Sunteți pe pagina 1din 26

DSRS3221 Positive Behaviour Support 2015

Major Assignment Functional Behavioural Assessment and Behaviour Support


Plan
Julia Calabrese (2095758/cala0038)

Part A: Functional Behavioural Assessment


Introduction and Rationale
Melissa is an active ten year old girl who attends a mainstream
private school. Melissa is assertive and loves animals, bike riding and
games. She is intelligent and enjoys English, Science, Physical Education
and Maths. Despite being able to keep up with the curriculum, Melissa has
displayed some behaviours of concern as noted by her teacher, Rosey,
that often result in her mother, Cathy, being called to collect Melissa early
from school.
Melissa has been referred for a Functional Behavioural Assessment
(FBA) and a Positive Behaviour Support Plan (PBSP) after exhibiting
physically and verbally aggressive behaviour and leaving school lessons.
The FBA and PBSP are being conducted with the aim of creating and
sustaining a school environment for Melissa that will improve her quality
of life, personally and socially, by making her problem behaviour less
effective, efficient, and relevant and for desired behaviour to be more
functional (Sugai, et al, 1999, pp 6; Emerson & Fox, 2010).
In developing the FBA, a description of Melissa, an ABC Observation
Data Sheet and a Reinforcement Inventory are being used. These sources
are used for the purpose of this assignment, however in a real world
scenario I would obtain informed consent and then establish triangulation
of data using a combination of qualitative such as direct observation in
natural and analogue settings - and quantitative methods. Quantitative
methods would include interviewing Melissa and all relevant people
guided by the Kansas Institute for Positive Behavior (sp) Support (2012)
interview form, checklist or rating scales, and a review of her records
(Sugai, et al, 1999). I would work with a team to discuss the possible
functions of Melissas behaviour, openly brainstorm and agree on
intervention strategies (Crone & Horner, 2003). I would develop a
scatterplot using the template in Appendix A to establish baseline data
1

DSRS3221 Positive Behaviour Support 2015


Major Assignment Functional Behavioural Assessment and Behaviour Support
Plan
Julia Calabrese (2095758/cala0038)

about Melissas behaviours of concern and monitor this over time to


assess the effectiveness of the hypothesis and interventions (Adapted
from Touchette, MacDonald, Langer, 1986; as cited in Kansas Institute for
Positive Behavior Support, n.d.b).
About Melissa
Melissa has been diagnosed as high-functioning on the Autism
Spectrum. She enjoys participating in physical activities, going to school,
animal-related activities and spending time with classmates. Melissa
doesnt like stereotypical girly activities such as playing with make-up or
dolls. She lives with Cathy and her pet turtle.
Previously, Cathy has tried using a token economy system where
Melissa was rewarded for good behaviour at the end of the day. This was
found to be ineffective, perhaps because the rewards were not given
frequently enough. There is no medical, family background, or educational
history information available about Melissa.

Operational Definition of Target Behaviours


The following behaviours are in order of priority from most to least
concerning. Melissas behaviours of concern fit into three main areas.
These are physical aggression, leaving the classroom, and verbal
aggression.
Physical Aggression
One to two times per fortnight at school, Melissa will kick or
threaten to kick the teachers legs or push the teacher or other children
with two hands to the point where they lose balance. This behaviour puts
Melissas teachers and classmates at risk and creates an unsafe school
environment.

DSRS3221 Positive Behaviour Support 2015


Major Assignment Functional Behavioural Assessment and Behaviour Support
Plan
Julia Calabrese (2095758/cala0038)

Once or twice per day at school, Melissa will pick up an object from
her desk at throw it on the floor with an unknown level of force. This is a
critical behaviour to address as it puts the safety of Melissa, her
classmates and her teachers at risk of serious injury.
Leaving the classroom
Once or twice per day at school, Melissa will stand up and leave the
classroom to go to the library or playground. This behaviour has been
recognised as of higher priority than verbal aggression as Melissas
teacher has a duty of care over Melissa. Melissa could be putting herself in
danger when she is not in sight of school staff.
Verbal aggression
Four to five times per week at school, Melissa will threaten to kill
other children, tell Rosey she hates her, and growl threateningly
towards someone or no one. This behaviour warrants intervention because
as a consequence it may contribute to Melissa being perceived negatively
by others, deprived socially or being excluded from community settings
(Emerson & Fox, 2010).
The frequency of Melissas behaviours have been noted however for
a more in depth analysis of Melissas behaviour this FBA and PBSP would
benefit from knowing more about the dimensions of the behaviour and all
locations where the behaviours do and do not occur (Umbreit, 2007). The
more details known about Melissa will mean that the plan can be more
individualised to fit her needs (Crone & Horner, 2003). If I was directly
observing Melissa I would use the Functional Assessment Hypothesis
Formulation Protocol in Larson and Maag (1998) to assess each behaviour
in depth and write definitions that were more specific, observable and
measurable.
Setting Events and Antecedents

DSRS3221 Positive Behaviour Support 2015


Major Assignment Functional Behavioural Assessment and Behaviour Support
Plan
Julia Calabrese (2095758/cala0038)

An understanding of the maintaining consequences and setting


events of Melissas behaviour will provide me with more detailed
information in designing her FBA and PBSP (Larson & Maag, 1998). Setting
events include Melissas disinterest in music, language-learning and
cleaning. The functions of Melissas behaviour have been categorised into
clusters. These are escape, self-regulation, tangible, and social attention
(ABC Observation Data Sheet - Appendix B).
On the next page is a table defining which behaviours fit into each
cluster.
Escape
The antecedent is where Melissa has been asked to participate in a
non-preferred activity or when she has become bored of the presented
activity. She is negatively reinforced for her behaviour as she does not
have to complete the non-preferred activity.

Self-regulation
The setting events include Melissas sense of competitiveness. The
antecedent is where Melissa is not seen as the best at something. She is
negatively reinforced for this behaviour as she does not have to admit to
her mistake, but also punished as her behaviour does not achieve the
intended outcome.
Tangible
The antecedent is where she has been denied access to a desired
activity. Her initial behaviour does not achieve the intended outcome but
may have been positively reinforced previously. In the second instance, it
is positively reinforced as she gets to keep the basketball.
Social attention

DSRS3221 Positive Behaviour Support 2015


Major Assignment Functional Behavioural Assessment and Behaviour Support
Plan
Julia Calabrese (2095758/cala0038)

The setting event was Melissas tangible behaviour prior to this


behaviour occurring. The antecedent was finding out that the people she
had just been socialising with had access to a new object. Melissa is
positively reinforced in this instance as the girls communicate with her.
Additionally, she is further reinforced for her tangible behaviour.

Cluster
Escape: Avoiding a non-preferred

Behaviour of Concern
Melissa said you cant make me!

task or activity

and as the teacher walked away


from her desk, Melissa picked up
pencil case and threw it on floor
was not directed at teacher
Melissa walked out of class room
and headed straight to playground
Melissa said no. She went outside
with her book to read
Melissa said no, you cant make
me. Teacher said come on lets
go. Melissa turned and pushed
teacher away with both hands with
sufficient force that balance was
5

DSRS3221 Positive Behaviour Support 2015


Major Assignment Functional Behavioural Assessment and Behaviour Support
Plan
Julia Calabrese (2095758/cala0038)

Self-regulation: To self-manage

lost
Melissa growled at teacher and

emotional over-arousal

yelled I didnt get one wrong. She


ran to student and said Im going
to kill you and then grabbed her
spelling book and threw it on the

Tangible: To gain access to the

floor
Melissa told the girls she hated

activity

them and grabbed the ball and


ran away with it
Melissa yelled out Im not playing
if Im not it! the teacher said
maybe she would be it next time.
Melissa ran towards a boy that had
been selected and kicked towards

Social attention: To maintain

him (didnt make direct contact)


Melissa went and grabbed their

access to social interaction

ball and kicked it over the fence.


Girls said would get teacher

Hypotheses
When Melissa is at school and asked to engage in a non-preferred
task or activity, she will verbally refuse to engage, throw an object on the
floor, leave the classroom and/or push the person making the request with
sufficient force in order to avoid participating in the non-preferred task or
activity.
When Melissa is not seen as the best at something, she will growl,
deny that she is not the best, threaten classmates and throw objects on
the floor in order to self-regulate her emotions.
When Melissa is denied access to a preferred activity, she will
display verbal aggression towards her teacher and/or classmates, kick
6

DSRS3221 Positive Behaviour Support 2015


Major Assignment Functional Behavioural Assessment and Behaviour Support
Plan
Julia Calabrese (2095758/cala0038)

towards classmates and attempt to prevent others from participating in


the activity in order to gain access to the activity.
When Melissa finds out that the people she has been socialising with
have access to a new object, she will prevent them from accessing the
object in order to gain social attention from them.

Part B: Positive Behaviour Support Plan


Melissas Preferences and Interests
Melissa most favourite things to do are bike riding, playing
computer games and going to the zoo. She asks most to play on the
computer, read books, go riding and watch television. Her least favourite
thing is doing nothing. She complains the most about not being the best
at something and being asked to participate in non-preferred activities.
She avoids being told what to do the most.

DSRS3221 Positive Behaviour Support 2015


Major Assignment Functional Behavioural Assessment and Behaviour Support
Plan
Julia Calabrese (2095758/cala0038)

On the next page is a table of options consisting of the three mostreinforcing boxes that were checked for Melissa on her Reinforcement
Inventory. The blue shaded boxes indicate animal-related activities. Yellow
indicates reading-related activities and green indicates school-related
activities.

Goals and Objectives


Melissas PBSP will focus on her avoidance of non-preferred
activities because as a result of this behaviour Melissa has almost injured
one of her teachers. Melissa is experiencing a performance deficit as there
are reinforcing consequences for her where she then does not have to
participate in the non-preferred activity. It is also possible that Melissa has
a skill deficit in being unaware that her behaviour is unacceptable.
Goal:
For Melissa to follow directions and complete non-preferred activities
at school
Objective:
When bored or frustrated during non-preferred activities or tasks at
school, for Melissa to use the break card (Appendix F) and go over to the
cool down box to choose an activity to do in the classroom in order to
relieve her boredom or frustration before returning to the activity
(Appendix C) 50% of the time. This will be recorded on the evaluation
sheet (Appendix G).
Very much interest

Much interest

A fair amount of

Eurovision

Candy (sour drops,

interest
Ice cream (vanilla,

Computer games

sweet)
Bicycle/bike riding

chocolate)
Cake

DSRS3221 Positive Behaviour Support 2015


Major Assignment Functional Behavioural Assessment and Behaviour Support
Plan
Julia Calabrese (2095758/cala0038)

Video games

Watching TV (animal

Cookies

Visiting a place of

documentaries)
Watching movies

Playing football with kids

interest (city/museum)
Amusement park

Chess

Swimming

Zoo

Ping pong

Tennis

Science

Scrabble

Hiking

Physical Education

Singing

Competitive games

Math

Musical group

Animal puzzles

Extra recess, free time

Vacation

Visiting school friends

Read book of choice

Airplane ride

Praise by mother and

Earning money

Visiting pet shop

teacher
Girl scouts, clubs

Having a pet

Praise by father and

Parties for friends

Feeding the pet

friends
Reading

Repairing or building

Public display of work

Looking at books

Listening to stories

Magazine subscription

Spelling

Talking into a tape

Attention in a group

Going to school

recorder
Not being nagged

Grades

Doing homework

Opportunity to select a

Name on honour roll

Being room leader

job
Stars on a chart

Money

Visiting activity centre

Special badges

Exception from a

Accumulation of marbles

domestic activity
Plan the days activities

or chips
Points

Meeting chairperson

Numbers

Period with no

Theatre tickets

monitoring
Certificates
Antecedent Management Strategies
The implementation of antecedent management strategies are
important as research shows that behaviours of concern are more likely to
9

DSRS3221 Positive Behaviour Support 2015


Major Assignment Functional Behavioural Assessment and Behaviour Support
Plan
Julia Calabrese (2095758/cala0038)

occur when students do not have effective ways to communicate with


adults and peers, an effective way to transition, the days schedule is
unpredictable, lack of choice, social isolation, and a lack of positive
attention (Horner, Sugai, Todd, & Lewis-Palmer, 2000).

Changes to structure in the school day


Rosey can work alongside Melissa to plan the days activities. As
seen in her Reinforcement Inventory, Melissa enjoys being at school and
engaging in school-related activities. Melissa and her teacher can work
together to plan preferred activities before and after non-preferred
activities (Kansas Mental Health Positive Behavior Support, n.d.; Neitzel,
2010). Rosey can use the Premack Principle to encourage Melissa to
complete a non-preferred activity with the chance of participating in a
preferred activity once it is complete (Berthold, 1982; as cited in Makin &
Hoyle, 1993). Attention should be given to routines in terms of individual
classes, transitions, and specific activities (Horner, Sugai, Todd, & LewisPalmer, 2000).

Differentiation
Rosey can make adjustments to non-preferred activities through
differentiating instruction, content, and process and product (Neitzel,
2010). When designing activities from the curriculum, Rosey can use the
REACH program to design lessons that correlate with Melissa and her
peers readiness level, interests, and preferred mode of learning
(Tomlinson, 2004; as cited in Rock, Gregg, Ellis, & Gable, 2008; Rock,
Gregg, Ellis, & Gable, 2008). Rosey can use the REACH program to help
her learn more about Melissa and how she perceives experiences and
events at school (Horner, Sugai, Todd, & Lewis-Palmer, 2000).
Modelling
10

DSRS3221 Positive Behaviour Support 2015


Major Assignment Functional Behavioural Assessment and Behaviour Support
Plan
Julia Calabrese (2095758/cala0038)

Rosey can use other students as role models, sit Melissa next to a
good role model, and through video self-modelling where Melissa is seen
working on a non-preferred activity, acting appropriately and receiving a
good mark (Kansas Mental Health Positive Behavior Support, n.d.). A social
story could be made for Melissa based on the task analysis for her
replacement behaviour (Appendix D) or desired behaviour. This process
can be reinforced for Melissa through forward chaining where the
replacement behaviour is taught in its naturally occurring order.

Prompting
The use of prompts will enable Melissa to have an opportunity to
respond appropriately to a situation and receive reinforcement accordingly
for demonstrated the replacement or desired behaviour (Vardas, 2009).
Once Rosey has established an environment with clear expectations about
appropriate behaviours through the use of video modelling and social
stories, she can then prompt Melissa through visual and verbal prompts
(Kansas Mental Health Positive Behavior Support, n.d.). Timing prompts
can be an important antecedent, such as just prior to a non-preferred
activity her teacher could prompt Melissa about the appropriate response
for not wanting to participate (Neitzel, 2010; Vardas, 2009; Kansas Mental
Health Positive Behavior Support, n.d.).

11

DSRS3221 Positive Behaviour Support 2015


Major Assignment Functional Behavioural Assessment and Behaviour Support
Plan
Julia Calabrese (2095758/cala0038)

Reinforcement protocols
Melissas short-term goal will be the first focus of reinforcement in
order for Melissa to still be able to escape from non-preferred activities.
Melissa will be able to avoid non-preferred activities through the use of
the break card (Appendix F) and use of the cool down box. Over time, the
time Melissa is allowed to spend on break will decrease therefore
increasing the incentive for Melissa to engage in a desired behaviour.
To reinforce Melissas desired behaviour, a classroom pet will be
introduced to increase the incentive for Melissa to be in the classroom and
used as a choice of reinforcement for her. An additional benefit of a
classroom pet is that they can enhance the socio-emotional development
of children (Friedmann, 2000; NIH, 2009; as cited in Meadan &
Jegatheesan, 2010). In addition to the class pet, Melissa will be given a
Puzzle Piece Reinforcement Chart similar to that in Appendix E (The
Communication Window, 2011).
If I was able to observe Melissa, I would record the average time she
spent participating in non-preferred activities. On the assumption that
Melissa participates in non-preferred activities once per day for ten
minutes, I would begin reinforcing her participation half way through this
time. When Melissa follows directions and completes non-preferred tasks
for five minutes she will receive a piece of a puzzle that makes an animal.
When the animal puzzle is complete, Melissa will be allowed 10 minutes of
free time. Initially, the puzzle will have two pieces but over time will
increase in number.
Melissa will be reinforced on a schedule of Differential
Reinforcement of Incompatible Behaviour (DRI) in order to substitute
leaving the classroom and displaying aggression for desired behaviours
(Schloss & Smith, 1998). Initially Melissa will be reinforced on a fixedinterval schedule and over time the intervals will increase by a few
minutes.
12

DSRS3221 Positive Behaviour Support 2015


Major Assignment Functional Behavioural Assessment and Behaviour Support
Plan
Julia Calabrese (2095758/cala0038)

Skill development
A Competing Pathways Analysis (Appendix H) is used to connect the
FBA and PBSP in order to increase the efficiency, efficacy and relevance of
the PBSP (Crone & Horner, 2003). Melissas replacement behaviour is to
appropriately ask for a break and use the cool down box to select a
short-term activity to complete. This skill will be taught through the use of
the model-lead-test method whereby the teacher will use direct
instruction, modelling, demonstrations and prompts to encourage the
replacement behaviour (Horner, Sugai, Todd, & Lewis-Palmer, 2000). The
eight steps of the model-lead-test method can be seen in Appendix I for
the teacher to use with examples of classroom applications for Melissa
(UNC School of Education, n.d.).
Melissas desired alternative behaviour is for her to follow directions
and complete non-preferred activities at school. To achieve this goal,
Melissa needs to improve on her social and coping skills. This can be
achieved through mindfulness practice which can be learnt as a class and
provide an opportunity for Melissa to build relationships. Both social and
coping skills can be taught through social stories, which complements
Melissas love for reading. Research has found social stories to help
individuals identify the appropriate social cues and responses when
reacting to a situation (Schneider & Goldstein, 2010).

De-escalation strategies
13

DSRS3221 Positive Behaviour Support 2015


Major Assignment Functional Behavioural Assessment and Behaviour Support
Plan
Julia Calabrese (2095758/cala0038)

When Melissa is engaging in behaviours of concern, Melissas


support staff should follow de-escalation principles in relation to planning,
skill development and familiarity with Melissa and the environment. Staff
should pre-determine how they will react to situations before they occur
and remain calm and in control. Staff should avoid increasing the intensity
of the incident and work as a team to prevent future incidents, control
present ones and reflect on past incidents. Staff should try to see the
situation from Melissas point of view, monitor the environment for
possible antecedents and triggers and be observant to Melissas signs of
frustration and boredom (Hewett, 1998).

How the program will be monitored


Strategies and data monitoring methods are necessary to evaluate
the extent that Melissa has made satisfactory progress, improved quality
of life, individuals have noticed positive changes in her behaviour and that
the PBSP is person-centred. (Sugai, Lewis-Palmer, & Hagan-Burke, 2000).
Appendix G is a tool that Rosey can use to monitor the effectiveness of
the PBSP once it has been implemented. The PBSP can also be reviewed
using the Scatterplot Assessment Tool (Appendix A) as used in the FBA
(Adapted from Touchette, MacDonald, Langer, 1986; as cited in Kansas
Institute for Positive Behavior Support, n.d.b). These measurements
should contain frequency, duration, latency, and intensity of the
behaviour.
It is important that Melissas team organise a time to meet and
review the progress of the PBSP regularly in order to express queries and
concerns, as well as to monitor consistency of recording among team
members. The ideas they brainstormed in the FBA can be used to modify
the PBSP if necessary (Crone & Horner, 2003).

14

DSRS3221 Positive Behaviour Support 2015


Major Assignment Functional Behavioural Assessment and Behaviour Support
Plan
Julia Calabrese (2095758/cala0038)

Mediator/staff supports
The team involved in implementing this program will be all people
who directly work with Melissa, including Rosey, her mother and other
teachers, and the school counsellor. Additionally, a person with
behavioural expertise in conducting FBAs and implementing PBSPs. The
incorporation of administrative authorities can assist in supporting and
making recommendations about personnel, resources, time and more.
Finally, Melissa will be involved and informed about expectations, goals
and rewards, and given the chance to ask questions (Sugai, Lewis-Palmer,
& Hagan-Burke, 2000; Crone & Horner, 2003).
Challenges may arise in implementing the PBSP where the
strategies to implement are not contextually fit with Melissas team and
environment. Considerations need to be made in regards to the practical
constraints of time, resources, finances, skills, facilities, attitudes, and
beliefs (Crone & Horner, 2003). The contribution of Melissas team in both
planning and implementation is important so it fits suitably within the
school context (Horner, Sugai, Todd, & Lewis-Palmer, 2000).
Final comments
Difficulties may arise with the teacher not having time to monitor
Melissas behaviour and therefore self-monitoring, different prompts and
skills may need to be taught and used instead. Rosey should also be
cautious that she is not unintentionally rewarding problem behaviour
(Horner, Sugai, Todd, & Lewis-Palmer, 2000). Tools and techniques will
need to be added to plan for maintenance and generalisation.
Melissas team can access free workshops, information and
resources on the Positive Partnerships website which aims to support
school age students on the autism spectrum (Partnerships between
Education and the Autism Community, 2014). Additionally, the Kansas
Institute for Positive Behavior (sp) Support can be used for training in FBAs
and PBSPs (Kansas Institute for Positive Behavior Support, 2012b).
15

DSRS3221 Positive Behaviour Support 2015


Major Assignment Functional Behavioural Assessment and Behaviour Support
Plan
Julia Calabrese (2095758/cala0038)

Word Count
FBA: 1163 words
PBSP: 1579 words
Total: 2742 words

References
Crone, D. A., & Horner, R. H. (2003). Designing a behavior support plan.
Building positive behavior support systems in schools: functional
behavioral assessment (pp. 55-69). New York, USA: Guilford Press.
Emerson, E., & Fox, P. (2010). Positive Goals for Positive Behavioural
Support: Interventions to Improve Quality of Life for People with Learning
Disabilities Whose Behaviour Challenges. Brighton, England, United
Kingdom: Pavilion Publishing.
Hewett, D. (1998). Commentary: managing incidents of challenging
behaviour - principles. Challenging behaviour: principles and practices
(pp. 67-87). London, England: David Fulton Publishers.
16

DSRS3221 Positive Behaviour Support 2015


Major Assignment Functional Behavioural Assessment and Behaviour Support
Plan
Julia Calabrese (2095758/cala0038)

Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Todd, A. W., & Lewis-Palmer, T. (2000). Elements
of Behavior Support Plans: A Technical Brief. Exceptionality: A Special
Education Journal, 8(3), 205-215.
Kansas Mental Health Positive Behavior Support. (n.d.). Examples of
Antecedent Interventions. Retrieved June 8th, 2015, from
<http://kmhpbs.org/sites/kmhpbs.org/files/awareness_supplements/buildin
g_pbs_plans_handout.pdf>
Kansas Institute for Positive Behavior Support. (n.d.b). Scatter Plot
Assessment Tool. Retrieved June 9th, 2015, from
<http://www.kipbs.org/new_kipbs/fsi/files/scatterplot-abc%20analysis.pdf>
Kansas Institute for Positive Behavior Support (2012). Funcitonal
Behavioral Assessment Interview Form. Retrieved June 9th, 2015, from
<http://www.kipbs.org/new_kipbs/fsi/files/Functional%20Assessment
%20Interview.pdf>
Kansas Institute for Positive Behavior Support. (2012b). Training Materials
from the Kansas Mental Health and Positive Behavior Support (KMHPBS)
Project. Retrieved June 10th from
<http://www.kipbs.org/kmhpbs/index.html>
Larson, P. J., & Maag, J. W. (1998). Applying Functional Assessment in
General Education Classrooms: Issues and Recommendations. Remedial
and Special Education, 19(6), 338-349.
Makin, P. J., & Hoyle, D. J. (1993). The Premack Principle: Professional
Engineers. Leadership & Organizational Development Journal, 14(1), 1621.
Meadan, H. & Jegatheesan, B. (2010). Classroom Pets and Young Children.
YC Young Children, 65(3), 70-77.
Neitzel, J. (2010). Antecedent-based interventions for children and youth
with autism spectrum disorders: Online training module. Chapel Hill, NC:

17

DSRS3221 Positive Behaviour Support 2015


Major Assignment Functional Behavioural Assessment and Behaviour Support
Plan
Julia Calabrese (2095758/cala0038)

National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders,


FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-Chapel Hill.
Partnerships between Education and the Autism Community. (2014).
Positive Partnerships. Retrieved June 10th, from
<http://www.positivepartnerships.com.au/>
Rock, M. L., Gregg, M., Ellis, E., & Gable, R. A. (2008). REACH: A Framework
for Differentiating Classroom Instruction. Preventing School Failure, 52(2),
31-47.
Schloss, P. J., & Smith, M. A. (1998). Positive approaches to decreasing
inappropriate behavior. Applied behavior analysis in the classroom (2nd
ed., pp. 152-171). Boston, USA: Allyn and Bacon.
Schneider, N., & Goldstein, H. (2010). Using Social Stories and Visual
Schedules to Improve Socially Appropriate Behaviors in Children With
Autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(3), 149-160.
Sugai, G., Horner, Robert. H., Dunlap, G., Hieneman, M., Lewis, T. J.,
Nelson, C. M., Scott, T., Liaupsin, C., Sailor, W., Turnbull, A. P., Turnbull, H.,
Rutherford, I., Wickham, D., Ruef, M., & Wilcox, B.. (1999). Applying
Positive Behavioral Support and Functional Behavioral Assessment in
Schools. Technical Assistance Guide 1, Version 1.4.3.. Retrieved from
<http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED443244.pdf>
Sugai, G., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Hagan-Burke, S. (2000). Overview of the
Functional Behavioral Assessment Process. Exceptionality: A Special
Education Journal, 8(3), 149-160.
The Communication Window. (2011). The Puzzle Piece Reinforcement
Chart. Retrieved June 8th, 2015, from
<https://communicationwindow.wordpress.com/2011/03/04/the-puzzlepiece-reinforcement-chart/>
Umbreit, J. (2007). Identifying an appropriate measurement system.
Functional behavioral assessment and function-based intervention: an
18

DSRS3221 Positive Behaviour Support 2015


Major Assignment Functional Behavioural Assessment and Behaviour Support
Plan
Julia Calabrese (2095758/cala0038)

effective, practical approach (pp. 157-181). Upper Saddle River, New


Jersey, USA: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
UNC School of Education. (n.d.). Social skills in the classroom. Retrieved
June 10th from http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/6798
Vargas, J. S. (2009). Shaping Behavior: The Role of Postcedents. Behavior
Analysis for Effective Teaching (pp. 173-213). Routledge, New York: Taylor
& Francis.

19

DSRS3221 Positive Behaviour Support 2015


Major Assignment Functional Behavioural Assessment and Behaviour Support
Plan
Julia Calabrese (2095758/cala0038)

Appendix A

Appendix B
ABC Observation Data Sheet attached as separate document

20

DSRS3221 Positive Behaviour Support 2015


Major Assignment Functional Behavioural Assessment and Behaviour Support
Plan
Julia Calabrese (2095758/cala0038)

Appendix C
When Im bored
I will

Take a 5 minute reading break


Complete a sheet of Math problems
Take a 2 minute break to visit the class pet
Look at pictures of the zoo on the computer for 5 minutes
Ask teacher for a different activity
THEN Return to work

When Im frustrated
I will

Take 5 deep breaths


Count to 30
Take a short break to visit the class pet
Read my How I Can Calm Down social story
Ask teacher to leave the classroom
THEN Return to work

Appendix D
Task analysis for feelings of frustration or boredom
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Stand up
Pick up break card
Walk to teacher
Give to teacher
Go to cool down box
Open box
Select activity
Complete activity in time limit
Return to lesson

Appendix E

21

DSRS3221 Positive Behaviour Support 2015


Major Assignment Functional Behavioural Assessment and Behaviour Support
Plan
Julia Calabrese (2095758/cala0038)

Appendix F

Appendix G

22

DSRS3221 Positive Behaviour Support 2015


Major Assignment Functional Behavioural Assessment and Behaviour Support
Plan
Julia Calabrese (2095758/cala0038)

Melissas response to non-preferred activities


Using
Date

Physical

Verbal

Leaving

Using

calm

Receiv

and

aggressio

aggressio

classroom

break

down

es

time

card

box

puzzle
piece

23

DSRS3221 Positive Behaviour Support 2015


Major Assignment Functional Behavioural Assessment and Behaviour Support
Plan
Julia Calabrese (2095758/cala0038)

Appendix H

Appendix I

24

DSRS3221 Positive Behaviour Support 2015


Major Assignment Functional Behavioural Assessment and Behaviour Support
Plan
Julia Calabrese (2095758/cala0038)

1.

Name the skill and its importance. Encourage class discussion.


Example: Why is it important that stay in the classroom and have breaks
when we need to?

2.

Create a rule for the skill.


Example: When were feeling bored or frustrated, we will use the break
card and go to the cool down box.

3.

Break the skill into steps.


Example: On the first day, use the break card. On the second day, use the
break card and go to the cool down box.

4.

Name each step to be taught.


Example: On the board, write: Today we will remain calm and ask for
breaks when we need to.

5.

Demonstrate how to use the skill through modelling.


Example: I am feeling frustrated, so Im going to take a short break

6.

Give students time to practice the skill.


Example: Georgia, youre looking disinterested. Take a break and come
back to it shortly

7.

Make sure that there are plenty of opportunities for students to


practice the skill.
Example: Review concepts, especially during non-preferred activities.

8.

Communicate with families about the new skill.

25

DSRS3221 Positive Behaviour Support 2015


Major Assignment Functional Behavioural Assessment and Behaviour Support
Plan
Julia Calabrese (2095758/cala0038)

Example: Note home to Melissas mum about her progress using the new
skill, encouragement to use it at home.

26