “It’s all Greek to me” has become a common saying referring to something

incomprehensible or meaningless. This saying comes from Casca’s line: “

part, it was Greek to me,” which originates from the Medieval Latin proverb Graecum est; non potest legi, meaning “It is Greek; it cannot be read.” Explain how Casca’s line is ironic.

but for my own

13. What doubts does Cassius reveal about Brutus in his soliloquy?

14. How does Cassius plan to convince Brutus that he is more noble and loved than Caesar?

Scene Three

1. What is the weather like at the opening of this scene? How does this contribute to the mood?

Why is this mood significant?

2. Why does Cassius say “I have exposed my naked chest to the thunder-bolt”? To what could Cassius be referring?

3. Why is Casca eager to convince Brutus to join the conspiracy?

4. What directions does Cassius give Cinna? What does Cassius hope to accomplish with this task?

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

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Act One Standards Focus: Setting, Tone, and Mood

Setting is the time, place, and atmosphere in which the action of a story takes place. Setting can include time of day, weather, season, era, location, and social or political atmosphere; for example: It is night; an old barn outside of Greenbow, Alabama; Spring, 1932; Depression Era. Tone is the author’s feeling toward his subject; a clever writer can use a sympathetic tone to make the reader feel sorry for a character, for example. Conversely, writers can use a distant, detached tone to keep the reader from relating to or feeling sentiment for a character. Mood is the general emotional response that a reader feels when reading. Writers use figurative language, details, dialogue, and

foreshadowing to help set the mood in a piece of literature.

which describe how the writer intends to make you feel, like: tense, serene, somber, optimistic, dark,

and depressed.

In Act One, Shakespeare creates a mood of tension and unrest from the very first moment the characters appear onstage. Although the men are engaged in humorous wordplay, it is clear that Caesar’s rise to power has created tension in Rome.

Directions: For each of the quotes from the text, underline the words that reveal the setting, including clues about time, place, and atmosphere. Then explain how these particular words indicate specifics about the setting. Next, explain the tone Shakespeare uses to create mood. Include comments on the use of figurative language, imagery, etc., if apparent. Finally, describe the mood of the excerpt using as many details and appropriate adjectives as possible. An example has been done for you.

Ex. “Wherefore rejoice? What conquest brings he home? / What tributaries follow him to Rome / To grace in captive bonds his chariot wheels? / You blocks, you stones, you worse than senseless things! / O you hard hearts, you cruel men of Rome, / Knew you not Pompey?” (scene i, lines 31-36)

a. Setting: Rome is the city in which the story takes place; captive bonds refers to slaves and slavery,

which was legal at the time; chariot wheels indicate they used chariots, which were used for transportation and in sport; Pompey was the ruler of Rome until Caesar took power.

b. Tone: defiant, ironic, condescending, bitter, “preachy”

c. Mood: anxious, hostile, tense, offensive

Period

Mood is often expressed in adjectives

1. “And when you saw his chariot but appear, / Have you not made an universal shout, / That Tiber

trembled underneath her banks / To hear the replication of your sounds / Made in her concave shores? / And do you now put on your best attire? / And do you now cull out a holiday? / And do you now strew flowers in his way / That comes in triumph over Pompey’s blood? / Be gone!” (scene 1,

lines 42-51)

a.

Setting:

 

b.

Tone:

c.

Mood:

2.

CASCA: “Bid every noise be still. Peace yet again.” / CAESAR: “Who is it in the press that calls

on me? I hear a tongue shriller than all the music / Cry ‘Caesar!’ Speak; Caesar is turned to hear.” /

SOOTHSAYER: “Beware the ides of March.” (scene ii, lines 14-17)

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name

Period

a.

Setting:

 

b.

Tone:

c.

Mood:

3.

BRUTUS: “Into what dangers would you lead me, Cassius, / That you would have me seek into

myself / For that which is not in me? / CASSIUS: “Therefore, good Brutus, be prepared to hear. / And since you know you cannot see yourself / So well as by reflection, I, your glass, / Will modestly discover to yourself / That of yourself which you yet know not of.” (scene ii, lines 63-70)

a.

Setting:

 

b.

Tone:

c.

Mood:

4.

“Are you not moved, when all the sway of earth / Shakes like a thing unfirm? O Cicero / I have

seen tempests, when the scolding winds / Have rived the knotty oaks, and I have seen / Th’ ambitious ocean swell and rage and foam, / To be exalted with the threat’ning clouds; / But never till tonight, never till now, / Did I go through a tempest dropping fire. / Either there is a civil strife in heaven, / Or else the world, too saucy with the gods, / Incenses them to send destruction.” (scene iii, lines 3-13)

a.

Setting:

 

b.

Tone:

c.

Mood:

5.

“But if you would consider the true cause— / Why all these fires; why all these gliding ghosts;

Why birds and beasts, from quality and kind; / Why old men, fools, and children calculate; / Why all these things change from their ordinance / Their natures, and performed faculties, / To monstrous

quality—why you shall find / That heaven hath infused them with these spirits / To make them instruments of fear and warning / Unto some monstrous state.” (scene iii, lines 64-73)

a. Setting:

b. Tone:

c. Mood:

Name

Period

Act One Vocabulary Assessment Preparation: Word Parts

Directions: Complete the following chart, finding the word parts and meanings for each of the vocabulary words from Act One. Use a dictionary for help. Two examples have been done for you.

Word

barren

chidden

cogitations

exalted

fain

idle

Base and

           

Part of

Speech of

barren

chide

Base

Meaning of

producing no fruit or offspring

to scold or reproach

       

Base

Root and

 

cidan

       

meaning of

Root

baraigne

"barren"

"quarrel,

strife”

Affix(es)

none

-en

       

How the

           

Affix

Changes the

Word

n/a

changes from

present to

past tense

Inferred

           

Meaning of

Vocabulary

Word

unable to

have

children

scolded;

criticized;

punished

Vocabulary

           

Word’s Part

of Speech

and

Dictionary

Definition

adj.; unable

to produce

results,

fruit, or

offspring

verb;

censured

severely or

angrily

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name

Period

Act One Vocabulary Assessment Preparation: Word Parts

Word infused lamented mettle portentous prodigies tyrant Base and Part of Speech of Base Meaning
Word
infused
lamented
mettle
portentous
prodigies
tyrant
Base and
Part of
Speech of
Base
Meaning of
Base
Root and
Meaning of
Root
Affix(es)
How the
Affix
Changes
the Word
Inferred
Meaning of
Vocabulary
Word
Vocabulary
Word’s
Part of
Speech and
Dictionary
Definition

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name

Act Two

Scene Guide

Period

Directions: Just as for Act One, complete the Scene Guide for Act Two to help you understand and follow the important elements of your reading. For each scene, in short phrases or words summarize: 1) the setting, 2) the action (plot), and 3) the main characters involved in the action.

Scene One

Scene Two

Scene Three

Scene Four

Now that you have read all of Acts One and Two, make a prediction as to what you believe will happen next in the play. Write your prediction on the lines below.

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

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Act Two Comprehension Check

Period

To give you a comprehensive understanding of all aspects of the play, answer the following questions for Act Two. Write your answers on a separate piece of paper using complete sentences.

Scene One

1. Through the analogy of a ladder, how does Brutus explain what happens when someone gains power?

2. To what does Brutus compare Caesar? Why does Brutus feel that he must kill Caesar immediately?

3. What day is it? Why is this significant?

4. Brutus explains that he has not been able to sleep. How does he explain what happens to a man’s conscience between the “acting of a dreadful thing / And the first motion”?

5. How are Cassius and Brutus related?

6. Why does Brutus insist that the men do not need an oath?

7. Why do the men want Cicero on their side at first? Why do they change their minds?

8. Who does Cassius want to murder in addition to Caesar?

9. What is Brutus’s response to this idea?

10. How does Decius plan to get Caesar to come to the Capitol?

11. What has Portia noticed about Brutus’s recent behavior?

12. What reasons does Portia give to insist that Brutus reveal his feelings to her?

13. What does Portia do to prove her strength to Brutus? What is your reaction to this act?

BONUS: An anachronism is when an author unknowingly or purposefully inserts something from a different period of time into his or her writing. Shakespeare uses an anachronism in this scene. See if you can find it. Why do you think Shakespeare might have used this anachronism?

Scene Two

1. Why has Calpurnia been unable to sleep? About what omens does Calpurnia tell Caesar?

2. Why does Caesar insist on leaving the house?

3. On what evidence do the priests (“augerers”) recommend that Caesar not leave the house?

4. How does Decius convince Caesar to leave?

5. Caesar instructs his men to keep close to him. What is the irony?

Scene Three

1. Artemidorus reads from a letter at the beginning of this scene. Who wrote the letter and what does Artemidorus plan to do with it?

Scene Four

1. What is ironic about Portia’s statement: “How hard it is for women to keep a secret”? (Hint:

think about her speeches in Scene One.)

2. What instructions has Portia given Lucius?

3. Whom do Portia and Lucius run into? Where is he going? Why?

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

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Act Two Standards Focus: Character Map

Period

Directions: There are numerous characters in Julius Caesar, which can make reading and following the plot quite confusing. Complete the Character Map below as much as you can from the information you have been given in Acts One and Two. As you read the rest of the play, fill in each blank with the names of other characters. When you finish reading the play, your Character Map should be complete.

reading the pl ay, your Character Map should be complete. Tries to warn with a dream
reading the pl ay, your Character Map should be complete. Tries to warn with a dream
Tries to warn with a dream Julius Caesar Loyal follower Backstabbing “friend”
Tries to warn with a dream
Julius Caesar
Loyal follower
Backstabbing “friend”
Julius Caesar Loyal follower Backstabbing “friend” Tries to warn with a date Tries to warn with

Tries to warn with a date

Tries to warn with a letter

Tries to warn with a date Tries to warn with a letter 2 nd Triumvirate Brother-in-Law
2 nd Triumvirate
2 nd
Triumvirate
with a date Tries to warn with a letter 2 nd Triumvirate Brother-in-Law /Main consp irator

Brother-in-Law/Main conspirator

a letter 2 nd Triumvirate Brother-in-Law /Main consp irator Conspirators Put to death Collateral damage ©
Conspirators
Conspirators
Triumvirate Brother-in-Law /Main consp irator Conspirators Put to death Collateral damage © 2006 Secondary Solutions
Triumvirate Brother-in-Law /Main consp irator Conspirators Put to death Collateral damage © 2006 Secondary Solutions
Put to death
Put to death
Brother-in-Law /Main consp irator Conspirators Put to death Collateral damage © 2006 Secondary Solutions Servants,
Brother-in-Law /Main consp irator Conspirators Put to death Collateral damage © 2006 Secondary Solutions Servants,
Brother-in-Law /Main consp irator Conspirators Put to death Collateral damage © 2006 Secondary Solutions Servants,
Brother-in-Law /Main consp irator Conspirators Put to death Collateral damage © 2006 Secondary Solutions Servants,
Brother-in-Law /Main consp irator Conspirators Put to death Collateral damage © 2006 Secondary Solutions Servants,
Brother-in-Law /Main consp irator Conspirators Put to death Collateral damage © 2006 Secondary Solutions Servants,
Brother-in-Law /Main consp irator Conspirators Put to death Collateral damage © 2006 Secondary Solutions Servants,

Collateral damage

consp irator Conspirators Put to death Collateral damage © 2006 Secondary Solutions Servants, supporters, and
consp irator Conspirators Put to death Collateral damage © 2006 Secondary Solutions Servants, supporters, and
consp irator Conspirators Put to death Collateral damage © 2006 Secondary Solutions Servants, supporters, and
consp irator Conspirators Put to death Collateral damage © 2006 Secondary Solutions Servants, supporters, and
consp irator Conspirators Put to death Collateral damage © 2006 Secondary Solutions Servants, supporters, and
consp irator Conspirators Put to death Collateral damage © 2006 Secondary Solutions Servants, supporters, and

©2006 Secondary Solutions

Servants, supporters, and soldiers Die in battle
Servants, supporters, and soldiers
Die in
battle

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

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Act Two Standards Focus: Characterization and Character Motivation

Characterization is the technique by which authors develop characters.

Direct characterization is when the author or narrator tells the reader what the character is like.

example, “Rhonda works diligently to make sure her cookies are the best in town.”

Indirect characterization is when the author gives information about a character and allows the reader to draw his or her own conclusions about that character. Two ways we can learn about a character through indirect characterization are:

Period

For

o

A character’s own thoughts, feelings and actions— the reader witnesses what the character does or says, and learns something about the character from these thoughts, feelings or actions. For example, “On her way to class after lunch, Susan saw some trash on the ground that wasn’t hers. She decided to pick it up anyway, and threw it in the trash can.”

The reader can make some assumptions about Susan from this excerpt: she cares about the environment, she takes pride in her school, she likes things neat and tidy, etc. Each of these are appropriate assumptions based on Susan’s actions.

o

Interactions with other characters— the reader witnesses the interactions between characters, such as how other characters act, and what they say about another character. For example, “Emma said, ‘Julia seems to not care about her school work anymore. It’s as if she is distracted or concerned about something. What do you think?’ ‘I don’t know, but it is certainly unlike her to get bad grades,’ Ashley replied.”

The reader can make assumptions about Julia from the conversation between Emma and Ashley. The reader can conclude that Julia used to work hard and get good grades in school, that she is distracted about something, and that she is not behaving like her usual self.

In a play, there is often very little direct characterization. We learn about the characters through their dialogue; therefore, much of the character development comes from what characters say about each other or what they say about themselves through indirect characterization.

Motivation is what drives a character to do what they do. In other words, ask yourself: what is this character’s strongest desire? Characters’ decisions are important to the plot, and in many cases, their decisions will affect the play’s outcome. Just as we can tell a great deal about a person by the way he or she lives his or her life, we can also learn a lot about characters by what they say and do. Similarly, just as some of the decisions we make in our lives are minor and trivial, and others change our lives forever, a skilled writer develops characters that also make both seemingly unimportant as well as life-altering choices.

Directions: For each of the characters below, complete the chart with textual examples of indirect characterization from Act One or Two of the play. First, find a quote in which another character describes something about that character, and then find a quote in which the character describes himself. Be sure to give scene and line numbers from where you obtained the quote. Then in your own words, fill in what you think is the character’s main motivation this far in the play. An example has been done for you.

Character

Another

Character’s

Description

Description of

Himself

Motivation

Brutus

“Brutus, I do observe you now of late. / I have not from your eyes that gentleness / And show of love as I was wont to have. / You bear too stubborn and too strange a hand / Over your friend that loves you.” (Act I, Scene ii, lines 32-36)

have. / You bear too stubborn and too strange a hand / Over your friend that
have. / You bear too stubborn and too strange a hand / Over your friend that

“Cassius, / Be not deceived. If I have veiled my look, / I turn the trouble of my countenance / merely upon myself. Vexed I am / Of late with passions of some difference, / Conceptions only proper to myself, / Which five some soil, perhaps, to my behaviors.” (Act I, Scene ii, lines 36-42)

Conceptions only proper to myself, / Which five some soil, perhaps, to my behaviors. ” (Act

While Brutus likes Caesar, and is his friend, he does not think that Caesar is the best ruler of Rome. His heart is with his people, and he fears Caesar is a tyrant. His main motivation is to see that his people are not harmed, which means that he must remove Caesar from power any way he can.

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name

Act Two Standards Focus: Characterization and Character Motivation

Period

Character

Caesar

Another

 

Character’s

Description

Description

 

of Himself

Motivation

 

Character

Cassius

Another

 

Character’s

Description

Description

 

of Himself

Motivation

 

Character

Antony

Another

 

Character’s

Description

Description

 

of Himself

Motivation

 

Character

Casca

Another

 

Character’s

Description

Description

 

of Himself

Motivation

 

©2006 Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name

Period

Act Two Vocabulary Assessment Preparation: Vocabulary in Context

Directions: For each vocabulary word, answer the question or respond to the statement that follows, using complete sentences and as much detail as possible. Be sure to include the vocabulary word in your response.

1. spurn—verb; to reject with disdain or contempt

Describe a time when you felt spurned by your peers.

2. appertain—verb; to belong or relate to

Detail some of the problems that appertain to a new student’s first day of school.

3. emulation—noun; drive or ambition to equal or excel others; imitation

When a younger brother emulates his older brother, what kinds of things might he do?

4. prevail—verb; to prove to be stronger and more in control; win

In a confrontation between Superman and Batman, whom do you think would prevail?

Explain your answer.

5. beseech—verb; to implore; beg

About what kinds of things might you beseech your parents?

6. valiant—adj. possessing valor; courageous

Describe the characteristics of a valiant hero from a book you have read.

Name

Period

Act Two Vocabulary Assessment Preparation: Vocabulary in Context

7. augmented—adj.; made larger in number or strength; increased Describe how a bad day might be augmented to an even worse day.

8. imminent—adj.; ready to take place; impending When a hurricane is imminent, how does it look outside?

9. shrewd—adj.; clever and cunning; often in a deceitful manner Describe the behaviors of a shrewd businessperson.

10. affable—adj.; pleasant and at ease; friendly to others Describe the behavior of an affable person.

11. valor—noun; strength of mind or spirit; heroism In what occupations might you see people exhibiting a great deal of valor?

12. visage—noun; the appearance or look of something; a face or facial expression Where might you see the visage of Washington?

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name

Act Three

Scene Guide

Period

Directions: Complete the Scene Guide below for Act Three. For each scene, be sure to summarize:

1) the setting, 2) the action (plot), and 3) the main characters involved in the action.

Scene One

Scene Two

Scene Three

Now that you have read Acts One through Three, make a prediction as to what you believe will happen next in the play. Write your prediction on the lines below.

©2006 Secondary Solutions

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name

Act Three Comprehension Check

Period

To give you a comprehensive understanding of all aspects of the play, answer the following questions for Act Three. Write your answers on a separate piece of paper using complete sentences.

Scene One

1. What does the Soothsayer mean by “Ay, Caesar, but not gone”? (line 2)

2. What does Metellus Cimber beg Caesar to do? What is Caesar’s response?

3. What does Caesar mean by “Et tu, Brute?” as he falls? How do you think Caesar is feeling at this moment?

4. What message does Antony send to Brutus? What does Antony do when he meets the men?

5. What does Antony request?

6. What warning does Brutus give Antony?

7. In his soliloquy, what does Antony vow?

8. What does Antony want Octavius Caesar’s servant to do? Why?

Scene Two

1. What reason does Brutus give for Caesar’s assassination?

2. After Brutus speaks, how do the citizens feel about him? about Caesar?

3. Why doesn’t Brutus stop Antony’s speech?

4. What does Antony say that he has in his possession? What does the crowd want Antony to do?

5. What does Antony show the citizens? What is their reaction?

6. What did Antony claim that Caesar left his citizens in his will?

Scene Three

1. What happens to Cinna as he travels to Caesar’s funeral?

2. Who do the citizens mistake him for?

3. This scene is often referred to as a scene providing comic relief. Why do you think Shakespeare included this here?

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

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Act Three Standards Focus: Rhetoric

Rhetoric in its simplest form is the art of persuasive speech or writing. For thousands of years, politicians and orators have been known for their use of rhetoric to influence and persuade an audience to their side or way of thinking. One of the most famous orators happens to be Antony from Julius Caesar. Antony skillfully uses several types of rhetorical devices to earn the citizens’ trust and turn them against Brutus, Cassius, and the other conspirators. Antony’s talent lies in his ability to persuade the audience before his enemies even realize his scheme.

Period

Today, rhetoric is all around us, in the form of political speeches, commercials, art, television, movies, newspaper and magazine articles—even in our everyday conversations. Each time we want to get our way, or take out our money to buy a product we saw in a commercial, we are either using rhetoric or are persuaded by the use of rhetoric. While various media use different ways of appealing to an audience, they each have the same purpose: to persuade.

In order to understand how Antony persuaded the citizens of Rome to turn against Brutus and the other conspirators, it is important to know what rhetorical devices are and how they can be used.

There are different ways a speaker or writer can appeal to his or her audience: 1) logic or reason (logos), 2) emotion (pathos), and/or 3) ethics and morals (ethos).

logos: by appealing to an audience’s sense of reason and logic, the speaker or writer intends to make the audience think clearly about the sensible and/or obvious answer to a problem

pathos: by appealing to the audiences emotions, the speaker or writer can make the audience feel sorrow, shame, sympathy, embarrassment, anger, excitement, and/or fear

ethos: the overall appeal of the speaker or writer himself or herself; it is important that this person have impressive credentials, a notable knowledge of the subject, and/or appear to be a likeable and moral person

It is not only important what a speaker or writer has to say, but how he or she actually says or presents it. There are literally hundreds of rhetorical devices, dating back to the famous orators

Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.

of speech (metaphor, simile, personification) and sound devices (alliteration, assonance, consonance), writers and speakers use many other rhetorical devices to communicate their message. Below and on the next pages is a short list of rhetorical devices, their definitions, and a brief example of the device in use.

Besides using devices you may already be familiar with, such as figures

alliteration: repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words

ex. "Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers."

anaphora: repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses or lines.

ex. "Mad world! Mad kings! Mad composition!" (King John, II, i)

antithesis: opposition or juxtaposition of ideas or words in a balanced or parallel construction

ex. "Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more." (Julius Caesar, III, ii)

aporia: questioning oneself (or rhetorically asking the audience), often pretending to be in doubt

ex. “The baptism of John, whence was it? From heaven, or of men?” (Matthew 21:25)

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

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Period

aposiopesis: a sudden pause or interruption in the middle of a sentence (often for dramatic effect)

ex. “I will have revenges on you both / That all the world shall— I will do such things — What they are yet, I know not; but they shall be / The terrors of the earth! (King Lear II, iv)

apostrophe: a sudden turn from the general audience to address a specific group or person, either absent or present, real or imagined

ex. “Oh death, where is thy sting? Oh grave, where is thy victory? (1 Cor. 15:55)

asyndeton: the absence of conjunctions between coordinate phrases, clauses, or words

ex. "Are all thy conquests, glories, triumphs, spoils, / Shrunk to this little measure?" (Julius Caesar, III, i)

conduplicatio: repetition of a key word over successive phrases or clauses

“We will have difficult times. We've had difficult times in the past. And we will have difficult times in the future.” Robert F. Kennedy’s Eulogy for Martin Luther King, Jr.

(1968)

euphemism: a substitution of a more pleasant expression for one whose meaning may come across as rude or offensive

ex. “He passed away,” rather than “He died.”

hyperbole: exaggeration for emphasis or for rhetorical effect

ex. “I died laughing.”

irony: (verbal) expression in which words mean something contrary to what is actually said

ex. Looking at your wallet full of nothing but a few pennies, and exclaiming, “Lunch is on me, guys— I am rich!”

metonymy: a reference to an object or person by naming only a part of the object or person

ex. She stood in the driveway watching as the beards moved her furniture into her new house.

paralipsis: pretending to omit something by drawing attention to it

ex. A politician saying: “I will not even mention the fact that my opponent was a poor student.”

personification: giving human characteristics to non-human objects

ex. The pen danced across the author’s page.

polysyndenton: using conjunctions to emphasize rhythm, and therefore emphasize a certain point

ex. “In years gone by, there were in every community men and women who spoke the language of duty and morality and loyalty and obligation.” William F. Buckley

synecdoche: a part or quality of something which is used in substitution of the larger whole, or vice versa

ex. The hospital worked for hours to revive him. (referring to the doctors and nurses inside the hospital) OR She took us outside to look at her new set of wheels. (referring to her new car)

rhetorical question: a question that is posed for emphasis, not requiring an answer

ex. "Art thou mad? Is not the truth the truth?" (Henry IV, Part 1, II, iv)

understatement: deliberately de-emphasizing something in order to downplay its importance

ex. To say the Internet improved our means of communication is an understatement.

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

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Act Three Standards Focus: Analysis of Rhetoric

Period

Directions: For each of the following underlined excerpts from Antony’s speech in Act Three, scene 2,

identify which rhetorical device is being used and explain how it is used, according to the definitions

and examples on the previous pages. Note: not all devices will be used. for you.

An example has been done

Example: For Brutus is an honorable man; / So are they all, all honorable men— (lines 77-78); But Brutus says he was ambitious; / And Brutus is an honorable man. (lines 81-82); Yet Brutus says he was ambitious; / And Brutus is an honorable man. (lines 88-89); Yet Brutus says he was ambitious; / And, sure, he is an honorable man. (lines 93-94); I should do Brutus wrong, and Cassius wrong, / Who, you all know, are honorable men (lines 118-119)

Rhetorical device:

irony through the constant, deliberate repetition of “ambitious” and “honorable”

1. Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears (line 68)

Rhetorical device:

2. Did this in Caesar seem ambitious? (line 85)

Rhetorical device:

3. I thrice presented him a kingly crown, / Which he did thrice refuse: was this ambition? (line 92)

Rhetorical device:

4. I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke, / But here I am to speak what I do know. (lines 95-96)

Rhetorical device:

5. What cause withholds you then, to mourn for him? / O judgment! thou art fled to brutish beasts, /

And men have lost their reason.

Rhetorical device:

(lines 98-99)

6. My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar, / And I must pause till it come back to me. (lines 101-102)

Rhetorical device:

7. I should do Brutus wrong, and Cassius wrong, Who, you all know, are honorable men. / I will not do

them wrong; I rather choose / To wrong the dead, to wrong myself and you, / Than I will wrong such

honorable men. (lines 118-122)

Rhetorical device:

8. Let but the commons hear this testament, / Which, pardon me, I do not mean to read, (lines 125-126)

Rhetorical device:

9. And they would go and kiss dead Caesar's wounds / And dip their napkins in his sacred blood, / Yea, beg a hair of him for memory, / And, dying, mention it within their wills, / Bequeathing it as a rich legacy / Unto their issue. (lines 127-132)

Rhetorical device:

10. Will you be patient? Will you stay awhile? / I have o’ershot myself to tell you of it. (lines 144-145)

Rhetorical device:

11. I fear I wrong the honorable men / Whose daggers have stabb’d Caesar; I do fear it. (lines 146-147)

Rhetorical device:

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

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12. For Brutus, as you know, was Caesar's angel: / Judge, O you gods, how dearly Caesar loved him! (lines

175-176)

Rhetorical device:

13. Kind souls, what, weep you when you but behold / Our Caesar's vesture wounded? (lines 189-190)

Rhetorical device:

14. Good friends, sweet friends, let me not stir you up / To such a sudden flood of mutiny. (lines 203-204)

Rhetorical device:

15. I come not, friends, to steal away your hearts: / I am no orator, as Brutus is; / But, as you know me all, a plain blunt man, / That love my friend; and that they know full well / That gave me public leave to speak of him (lines 209-213)

Rhetorical device:

16. For I have neither wit, nor words, nor worth, / Action, nor utterance, nor the power of speech (lines

214-215)

Rhetorical device:

17. Show you sweet Caesar's wounds, poor poor dumb mouths, / And bid them speak for me (lines 218-219)

Rhetorical device:

18. Here was a Caesar! When comes such another? (line 245)

Rhetorical device:

Directions: Answer the following based upon Antony’s entire speech in Act Three, scene 2.

19. Using Antony’s entire speech (omitting lines from the other characters), find one example each of the use of pathos, ethos, and logos. Be sure to indicate which line you are quoting in your response.

pathos:

ethos:

logos:

20. Which rhetorical device did Antony seem to use most? Was this the best choice? Why or why

not?

21. Compare Antony and Brutus’s speeches. Which was more effective? How? Explain.

Name

Period

Act Three Vocabulary Assessment Preparation: Word Roots

Directions: Use the vocabulary list from Act Three to answer Part a. To find other words that have the same root as the vocabulary word and hint word, (such as “spirit” in question one) look up the vocabulary word, hint word, root, or all three in a dictionary. Look at words located around these key words to find related words. Be sure to read their origins to verify that they come from the same root.

1. The word spirit comes from the Latin spirare, which means "to breathe."

a. Which vocabulary word has this same root?

b. What other words have this same root?

2. The word peace comes from the Latin pacem, meaning “treaty; absence of war.”

a. Which vocabulary word has this same root?

b. What other words have this same root?

3. The word malfeasance comes from the prefix mal-, which comes from the Latin male,

meaning "badly.”

a. Which vocabulary word has this same prefix?

b. What other words have this same prefix?

4. The word expel comes from the Latin expellere, meaning "drive out," from the combination

of ex-, meaning "out,” plus pellere, meaning "to drive."

a. Which vocabulary word has this same root?

b. What other words have this same root?

5. The word bide comes from the Old English bidan, meaning "to stay, continue, live, remain."

a. Which vocabulary word has this same root?

b. What other words have this same root?

6. The word bathe comes from the Greek. bathys, meaning "deep.”

a. Which vocabulary word has this same root?

b. What other words have this same root?

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

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Act Three Vocabulary Assessment Preparation: Word Roots

7. The word sarcophagus comes from the L. cophinus, meaning “basket.”

a. Which vocabulary word has this same root?

b. What other words have this same root?

8. The word grace comes from the Latin gratus, meaning "pleasing; agreeable."

a. Which vocabulary word has this same root?

b. What other words have this same root?

9. The word fame comes from the Old Irish bann, meaning “law,” which comes from the Latin bha, meaning "to speak; say."

a. Which vocabulary word has this same root?

b. What other words have this same root?

10. The word impregnable comes from the Old French in-, meaning "not,” plus prenable,

meaning “vulnerable,” which originates from the Latin prehendere, meaning “grasp; sieze.”

a. Which vocabulary word has this same root?

b. What other words have this same root?

11. The word sensible comes from the Latin sentire, meaning "to perceive; feel."

a. Which vocabulary word has this same root?

b. What other words have this same root?

12. The word privilege comes from the Old French privilege from privus, meaning "individual,” plus lex, meaning “law.”

a. Which vocabulary word has this same root?

b. What other words have this same root?

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

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Act Four

Scene Guide

Directions: Complete the Scene Guide below for Act Four. For each scene, be sure to summarize:

1) the setting, 2) the action (plot), and 3) the main characters involved in the action.

Period

Scene One

Scene Two

Scene Three

Now that you have read all of Acts One through Four, make a prediction as to what you believe will happen next in the play. Write your prediction on the lines below.

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

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Act Four Comprehension Check

Period

To give you a comprehensive understanding of all aspects of the play, answer the following questions for Act Four. Write your answers on a separate piece of paper using complete sentences.

Scene One

1. To what does Lepidus consent?

2. How does Antony feel about Lepidus? To what does Antony compare him?

Scene Two

1. How has Brutus been feeling towards Cassius lately?

2. To where do Brutus and Cassius go at the end of this scene? Why?

Scene Three

1. Why is Cassius angry with Brutus?

2. What is Brutus’s reaction to Cassius’s complaint?

3. What is happening between Cassius and Brutus? Why is this important?

4. Why does Cassius take out his dagger?

5. On whom does Cassius blame his temper?

6. Who interrupts Cassius and Brutus? Why?

7. What has happened to Portia? How did this happen?

8. What is Brutus’s plan of attack?

9. What does Brutus ask Lucius to do for him? What happens to Lucius?

10. What does Caesar’s ghost tell Brutus?

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Julius Caesar Literature Guide

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Act Four Standards Focus: Figurative Language

One of the most captivating aspects of Shakespeare’s work is his mastery of figurative language, or ideas communicated beyond their literal meaning to create an image in the reader’s mind. There are several types of figurative language:

Period

metaphor - a comparison made between two unlike objects

o “the pillow was a cloud”

simile