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DICTIONARY

A
OF
RELIGION
AND

ETHICS

THE

MACMILLAN

NKW

COMPANY

YORK

BOSTON

CHICAGO

DALLAS

"
"

ATLANTA

SAN

"

FRANCISCO

"

MACMILLAN

"

LONDON

CO.,

Limited

BOMBAY

CALCUTTA

"

"

MELBOURNE

THE

MACMILLAN

CO.

TORONTO

OF

CANADA,

Ltd.

DICTIONARY
OF

RELIGION

ETHICS

AND

EDITED

Shailer

BY

D.D., LL.D.

Mathews,
!I

and Dean
Theology,
of Historicaland Comparative
Professor
School,University
of Chicago
ofthe Divinity

AND

Gerald

Smith, D.D.

Birney

Professor
of Christian

Theology,
University
of Chicago

NEW

THE

YORK

COMPANY

MACMILLAN
1923

31. 3/

Copyright, 1921
By

the

Set up and

PWNTEP

MACMILLAN

COMPANY

Published September,
electrotyped.
1921.

THE

UNITED

STATES

OF

AMERICA

CONTRIBUTORS

TO

THE

DICTIONARY

AND
fADENET, Walter
Late

Frederick,

Church

D.D.

Cook, Stanley

of New

History;
College, Manchester, England.
Hartley

Burr, Ph.D.
raska,
Professor
of Philosophy, University of NebLincoln, Neb.; Associate Editor Mid-

Alexander,

West

Quarterly,and

Midland.

Allen, Thomas

George, Ph.D.
in Egyptology, University of ChiInstructor
cago;
Secretary of Haskell Oriental Museum.
Ames, Edward
Scribner, Ph.D.
of Philosophy, University
Associate
Professor

Chicago.

of

Baker, Archibald
Assistant

Gillies.

Professor of Missions, University of

Chicago.
Barnes, Lemuel
Call, D.D.
of EvangeUsm,
Secretary of the Department
Mission
American
Baptist Home
Society.
Barton, George
Aaron, Ph.D., LL.D.
of

Biblical

Literature

and

Semitic

Languages, BrynMawr

Pa.
College,BrynMawr,
Barton, James Levi, D.D., LL.D.
of
Board
Foreign Secretary of the American
Commissioners
for Foreign Missions.

Charles

Read, Ph.D.
Professor
of English Literature, University of
Philology.
Chicago; Managing Editor Modern
Beckwith, Clarence
Augustine, D.D.
Christian
Professor
of
Theology, Chicago
Editor
The
Theological Seminary; Associate
New
Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious
Knowledge.

Baskervill,

Ex-FeUow
Study of
Gk)nville

Louis
Fitzgerald, D.D.
Editor
of various
hymnals, and
standard
books on the history of

Arthur,

A.M., Litt.D.

and

Lecturer
in the
Rehgions and in Hebrew
and
Gaius
College,

Benson,

Author

of

hymnology.

Comparative
and Syriac,

Cambridge,

England.

Cope,

Henry
Frederick, D.D.
General
Secretary of the Religious Education
Association.
Editor Religious Education.

Coulter,

John

Merle,

Professor

and

Botany,

Ph.D.
of the
Department
of Chicago; Editor

Head

University

of
The

Gazette.

Botanical

Crawford, John
Professor of
Wis.

Forsyth, Ph.D.
Philosophy, Beloit College,Beloit,

Cross, George, Ph.D.,


Professor

Professor

RELIGION

ETHICS

Testament
Exegesis and
pendent
IndePrincipal of Lancaster

Professor

OF

D.D.

of

Systematic Theology, Rochester


Theological Seminary, Rochester, N.Y.

Gotthard, Ph.D., D.D.


Professor
of Jewish
History and Literature,
Hebrew
Union
College,Cincinnati, O.

Deutsch,

Dickerson, James
Spencer, Litt.D.
Formerly Editor The Standard, Chicago, 111.
Dickinson,

Litt.D.

Edward,

Professor

of

Criticism
History and
Music, Oberlin College, Oberhn, O.

DowD,

Quincy

the

of

L.

Author, Funeral
Easton, Burton

Management

and

Costs.

Scott, Ph.D.,

D.D.
New
Testament
History and
Interpretation, General Theological Seminary,
New
York.
Professor

Ellwood,

of

Charles

Professor

of

Abram,

Ph.D.

Sociology,Universityof Missouri.

Erb, Frank
Otis, Ph.D.
Boas, Franz, Ph.D., LL.D., Sc.D.
Editor of Young
American
People's Publications,
of
versity,
UniProfessor
Anthropology, Columbia
Baptist Pubhcation
Society.
New York, Editor Journal of American
Folk-Lore.

Everett,

Burgess, Ernest

Professor

Associate

Ph.D.

Watson,
of

Sociology,Universityof

Walter
Ph.D.
Goodnow,
Professor of Philosophy and Natural
Brown
University, Providence, R.I.

Theology,

Chicago.
Burt, Frank
President

H., LL.D.
Y.M.CA.

College,Chicago, 111.

Burton, Margaret
Secretary Y.W.C.A.,

General

Case, Shirley
ament

New

York

City.

of

Albert, D.D.
History, Meadville
logicalSeminary, Meadville, Pa.
Professor

of Church

Gardiner,

Eugene,
Professor

of

Chicago.

LL.D.

Beals, D.D.,
the
(Universalist) Divinity
Ryder

Robert

H.

Secretary World's

A.
Missionary in Korea.
Walter
Assistant

Ph.D.

Sociology,University

Theo-

ClarKj Charles
Clark,

Fisher, Lewis
Dean
of

of

School,Chicago.

Christie, Francis
I

Faris, Ellsworth,
Professor

D.D.

Early Church History and NewTestInterpretation,University of Chicago.

Professor
',

Jackson, Ph.D.,

Fallows, Samuel, LL.D., D.D.


Bishop of the Reformed
Episcopal Church,
Chicago, 111.

Conference

on

Faith

and

Order.
Ph.D.
of Sanskrit

European Comparative
of Chicago.

and

Indo-

Philology, University

Gilbert, George
Holley, Ph.D., D.D.
Theologian and Author; Formerly Professor of
and Interpretation,
Literature
New
Testament
Chicago Theological Seminary.

t Deceased.

463

131

TO

CONTRIBUTORS
William
Editor The New

DICTIONARY

THE

clopedia
EncySchaff-Herzog

of Religious Knowledge;
Editor

The Homiletic

Associate

Patristic Greek,
of Biblical and
University of Chicago; Assistant Director of
Haskell Oriental Museum.
Professor

Reid, Litt.D.,D.D.

Gordon, Alexander
of

Professor

Old

AND

ETHICS

William, D.D.
Philosophy of ReUgion, Union
TheologicalSeminary,New York, N.Y.
Professor

of

Review.

Johnson, Ph.D.

Goodspeed, Edgar

RELIGION

Lyman, Eugene

GiLMORE, George
Associate

OF

Testament

Literature

and

Mathews, Shailer,D.D., LL.D.


Dean
of the DivinitySchool of the University
of Chicago; Professor
of Historical
and
Comparative Theology.
McGlothlin, William
Joseph, Ph.D., D.D.,
LL.D.

President,Furnam
University,Greenville,
S.C; formerlyProfessor of Church History,
Canada.
Southern
ville,
BaptistTheological
Seminary,LouisNathan, Ph.D.
Gould, Chester
Ky.
and
navian
ScandiAssistant Professor of German
McLaughlin, Andrew
Cunningham, LL.D.
Universityof Chicago.
Literature,
Professor of Historyand Head
of the Department
of History,
Gray, Lottis Herbert, Ph.D.
of Chicago.
University
of Nebraska;
Professor of Philosophy,
University
McNeill, John Thomas, Ph.D.
Editor Mythology ofAll Races; Assistant Editor
Instructor in European History,
lege,
Queen's ColHastings Encyclopediaof Religionand Ethics;
Kingston,Canada.
International
New
Editor
clopedia.
EncyDepartmental
Herbert
Mead, George
Professor of Philosophy,
of Chicago.
University
Elliot, D.D., L.H.D.
Gkiffis, William
Mead, Lucia True Ames
in
Lecturer; Author; and formerly Educator
National Secretaryof Woman's
Peace Party.
Japan.
Merrill, Elmer Truesdell, LL.D.
Professor
of Latin, Universityof Chicago;
Hall, Francis Joseph, D.D.
Editor Classical Philology.
Professor of Dogmatic Theology,and President,
York.
Michel, F. J.
General TheologicalSeminary, New
Field
Secretary of Laymen's Missionary
Harada, Tasuktt, LL.D., D.D.
Movement.
Doshisha University,
Former President,
Kyoto,
Mode, Peter George, Ph.D.
Japan.
Assistant Professor of Church
versity
History,UniHarvey, Albert Edward, Ph.D.
of Chicago.
Formerly Instructor in History,Universityof
Moore, Clifford Herschel, Ph.D., Litt.D.
Chicago.
Exegesis, Presbyterian College, Montreal,

Eustace, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of the History of
of Chicago.
University

Haydon, Albert

ReUgions,

HoBEN, Allan, Ph.D.


of
Professor
Sociology,Carleton
Minn.
Northfield,

College,

Clarence, Ph.D.
logical
History, Baptist TheoSeminary, Tokyo, Japan.
Friendly

Valentine
Williams, L.H.D.
Ph.D., LL.D.
Professor of Indo-Iranian Languages, Columbia
New
York, N.Y.
University,

Jackson, Abraham

Litt.D.
of Philosophy,Haverford
Haverford,Pa.

Jones,Rufus

Matthew,

Professor

bridge,
University,Cam-

David
Associate

of Church

HuRREY, Charles
General
on
Secretary, Committee
Relations among
Foreign Students.

Latin, Harvard

Saville,Ph.D.
Professor
of History, Columbia
Ethical Culture
University,Director of History,
School,NewYork, N.Y.

MuzzEY,

HoLTOM, Daniel
Professor

Professor of
Mass.

College,

S.

Myers, Harry

Secretary,
MissionaryEducation
the United

Newman,

States and

Albert

Movement

of

Canada.

Henry, LL.D., D.D.


History,Baylor

Formerly Professor of Church


University,Waco, Tex.
Odlin, W. S.
Assistant

Director

of

American Red
Publicity,

Cross,Washington, D.C.
Palmieri, a.

Cambridge,Mass.
Paton, Lewis

Bayles, Ph.D., D.D.

of Old
Testament
Exegesis and
Hartford
Criticism,
TheologicalSeminary,
Kantor, Jacob Robert,
Hartford, Conn.
of Indiana,
Professor of Psychology,
University
Thomas, A.M.
Paul, Charles
Bloomington,Ind.
President,Collegeof Missions,Indianapolis,
O.
Ph.D.
King, Irving,
Pound, Roscoe, Ph.D., LL.D.
of
Assistant Professor of Education,
University
Professor of General Jurisprudence,and Dean
Iowa, Iowa City,la.
of the Faculty of Law, Harvard
University,
Henry
Professor

Ph.D.

fKiNGMAN,

Formerly Missionaryin China; Late

Pastor,

Congregational
Church, Claremont,Calif.
Kuring, Adolph, A.m.
Pastor,Lutheran Church,Chicago.
Laing, Gordon
Professor of

Jennings, Ph.D.
of Chicago.
Latin,University

DaVID, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of the Semitic Languages
of Chicago.
and Literatures,
University

LUCKENBILL, DaNIEL

t Deceased.

Cambridge, Mass.

Bisset, Ph.D.
Professor of Intellectual and Moral Philosophy,
Williams College,WiUiamstown, Mass.

Pratt, James

Price, Ira Maurice, Ph.D., LL.D.


Professor

of the Old

Testament

Language and

Universityof Chicago.
Literature,
fRAUSCHENBUSCH,
Late

Professor

WaLTER, D.D.
of Church

History,Rochester

TheologicalSeminary,Rochester,N.Y.

CONTRIBUTORS

of

Allegany,

N.Y.

OF

RELIGION

Smith,

College,

Bonaventure's

St.

Greek,

Professor

Ph.D.

S.T.D.,

Nicholas,

Joseph

Reagan,

DICTIONARY

THE

TO

John

AND

Merlin

Professor

Literature,

Harold

F.

Baton

Rouge,

Rabbi,

Church

of
of

Journal

Church

Church

in

the

and

Ph.D.

Professor

History,

Frank

Tufts,

Professor
of

Ethical

for

Society

Ecclesiastical

of

and

History

Ernest

James

Hayden,
and

New

Charles

New

Journal

York

New

of

City

of

University,

Brown

and

Religious
Christian

Men's

Studies,
tion,
Associa-

Theological

Arthur
of

Editor

Henry

Smith,

Professor
Chief
New

Old

Librarian,
N.Y.
York,

t Deceased.

D.D.
and
Literature,
Theological
Seminary,

Testament
Union

of

College,
YouTZ,

Christian
OberUn

N.J.

Ph.D.
and

Education,

O.

of

Psychology,

Madras,

India.

Alden,
of

Ethics,

College,

University

Neb.
Ph.D.

Stewart,

Angus

Herbert

Professor

Theology,

Princeton,

Anthropology,

Lincoln,

Nebraska,

Polemic

Marietta,

Social

of

of Religion.

Journal

Preserved,
of

University

LL.D.,

Ph.D.

Hutton,

Professor

Theology,

and

Philosophy

College,

WooDBURNE,

D.D.

Chicago

DD.,

Seminary,

Clinton,

Professor

Boston

Didactic

of

Princeton

Webster,

Theology,

Breckenridge,

Professor

Watson,

History,

S.T.D.

Professor

D.D.

Christian

Chicago;

versity
Uni-

Ph.D.

Ecclesiastical

Benjamin

Marietta

Birney,
of

Literature,

Seminary.

LiTT.D.,

of

Gerald

Testament

Hammersley,
of

Professor

Ph.D.

Systematic

Professor

Ph.D.

New

Henry

Walker,

University.
Smith,

logical
Theo-

Pa.

Chicago.

Baptist

Mich.

Clay,

Henry

Professor

Art,

BibUcal

Young

Detroit,

Editor

Crozer

History,

Chester,

Weber,
of

tWABFiELD,
of

Manford,

Metropohtan

Sheldon,

of

R.I.

College

Dean,

Clyde

Professor
of

Ph.D.

Charles

Chicago;

of Ethics.

Church

of

Theological

Professor

Providence,
Sharpe,

logical
Theo-

Society.
John,

of

Department

of

D.D.

Hatch,

Assistant

the

D.D.

Clay,

Henry

N.Y.

York,

of

International

VoTAW,
Union

Testament,

Secretary

Mission

Shapley,

D.D.

Findlay,

Executive

of

University

LL.D.

Ph.D.,
Head

University

Professor

Seminary,
Sears,

History,

Philosophy,

Vedder,

Pa.

of

Professor

Ph.D.

Westfall,
Medieval

Seminary,

Scott,

versity
Uni-

Archeology,

History
Seminary,

Theological

Western

Doctrine,

Pittsburgh,

Ph.D.

Classical

of

of

Professor

Culture.

D.D.

Schley,

David

BcHAFP,

Languages

Chicago.

Chicago.

Professor

D.B.

Mackintire,
The

Lecturer,

of

Chicago.

William

Salter,

Semitic

the

Bigelow,

James

Thompson,

Newton

Mass.

Center,

Chicago.

of

University

Professor
of

and

Institution,

Theological

of

Professor

Literatures,

fTARBELL,

N.Y.

Science

tical
Prac-

Ph.D.

Martin,

Ph.D.

Social

of

of

Department

University

cation,
Edu-

Religious

logical
Theo-

Union

History,
York,

New

Kalloch,

the

Review.

Church

of

Newton

and

D.D.

and

of

Theology,
Sprengling,

Late

RowE,

the

Languages

Ph.D.,

Homiletics
Head

and

Assistant

Seminary,
Henry

Editor

Associate

Pa.;

Walker,

William

Professor

of

Theological

History,

Lancaster,

Reformed

Rockwell,

and

Language

Chicago;

Semitic

of

Gerald,

Theodore

Professor

Reformed

the

States,

Editor

D.D.

Warren,

Professor

United

of

Literatures.

George

Seminary

Testament

La.

Scares,
Richards,

Old

University

American

Reinhart,

Ph.D.

Powis,

the

of

ETHICS

Madras

Christian

Ph.D.
of

Philosophy

School

Graduate

Oberlin,

O.

Religion
of

and

Theology,

PREFACE
The
of

of this

purpose

rehgion and

Dictionary

ethics,and

general plan thus involves

the

at

the

is to

same

generous

define

time
use

a singlevolume.
general plan of editing involves

all terms
discuss

to

of

cross

(not strictlybiblical) of importance in the field


with

references

fullness

some
as

of primary value.
bringing the treatment

terms

of

means

The
within

the limits of
The

1. The

definition

2. Particular

of ail terms

attention

rehgions.
3. Especial regard
4. Historical
5.
persons

are

employ

variants

to

the

than

Biographical articles

6. No
to

rather

to

the

and

:
a

clear

more

discussion

extended

of the

explanation of the important

more

terms

important topics.
in primitive and

used

psychology and history of religion.


of all topics.
apologeticor partisan treatment
limited
to persons
especiallysignificantin rehgion

and

morals.

No

ethnic

Uving

included.

attempt
the

to

system
in the

standardize
which

he

titles at the

the

transUteration

prefers. Where

of

each

foreign words,

different

spelUngs of

word

contributor
are

in

common

being

left free
use,

the

places.
omission
7. The
of technical
with
terms
which
would
not
loosely connected
religionand morals
naturally be sought in such a dictionary.
of consultation,compound
words
8. For ease
after the first compound
arranged in sequence
term.
9. Bibhographies in an appendix to the volume
thus easilybe kept up to date.
can
The
editors wish to express
their gratitude to Drs. A. S. Woodburne, A. Eustace
Haydon, and J. N.
assistance
in preparation of copy
and
E. Lewis
Reagan for valuable
for
reading proof, and to Dr. Frank
supervisingthe preparationof the bibliographies. While every article and definition has been independently
" Wagnalls for their kind
consent
to the use
of some
produced their thanks are due to Funk
especially
admirable
contained
in copyright material in the Standard
expressionsand arrangements
Dictionary and
New Schaff-HerzogEncyclopedia of ReligiousKnowledge.
appear

proper

vu

OF

DICTIONARY

ETHICS

AND

AB, NINTH
fifth month
of
approximately
Nebuchadnezzar

holy city
as

of

one

in 586

before

70

the
not

distinguish it with

orthodox

cathedral
other

The

of

all

the

abbey

and

monks
the

was

rules."

Abbots

were

ruled

paternally,
by canonical
originallylaymen, but from the

"father."

He

limited

only

began to be ordained, and in the Middle


The
corresponding
Ages performed episcopal duties.
7th. century
head
called

of

formerly

institution

female

abbess.

an

Certain

connected

still retain

the

name,

cathedrals,
institutions,

monastic

Abbey.

Westminster

as, e.g.,

is

nunnery

or

and

churches

with

Heloise.
and

his

through
In

Realism

the
he

romantic

connection

controversy

between

worked

out

which

promoted a more
theology he opposed a
authority, and

vital

mediating
kind

attempted

explanation of church

doctrines.

he

quotations

collected

debatable
this

Patristic

positions in

aroused

distrust

the

at

with

of

condemnation.

silent submission
ABHISEKA."

India

His
the

to

In

rationaUstic

siides of

both

on

While
was

used

ceremony

ceremonial

bathing

spent

were

years

later
for

high state functionaries


to
applied by the Buddhists
stages of perfection: used

Vedic

in

reUgion of
kings and

emperors,

give power;
to

in sacred

ABJURATION.
by the

"

Roman

the

last

the
of

the

among
waters.

See

"

the

Purification.

Bathing;

That

ABSOLUTE."

religious Ufe

In

in

as

desire

is the natural

their
Hindus

one's

church

of
of

heresy
those.

all

philosophical thinking,

to

personahty in the
philosophical way

finite

provides

participate in

IdeaUstic

attempted

has

monism

to

Platonism

in

men

of

which

may

is

Mysticism
inner

the

in

philosophy

self with
modern

an

the
times

doctrine
of dynamic
the
Absolute
concretely to finite

through

relate
See

existence.

Infinite.

ideas.

absolute

identification

emotional

the

God;

Monism;

matism.
Prag-

Idealism;

Smith

Birney

chism
According to the Larger Cateis
prescribed by Pope Pius X., "Absolution

ABSOLUTION."

which

sentence

the

Christ

of Jesus

name

to

Priest
remit

theologians appeal

Roman

to

Absolution

John

20:21-23.
(q.v.),confession

(q.v.),and

in the
pronounces
the penitent'ssins."

Matt.
16: 19; 18: 18;
contrition
presupposes
faction;
the promise of satis-

be imparted only
can
has
jurisdiction
duly ordained
priest who
the penitent. The
over
present form of absolution
is declarative
or
indicative,"I absolve thee."
and in other oriental communions
In the Holy Orthodox

by

in

and

valid absolution

the

form

form

of

prayer
use

common

For

ten

of

from

of finite

of the

name

free

is

which

from
the imperfections
escape
experience. The ultimate
reahty
the vicissitudes
is pictured as eternally perfect, above
and
of time
and
change.
Complete
space
be found
only in
spiritcan
security of the human
In the rehgion
alliance with this perfect Absolute.
of the
losophies
PhiVedanta
and
(see India, Religions
is to lose
aim
OP, Sec. 1) the ultimate
there

priest

13th.

are

The

of absolution
for

pardon.
Latin

in the

is precatory, in the
Precatory forms were

church

till the

middle

century.

certain
cannot

authorization

renunciation
Cathohc

of

limitations.

pope.

reqmred

renunciation

teaching

Abraham.

the

his Sic et Non

In

chiu-ch.

the

the

An apocryphal
OF."
ABRAHAM.TESTAMENT
of Jewish
origin describing the last days of

astical
ecclesi-

to

time, his method

last

formal

to

Gerald

in Catholic
subsequently adopted and elaborated
of his rationalistic
dogmatics. The chief opponent
Bernard
of Clairvaux, who
secured
tendency was
his

re-

in the 4th.

book

position
logic. In

of doctrine.

matters

make

opposed

Nominalism

submission

mere

church.

Absolute.

lastic
SchoPETER
ABELARD,
(1079-1142)." French
and
in
philosopher
theologian, known
Uterature

in

error

growth
out-

(q.v.)into
development of monasticism
began in the 4th. century
form, which
The
with
Pachomius,
Egyptian.
organization
an
Benedict
of
of monastic
orders, beginning with
the
Nursia
to
(q.v.) contributed
development.
called
The
monk
in charge was
the abbot, which

authority "being

Converts

doctrine

Roman

of the

his

of

forms

century a written statement, in the period of the


and
Inquisition a solemn
public pronouncement,
more
recently a private profession before priestly

ABLUTION.

coenobitic

means
philologically

various

F. Reinhart

for

cloisters

church,

appurtenances.

suspected

are

It has taken

do

An
ABBESS."
abbey was
institution, comprising

monastic

or

hgious belief.

specialobservance.

and

ABBOT

ABBEY,

so

regard

Jews

Harold

originally a

is still

day

the

already baptized, who

witnesses.

observed

Long

significance, but

historic

of solemn

fall of the

of the

Reform

Jews.

by

Jerusalem

a.d.

mourning,

by
day

as

and

b.c,

in

Titus

fasting and

kept

of

destruction

the

the

on

corresponding
year,
traditional
It is the

Jewish

August.

to

of

anniversary

holiday

Jewish

OF."
the

RELIGION

offences

serious

from

the

restrictions

relaxed,however,

Roman

without

absolution

grant

bishop
in

in the
Wm.

or

these
hour
WaLKEB

even

"reserved

Catholic

special
from

the

cases"

of death.

RoCKWEUi

Abyss

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

ETHICS

AND

filled
boltoroless space (originally
or faith in Jesus.
Many types of theology
ABYSS.^The
it dependent on belief in right doctrine.
have made
believed to be under the
water) which was
earths
Bairyloniapthought tne abyss was
possibly
ACCEPTILATION.-^-Originally a form of
;, ; '.!ja
.

with

eousnes

the' primevalchaos from which our universe and all


God
Ufe sprang.
this original substance
From
The
created the imiverse,according to Genesis.
cosmology of the Bible represents the earth as
extending
resting on and surrounded by waters
the abyss.
imder the earth,thus constituting
Through usage which it is not possiblefullyto
trace,the abyss ceased to be thought of as filled
with water
and became
identifiedwith the abode
The
that is,Sheol or Hades.
of the departed spirits,
latter place is said by Job 38 : 16 to be at the bottom
of the sea.
It is from the conceptionof Hades that
the word came
also to denote the imdergroundplace
the time of Enoch
From
of punishment, or Hell.
it was
apparentlyregardedas filledwith fire rather

than water.
literature
of the apocalyptic
With
the appearance
the word is used in a more
generalsense to represent
the abyss of
the underworld in which
was
lived and where
fire in which
the demons
Satan,
accordingto the Apocalypse of John, is to be confined
Hades
for a thousand
years. The term included also
of the dead Uved, and in which
wherein the spirits
Fathers
Christ himself is said by the later church
his death and his
to have spent the days between
resurrection.
In the later cosmologiesdeveloped by gnosticism
of the
the abyss was
as the firstprinciple
personified
evolved and
infinite deity from which all aeons
were
created
so the universe
In modern
thought these earlier conceptions
is used
and the word
have
entirelydisappeared,
for a deep chasm.
simply as a synonym
Shailer
Mathews
RELIGION
OF." The
reUgion of
the peoplesof Abyssinia is a curious blend of primitivitywith the reUgious ideas of Judaism, early
and
Christianity. The
Arabia, Mohammedanism
forms is the nature-reUgionwhich
basis of allmodern
consists (1) of the tribal provisionfor the lifeneeds of the people when the chief performs reUgious
ceremonies for crops and food; (2)of the control of
through the agency of shamans who know the
spirits
is
influence of early Arabia
The
magical forms.
in the presence of the mother-goddess,AUat,
seen
entered in
and of the male Ashtar.
Christianity
the middle of the 5th. century probably from Syria
is now
and after long struggle
finallyestabUshed as
the official religionof the Abyssinian empire. It
is of the monophysite form generally; though so
elements are mingled in it as to give it almost
many
the character of a new
religion. Islam is making
rapid progress, has gained control of all the tribes
surrounding the Christians,and is penetratingtheir
and. influence of Judaism is
territory.The source
evidences
stillobscure,though there are undoubted
Jewish ideas and practices.
of distinctively
A. Eustace
Haydon

ABYSSINIA,

OF CAESAREA."
ACACIUS
Bishop of Caesarea
of the most
in the 4th. century and one
prominent
of the moderate
opponents of the Nicene Creed in
the Arian controversy.

ACCEPTANCE."

The

attitude

of satisfaction

regards those who have met the


for obtaining divine favor.
requirements necessary
some
more
primitiveand even
Among some
among
highly developed religionsthe deity is beheved
hence
to be naturallyhostile,and
offeringsand
with

which

God

sacrifices are
In the Hebrew

considerednecessary

to

edged
legalpracticein which a creditor acknowlof a debt though no payment
had
The term is looselyused in Christian
been made.
in
theology to characterize theories of atonement
which the efficacy
of Christ's work depends upon
its
intrinsic
acceptance by God rather than upon its own
worth, e.g., the theory of Duns Scotus (q.v.).
Roman

payment

ACCIDENT.
pectedly
(1) An event
occurring unexand
contrary to rational order. An
accident upsets plans, and hence demands
special
rehgiousor moral explanation. (2)Philosophically,
of
essential
not
the
existence
to
a property
absolutely
scholastic
an
object. The term is important in some
of the doctrine of transubstantiation.
explanations
"

ACCIDENTALISM."
A world view which
allows the possibility
of tincaused and unpredictable
and acts.
events
and
ACCLAMATION."
(1) The uncanvassed
election of a pope
by the collegeof
cardinals.
in anti(2) A congregationalresponse

spontaneous

phonal singing.

statement

so

as

to

meet

or

specific

such as the immaturity of the


taught.
In bibUcal
interpretationcertain apparently
crude
conceptionsfound in Scripture have been
explained on the ground that God accommodated
his revelation to the capacity of men
to receive it.

needs

person

or

conditions

to be

in the New
Misquotationsof the Old Testament
references of
have been similarlyexplained. The
considered by some
Jesus to demons
theologians
are
to be instances of accommodation.
In the 18th. century rationahstic theologians
carried the principle
to absurd
lengths,attempting
to find in the Bible their own
theology,and thus
explaining all features which are unacceptableto
modern
thinking as instances of accommodation.
Historical
interpretationtoday repudiates this
ings
attitude,and attempts to set forth the exact teachof the Bible as honest and straightforward
of a
rather than as accommodations
convictions,

system.
predeterminedtheological
In

the

church

Catholic

Roman

so-called

controversy" occurred in the


disapproved
the popes
17th. centuries,when
16th. and
sionaries
of the concessions made
by Jesuit mis-

"accommodation

ideas in India and China.


Smith
Birney
Gerald
edged
acknowlA religioussect which
authoritative head; as e.g., the
or

to current

ACEPHALI.

"

bishop
mediaeval Flagellants.
no

^An eastern order of ascetics of


ACOEMETAE.
the 5th. century, so designatedfrom their custom
of continuous prayer and praisenight and day.
"

of the highest of the


A member
ACOLYTE."
CathoUc
church, whose
minor orders in the Roman
duties are attendance on a priestperformingsome
the celebration of the mass.
rite especially
That
ACOSMISM."
that the universe
from the Absolute.
asserts

acceptance.

prophetic books and in the New


Testament, acceptance is dependent on moral right-

modification

The

ACCOMMODATION."

adjustment of

ACQUIRED
In

AND
the

type of pantheism which


has

no

real existence

CONGENITAL

study

of

apart

TERISTICS."
CHARAC-

heredity,

two

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

generalkinds of characters are recognized,namely,


those determined by the constitution of the "germ
plasm" and those acquired by the body during
its development. Germ
plasm is the essential
substance
and determines
of eggs and sperms,
the
fundamental
of the offspring. Acquired
structure
in response
tions
characters appear
to the varyingcondithat obtain during development. Formerly
it was
supposed that acquired characters might be
inherited and increased from generationto generation.
Weismann
the first to analyze the situation,
was
and to show that germ
and
plasm
body plasm
are
entirelydistinct. Germ
plasm gives rise to
body plasm, which in turn builds the body; but
from
plasm itself is continuous
generation
germ
to generation,
passing on what it has received from
previous generations. An acquired character is a
of the body plasm, and disappearswith
response
the body. It has no
influence upon
more
germ
the spring from
plasm than has a stream
upon
which
it has issued.
this point of view,
From
the body is simply a container of the germ
plasm,
and no
affects its constitution than does a
more
water
bag affect the constitution of the contained
It is beginning to be realized,however,
water.
that some
affect the
acquired characters
may
tion
organism so profoundlyas to influence the constituof the germ plasm. The body is a physiological
unity,so that while such an acquired character as
affect the germ
a
mutilation,for example, cannot
plasm, any character which profoundly affects the
include the germ
physiology of the body may
plasm in its effects. The conclusion is that while
in general acquired characters
not
are
inherited,
because
they involve only body structures, some
acquired characters may involve every regionof the
organism, includingthe germ plasm.
The problem concerns
ethics in so far as it is
desirable to ascertain what
be laid
stress should
the education
of the individual in view of the
on
factors in his inheritance.
John
M. Coulter

AND

ETHICS

Adamites

year'simprisonment for a second offense,and life


imprisonment for a third. Laymen
disturbing
worship or encouragingprieststo violate uniformity
liable
fines
to
and
were
imprisonment. A second
Act (1552) legalizedthe ecclesiastical censure
and
excommunication
of laymen, who
failed to attend
prayer on Sundays and holy days,and imposed upon
those attendingunauthorized
forms of worshippenalties
in the Act of 1549.
Elizabeth's Act of
the Edwardian
statute,
but to the penalty of ecclesiastical censure
added
fine levied by the church
wardens
for parish
a
With
the
restoration
of Charles
II
revenue.
(1662)the use of a revised prayer book in every place
of public worship was
made
bents
compulsory. Incumwere
required to make declaration of their
acceptance of the prayer book.
Universityteachers,
school masters
and
private tutors were
required
to accept the Liturgy and
the doctrine of nonresistance.
A bishop'slicense was
required of all
schoolmasters
and private tutors.
For refusingto
of clergymen lost their benefices
conform, hundreds
in the "Great
Eviction," and the Estabhshed
from
Church forced^
her fellowship much
of the
The
strongest religiousleadership of the age.
venticle
the Conas
statute, fortifiedby such legislation
and Corporation Acts (q.v.),
remained
in
force until the Toleration Act (q.v.)made
tial
substanmoderations.
Peter
G. Mode
much

as

Uniformity(1559) revived

ADAD.
An ancient storm-god of the Amorites,
known
in Palestine and Syria,who appears
as Hadad
later as an
important figure in the pantheon of
Babylonia as god of storms and rain. He is also
known
Rammon.
as
"

ADALBERT

OF

HAMBURG

BREMEN."

Archbishop from 1043 or 1045 to 1072; strove to


unify the church of Northern Europe with himself
as
patriarch,a plan frustrated by Rome.

ADALBERT,
SAINT, OF PRAGUE."
Bishop of
Prague, b. 950; forced to flee his see by papal
ACTA
MARTYRUM."
A collection of the biographies opposition; undertook a mission to the Prussians,by
of early Christian
latest
martyrs. The
whom
he was
murdered, 997; known as the "Apostle
is from
the
4th. century. Their
value
varies
and "Apostle of the Prussians."
of Bohemia"
according to the degree of legendary material
included.
ADAM.
Man, or Adam
a proper
name.
The word is used in Genesis,both as a generic
"

ACTA
collection of lives
SANCTORUM."
A
of the saints and information
concerning festivals,
etc., associated with them, made
subsequently
to the 4th. century.
The
literaryremains to be
included are so numerous
and the questionsinvolved
difficult that although the Bollandists
so
began
publicationin 1643 the collection is'notyet complete.
The lives are arranged according to the months
in
which a saint's feast is celebrated.

term

and

as

proper

name.

The

account

of

tion
crea-

deals with
according to the priestlydocument
the making
of man
from
who
clay by God
The account
breathed into him the breath of God.
then proceeds to treat the first created member
of
the human
race
as
possessing the name
Adam;
he was
how
from one
of his
given a mate made
ribs,how the two lived in a garden in innocence
until sin came
through temptation by the serpent
obeying
(q.v.)on the ground that the pair might by disGod
ACTION
moral
SERMON."
A sermon
immediately
get new
knowledge. This
precedingthe Lord's Supper in Scotch Presbyterian disobedience led to the exclusion of the pair from
because the Supper was
the garden and their being made
churches,so named
subjectto death.
nated
desigThere are many
"the Action."
Babylonian and other parallels
to the Hebrew
sets forth
story of Adam, but none
ACT
OF
GOD.
the problem of temptation and
such
An occurrence
considered insin with
evitably
because due to the operation of
beauty or psychologicalprecision.
necessary
tian
cosmic
forces from
which
the human
This Adam
of Genesis became
is
a figurein Chrisagency
both
from
entirelyabsent; used as an excuse
theology. As the actual progenitorof a race
for moral wrong
and (legally)
from civil
liability
begotten after the Fall he has been treated as the
of original
sin and his experienceand position
damages in courts of law.
source
been
have
determining factors in the orthodox
"

ACTS

OF

UNIFORMITY."

Enactments

to

uniformity of worship in the churches of


England.
mon
According to the first (1549) the Book of ComPrayer was to be used by all priestson penalty
of losinga year's revenue
from the benefice,and
six months'
imprisonment for a first offense,a
secure

of sin and

salvation.
Mathews
Shailer
ADAMITES.
obscure
An
sect originatingin
North
Africa in the 2nd. century, the members
of
of Adam
and
which
laid claim to the innocence
ordered their lives after their conception of Eden.
Neo-Adamites
in the Brethren
and Sisters of
arose
treatment

"

A DICTIONARY

Adapa

the Free Spiritof the 13th. century and the


of the 14th. century.

OF

AND

RELIGION

Beghards

associated with

been

physical and

ADAPA.
A figure of Babylonian mythology,
favorite of Ea, who
and
offered the bread
was
of life by the gods but through a misunderwater
standing
refused it and forfeited immortality.
"

ADELOPHAGI."
A 4th. century sect,who held
that Christians should eat in secret,supposedly in
imitation of the prophets.

ETHICS
it.

Recent

studies

of

the

changes of this period have


confirmed
the commonly
accepted view of its
less a well marked
or
being more
epoch in human
development.
Physical changes. These are
more
definitely
determined
than the mental, social and religious.
They consist in greatly accelerated bodily growth
in both
height and weight. The
reproductive
mental

"

organs

increase

in

size and

come

to

functional

the second
maturity; the skin becomes
coarser,
molars
lung capacity increases greatly,
appear,
ing
ADIAPHORA.
A word of Greek origindenotactions or rites which
neither positively especiallyin boys, the heart enlargesrapidly,the
are
voice changes.
commanded
nor
positivelyforbidden,hence liberty
Mental
changes. The
physical changes are
of opinion and action must
ever
be recognized. Wherassociated
with
a
definitely
rapid and striking
the attempt is made
to organize religionor
enlargement of the mental life. Children of normal
ethics in terms
of a complete legal system such
the whole
better
on
of perplexity pubertal development are
morally indifferent items are a source
successful in their
developed mentally and more
and give rise to controversy. See Adiaphokistic
"

"

school

Controversies.

work
than are
the immature
of the same
than
those whose
physical development
has been
unduly deferred. The sexual ripening
bringsan entirelynew outlook upon fife. The earning
instinct looms large in the boy and the homemaking instinct in the girl. "The type of play
age

ADIAPHORISTIC
ing
DurCONTROVERSIES."
the Protestant
Reformation
an
attempt was
made
Charles V., to reunite the
by the emperor,
Catholic
and
the Lutheran
bodies.
burg
(See AugsInterim; Leipzig
Interim.) Necessarily
cism
this involved countenancing certain rites of CatholiLuther
had repudiated (Latin Mass,
which
ship
candles,fasts,etc.) Those who, under the leaderfavored
of Melanchthon
granting libertyof
called
versy
contropractice were
Adiaphorists. The
continued
until the Formula
of Concord
(1577) decided in favor of the stricter view.
second
A
controversy called by this name
occurred in the 17th. century over
the question of
"doubtful
amusements," the Pietists contending
for the more
puritanicalpositionagainst the conventional
Lutherans.
Gerald
Birney
Smith
ADIBUDDHA.

A name
Buddha

used
from

to refer to the
whose
of
acts
meditation
by emanation, the five great
come,
Buddhas
and
through them the lower orders of
divine and earthly existence.
He seems
to have
at times the character of a personalGod, at others
to be the pantheistic
world-ground.
"

essential,eternal

ADITI.
A word
used
divine name
in
as
a
Vedic reUgion meaning "the Boundless,"important
as
indicatingthe early drift from polytheism to an
abstract unity in Indian theology.
"

ADITYAS.
A group
of shining
Vedic religion
often identified with the
"

gods of the
planets.

An
mand,
urgent entreaty or comre-enforced
by coupling with it an oath.
For its use
in Scripturesee Matt. 26:63 and Mark
Catholic
5:7.
In Roman
devils
usage,
may be
exorcized by adjuring them
in the name
of the
Lord Jesus Christ.
In the Roman
ritual there are
other forms of adjuration,
used especiallyin the
of baptism.
sacrament

ADJURATION.

"

ADMONITION."

discipline,
public or
reinstatement
or
of the culpable.
ADOLESCENCE."

Gentle reproof; a method


of
private,aiming at either the

the

eventual

That

excommunication

period

of

human

the
development extending from
beginning of
pubertyto complete adult maturity.
the nations
Among all primitivepeoples,among
of antiquity and in practicallyall religioussects
this period has received special attention as an
important transition stage between childhood and
adult life. Various
initiation ceremonies, special
educational regimens and religious
efforts have

or

changes, new
companions are sought, new
hkings,
and emotions
make
tendencies,enthusiasms
over
life." The
the whole
central tendency of these
changes appears to be near the fifteenthor sixteenth
Ambition
for the future,periods of elation
year.
and depression,
and great
great dreaminess in some
exuberance
of physical and
mental
activity in
others, tempestuous passions, and in the later
teens a marked
and
ethical,
developmentof social,
reUgious impulses appear to be quite common.
to occupy
a
Friendshipcomes
large place in the
to good or
to bad
youth's life,his susceptibility
social influences is especially marked.
In the
later adolescent years philosophic
speculationand
This may
lead
rehgious doubts appear in some.
either to a cynicalindifference to all higher values
idealism and an enor to a lifepermeated by a lofty
thusiasm
to serve
humanity in some
far-reaching
way.
of the adolescent often leads
The
exuberance
him into clashes with the conventional
restrictions
and school,resulting,
of home
in the case
of the
less "storm
intense natures, in more
and
more
or
stress."
Inductive studies of youth lead,however,
that proper
to the view
guidance and a not too
should
result in a
repressivesocial environment
steady growth rather than in one marked by sudden
and
transitions.
Unfavorable
and
tempestuous
ties
repressiveenvironments
produce various abnormaliin adolescent
such as are s"en characteristically
and insanity. In the former the impulse
criminality
and in the latter the
to action breaks all bounds
self-centered,subjective,loses all
youth becomes
of practical
expression and develops some
power
form of dementia precox.
Practical phases. The securing of normal
sex
tion
development is the most vital problem. Instrucin the hygiene of the sex life is coming to be
hfe tends in many
regarded as essential. Modern
the youth, and common
to overstimulate
mercialized
comways
flourish through their
amusements
astrous
exploitationof the normal sex interests with disresults.
On the side of generalhygiene,plenty of physical
exertion,
exercise,proper food and rest, avoidance of overopportunity for normal social reactions,
and emphasis upon
service and work rather than a
life of pleasure or
of morbid
introspectionare
mend
indispensablegeneralrules. All authorities recomthat children of the same
degrees of physical
development, irrespectiveof chronological age,
be
grouped together for secular and religious
instruction.
"

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

the youth
and religiousphases. While
Moral
iadifferent to such matters, there is
often seems
evidence in the latter half of the adolescent period
interest in the largerproblems of
of a deep-seated
hfe and of right living. Special attention should
education
therefore be given to moral and religious
be established.
in order that suitable ideals may
Religiousconversions are more
frequent in middle
and
than
other time.
at any
later adolescence
Many studies indicate that ideals and ambitions
acquired in these years tend to become the permanent
Irving
Kino
possessionsof the adult.
"

ETHICS

AND

Advocate

thought and being; that the one indefinable reality


miderlying all existence is Brahman.

ADVENT.
A term used to describe:
1. The
Incarnation
the coming of the Son
as
of God into the world through the Virgin birth.
Second
2. The
of Jesus
Advent, the return
Christ from heaven to carry on his Messianic work.
See Parousia.
3. A feast celebrated
the first season
of the
church year as a preparation for Christmas.
It
began originallyin different months
according to
the practicesof the different churches.
In the
ADONIS.
The youth beloved by Aphrodite in
church
the Advent
western
begins on the
season
the
Greek
form
of the
mystery-symbolism of
Sunday nearest to St. Andrew's Day, November
30,
and resurrection.
See Mother
Goddesses.
and
four Sundays devoted
contains
fertility
respectively
to the Second
and
Coming, the Bible,the Ministry,
ADOPTIANISM."
the Incarnation
(1)A theory current among
(inthe Anglican Church).
certain Christians of the second and third centuries
Shailer
Mathews
in nature a man
that Jesus Christ was
who became
ADVENTISTS."
The general name
for a number
the Son of God only by adoption. (2)A heresywhich
of religious
bodies who believe in the imminent
and
Frankish
in
the
8th.
in
of
Jesus
Christ
to the earth.
appeared
Spanish
bodily return
century
The
Adventists
founded
Miller
officially
were
suppressed in 799,
churches, and was
by Wm.
until 860.
This
in 1816,and were
(q.v.)
though traces of it continued
generallycalled "Millerites."
the
The
form
Adventists
of adoptianism distinguished between
of
are
grouped in a number
divine Christ and the human
Christ, the former
organizationsusuallycongregationalin goveriunent.
Of these the Life and Advent Union and the Church
being the real, and the latter the adopted, Son
of God.
each numbers
less than a thousand
ofGod (Adventist)
tive
members, and may be disregardedexcept as indicaof the tendency of the group
ADOPTION,"
to divide and
legal procedure by
(1) The
tion
which an adult person assumes
to a minor the relaorganize independent bodies on the basis of some
of parent to child.
detail.
eschatological
(2)Analogously, the act
ship
1. The
most
important of the bodies is the
whereby God receives the behever into the relationSeventh Day Adventist.
Unlike
of child,a figureoriginatingin the PauUne
other Adventists
literature.
they observe the Seventh Day in place of Sunday.
They are. premillenarian,hold to the sleep of the
ADORATION."
feet washing in connection
tion
dead, practicetithing,
(1) An attitude,act or emoand awe
of deep admiration
Their
leadingto special with the Lord's Supper, and immersion.
most
Mrs. Ellen G. White,
or
important teacher was
applicable to God and to persons
reverence,
such as
to whom
of
objects with specialrehgious significance
they attribute inspirationand powers
the Virgin Mary, saints,martyrs, the crucifix or
prophecy. Their
organization is unlike other
bodies in that it is presbyterianrather
the host.
Adventist
(2) The worshipful recognition of a
than congregational. They are particularly
careful
newly elected pope by the cardinals.
of health,especiallyas affected by food, and have
of six popes.
established a number
ADRIAN.
The name
of sanitaria.
Their ministry
is composed of evangelists.They have 7 colleges
Adrian
and
I.,Pope 772-795; a contemporary of
he had several struggles seminaries,
of papers, and maintain
Charlemagne with whom
publisha number
1 hey have 87,583 members.
foreignmissions.
regarding the extent of his temporal power.
2. Advent Christians separated from the EvanAdrian II.,Pope 867-872.
gelical
Adventists in 1855 because
Adrian III.,Pope 884-885.
of a difference
in belief as to immortality of the soul. The former,
Adrian IV. (NicholasBreakspeare),Pope 1154holding that immortality is a result of regeneration,
being
1159; the only English pope, his pontificate
marked
and that all unregenerate are
to be annihilated,
by a stormy conflict with Frederick BarAdvent
Christian
the
as
organized themselves
Adrian
V., Pope July 12 to August 18, 1276, Church.
They have 1 college,1 school of theology,
but died before his ordination.
and
publish several papers.
They have 30,597
members.
Adrian
VI., Pope 1522-1523, during the time
of Luther, who endeavored
to reunite Christendom
The
small
are
now
a
Evangelical Adventists
the common
by acknowledging the evils of papal rule and
body holding to what are essentially
time insisting positions
of premillenarianChristiani"^y.
promising reforms,while at the same
small
the elimination of Luther.
of God
in Christ are
3. The Churches
on
a
believe in the restitution
of Adventists
who
group
tween of all things by God, including the establishment
ADULTERY.
Legally, sexual intercourse beis married to a third
of a Jewish state in Jerusalem.
of whom
one
They have 3,457
persons
moral unfaithfulness to God,
members.
Figuratively,
person.
as
appliedby the prophets to the nation Israel.
In the world religions,
defends
two motives underlie the
who
ADVOCATE.
One
cause
or
a
a
aversion to adultery: (1) the desire to protect the
person before a judicialtribunal.
wife as the husband's
the penitentand believing
In Christian doctrine,
property; (2) the need of
guarding the status of the familyor caste.
Morally, sinner finds in Jesus Christ an advocate before the
cessory
and
adulteryinvolves a lack of sexual self-control,
judgment seat of God
(I John 2:1). The interis condemned
work
of Christ has been thus interpreted.
along with other forms of unrestrained
Advocate
sexual indulgence.
The Holy Spiritis also called an
(e.g.,
John
14:16), although the word paracletein the
ADVAITA.
A doctrine of the Vedanta
losophy4th. gospelis often translated "comforter."
phiof India which maintains
Catholic church, the ceremony
that there is no
In the Roman
dualism of spiritand matter, self and the world. of beatification or of canonization requiresa '"devil's
"

"

"

"

"

"

DICTIONARY

Advowson

OF

RELIGION

advocate"
{advocalusdiaboli) whose duty it is to
serious consideration of all possible
objections
against the proposed action. His arguments are
answered
by "God's advocate" (advocalusDei).
Smith
Gerald
Birney
The
ADVOWSON."
legalright of naming an
ecclesiastical
vacant
incumbent
to a church
or
a
benefice in England. See Benefice.
secure

The
RELIGION."
AEGEAN
reUgion of the
in
islands of the Mediterranean
lands and
coast
the prehistoric
age, often referred to as the period
Cretan excavaculture.
tions
of Mycenaean or Minoan
indicate that the central figuresof the rehgion
unmarried
an
were
goddess,symbol of fertihtyand
to life again.
and her son
who dies and comes
life,
divine names
The
were
probably Rhea and Zeus.
See Mother

Goddesses.

EGIS."
In Greek
AEGIS
or
shield given by Zeus to Apollo and
influence.
or
any protectingpower

mythology, the
Athena; hence,

AEON.
(1) A term used to describe a group
from Absolute
of successive emanations
Being by
to the
which
the spiritualor divine is mediated
material world.
(SeeGnosticism.) (2)The Greek
word for an indefinite period of time constituting
0,
cosmic cycleor epoch. See Age.
"

of a group
of gods
AESIR
(ASA). The name
of the Teutonic
pantheon under the leadershipof
Odin, the All-Father.
"

'

AESTHETICISM
to

or

of moral

forms, implying the


values to beauty.

fined
deis commonly
Aesthetics
AESTHETICS."
In this case,
the science of the beautiful.
as
be taken in the broad sense
must
however, beautiful
as
including the sublime, comic, tragic,pathetic,
ugly, etc. Originallyused by Baumgarten in his
Aesthetica
(1750-58) to signify the science of

knowledge, supplementary and_parallel


the science of clear thinkingor the intellect.
logic,
As the excellence of clear thinking is truth,so the
held to be
perfectionof sensuous
knowledge was
beauty.
sensuous

to

Modern

aesthetics deals

on

the

one

ETHIC,"^

characteristicsall involved in varying degree in

heightened emotion and thrillwhich is contemplative


rather than practical,
and which regards
its object as quasi-personal.This latter aspect is
what
is called Einfuhlung or empathy. When
we
is strong,""the mountain
rises from
say "the tower
the plain,""the tree is graceful,"
etc.,we illustrate
this attitude.
The most
studies
recent
significant
state of

in the field of art are those which show hkewise its


social origins and
art seems
significance.Much
to serve
enhancement
of emotion
by re-echoing
the individual's own
feeling. James H. Tufts
AETHER
ancient Greek

ETHER."
(1) A term appearing ia
hterature descriptive
of cosmological
theory, being a fifth element in addition to earth,
air,fire and water, and the substance of which stars
are
composed. In Stoicism
(q.v.) aether was
described as creative fire and identified with God.
science ether is a hypothetical
(2) In modern
physicalmedium
pervading all space and servingto
transmit energy, as, e.g., lightwaves.
or

AETIOLOGY
ETIOLOGY."
The
science of
or
efficient or physicalcauses, in contrast with explanations
in terms
of purpose,
final causes;
the
or
ence
explanation of the phenomenal universe by referto a First Cause.
AFFIRMATION."
The solemn declaration made
before a magistrate or other official by persons
having conscientious objectionsto taking a judicial
oath, such as Quakers. It is accepted as a legal
equivalentof an oath.

tion
Devo-

ESTHETICISM."

beauty in its sensuous

subordination

AND

hand

with

problems of aesthetic appreciation,on the other


aesthetic
with those of artistic production. Under
appreciationfalls (1) the study of the psychology
of aesthetic feelingand imagination,
and
(2) an
analysisof the characteristicsor essential qualities
of the aesthetic as contrasted with the spheres of
"Study of
logic,ethics,economics, etc. Under
Art Production"
fall (1)study of originand development
of art,
of art, (2) the end of essential nature
and (3)the relation of art to other activities and to
the progress of civiUzation.
Plato's discussions of art were
chieflyfrom a
moral and educational
point of view, and beauty
played an important role in his metaphysical
Aristotle's Poetics laid the found.ation
system.
of
philosophical analysis of tragedy. Kant's
Critiqueof the Aesthetic Judgment was the beginning
of a treatment
of art problems largelymetaphysical
in interest and method
which
continued by
was
Schelling,Hegel, Vischer and others. The more
of psychological,
and
modern
treatment
makes
use
to a considerable
degree of experimental,studies.
Instead of settingup some
one
singlecharacteristic
such as (a) unity and variety,or
the essential,
as
(6) perfectionfor contemplation,or (c)shareableplexity
ness, the tendency is rather to recognizethe comof aesthetic feehng and to find its important

MISSIONS
TO."
its
AFRICA,
Apart from
edges and a limited penetrationof its southern
both a "dark"
portion Africa remained essentially
outer

and
"closed"
Continent
till 1875.
The
heroic
but fruitlessefforts of Raymond
Lull to win the
Moslems
of Tunis to Christianity
ended only with
his death in 1315.
The
15th. and 16th. centuries
witnessed the ineffective attempts of the great
Orders,working in conjunctionwith the Portuguese,
to win the Congo region for Rome.
Ecclesiastical
connivance
with the slave trafficserved as a serious
handicap to these efforts. The Dutch, who reached
South Africa in the 17th. century made
only a
The
the natives.
late
feint at missions
among
18th. century found the Moravians
in South- West
nent
Africa.
The actual opening of the African Contiwestern
to the impact of Christianityand
civiUzation was
first accompHshed by Livingstone
mented
(q.v.),whose epoch-making explorations,suppleby those of Stanley,penetrated the heart
mately
and ultiof Africa,blazing the trail for commerce
the suppressionof the slave traffic. They
sionary
also served as a powerful inspirationto the misfactor
a
impulse which was so significant
in Livingstone himself.
They led also to the
mobilization of forces and the creation of new
missionary agencies for the Christian conquest of
the
The
Africa.
past half century has witnessed
by well
penetrationand occupation of vast areas
steadily increasing missionary
organized and
organizations. For the sake of convenience,modern
be grouped in the following
missions in Africa may

geographicalareas.
In Egypt the
is that directed
of the ancient
toward
the revitahzation
Coptic
The
United
Church.
Presbyterianshave a chain
and Cairo
Alexandria
of stations extending from
and Colportage
Education
to the Nile Cataracts.
difficult
most
are
especiallyemphasized. The
problem in Egypt, the Soudan, and the French,
Africa is
and Spanish territories of North
ItaUan
I. Egypt

most

and

North

Africa.

missionary work
significant

"

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Africa, Religions of

United Free, and the Church


in the vast Moslem
of Scotland Missions
population. No
either by
has as yet been made
(1875-76),the Church
(1875),and London
(1877)
found
The
latter have
Catholics or Protestants.
Missionary Societies. The LivingstoniaInstitution
effective
instrument
is
of
most
missions
their
the
chief
one
medical
(1875),Nyasaland,
centers
for
industrial training. Of all the missions in Africa
in evangelization(Cairo,Khartum, Morocco),
the
is
romantic
entire coast
in inception,or phenomenal
none
Africa.
II. West
more
Including
in growth than that in Uganda.
and hinterland from the Senegal River to German
Beginning in 1875
This
Africa.
South-West
territory is occupied in response to Stanley's appeal, it has enrolled
of the greatest names
in the missionary
some
by France, Britain, Belgium, and Portugal. In
Catholic
Continent
and Portugese possessionsRoman
French
history of the Dark
(Hannington,
former
d. 1885; Mackay, d. 1890). Its missionary force
Missions
predominate. In British and
of ca.
German
100 foreign,and ca.
possessions (Togoland, the Cameroons)
3,000 native workers
work
is in the ascendancy. Among
conducts
Protestant
a
dispensary,and schools
press, hospital,
be
enrolhng over
early 19th. century missions in this region may
90,000.
UnUke
India
named
those of the Wesleyan, Church
Missionary,
or
China, with their ancient
Basel
of the
The
missions
and
Basel Societies.
civilizations,
philosophiesand religious,Africa
Board
(Angola) emphasize
Society and the American
presents the problem of a vast congeriesof tribes on
Christian missions in this region
the lowest plane of culture,and bound
education.
by the most
have faced peculiardifficulties: a deadly chmate,
future
of
success
degrading superstition.The
compelling the employment of native leadership missions in Africa appears to lie in education,
lem
the Mosfor this responsibility;
often ill-prepared
especiallyindustrial education, and the raisingup
of a trained Christian leadership. It is generally
today constitutingthe Equator as
menace,
of conflict between
the zone
Christianityand the
recognizedthat the key to the future of Christianity
from
the
Mohammedan
tide sweeping southward
in Africa lies in the conversion
of certain particularly
virile tribes (Hausas of Nigeria; Zulus of
Soudan; the liquortraffic;the intricate complex
of tribes (117 represented in Sierra Leone
alone) Natal, etc.),and the winning of the Continent
with
the
linguisticproblems herein involved.
through them.
Missionary statistics (approximate)
Of these the Moslem
follows : Societies at work, 119; total foreign
are
as
problem is by far the most
serious.
else in the world, Christianity staff, ca.
As nowhere
5,365; residence stations ca.
1,485;
here meet in a lifeand death
native staff ca. 29,700; organizedchurches ca. 6,770;
and Mohammedanism
To
communicants
ca.
baptized nonstruggle for the conquest of a Continent.
729,000;
sionariescommunicants
this oncoming tide there are some
400 mismeet
(including children) 503,000;
societies
others under
Protestant
Christian instruction 543,000; enrolled
representing 15
in Sunday
in the Congo region. A more
recent
Schools
problem has
338,000; enrolled in
schools of all grades 725,000; medical missions 121.
out of the Great War, followed as it was
by
grown
H. Walker
Henry
Germany's loss of her African Colonies,the enforced
the
of most
of her missionaries,and
retirement
OF."
The
native religions
AFRICA, RELIGIONS
of their work
of Africa are found chiefly
the Negroes
consequent redistribution
among
among
and
missionary societies.Catholic
Protestant, of the West Coast and the Bantus of Central and
the institutions
Africa.
of Britain and
France.
South
North
and
North-east
Africa
Among
under the
engaged in raisingup an adequate native leadership includingthe Sudan have largelycome
be mentioned
should
Fourah
and
Christianity
Bay College (Sierra influence of Mohammedanism
has a hold in the two
of the continent.
extremes
Leone). In Angola and elsewhere both Romanists
While
and Protestants
Mohammedanism
has approached at some
are
employing industrial missions
of propagandism.
as
a means
pointsto within a few hundred miles of the equator
III. South
The work of the German
and while Christian missions are representedin all
Africa.
missions in South- West
Africa has been seriously the pohtical divisions of the land, the vast bulk
curtailed in the territorial readjustments following of the Negroes and Bantus
but littleinfluenced
are
missions
the War.
In South Africa proper modern
though
as
yet by either of the two militant rehgions. Althe Negroes, the Bantus, the Hottentots,
began a century ago when the Anglicans took up
ship.
the work which has given them a positionof leaderand the Bushmen
of sepacomprise a vast number
rate
tribes differing
This has been
in language, cultural level,and
ably supplemented by the
American
and
London
the
politicaldevelopment,yet it is possibleto make
Missionary Society
man
out the outstanding characteristic features of the
Board
Wesleyan, Scottish,Ger(Congregational),
and
Scandinavian
Societies,over
thirty religionsof the primitiveraces of Africa as all of
organizations in all now
laboring in this field. these may be justlytermed.
The
best understood
The names
of Livingstoneand Moffat are indelibly
religiouspractices are
of South
Africa.
after a consideration of the main features of their
stamped on the missionary map
of Scotland
The United
has made
social and political
Free Church
and cannot
prehended
a
life,
reallybe comnotable contribution
units are
to the problem of industrial
apart from it. The political
education
Lovedale
at
for the most
(1824) and Blythswood
part small, the separate tribes are
with the
(1877). Lovedale, the largestChristian industrial
isolated,there is a total lack of literacy,
in South
center
result that the political
Africa, draws its students from
genius of the able leaders,
obstacles
and
contributes
its graduates to, every
which cannot
be denied, has insuperable
part of
South
Africa.
The
latter serve
as
ministers, to overcome.
Slavery is all but universal,and
But
catechists, teachers, tradesmen, farmers, etc.
polygamy prevailsas a natural consequence.
The
American
labors among
Board
the Zulus in
ruler is absolute,a sort of feudaUsm
prevaihng
no
Natal
to
where superficially
the despoticchief seems
(1834). Its extensive educational work, as
even
illustrated in Amanzimtote
dustrial
Inhave
absolute
Seminary and
Diplomatic skill is highly
power.
School is aided by substantial government
esteemed
and the art of oratory is cultivated and
grants.
greatly prized. While wandering hunting tribes
IV. East and
Central
Africa.
The exploranot
pastoraltribes
are
wholly wanting and some
tions
of Livingstone (Nyasaland) and
are
Stanley
found, yet for the most part they are settled
warlike and the slave
(Uganda) led to the opening of this territory
and agricultural.All are
to
missionary effort. The Universities' Mission, 1861
to be both indigenous.
raid and the slave trade seem
(Anglican),was
organized in direct response
to
They have a very high degree of control over their
Livmgstone'sappeal. This was followed by the
the forces of natm'e
children but their control over
that involved

significant
progress

"

"

"

Africa,Religions of

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

is

slight. Their main


dependence is on
very
magic, and superstitiontakes the place of science.
The
rehgion of such a people impresses the
civihzed observer on first contact
mainly by its
sacred literature,
no
negations. There is of course
there are
no
temples or sacred meeting places,
of a formal sort, no worship as civilized
no
prayer
people define worship, no prieststrictlyspeaking,

be called
spiritof the departed. This also can
rehgious.
The question of the ordeal is not so easy.
It
is universallypracticed but usually as an integral
part of a formal judicialprocedure. Africans are
trials and among
them
very fond of court
judicial
procedure has developed farther than among
any
other primitive people. Almost
everywhere there
is an orderlyprocedure before constituted tribunals.
for the "witch-doctor"
is very
different from
a
Within this procedure the ordeal is often a merely
minister of religion,
and finally
there are no "idols."
technical device,analogous to the "third degree
Nevertheless, there is a religion. Or rather
the different peoples have each a group
of practices of the modern
police.
and observances
which
to be identified with
are
Totemism, which characterizes Australian and
North American
the reUgious life. If we
define rehgion as that
Indian life,
is difficult to Irace in
the African culture.
There are, indeed,some
facts
type of behavior in which the ideals and ultimate
which
defined and made
ends of the group
to indicate
seem
that they have
are
real,then
passed
it is in the ceremonials that are so frequent a phase
form of totemic organization,
through some
but,as
should look for the typical now
of African hfe that we
existing,the institution of totemism
plays no
manifestations
of
ceremonials
religion. These
importantpart either in the reUgious or social Ufe.
manifold.
Tabu
in the
birth,marriage,death,
They concern
are
Quite otherwise is it with tabu.
of being forbidden, unclean, harmful, is
sense
seedtime, harvest, rainpuberty and initiation,
encountered
hand.
There
is also the
fishing,hunting, war
on
making and rain prevention,
every
and peace, crime and punishment, and in fact all
conception of tabu as belonging to a specific
owner,
the crises of their life.
such as the chief,and the wizard.
Each
tribe has
social
certain
food
ceremonials
The
animals
that
the
and
within
are
are
characteristically
tabu,
and for the most
tribe there will be tabus for the men,
others for the
part public in nature and appear
Chief among
in many
forms.
these is the cerewhile special families will have
monial
family
women,
dance.
This may
be one
of three forms:
tabus of diet,and individuals have Ufe-longinjunctions
it has
case
a
preparatory ceremonial, in which
concerning food, the eating of which wiU be
or
magical influence such as a hunting dance which
perhaps fatal. There are also
very harmful
the game
more
actually makes
easily caught;
temporary tabus of food, tabud clothing,tabud
or
a
subsequent celebration in which the natural
places,articles,and seasons, as well as persons,
emotions
following a successful enterprise are
rulers,and relations. The social attitudes toward
the tabus vary greatlybut in some
instances the
given vent; or a third stage in which the dances
_

become
celebrations
entertainment.
and
mere
The religious
becomes
trations
the festival. Illusceremony
ance
of this tendency may be found in the observin America
of Hallowe'en
no
longer a serious
reUgiousfestival but in some
respects like a carnival.
It is not easy to make a clear distinction between
magic and religionand the questionis one on which
the experts in the field are at present not in agreement.
But if we
try to think of the preparatory
certain
effort
to
as
a
secure
practical
ceremony
and then of the subsequent ceremony
results,
(such
of victory)as a spontaneous expression,
as the dance
it is possibleto isolate a state of feelingand a type
of behavior in which the ideal interests of the tribe
will receive definition and emotional
emphasis in
the exalted moments
of such a social celebration.
Other types of ceremonial
besides the dances
in the initiation of adolescent
to be found
are
boys into the tribe and corresponding formaUties
of puberty in girls.
connected with the advent
It is too much
perhaps to identifythis with the
conversion experienceof some
Protestant churches
the confirmation
or
but the seriousness
ceremony,
with which
all parties to the transaction
regard
the whole procedure and the high emotional
tone
which
makes
it
characterizes the
community
necessary to include this also as religious. Of the
same
generalnature are the ceremonies surrounding
the inauguration of a chief with its precautions
"

tabu

is treated with the greatest reverence


and
It is not easy to make
out any moral quality
and there is no connection
between
the tabu and
the sacred or morally holy such as can be made
out
in the Greek and Hebrew
aries
reUgions. The missionusually find the word for tabu unsuitable for
reUgious ideas they wish to impart to their
any
awe.

converts.

of
the
left
deceased, slaves and
unburied, while chiefs and their relatives receive
the greatest care.
Doubtless
motive is that of
one
ostentation and pride; for a costlyfuneral testifies
not only to the affection for the deceased
but also
to the power and wealth of the survivors.
Mackay
records how
he made
coffin for the
an
enormous
mother
of Mutesa
into whose
there went
grave
trade cloth to the value of $75,000. But
there
is also the feehng of fear and the desire for caution

Another
universal phenomenon
is the fetish or
It appears
both as an amulet
to keep off
evil and as a taUsman
to bring desirable results.
fetishes
Here again the variation is great. Some
are
private,and untried with little to make
new,
them
prized, others are very old, very powerful,
feared or both.
In some
and greatly esteemed
or
parts of the continent the fetish is in the form of
a human
being but this is not essential and is thethis fact that led early writers
exception. It was
to speak of the fetishes as gods or idols and to speak
of fetishism as if it were
a
system or a reUgion.
of the many
It is better to regard the fetish as one
and varying
devices for controlUng the environment
from triviallymagical to profoundly
all the way
emotional and sociallyimportant devices.
Thus far nothing has been said of the beliefs of
There is the very greatest confusion
the Africans.
and the
in the writingsof the earlier investigators
has no
is now
reason
plain. T|ie primitive man
definite
religiousdoctrines which are in any sense
theologiesbecause
and systematic. There
no
are
there are no sects,no parties,no debates or arguments
about such conceptions. Their cosmologies
stillin the stage of folk-lore and folk-lore is stiU
are
feels free to embelUsh.
each narrator
art which
There is a universal belief in ghosts,and a sort of
one
primitive mysticism is imiversal. But when
for God
and the
attempts to get specificnames
devil,or definite doctrines about the fate of the good
realized
and the bad in the next world,it is soon
men
that the search is vain.
aries
One result of this situation is that the missionwhether
Mohanaof the developed religions,

and securitywhich

medan

and solemnity.
Funeral
attention

customs

depends

greatly. The amount


prominence of
strangers being often

vary

on

the

secures

the friendlinessof the

charm.

or

Christian,never

encounter

any

systematic

DICTIONARY

RELIGION

OF

representcrude
opposition.Primitive religions

and

to

the

meet

"

Jerusalem
(Acts 2:42, 46), as an
It was
brotherliness.
expression of Christian
easilytransferred to the Gentile churches because

originatedat

similar meals
world.
Roman
If it is the

common

were

in

the

Greek

and

Agape which is mentioned in I Cor.


conclude
that each
should
11:20-34, we
person
on
brought food as he was able; but of the custom
have no certain
this point in subsequent times we
early writers
knowledge. It appsars from some
(e.g.,Tertullian and the Apostohc Constitutions)
in
remembered
that,at the Agape, tha needy were

practical
ways.
the
Gentile converts
less pronounced pagan
the church's
supreme

Among

Agape took

on

This
character.
fact and
regard for the
Eucharist
led,perhaps as early as Justin Martyr,
first,to the separation of the Agape from the
of the Lord's Supper, and then to its
sacrament
Synod of Laodicea
gradual suppression.The
(ca.363) forbade holding the Agape in churches,
and the Council of Carthage (419) declared that,
the people were
to be kept from
far as possible,
as
still
these feasts. But here and there the custom
See also Eucharist.
for centuries.
persisted
George
Gilbert
Holley
Monks
and nuns
and AGAPETAE."
AGAPETI
while professing
of the early Middle
Ages who
celibacydwelt together in holy love. The practise
was
suppressedby the Lateran Council, 1139.
more

or

AGAPETUS."

The

name

of two

popes.

Agapelus I., 535-536; chiefly noted for his


rigorous defence of orthodoxy;canonized by the
church, his festival occurringSeptember 20.
Agapelus II.,946-955.
AGATHA,
the Western
in the 3rd.

Virgin and martyr listed in


calendar, who lived in Sicily
saint of Catania,
century. Patron

ST."
church

Sicily.
AGATHO."
Monothelite

Pope, 678-681,
controversy.

Agnosticism

After
the Judgment
Day the final or
Age-status of sufferingfor the evil and happiness
for the good would
begin.
used in the plural,as the
The word is sometimes
of expressingendless
Ages of Ages, for the purpose

lished.

ills of life.
Their adherents are quick to accept a better way.
Faris
Ellsworth
The name
of a social reUgious meal
AGAPE.
widely and variouslycelebrated in the early church.
Its association with the Lord's Supper was probably
due to the fact that the First Supper had been
to have
connected with a feast. This meal seems

unsuccessful attempts

ETHICS

AND

active

in

duration

of time.

Shailer

Mathews

The age which has been


AGE, CANONICAL."
fixed by the canons
decisions of the church for
or
the ordinationof an officialor for the execution of
The
specificact.
(of
Synod of Neocaesarea
any
tion
314 or 325) firstfixed the canonical age for ordinaof a priest at 30, correspondingto Jesus'
entry upon his pubhc ministry. The final decisions
of the Roman
Catholic church
those of the
were
Council of Trent (1563) which fixed the canonical
at 23,
age for ordination of a priestat 24, a deacon
cal
The canoniat 22, and a bishop at 30.
a subdeacon
of discretion for children is 7 when
they
age
The
under
the disciplineof the church.
come
canonical age for marriage is 14 in boys and 12 in
girls,with certain exceptions. The age for the
observance
of fasts is 21-60.

CONSENT."
The
which
at
age
law.
If a
be contracted by common
be prosecuted
that age, a man
may
to intercourse.
for rape, even
though she consents
In Europe
The age varies in different countries.
The American
it ranges from 12 to 18 for females.
states formerly fixed the age at 12 years for girls,
but moral education
has stimulated
pubUc opinion
to demand
greater legalprotection,and the age of
to 16
has been raised in a majority of cases
consent
K. Rowe
or 18 years
(inWyoming, 21). Henry
AGE

OF

marriage may
girl is below

A Christian girlwho suffered


AGNES, SAINT."
martyrdom in the persecutionsof Diocletian,in 304;
venerated
21 and
14,21, and

as

saint by the Latin

church

on

ary
Janu-

28, and by the Greek church on January


July 5. Patron saint of young maidens.

The fire-godof Vedi'creUgion. He is


AGNI.
of the three most important gods of the priestly
reUgion because of his essential relation to the
magical ritual of sacrifice.
"

one

AGNOETAE."
(1) A 4th. century sect which
limited the omniscience
of God
to present time.
cience
(2) A 6th. century sect which denied the omnisof Jesus.

the
AGNOSTICISM."

philosophicalattitude

asserting the impossibiUtyof knowledge beyond


the limits of verifiable experience, and
usually
expressing disapproval of any attempts to make
afl"rmations as to reaUty beyond these limits.
the
In science or philosophy agnosticism means
or
refusal to discuss metaphysical substances
of
causes, thus limitinginvestigationto the realm
verifiable experience. Usually agnosticism here
involves the restriction of inquiry to the observable

One of the elemental divisions into which


divided by the Jews.
According to Jewish speculation,subsequently
carried over
into Christianity,
there were
two
Ages
or
Aeons, the Present and the Coming. Between
the two were
the Days of the Messiah.
The
Present
Age was
regarded as under the
control of its prince,Satan, and abounded
in evils
inflicted on the servants
world or
identified
of events, either in the physical
of God, who were
sequences
with the Jews.
of consciousness,without entering
in the processes
In the Coming
Age the sovereign authority into speculationconcerning the hidden causes lying
of God would be established;evil doers,particularly back of these processes.;'
agnosticism
Rehgiousty,
the oppressors
be
of the Jewish
declares that the supersensibleobjects of faith,
people, would
fife after death,
such as God, incorporealspirits,
or
punished and the people of God be given the
td^exist.
blessingsattendant upon righteousnessand loyalty cannot be known
to Yahweh.
nate
Huxley brought the word into currency to desigattitude of ignorance as morallypreferable
According to the eschatological
conception (see
an
ism
Eschatology) of the time, the Coming Age would
to either reUgiousdogmatism or aggressivematerialbe introduced
of transcendent
in questions as to the nature
miraculously. The dead (at least
the righteous)would be raised from Sheol and with
reality. Herbert Spencer'sdefinition of the ultimate
those who
alive at its coming share in the
were
Energy from which all
realityas the Unknowable
the great
at
judgments and blessings accorded
things proceed,involves a degree of agnosticism;
assize with which the Coming Age was
but Spencer contended that men
to be estaba
assume
may

AGE.
time was

"

Agnus Dei

DICTIONARY

OF

positivereligiousattitude toward this Unknowable


in the form of cosmic mysticism. The Ritschlian
theology, following Kant, is to a certain extent
agnostic,holding that the objectsof rehgiousbelief
not
are
scientifically
demonstrable, faith alone
of their reality.
givingpracticalassurance
of the veto
Because
placed on metaphysical
discussion,agnosticism tends to give the right
of way
to
unquestionable physical facts, and
easilypasses over into avowed skepticismso far as
religionis concerned.
Romanes, in his Thoughts
cism
on
Religion,contended that an impartial agnostibeliefs are preferable
would show that religious
alternatives.
Recent
to any
logical
psychonon-religious
indicate
and epistemologicalinvestigations
is so complex
relation to environment
that our
between
be drawn
that no sharp dividing Une can
and vaguer
knowledge in the strict sense
sensory
apprehensions of reality. A certain degree of
agnosticism therefore is not incompatiblewith a
positiveinterpretationof religiousexperience.
Gerald

Birney

Smith

of God," a
(1)Lat.,"the Lamb
name
applied to Jesus. (2) The figureof a lamb
symboUzing Jesus,usuallybearing a banner and a
Catholic church
a
wax
cross.
(3) In the Roman
cake or medallion
bearing the impression of the
and blessed by the pope.
emblem
(4)In the Greek
used to cover
with this figure,
church a cloth marked
the elements of the Eucharist.
(5) A section of the
and of the Gloria beginningwith these words.
mass,
AGNUS

DEI."

AGRAPHA.
Sayings attributed to Jesus Christ
which are not to be found in our canonical literature,
but
carried along by oral tradition until
were
in some
writing.
finallyembodied
of canonical
variations
If misquotations or
not counted, these sayings
of Jesus are
utterances
not numerous
are
and, with the exceptionof possibly
a dozen
importance. Possibly
cases, of no particular
the most
interestingare:
1. "On the sapie day, having seen
working
one
if indeed
the Sabbath, he said to him, 'O man,
on
thou doest, thou art blessed;
thou knovvest what
but if thou knowest
not, thou are accursed and a
trangressor of the law.'"
'Ask great things,
2. "Jesus said to his disciples,
and ask
and the small shall be added
unto
you;
heavenly things and the earthly shall be added
"

unto

"

you.'

AND

RELIGION

ETHICS

10

At the time of sowing, the seed is stimulated by


phallicprocessions,by the use of obscene language
(India,Greece),by cursing(Greece),by incantation
formulae which command
the gods of food (Japan),
by mixing it with material of great potency such
as the seed of the last sheaf of the previousharvest,
human
of pigs devoured
or
blood, or remnants
by
snakes as in the Greek Thesmophoria (q.v.). The
growing crops are protectedby recitation of magical
rituals (Japan), processionsaround
the boundary
and sacrifices (Roman), by carryingthe image of the
deity around the fields (Germany, France, Peru).
There are many
magical arts for securing rain and
for making the stalks grow long. The great time of
the year is the harvest.
All over
the world the
first-fruits call for special ceremonies.
The
first
tion
grain is cut with great caution,often with lamentawho possesses specialpowers,
or
by someone
a
or
magician. The crop is made safe to eat
y offeringthe first fruits to the god, to the king,
chief or priests,
or
mon.
by a sacred meal shared in comThe last sheaf of the year embodies the cornspirit. It is called by such names
as
"cornmother,"
"the maiden," "the old woman," and becomes
the
of dancing and feasting. There is evidence
center
that at this time human
victims were
their
killed,
blood mingled with the first cakes baked from the
and eaten in a sacred meal (S.America).
new
corn
At this point the harvest festival merges
in the
great cult of vegetation at the autumnal
equinox
when
the waning life of the year is stimulated
by
special rites from which arise the great fertihty
and
the
goddesses (see Mother-Goddesses)

Eriest

Mysteries (q.v.).
The

elaborate development of the agricultural

most

rites is seen
in the state rehgion of China
where the whole splendor of the state ritual is concentrated
in spring,at seed-time,in times of drought,
and especiallyin the autumn
the one
object
upon
of securing prosperityby control of the powers
of
A. Eustace
Haydon
heaven, air,and earth.
AHIMSA.
A principlecommon
of the
to many
ascetic sects of India which forbids injury to any
form of sentient life;sometimes, as with the Jains,
carried to the extreme
of toleratingvermin.
"

AHIQAR,

THE

STORY

OF."

story of

the

versions of the Thousand


sage Ahiqar, found in some
ture,
and One Nights,derived from Syrian Christian litera-

and probably a part of the lost literature of


3. "Rightly, therefore, the Scripture in its
of the pre-Christianera.
desire to make
such dialecticians,
exhorts us:
the Aramaeans
Several
us
deities are mentioned
in it.
skilful money-changers,' rejecting some
Aramaean
'Be ye
things,but retainingwhat is good."
Mathews
The name
of a modern
Shailer
AHMADIYA.
reform
of India begun in
German
the Moslems
JOHANN."
theologian, movement
AGRICOLA,
among
claimed
Ahmad
who
to be the
1891 by Ghulam
1494-1566; noted chieflyas the originatorof the
the German
formers expected Madhi
Reof Islam, the returning Spiritof
antinomian
controversy among
of the Jews
and an
which
avatar
brought him into conflict with
Christ, the Messiah
and later with Luther.
is chieflya rehgious
Melanchthon
See Antiof Krishna.
The
movement
formalism.
There
are
nomianism.
protest against Moslem
at the present time.
70,000 members
RITES
OF."
In the narrow
AGRICULTURE,
The
rites deal with the technique of
AHRIMAN.
sense
principleof evil
agricultural
personified
the soil,
in the Zoroastrian
of sin,
religion; the source
sowing, protectingthe crop and
The principleunderlying the ceremonies
He
is a creative
arvest.
disease,disorder, and death.
coeval with the good God, Ormazd, but is
is that of the use of a magical power
controlled by
power
annihilation at the end of
doomed
to overcome
influences hostile to the
to defeat and
the group
the world.
Typical examples only may be given here.
crops.
The
ground is prepared by dabces around the
AHURA
MAZDA."
See Ormazd.
borders, by sprinkling with human
blood, by
victim whose ashes are sprinkled
burning a human
OF."
The survivors of this
to
the field (America),by the sacrifice of cows
AINUS, RELIGION
on
the
Earth
and to Ceres, by firebrands sent across
dwindlingrace five in Siberia,Saghalin and the
islands of Japan. Their religionis an
fields tied to the tails of foxes (Roman).
The
northern
in which primitive
first furrow is often turned
by the chief or king
example of the manner
interesting
with the environthe season
to open
auspiciously(Siam, China).
peoplebuild up social relationships
"

"

Ereparing

11

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

their life. Their customs


forces affecting
of control of the favorable and
consist of methods
dangerous things in nature
sun, fire,vegetation,

ing nature

"

mountains, swamps,
animals,
the unknown
potencies of the outer

storms, trees, sea,

diseases,and

central ceremonies
those
The
most
world.
are
which deal with food in the forms of vegetationand
of the eating of the bear.
protection
They secure
from evil forces such as diseases and the danger
of magic spells,
of the forsst and swamp
by means
charms, amulets and fetish-sticks. No clear ideas
of gods or of
have developed of the soul,of after-life,
spirits.The dead go underground; the religious
in the bear;
objectsare the potenciesin grain,in fire,
the nearest approach to spiritis the concept of the
in the disease-givingswamp.
dangerous presence
There is nothing correspondingto the organization,
temples or priesthoodof developed religion.
GODS.
This name
refers strictly
AIR
to that
pheric
class of supernatural beings belonging to atmosentiated
and
meteorologicalphenomena as differboth from the gods of the sky and from
and ghosts dwelUng in the air or
demons
spirits,
of the air which have shown
clouds.
The
powers
themselves sufficiently
important in the hfe of early
to attain divine rank
are
man
rain,winds, storm,
thunder
and lightning. To these should be added
the gods of the four quarters symbohzed in ancient
Ancient
America
by the cross.
Egypt alone has a
The
gift of rain is often a
god of the air,Shu.
function of the sky gods but where
agricultureis
important a specialrain god usuallydevelops as in
Vedic India (Parjana,Indra),and in China
(Master
of Rain). Wind
gods are very prominent in the
They are usuallyassociated
rehgions of America.
with the cardinal points of the sky and function as
In India the good
fertiUtyand creative powers.
wind gods are Vata and Vayu while the destructive
and troublesome
winds
are
represented in Rudra
and
the
Maruts.
Greece
and
Rome
picture
anthropomorphic gods of the wind, e.g., Boreas,
for the winds of
the north wind.
An earlier name
or
Harpies
Greece, however, is the "snatchers"
and
which comes
to refer largelyto the pestilential
winds.
China
has her Prince of the
maleficent
of the rain,wind, thunder
A combination
Wind.
in the various storm
and lightningis seen
gods
Indra, the slayer of the drought-demon, Vritra
(Semitic),Woden, leader
(India),Adad, Rammon
of the Wild
Hunt
of Souls and Thor
(Teutonic),
Suso-no-wo, who disputesthe region of the sky
with
his sister the sun-goddess (Japan). The
in
called simply the Thunderer
as
god is sometimes
China, or the lightningstands out as an individual
thing as in the Dragon-Sword of Shinto. The early
of Yahweh, as of the Babylonian Enhl,
descriptions
suggest a connection with storm, wind and clouds.
It should be said,in regard to these gods of the
air,that they rarely remain separated but either
and mingle their functions with
ascend to heaven
descend
those of the sky-gods or
to earth
and
take on
the characteristics of fertility
or
powers
A. Eustace
Haydon
war
gods.
"

"

AjrVlKAS.

"

An

ascetic

community

of

India

led at the close of the 6th. century b.c. by Gosala,a


and
contemporary of the founders of the Buddhist
Jain communities.
In cosmogony
and psychology
their behef was
practicallyidentical with that of
the Jains
(q.v). Their chief distinctive beUefs
were
(1) a thorough-going determinism; (2) the
impossibilityof free-will or responsibilitysince
man's
life is fixed by fate,by his own
inherited
nature, and by his environment; (3) the universal
salvation of all souls after the lapseof vast ages
of transmigration.

AND

AKBAR.
second
half

ETHICS

Albert

of

Brandenberg

Emperor of all North India in the


of the 16th. century a.d.
His real
greatness lay in his abilityas an administrator and
in his powers
of concihation.
He is best known
for
his easy
tolerance of all religiousfaiths and for
his attempt to estabhsh a religion
for his empire by
selection from several faiths,
especiallyfrom Islam
and
Parsism.
Representatives of all the great
welcomed
rehgions,free-thinkers and atheist? were
to present their views
at his coai't.
He
of
was
vision to see
that the good life
calm
sufficiently
for man
and the security of the empire did not
of the battle of creeds.
depend upon the outcome
not
He was
a
religiousenthusiast or a skeptic;
it may
fairlybe said that his faith centered in a
God
whose
for the
belief in one
agent he was
administration
of the empire.
"

Jewish
rabbi
and
AKIBA
BEN
JOSEPH."
practical
philosopher,50-132(-5). He was strongly
opposed to the Christian schism, to gnosticismand
tion
to mysticism. In the period followingthe destrucof Jerusalem, he helpedto modify Jewish
ture,
thought by his Uteralistic interpretationof Scripof Pharisaic
by his systematization^
he
One of the greatest of Jewish teachers,
(q.v.)
supportedthe Jewish Messiah Bar Kokhbar
before the revolt headed
and suffered martyrdom
by the latter was crushed by the Romans.
and
tradition.

MISSIONS
RELIGIONS
OF
AND
ALASKA,
TO."
American
1. Religions,see
Eskimos, North
Indians.
2. Missions.
pation
Immediately after Russian occuchurch
Orthodox
of Alaska, the Russian
in the
In 1915 there were
began its mission.
Diocese of the Aleutian Islands and North America
10,000 Indians, Aleutians, Creoles and Eskimos.
Moravian work was
begun in 1855 and sixtyyears
later this church
counted
1,400 baptized Indians.
of the Protestant
the most
Among
prosp)erous
missions is that of the Presbyterianchurch, begun
in 1915 had eight stations serving
in 1877, which
Christians.
The PresbyterianBoard
four thousand
at
the Congregationalwork
in 1920 took
over
Wales, which since 1890 had been under the supervision
of the American
Association.
Missionary^
The
Protestant
in 1915 had
Episcopal church
twenty churches with twelve clergymen and six
lay readers. The Methodists had but four churches
of adherents
in 1919, the number
being but 98.
This service was
almost entirely
to the white population.
Catholics have 16 churches with
The Roman
resident priests,20 mission
chapels and several
In addition to strictly
schools.
work, most
religious
of the denominations
carry on educational activities
industrial
which
include
training. Missionaries
from the
have found that there is better response
is
natives than from the white populationwhich
and
is interested chiefly in getting
temporary
ents
gold. Almost all of the natives (1920) are adheris often
of some
sect, although this adherence
Stock
Harry
Thomas
nominal.
"

ALB.
(1)A linen robe,reaching to the feet and
by Roman
having closely fittingsleeves,worn
Catholic priests
(2) A robe
when celebratingmass.
worn
by the newly baptized in the early church.
"

ALBERT

1528-1579,

Duke
of Bavaria,
BAVARIA."
vigorous and influential leader of the

V. OF
a

Counter-Reformation.
Elector
of
BRANDENBERG."
OF
CathoUc
cardinal of the Roman
church,
1490-1545; at first tolerant toward the Reformers,

ALBERT
and
Mainz

Albert of Prussia

but later

RELIGION

OF

DICTIONARY

supporter of the Catholic reaction in

Germany.
First duke of Prussia,
PRUSSIA."
and Melanchthon
friend of Luther
in Germany;
and a supporter of the Reformation
foimder of the Prussian national church.
ALBERT

1490-1568;

ALBIGENSES."

Name

derived

from

ALEXANDER."
The name
of eight popes.
Alexander
I. -Bishop of Rome
in the first
quarter of the 2nd. century.
Alexander //."Pope, 1061-1073.
Alexander
III.
Pope, 1159-1181, one of the
successful in his pohtical
was
greatest popes;
contests
with Frederick
of Germany
Barbarossa
and Henry II. of England.
Alexander
IV." Pope, 1254-1261.
fered
Italy sufmuch
during his reignby the conflict between
the GhibelUnes
and the Guelphs, the pope
siding
with the latter.
Alexander
V.
His claim
Pope, 1409-1410.
was
disputedby Benedict XIII. and Gregory XII.,
the latter of whom
is frequentlyregarded as the
"

"

"

rightfulpope.
Alexander
VI.
of
Pope, 1492-1503, a man
unusual
acter,
chartalents,but charged with immoral
and
the ambition
his alleged
to elevate
children, particularlyCaesar and Lucretia Borgia,
to positionsof wealth and influence.
Alexander
VII.
Pope, 1655-1667, a friend of
the Jesuits and an ally of Spain on whom
he was
"

"

partlydependent.
Alexander
VIII.
Pope, 1689-1691, a supporter
learningand of civic improvements in Rome, and
for the
vigorous opponent of the movement
"

greater freedom
GaUicanism

and tolerant,the image of Jesus


syncretistic
being placedin his domestic chapel besides those
of Abraham, ApoUonius of Tyana and Orpheus.
was

of the church

in France

known

ALEXANDRIAN
SCHOOL."
A theological
school of great influence in the early Greek church.
literature and the Epistle to the
The
Johannine
influenced by Alexandrian
Hebrews
are
thought.
The
Gnostic schools of Basilides and Valentinus
The
originatedin Alexandria.
great catechetical
school of Alexandria
numbered
its heads
among
Pantaenus, Clement and Origen (q.v.),and served
and defender of orthodoxy. The
as the formulater
theology of the Cappadocians is an Alexandrian
doxy,"
product. Athanasius
(q.v.),"the father of orthowas
bishop of Alexandria.
Cyril (q.v.),
who was the leader of the Alexandrian
school in his
day in oppositionto the theologiansof the Antiochan
school (q.v.),
influential figurein the conwas
an
troversies
the person of Christ.
over

Albi

(S.France) ; called also New Manichaeans, Cathari.


the expressionof the
Among Christians they were
ences
influArian
oriental,Manichaean, Gnostic and
which poured over
Italy and France in the
earUer Christian centuries and held their ground
Manichaean
were
They
against Catholicism.
(q.v.)in theology; rejected the Old Testament
the work
of an
evil deity; substituted
the
as
of laying
consolamentum
(an elaborate ceremony
of hands
and
on
fasting)for baptism; forbade
marriage, ownership of property, and eating of
meat; taught transmigration of souls of the unto a state of
perfected,the saints going at once
eternal happiness. They were
scattered and almost
exterminated
by the Crusades and Inquisition.

12

OF

MAGNUS
ALBERTU"
(ca. 1193-1280)."
can
Schoolman
and
a leaderin the Dominiiieologian,
order in Germany, especiallyin Cologne; a
of wide learning in science,philosophyand
man
of the teachers
of Thomas
theology, and one
in the substitution
was
Aquinas. His significance
of Aristotelian for Platonic logicand metaphysics.
His assertion of a higher sphere of authority for
the
revelation beyond the limits of reason
was
beginning of the long conflict between naturalism
and supernaturalism,science and theology.

of

ETHICS

AND

ALEXANDRINUS,

See Codex

CODEX."

Al"bxandrinus.
ALEXIANS.
A
in
R.C. order which
arose
the Netherlands, at the time of the Black Death,
in the middle of the i4th. century.
Its purpose
to bury the dead and care
for the sick. They
was
chose St. Alexius
(5th. cent.) as patron. Other
for the order are
names
Celhtes, Cell-brethren,
Lollards and Nollards.
"

'ALIYAH."
(Hebrew, "going up".) In the
services of the Synagog, the act of going up to
the reading-desk to take part in the reading of
the Scroll of the Five Books of Moses.
ALLAH.
(Arab.) God, the
Mohammedans
Qu'ran and among
Being. See Mohammedanism.
"

used in the
for the Supreme

name

ALLEGORY.
An elaborated metaphor in which
conceptions of one class are expressed in forms of
another; as when abstract ideas are personifiedand
given relations involved in such personification.
"

The

also is used

word

to

express

the

reverse

by which personal narratives are explained


as
representingabstract ideas. Thus a character
be said to representa virtue or a vice,and his
may
actions may
be regarded as
symbohcal of the
effects of such virtue or vice in society.
As examples of the former meaning of the word,
the two best known
works in English are Spenser's
"Fairie Queene" and Bunyan's "Pilgrim'sProgress,"
the latter being a pictorial
expositionof the author's
method
of
finding allegorical
theology. The
teachingin the Bible was elaboratelydevelopedby
Philo of Alexandria with the purpose
of giving universal
validityto the O.T. narratives. This method
of expression was
with church
teachers
common
like Origen and is still in vogue
bibUcal
among
students who hold that Scripturehas other meanings
than those reached by historical and critical

process

methods.

Shailer

Mathews

as

ALL

(q.v.).

DAY."
named
from
FOOL'S
Aprilthe first,
practiseof perpetratingpracticaljokes on that
day at the expense of the victim's creduhty; originated
in the Celtic cult of Arianrhod, the counterpart
the

ALEXANDER

OF

HALES."

Englsh

scholastic

theologian of the 13th. century; called Doctor


He
entered
the Franciscan
order
Irrefragabilis.
in 1222, and his work, the Summa
Theologiae,is the
first important contribution from the Franciscans.
It is written in the form of question and answer,
and is typicallyscholastic in method
and content.
ALEXANDER

SEVERUS."

Roman

emperor,

of Venus.
ALLIANCE
CHURCHES.

OF
THE
REFORMED
A fraternal alhance of all churches,
throughout the world of presbyterial
polity,organized
The membership is comin London
in 1875.
posed
in
of churches
of Presbyterian principles,
"

222-235; of noble character;his religious


policy harmony with the Reformed

churches

who

hold

13

authorityof the Bible in


Alliance

The

morals.
but

RELIGION

of faith and
matters
holds its General Councils
every 3 or 4 years, its functions being advisory,
the
as
It is popularlyknown
not legislative.

to the

once

OF

DICTIONARY

ETHICS

AND

Saint

is regarded as a
the Christian Eucharist
Where
sacrificethe table at which it is celebrated is properly
H. P. Smith
called an altar.

ALTAR-BREAD.

"PresbyterianAUiance."

Ambrose,

"

bread

The

used

in

the

by both the Western and Eastern CathoUc


churches, usually in the form of an unleavened
the host (q.v.).
wafer; also designated
Eucharist

A
DAY."
church festival in
SAINTS'
ALL
and unknown,
honor of all saints and martyrs, known
observed Nov. 1st. by the R.C. church and
the first Sunday
of England, and on
the Church
after Pentecost by the Eastern church; also called
All-Hallows,Allhallowmas.

ALTAR-CARDS.

"

Three

Their

of the celebrant.
the 16th. century.
memory

observed
A R.C. festival,
SOULS'
DAY."
ALL
the souls of all the faithful dead
Nov. 2nd., when
in prayer.
are remembered
ALMARICIANS.

"

See Brothers

of

the

Free

Spirit.
ALMSGIVING.

"

"

(or ALUMBRADOS)."

ALOMBRADOS

tain
containingcer-

use

dates from

for
term
A Lutheran
ALTAR-FELLOWSHIP."
of the church in the Lord's
communion
the outward
altar-fellowship
being equivalent
Supper, unmixed
to
and mixed
altar-fellowship
to close communion
communion.
open

and Almsgiving.

See Charity

A heretical sect of the 2nd. and 3rd.


known
centuries
only through references in Irenaeus,
Hippolytus and Epiphanius, according to which
they rejectedthe applicationof the Logos doctrine
to Jesus,and the Johannine
authorship of the 4th.
Gospel and of the Apocalypse.
ALOGL

cards

portions of the liturgyof the Mass in R.C.


churches, and placed on the altar to assist the

sect

of ascetic mystics, arising in .Spain in the first


quarter of the 16th. century, and later suppressed

In Social Psychology
Lat. "other."
the "other" of the social environment,
conditioningthe experienceof the personal "ego."
See Altruism
for an earher use of the word.

and

ALTER."
Ethics

ALTRUISM.
(1) In
psychology, a term
correlative to egoism, meaning an attitude having
of benefitinga social other.
the specificpurpose
(2) In ethics an attitude of moral interest in others
to the
and activity on
their behalf, in contrast
seeking of selfish satisfaction.
"

by the Inquisition.
AMANA
ALTAR.

"

piece of furniture for

SOCIETY.

"

An

American

tic
communis-

in Germany in 1714,
religious
society. Founded
offerings as the Community of True Inspiration,in protest
of
against the formaUty and lack of spirituality

sanctuary,

consistingof a raised structure on which


burnt.
to the deity are
of
be a mound
In its simplestform the altar may
To
earth,a heap of stones or a singlelarge stone.
speak of a depressed altar,meaning an excavation
into which victims are thrown, is hardly accurate.
In the more
ornate templesthe stone might be carved,

Lutheranism.

members

The

banded

themselves

dren
together to live in brotherly relations as the chilof God
They refused to
seeking salvation.
to take the oath of allegiance
or to
serve
as soldiers,
schools.
send their children to Lutheran
Suffering
to
introduced.
and at the latest stage metal altars were
persecution in Germany
they finallymoved
Since food was
America, N.Y. state, in 1842 and to Iowa in 1855,
presentedon it the altar was thought
called the
where
They were
of as a table and is in fact sometimes
own
they now
26,000 acres.
table of the god (Ezek. 41:22, 44:16). The fire
incorporatedas the Amana
Society in 1859. The
to train
of the community is religious,
main purpose
the means
which
by
was
kept burning on it was
the soul in preparation for the future Ufe. Out of
sublimated
and carried to the
which the food was
has developed a remarkably
the religious
of a stage
however
traces
divinity. There
are
purpose
The
successful communism.
the
of rehgion at which
fire was
not used, and
Society is governed
blood of the victim was
by a central board of thirteen trustees elected
simply poured or smeared
the elders.
the altar.
Since the intention of the offerer
annually by all the people from among
on
and
the community is entirelymodern
to give this part of the sacrifice to the god it
was
Industrially
clear that he was
seems
provides for every need of its 1800 people. There
thought to reside in the
The
is no emphasis upon
altar then was
stone.
religiousdogma or ceremony
originallythe sacred
and piety. On this basis the
but upon
the
spirituality
stone, the Bethel (house of God) in which
or
Stories which
relate that
at home.
divinity was
people are graded in three ranks and advanced
fire broke out from the stone on which the offering reduced
according to the judgment of the Great
All work
at their chosen
Council
of Trustees.
the gift confirm
this
was
placed and consumed
share
in
central direction and
impression. The story of the sacrifice of Isaac
specialty under
that in one
form of the ritual the victim
bound
and laid on
the wood
of the altar and
its throat was
then cut so that the blood would
the altar.
This as well as the
flow directlyonto
Arab custom
of pouring the blood into an excavation
at the foot of the altar points in the same
direction.
The pouring of the blood upon
the altar
is preciselyparallelto the anointing of the sacred
stone at Bethel.
the altar and
Later
the sacred
stone
were
the former
differentiated,
becoming the table of
the divinity. As the ritual became
refined
more
shows

common.

was

unbloody offeringswere
.

incense

brought

"

fruit,grain, or

and
In
the altar became
smaller.
the
temple at Jerusalem there was a small golden altar
for incense as well as the largeone
of stone for
"

animal sacrifice.

AMATERASU.
The sun-goddess,chief of the
divine figuresof the native Japanese rehgion and
of the ruUng line of Mikados.
ancestress
"

AMBO.
An official reading desk in the early
church, later superseded by the pulpit and the
"

lectern.
SAINT
(ca. 340-397)." Bishop of
of the four Latin doctors of the
educated
church.
He was
as
a
lawyer and called
from a magisterial
post to be bishop of Milan in 374.
On accepting the office he divested himself of his
ness.
of episcopalfaithfula model
property, and became
His power and influence were
great,enabling

AMBROSE,
Milan, and one

Ambrosian

him

Chant

OF

DICTIONARY

RELIGION

14

Latin Vulgate, for which it is the best authority;


written early in the 8th. century in the north of
England and sent in a.d. 716 as a present to the
Amiata
Pope; afterward given to Monte
(whence
in the Laurentian Library at
its name), but now
Florence.

for an
and prescribepenance
accepted the ascetic ideal of
and
his day, emphasizing the virtue of virginity,
promulgating a high standard of Christian ethics
even

emperor.

ETHICS

AND

rebuke
Ambrose

to

in both individual and social relations. He was


one
of the foremost
exegetes and hymn-writers of the
early church, as well as a great pulpit orator.

AMICE.

(1) A fur

fur-lined hood or cloak,


or
in cold weather by priests
and monks,
and stillused on the left arm
as
or
a badge by some
chant, growing out of a combination
song
clerics. (2) A vestment
French
of Greek
ditionally
music with the church psalter,and traconsistingof a
around
the
accredited to Ambrose
of Milan
(q.v.). rectangularpiece of white hnen worn
neck or shoulders by R.C. priestsin celebrating
of
the time
It dominated
church
music
from
close
mass.
Ambrose
till the Gregorian reaction at the
of the 6th. century.
See Music.
AMIDA.
See Amitabha.
AMBROSIAN

CHANT."

"

formerly worn

spiritedcongregational

"

of certain R.C.
(1) Name
congregationsoriginatingin or near Milan since the
of
from Ambrose
14th. century, taking their name
Milan.
(2) A 16th. century Anabaptist sect whose
diate
leader was
named
Ambrose, and who claimed immerevelation from God.
Doctrinally the Ambrosians belonged to the branch of the Anabaptists
(q.v.)called Pneumatics.
AMBROSIANS."

AMBROSIASTER."
The
used to designame
nate
the author of certain 4th. century Christian
of Milan,
writings wrongly ascribed to Ambrose
the most
a
commentary
important of which was
the epistles
of Paul.
on

AMITABHA."

One

of the five Buddhas


of contemplation,
removed
from
the eternal
Buddha
He
is the merciful
(see Adibuddha).
vowed
not
into complete
to
enter
figure who
until assured that all who
Buddhahood
trust his
would
find eternal salvation in the happy
grace
western
Paradise over
which he presides.

step

AMMON."

See Amon,

God of the nome


of Thebes
in Egypt
the
importance when Thebes became
of the
later
politicalcenter
empire. He
was
the
coupled with the sun-god. Re, and assumed
character of a solar deity as Amon-Re.
AMON.

who

rose

"

to

AMEN.
A Hebrew
word, the meaning of which
is to confirm or strengthen. It has been used in
A M O R A
Muhammadan
and
liturgies.
(Aramaic, "interpreter,"plural:
Jewish, Christian
One of the Jewish masters
Sometime
its use is with reference to the words of anof Babylonia
other
Amoraim.)
and Palestine in the 3rd. to 6th. centuries,who
speaker,e.g.. Rev. 22:20, or the response of
the congregationto the prayer offered by the priestin
expounded the Mishna
(q.v.)and whose teachings
it is
contained in the Gemara
Sometimes
the R.C. and AngUcan churches.
are
(q.v.)
used by the speaker to strengthen his own
words,
AMORITES."
See Canaanites.
e.g., Jesus' usage as in John 16:23, or in the doxoloI Cor. 14 : 16
gies,or as the final word of a prayer.
in
is cited as the firstevidence of its liturgical
AMPHICTYONY."
A
union
of Greek
tribal
usage
with a common
Christianity.
rehgious interest meeting
groups
under a "truce of God"
at the temple of the deity.
The two chief amphictyonic unions were
AMERICAN
BOARD
OF COMMISSIONERS
those centered
and
FOR
of
at Delos
The legalname
Delphi (earlierprobably at
FpREIGN MISSIONS."
the foreignmissionarysocietyof the Congregational
Pylae).
Denomination, in America.
flask employed in the R.C.
AMPULLA."
A
AMERICAN
ON
church as a container for the consecrated oil,wine
LECTURES
HISTORY
OF
See
RELIGIONS.
Lectures
History
on
of
or
water, used in baptism, confirmation,extreme
and the consecration of kings.
Religions.
unction,mass
"

"

"

A name
used
AMULETS.
See Charms
Amulets.
AMERICANISM.
to indicate
and
the Uberal tendencies of a type of Catholic preaching
and teaching alleged to have been practiced
AMUSEMENTS."
All forms of pleasantoccupations,
in America
mental or physical,which are associated with
by Father Isaac Thomas
Hecker, the
of the Pauhsts.
relaxation from vocational activities or other serious
founder
The
controversy arose
several years after Hecker's death, and was
due to
pursuits.
of the term, all kinds of
French
In the broadest sense
advocacy of liberahsm based on a French
translation of a life of Hecker.
In 1899 Pope Leo
play and recreation,especiallyof older children
and adults are referred to.
XIII. condemned
the movement;
and American
In a narrower
sense,
be considered
in
amusements
Catholic officials gave evidence that they were
hghter or more
may
accord with the pope's declaration.
The same
frivolous than recreation,involving less expendieral
libture
ideals later found expressionin
of energy.
end
Modernism
They have, however, the same
(q.v.)
for the normal individual,viz.,the recuperation
SPENTAS."
AMESHA
A group
of six divine
of wearied bodily and mental capacities,
or
means
time when
cannot
in
of whiling away
one
figuresof the Zoroastrian reUgion acting as the
engage
attendants
immediate
and executives of Ormazd.
"useful" pursuits. The association of amusements
their relativelyslight
Their names
with idle enjoyment and
suggest that they are attributes of the
to
demand
on
personified as
high God
energetic action has led many
archangels "Good
sinful.
condemn
them as essentially
Thought," "Perfect Righteousness,""Desired Kingdom,"
Positive significance.Amusements, even
though
"Holy Harmony,"
"Saving Health," and
abused, have a positiveand valuable function in
"Immortality."
some
Ufe.
It is true that one's dailywork, if it is wholeCODEX."
A parchment manuand furnishes due opportunity for initiative,
AMIATINUS,
script
does afford much
containingthe Old and New Testaments in the
genuinesatisfaction. Neverth""

"

"

"

15

OF

DICTIONARY

RELIGION

is in definite
absorbed worker
relaxation and lighterpleasure.
take the
amusements
Specificvalues. When
to health,
of active play, they contribute
form
of furnishingdiversions but also
not merely by way
by bringing into action those parts of the body
exercised by work.
They restore
not sufficiently
ments
mental poise and spontaneityby furnishingemploythe higher and
which are less exacting upon
wholesome
Most
unstable mental processes.
more
values upon
amusements
depend for their specific
for the free
the extent
to which
they are avenues
ties
expressionof various instincts. Instinctive activiare
generallysatisfyingand hence amusing by
with serious pursuits.
contrast
There
The appeal of low types of amusements.
has always been a distinct tendency for commercial
individual
the over-worked
interests to debauch
in his normal quest for amusement
by appealing to
or
exciting these impulses in their least desirable
forms, as in various kinds of staged fights,the
theatrical performance, the lewd dance,
immoral
and more
recentlyby the indecent motion picture.
and filthy
that the coarse
It is a mistake to assume
is naturally more
amusing than the clean and
It is often lack of opportunity for the
beautiful.
latter that leads many
people to turn to and acquire
a taste for the former.
The social and
religiousproblem,. Social and
workers cannot
afford to ignore the normal
religious
If religionis to
human
craving for amusements.
include pleasurable
include the whole life it must
serious
diversions as well as emphasize the more
of life. There is no more
important
responsibilities
service to be rendered to any community than the
careful planning and organizationof lighterforms
of diversions.
This service is increasingly
necessary
of the high tension under which
account
on
many
of the monotonous
live and on account
grind that
communities
fillsthe lives of many
others.
Most
will rise to higher levels in their tastes for amusements
if the latter are
intelligently
planned and
A standard
thus be set
can
properly carried out.
will gradually affect for the better the
up which
commercialized
social and
forms.
The
religious
be appreciated
importance of all such efforts may
ideals
of our
of life are
when
reflect that many
we
most
effectivelybuilt up in connection with the
occupations of leisure. Training in the rightuse of
of the necessary
leisure is regarded today as one
ends of education.
Irving
King

theless,the

need

of

most

periodsof

"

"

AND

ETHICS

Anabaptists

The
a
Anabaptist ideal was
church, a
pure
community of saints or believers within the social
order,in the world but not of the world,possessedof
for scripturala passion for personalrighteousness,
in fife and church
and for the
ness
institutions,
of

imitation

Christ.

To

reaUze

this

ideal

the

Anabaptists apphed Sci'ipturein the most literal


to all phases of their Uves; rejected infant
way
of
baptism as contrary to Scripture,and the source
all kinds of evil;exercised a very rigiddiscipline
as
of keeping the church pure ; asserted
the only means
of the soul under
the complete freedom
Christ,
the
persecution;demanded
repudiatingall religious
and
entire separation of church
state, leaving
each free to perform its appointed functions without
interference from the other; and they refused to
take an oath, hold civiloffice or bear arms.

much
difference of
this there was
Some
them.
professed to have a
direct and specialillumination of the Spiritwhich
refused to pay war
constituted a new
prophecy ;some
stillfurther
went
taxes or interest on money;
some
ing
and favored community of goods,actuallyestablishhouses; objectionto the death
great communal
were
urged to
penalty was common
; their members
in productiveemployments only, refraining
engage
from
keeping public houses or engaging in the
liquorbusiness. Radical millenarianism was widely
held and ultimatelywrecked
the movement.
Anabaptist views appeared in the circles around
Luther and Zwingli and spread from these centers
of Europe. The influence of the party
much
over
is seen
in the fact that every
important reformer
wrote
against them, every creed drawn up in that
and almost every
period condemns
government at
time or another persecuted them.
For a time
one
the movement
threatened
into its folds a
to sweep
goodly share of all the reformed peoples of Europe,
but the dihgent polemic of the theologiansand the
drastic persecutions inflicted by the church
and
and
the state speedilyreduced it to insignificance
teen
in some
placessuppressed it altogether. Within fifand then
years it passed the zenith of its power,
gradually died away almost to the vanishing point.
be treated in four groups
Anabaptists may
Dutch.
German, Swiss-Moravian, Italian and
Radical
views
first appeared at Wittenberg in
while
Luther
the Wartburg.
He
1522
at
was
returned to Wittenberg and in a few powerfulsermons
succeeded
in turning the tide against them.
versity
of the ablest professorsin the Unione
Carlstadt,
of Wittenberg, was
forced to leave and
henceforth Anabaptism was
outlawed
in Germany.
ANABAPTISTS."
(From the Greek through the
well organized and was
ruined in the
Latin, "those who baptizeagain," "rebaptizers.") It was never
of the 16th. and
Peasants' War in 1525. Feeble I'emnants
of radical reformers
A group
continued,
because they baptized but it was never
subsequent centuries,so named
again a force in Germany.
The Swiss group
their opponents charged) those
was
as
decidedly the ablest and
{rebaptized
of
moderate
of all,having a number
of men
most
who had been christened.
due to dissatisfaction culture and marked
The rise of the party was
ability. Conrad Grebel and
Felix Manz
with the compromising and opportunistpohcies of
were
universitymen, the latter a Hebrew
scholar
of distinction.
the leadingreformers.
These leaders acknowledged
Closely associated with
several men
of learning and abilityin
that the scripturalconception of a church was
them
were
a
southern Germany, the most notable of whom
were
community of believers or saints walking in the
Hiibfaith and fellowshipof the gospel; but regardingthe
and Balthaser
Ludwig Hatzer, John Denck
of this ideal as impossiblethey lowered
attainment
maier.
Hatzer
assisted in translating the Old
text
their standards
in practice to a point where substantially
from
the Hebrew
Testament
into German
Hiibthe whole of societycould live comfortably
some
years before Luther took up this task.
within the ample bosom
for some
of the church.
While they
maier was
was
a great preacher and
years
rejected the Catholic conception of a universal
a professorin the University of Ingolstadt. When
land
Switzerchurch they set up national churches in which conditions
persecution drove the Anabaptists from
he proof membership were
where
to Moravia
not materiallydifferent
he followed them
duced
from those of the Catholic
of tracts settingforth their peculiar
church.
Infant bapa number
tism
views very ably.
was
continued, church disciplineremained in
Socinian in their
church
and state
The Italian group
abeyance, the alliance between
were
largely
was
not dissolved and
moral conditions were
not
Christology.Driven out of the country by persecution
but never
in Poland
greatly improved,especiallyin the earlier years of
they reassembled
pered
prostlie reform.
again.

Beyond

opinion

among

"

"

AnacletuS

DICTIONARY

OP

RELIGION

The
Dutch
strongly tinged
Anabaptists were
introduced among
with radical millenariauism
them
After his imprisonment
Hoffman.
by Melchior
this tendency burst into a fanatical flame in the
city of Miinster in Westphalia where a kingdom
of this kingdom,
The excesses
set up in 1534.
was
of religion,
fixed a lasting
committed
in the name
stigma on the Anabaptist cause, thoughthe party
taken as a whole had desired nothing but a quiet
of this catastrophe
inoffensive hfe. The remnants
Mennonwere
gathered up and organized as
ites (q.v.).
pendents
Early in the 17th. century some
Enghsh Indewho
were
refugees in Holland accepted
and
thus founded
certain Anabaptist views
the
as
Enghsh Anabaptists, later known
Baptists

(q.v.).
Anabaptists
and

were

never

entirely suppressed

existence
under
various
formed
names.
a
They never
complete church
unified movement.
even
or
a
denomination, nor
crude and dangerous while
Some of their views were
others were
centuries ahead
of that day, and are
the pricelesstreasures
modern
of our
now
among
hfe.
W. J. McGlothlin
still maintain

an

AND

"

The

name

of

one

pope

and

one

antipope.

16

coveringallfieldsof human activityand co-operating


in the satisfaction of social needs.
Anarchism hke
Sociahsm
(q.v.)opposes
privateownership of land,
but
capitahstic production, the wage-system,
unhke
Sociahsm it would ehminate
state control of
economic
factors.
Modern
anarchism
began in
France
with Pierre Joseph Proudhon
(1809-1865)
who
advocated
mutualism
or
an
exchange of
services,maintaining that "property is theft."
Individualistic anarchism
found
its ablest expression
in Germany, Max Stirner advocating the liberation
of the individual from all social bonds.
Michael
Backunin
the
(1814-1876), a Russian, advocated
annihilation of the existingorder,and in that way
has fathered revolutionary
anarchism.
AnarchistCommunism, as advocated by Prince Peter Kropotkin
vidual's
proposed a civic agreement by which the indineeds would all be guaranteed, education,
art and
recreation as well as food, clothing and
shelter. Count Leo Tolstoi representeda Christian
anarchism, seeking a basis for the anarchist theory
of state and property in the teachingsof Jesus.
ANASTASIUS."
one

The

name

of four

popes

and

antipope:
Anastasiusl.

ANACLETUS.

ETHICS

398^01, who condemned

"

Origen-

ism.
AnastasiusII.
496-498,opposed Traducianism
and sought to reunite the Eastern
church
with
Rome.
Anastasius III.
911-913, active in determining
the ecclesiastical divisions of Germany.
Anastasius
IV.
in
1153-1154, instrumental
the restoration of the Roman
pantheon.
Anastasius,antipope,855,
"

Anacletus
I. Roman
presbyter of the latter
part of the 1st. century, asserted to be the 2nd. pope
in succession to St. Peter.
Anacletus 11. Antipope, 1130-1138.
"

"

"

"

ANAHITA.
waters, of
Goddesses.

Persian
goddess of
See
fertilityand of war.
A

"

fertilizing
Mother

ANATHEMA.
A word
occurring in Gr. and
Lat., literally
meaning a thing set apart. (1) In
Gr, religionit signifieda gift of gratitude or of
a
propitiationto the deity,such as portions of the
similar.
The custom
to fasten such gifts
spoilsof war.
was
In cases
where direct observation
is impossible, to trees or pillars. From
that anathema
to
came
form
of reasoning from
some
designateGod's absolute property to be dealt with
analogy is almost
inevitable.
In the formation
of religiousideas
according to his justice. (2) In the Septuagint,
the New
Testament
and in later church historythe
analogy has played a largepart, the characteristics
of invisible reahties being determined
word
ferring
signifies"accursed," e.g., in I Cor. 16:22.
by transIn the R.C. discipline
the word is officially
used as
to the unseen
realm certain qualities
found
"

ANALOGY.
affirmations

A form

reasoning which makes


concerning an object on the basis of
other object more
less
or
comparison with some
"

of

of excommunication.
in the visible world.
Thus
the character of God
a formula
has been pictured after the analogy of an earthly
future
hfe
ANCESTOR
WORSHIP,"
is represented in
The rehgious placasovereign. The
tion of spirits
of deceased ancestors.
images drawn from present experience. The most
famous
instance in Protestant
The
belief in the survival of the immaterial
theology is Bishop
Butler's "Analogy of Religion Natural and Revealed
almost universal at the earlier
seems
part of men
to the Constitution
and Course of Nature."
And
disembodied
since
stages of civiUzation.
The
have power
term
to work
logically spiritsmay
good or evil they
"analogy of faith" is used theoto indicate the principlethat all portions
feared and courted much
the divinities are.
are
as
of revealed truth ought to be consistent,and to
Various funeral ceremonies
be explained only
can
the ground that they are intended to prevent the
should
on
suggest that obscure
always be
passages
understood
in the light of fundamental
doctrines.
departed from infhctinginjury on those they have
In Roman
CathoUc
To conciliate the spirita littlehouse
theologythe unanimous
teaching left behind.
of the fathers of the church constitutes the standard
erected for him at the place where
sometimes
was
from which inferences may
he was
be derived by analogy,
was
buried, and the tombstone
originally
while Protestants
insist on
the unquestioned doctrines identical with the sacred stone in which a divinity
of Scriptureas the norm.
dwelt.
Offeringsof food and drink at the grave
The danger attending use of analogy is evident.
would nourish the spiritand secure
his favor,just
It should always be employed with caution, and
the sacrifices at the sanctuary secured the favor
as
of the divinity. No clear line can
be drawn
fore
theremust
always be estimated by or made to give way
to the results of direct observation.
the attitude of men
towards the spirits
between
and their attitude towards the gods.
Gerald
Smith
Birney
ANAPHORA."
that of the father
In
the
Greek
Among the spiritshowever
hturgies, the
most
hallowed
receive
special attention
part of the Eucharistic
service, of the family would
because he had been honored
includingthe kiss of peace, prayers and gifts.
during his lifetime.
also that his interest in
It was
natural to suppose
ANARCHISM."
The
would continue in the other world.
if
his descendants
theory that
men,
unfettered
Moreover
since the fine between
by external control, will obtain the
gods and men
it was
not sharply marked
was
largest development of their faculties and that
customary to assert
in fact divine.
In such
of voluntary groups
that the clan-ancestor was
society would be a network

17

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

a human
it,is impossibleto discover whether
descent
deified or
whether
been
has
ancestor
from an already existingdivinityhas been claimed
father is one
The worship of the common
by men.
the clan a unit.
Traces
of the bonds which make
of ancestor
worship are therefore found in almost
societies. Among the nations which
all patriarchal
it a prominent part of their rehgion we
have made
the Romans, the Egyptians and the
mention
may
In China
and Japan in fact it may
be
Chinese.
observed
Since the worship
at the present day.
be performed by a male
descendant
the
must
is emphasized in all
importance of having sons
societies where ancestor
worship is in vogue.
H. P. Smith
ANCHOR.
On accoimt
of its use in navigation,
See
6:19.
a
symbol for security, as in Heb.
Symbols.

cases

AND

ETHICS

Anglo-Catholic

faiths made

no
sharp distinction between
spiritsof varying gradations,but where
monotheistic
tendencies
became
operative the
deitywas differentiated from his associates,
supreme
who
to
the
subordinate
were
assigned
position of
this classification of superangels. Sometimes
natural
also apphed to the world of
was
powers
demons
(q.v.),thus giving rise to belief in both evil
and good angels.
In
Zoroastriunism
the supreme
god, Ahura
Mazda, surrounded himself with seven
good angehc
to assist in his benevolent
powers
designs,while
the prince of evil powers,
Ahriman, filledthe world

theisti

"

gods and

with his malevolent


agents.
In the earlier stages of Hebrew
religionangels
did not figureprominently, but during and subsequent

exile speculation regarding superhuman


subordinate
to Yahweh
underwent
a very pronounced development as
a result of contact
ANCHORET
ANCHORITE."
with
or
(From a Or.
Babylonia and Persia. Ezekiel's portrait
word
of the cherubim
meaning to withdraw). The
designation
(1:5-14; 10:1-8) is typical
of a class of early ascetics who withdrew
of this tendency within
from the
Judaism.
Later
Jewish
world holding that through isolation from its allurements
imagery,particularlyas it appears in the apocalyptic
the flesh and
the devil;
they overcame
writings,is rich in its display of angelic
with
hermit
The
and
Certain
hierarchies.
of
these
held
(q.v.).
caves
beings
synonymous
positions
tombs
of the deserts of Egypt and Syria afforded
of pre-eminence and received the name
of archangels.
seclusion for numbers
of anchorets.
Others
See Asceticism.
who were
supposed to have fallen from their
the demons,
high estate were assigneda placeamong
where
they were
punished with especialseverity.
ANDOVER
CONTROVERSY."
But those whom
A
term
dicating
inthis fate had overtaken
tively
relawere
the legal action brought 1888 ff.to secure
few in number.
The faithful stillconstituted
the dismissal of five professorson
the ground that
innumerable
an
heavenly host whose duties were
to assist God, particularly
in his deahngs with men.
they were
bodied
violatingthe theologicalprinciplesemin the charter of Andover
viduals,
They served as guardians of both nations and indiSeminary. The
without
formal
case
was
ultimately dismissed
they conveyed revelations and visions to
favored
decision. It is also used to indicate a controversy
sometimes
they were
persons,
agents of
about
the same
time
concerning the possibility punishment, and they interceded with God
on
of a
"second
behalf of the righteousor against the wicked.
probation" after death for those
who
had
had
The
in this hfetime
never
into
an
angelology of Judaism
passed over
tunity
opporthe gospel. The
to hear
officials of the
the Son of
to attend
Christianity.
Angels were
American
Board
of Commissioners
Man
at his appearing (Mark
for Foreign
8:38), they were
Missions (Congregational)objected to this doctrine
guardians of mortals (Matt. 18:10), they rejoiced
of the "larger hope," and sought to prevent the
the repentance of the wicked
over
(Luke 15:10),
missionaryappointment of anyone
they revealed the law to Moses
holding it.
(Gal. 3:19), and
Andover
constant
attendants upon the seer of the
seminary championed the Uberal view.
they were
Book of Revelation.
In later Christianity
tinued
they conANDREW
AND
to occupy
PHILIP, BROTHERHOOD
a positionof even
greater prominence
OF.
for which Judaism
An interdenominational
association of men,
furnished the precedent.
The
elaborate angelology of Mohammedanism
organized in 1888 in Reading, Pa., U.S.A., the sole
is also largelyJewish in character.
S. J. Case
object, according to the constitution,being the
of the kingdom of Christ among
It
men.
spreaa
ANGELUS."
emphasizes personal work, the two rules of membership
(1) A R.C. devotion in honor of
and service.
Each
the Annunciation
to the Virgin Mary, recited thrice
being prayer
chapter
is connected with a local church which the members
daily,at 6 a.m., 12 m., and 6 p.m.
(2) The ringing
in various
serve
rehgious and social capacities. of the bell in R.C. churches for the recitation of the
The order has extended
to many
countries.
devotion
of the same
of a
name.
(3) The name
famous
painting by J. F. Millet.
ANDREW
OF
CRETE."
Archbishop of Crete
in the 8th. century; famous
ANGER
OF GOD.
as
a
tion
Anger is a primitive emopreacher and
of hymns.
He is honored
associated with the instinct of
saint in
of resentment
as
a
composer
the Greek
church.
self-preservation.In the historyof rehgions,anger
is frequentlyattributed to God.
Primitive peoples
ANDREW
THE
APOSTLE."
One of the twelve
think of their gods as subject to anger and revenge
in naive
O.T.
apostlesof Jesus,and brother of Peter.
anthropomorphic fashion. The
writers freely referred to the anger
of Yahweh,
ANGEL
DANCERS."
A rehgioussect of Methodist
opposed his will. The N.T.
against those who
origin,founded in 1890 in New Jersey,so called
writers spoke of the wrath of God coming on those
from a dance of religious
Christian theology has regularly
who rejectChrist.
come
frenzypracticedto overthe devil.
against sin,
experiences anger
taught that God
but that His anger is not inconsistent with His love.
FRA."
Florentine
ANGELICO,
monk
and
See
painter, 1387-1455; renowned
in the history of
ANGLICAN
C H U R C H.
Enqi^nd,
Christian art.
Church
op.
to

the

powers

"

"

"

ANGELS."
is

known

to

The
term
ANGLO-CATHOLIC"
senger")
angel (Greek, "mesappUed to a class of superhuman beings to the established church
differentmonotheistic
rehgions. Polycatholicity.

Belonging to or relating
England which claims

of

Anglo-Israelism

DICTIONARY

OP

RELIGION

ANGLO-ISRAELISM."
The
theory that the
Anglo-Saxon peoples,as found in the British empire
and
in the U.S.A., are
the descendants
of the
"lost ten tribes,"which
comprised the kingdom
of Israel. The modern
founded
movement
was
by
Richard

Brothers
about
the close of the 18th.
claims to have two milhon adherents
in the
The
nations.
two
hypothesis, though
to be impossible from
ingenious,has been shown
the standpoint of O.T. exegesisand anthropology.

century, and

AND

ETHICS

and itis probable that


from this idea.

one

18

form of sacrificedeveloped
II. P. Smith

ANIMATISM.
A modified form of animism
in
which plants,animals and other objects of nature
are
personifiedbut are not believed to possess
individual souls. Such beliefs are
panied
usually accomby magical practices,which
later
may
into a cult as the objectsare deified.
grow
"

ANIMISM.
(Latin anima, "soul") Behef in
spiritual
beings. This was the definition formulated
by Tylor, the anthropologist. He found the beUef
in different stages from the lowest tribes to high
modern
culture.
"Animism in its full development,
"

OF THE."
CONVERSION
ANGLO-SAXONS,
The Anglo-Saxons who
to England from the
came
continent were
devotees of Woden.
They ejected
the Celts who were
Christians,but did not accept
of Christianity
their reUgion. The
introduction
came
through the marriage of King Ethelbert
(560-616) to Bertha, a Frankish Christian princess.
in
The first serious effort for their conversion
was
596 when
Gregory the Great, who had become
interested in some
boys on the slave market, sent
Augustine of Canterbury at the head of a mission.
anity,
By Augustine's death Kent had accepted Christimade
in Essex.
Northand a beginning was
umbria
was
brought under Christian influence by
the marriage (625) of King Edwin
to a Christian
princess who took with her a missionary bishop.
Wessex
Christianized by missionaries of the
was
Northumbria
old Celtic church.
introduced the
new
rehgion to Mercia and Essex, and Kent took
Sussex was
it into East Angha.
won
through the
labors of Wilfrid of York between
681 and 686.
ANGRA

See Ahbiman.

MAINYU."

ANICETUS."
Pope, 154-165; bishop of Rome
when
Polycarp was
put to death; also said to
have been a martyr.
ANICONISM."
to the use

The
of

attitude effective in opposition

images in religiouscult.

ANIMAL
MAGNETISM."
ence,
SciIn
Christian^
"Animal
untary
magnetism is the voluntary or involaction of error
i;x all its forms; it is the
human
antipode of divine Science."
(Mary Baker
Eddy in Science and Health With Key to the Scriptures,
p.

484.)

WORSHIP
OF."
In what
call
we
ANIMALS,
the lower stages of civilization men
draw
a
very
faint hne of demarkation
between
gods, animals,
human
and
beings. Since the animals in many
manifest
cases
superior intelligence,
strength, or
are.
cunning,they are reverenced much as the spirits
of the clan in what is called
They become members
Totemisra
(q.v.) and the myths relate that an
animal
is ancestor
of the
Individual
group.
animals are provided with temples, are approached
with prayer
and offerings,
have priestsappointed
to wait upon
them, and are treated with funeral
honors when
dead.
celebrated of these
The most
divine animals
the bull Apis in Egypt, but
was
and various
Egypt also had sacred rams, crocodiles,
kinds of birds.
The
deification of serpents has
left traces in many
mythologies and is still a part
of African
advanced
religion. At a more
stage
of thought the gods receive human
form
but
reveal their originalanimal
incarnation
by having
animal associates
riding animals or pets, like the
eagle of Zeus or the owl of Athene.
Mythological
for this association by relating
theory accounted
that the divinitytook the animal form for purposes
of his own, like Zeus who became
a bull in order to
off Europa.
This
of course
the
reverses
carry
actual historical process.
Eating the flesh of the divine animal would be
of partaking of the divine power or grace,
one
way
"

includes

the

belief in souls and in a future state,


subordinate
spirits."
Two
of biological
groups
problems it is thought
influenced men
of low levels of culture to this belief.
One was
the difference between
a livingbody and
a
dead
and
the phenomena
one
of waking, sleep,
death.
The
other group
trance, disease,
sprang
from
questions concerning those human
shapes
in dreams
which appear
and visions. To every
thus
man
was
probably attributed a life and a
Both were
phantom.
regarded as separable from
the body, the life at death and the phantom
as
appearing to people at a distance. The ghostsoul was
the combination
of the life and
the
phantom and constituted the soul or spiritamong
primitivepeople. This spirit
Tylor defines as a ' 'thin,
unsubstantial human
image, in its nature a sort of
film or
shadow."
It was
the cause
of
vapour,
hfe in the individual,was
capable of leaving the
body and flashingswiftlyfrom place to place,continued
to exist after death, stillbearing the likeness
of the body and was
able to enter and act in the
bodies of other men
and animals.
Herbert Spencer held a similar view and regarded
animism
the core
of a variety of behefs and
as
customs, such as ancestor
worship, transmigration
of souls,witchcraft and other superstitions.
of
The
later students
tendency among
some
primitive rehgion is to limit the phenomena of
animism
but not to regard it as the
to early man
earliest stage. Thus
holds
Marett
to
a
very
tinction
disno
"pre-animistic"level,in which there was
between
the object and the spiritin it.
In this pre-animism awe
is felt for unusual
nomena
phesimply because
they are
unusual, not
because they are signs of ghosts or spirits.Thus,
ever
the Malagasy
"Whatever
is great, whatamong
exceeds the capacity of their understandings,
they designateby the one convenient and comprehensive
is
Whatever
appelation, andriamanitra.
and
and
is
useful
called
god."
new
extraordinary
Similarlythe bull-roarer excites awe for the natives
It posof AustraUa
by its noise and weirdness.
sesses
be called an
intrinsic source
of
what
may
the rightto be regarded with
awe, while in animism
is derivatory. That
is,in the latter case, it
awe
of a spirit. The phenomena
is due to the presence
that have to do with dream and trance, disease and
of animism, according
death, are the proper source
to Marett.
Other scholars,like Durkheim, regard animism
of historic interest
doctrine
which
is now
as
a
and
significanceonly and is identified especially
lated
with the work and period of Tylor who firstformuit. See Primitive
of.
Peoples, Religions
been used
animism
has sometimes
In philosophy
synonymously with the ancient doctrine of hylozoism and with the modern
conception of vitalism.
the term tends to become
But
exclusivelyemployed
possession
to designatethe primitivenotion of spirit
directed to
of sacred objects and the ceremonies
S. Ames
of such spirits. Edward
the placation

ia controUing deities and

"

19

ANNATES

RELIGION

OF

DICTIONARY

first fruits or
The
ANNATS."
of a benefice,
paid to the pope,
Ages claimed by bishops also.

or

first year'srevenue
and in the Middle

AND

ETHICS

Anthropopathism

A February festival of the


ANTHESTERIA."
mony
originallya social cerereligionof Greece; it was
for the regulationof the underground souls
but later was
obscured
a primitiveAll-Souls' ritual
by absorption in the cult of Dionysius.
"

"

The
doctrine of the
wicked
or
impenitent
It arose
as a protest againstthe teaching
at death.
of the eternal punishment of the unregenerate.
in England vigorously defended
White
Edward
the doctrine in the last half of the 19th. century.

ANNIHILATIONISM."

complete extinction

of the

The oldest
OF."
SAINT, ORDERS
of St.
orders adopted the name
CathoUc
monasticism.
of
They
Anthony, the fomider
founded
at the time of the firstcrusade (1095were
1099) as the Hospitalers of St. Anthony. The
order was
for a time subject to the Benedictines.
From
1284-1774
independent. In 1774
they were
united with the Knights of Malta.
they were

ANTHONY,

Life.

See Future

SAINT."
The firstChristian monk
ANTHONY,
and father of monasticism; b. in Egypt about 250;
said to have lived 105 years.

of the
used
to
term
ANNUNCIATION."
(1) The
of the birth of Jesus
designate the announcement
(2) The
by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary.
festival celebrating this, occurring on
church
25th.

March

for

OF

ORDERS

ANNUNCIATION,

orders,three for

of five R.C.

name

women

The
THE."
and two

The appUcation of an unguent


ANOINTING.
for personal,social,medicinal, or
religioususe.
The use of oil or fat for anointing is universal and
of immemorial
antiquity; it was believed to be
for nullifying
efficacious both
personal evils of
of demons
sickness and the power
various kinds
virtue
and for conferringmysterious sacramental
the subjects of it. It has been employed in
on
consecratingsacred objectsas stones and temples,
and kings,as preparaas
prophets,priests,
tion
persons
for death
extreme
unction,and in completing
oil acquires its
the efficacy of baptism. The
ous
potency by originfrom animals possessingmysteriwith sacred objects,by
by contact
powers,
magical formulas,by blessingor later by prayer.
C. A. Beckwith
The strict Arian party in the
ANOMOIANS.
adhered
to the essential
Arian controversy, which
and
the
the Son
between
difference in essence
"

"

"

"

"

Father.

scription
THEOLOGICAL."
A deand characteristics of man.
In systematic theology anthropology is the
section containing the doctrines of man's
original
and its
the fall of man
creation and constitution,
between
the soul
and the relationship
consequences,
Traditional
and the body.
theology taught that
thus
created in the image of God and was
was
man
endowed
with
original righteousness. By the
rebelled against God,
exercise of his free will,man
thereby losing his originalrighteousness,and in
addition incurringphysical and moral disabiUties.
that
nature
made human
so
The sin of Adam
sinful,
born in a state of original
all his descendants
sin,
are
and
under divine condemnation
which placesthem
brings death as its penalty. Only through the
logians
Theobe saved.
exercise of divine grace can
man
have held divergent views as to just what
is included in the original"image of God," and
of Adam's
fall.
to the precise consequences
as
The originof the soul and its relation to the body

ANTHROPOLOGY,

of the nature

men.

See Arianism.

SAINT
(ca. 1033-1109)." Mediaeval
ANSELM,
archbishop of Canterbury. At
theologian and

twenty-seven,

he

entered

the

of

monastery

Bee

Normandy, three years later succeedingLanfranc


abbot and under
made
as
prior. In 1078 he was
seat of learning
the foremost
liisrule Bee became
consecrated archbishop
in Europe. In 1093 he was
of office being marked
of Canterbury, his tenure
Rufus over
property
by strugglewith King Wilham
investiture.
and privilegesand with Henry I. over
in

Anselm
the
canonized
in 1494.
was
of mediaeval
scholasticism,his attenapt
with
behef
Christian
consonant
being to make
He stated the ontological
argument (q.v.)
reason.
which affirms that the reaUty of God is involved in
In his greatest
the necessityof the concept of God.
Homo, he attempted a rational
work, Cur Deus
(q.v.)in terms of the
explanationof the atonement
prevalent feudalistic social structure, the death of
Christ,the God-man, being a satisfaction to the
for this uncomIn return
injuredhonor of God.
pelledsatisfaction God granted Christ the reward
of releasingthe believer from the penalty of sin.
He
was
founder

The
designation applied
livingbeings, human, lower animal or plant,
which existed priorto the flood ascribed to the time
ANTEDILUVIANS."

to

of Noah.

before civilization had conSee Fall


of
Man; Sin.
Gerald
Smith
Birney
The
ANTHROPOMORPHISM."
tendency to
to
functions
characteristics and
ascribe human
inevitable
As
an
forces of nature.
deities or
thinking,
of the limitations of human
consequence
his own
from
ence
experiuses
analogies drawn
man
natural forces. In
to describe the gods or

essential nature

ventionahzed

of

man

humanity.

development of reUgions,anthropomorphism
as a phase of nature-worship. In Christian
historythe Audians of the 4th. century furnished a
type of excessive anthropomorphism (q.v.) In
soften
modern
theology the attempt is made_to
the

appears

of anthropomorphism_bythe
cruder
forms
of abstract
philosophicterms, often_at the
and intimacy.
of rehgious warmth
expense

the

FATHERS."
ANTE-NICENE
Designation of
antedated
the Council of
the Church
Fathers who
Nicaea, a.d. 325. See Fathers, Church.
ANTERUS."
Bishop of Rome, from
to Jan. 236, honored
by the R.C. church

been
variously interpreted,pre-existence,
creationism,and traducianism (qq.v.) being the
tion
important theories. Recently the doctrine of evoluhas been influential in modifying the conception
of man's originand development, and the traditional
sin are disappearand of original
doctrines of Adam
ing
historical
critical theology. Inductive
from
and of his
of man,
nature
study of the psychological
religiousaptitudes is increasinglysupplying the
material for theology. The term "anthropology" is
cal
now
more
generallyappliedto that branch of historiwhich by a study of the remains of
investigation
such as bones, tools,habitations,
pre-historic
men,
of the habits of
etc., and by careful observation
extant
tribes,attempts to
primitive and savage
throw
lighton the originsof the race and on the
have

Nov.
as

235

Pope.

use

ANTHROPOPATHISM."
human
feelingsto
considered
by some

attribution of

The

the non-human
writers to be

environment;
a

factor in the

Anti-Christ

DICTIONARY

demons
development of ideas of spirits,
gods.

and

OF

RELIGION

nature-

ANTINOMIANISM."
A word coined by Luther
in his controversy with Agricola,designating the
doctrine that the gospel or faith does entirelyaway
with the old law, so that the Christian is in no
sense
subject to it. It originated as a protest
againstthe elevation of an external regulationof hf e

superior to inwardly inspired spiritualUving.

There are evidences of an antinomian


interpretation
of Paulinism in N.T. times (II Pet. 3 : 16). Certain
Gnostic sects interpretedtheir doctrine of the evil
ing
Durcharacter of matter
in an antinomian
way.
in England antinomian
the Civil War
teaching
The Antinomian
developed in such sects as the Ranters.
was
a
controversey of the Reformation
Johann
Agricola opposed
controversy in which
and Luther, the former claiming that
Melanchthon
the gospel and not the law is what
inspiresmen
of the more
obscure sects
to repentance.
In some
Antinomianism
has led to charges of immorality
and
sensuous
indulgence, e.g., Adamites, New

Manichaeans, Beghards,

etc.

of

opponent

ETHICS

20

Arianism,ApoUinarianism

physitism (qq.v.) an
Augustinianism, and

ANTI-CHRIST."
In Jewish and Christian religious
thought the chief opponent of the Christ and,
in consequence,
of the Kingdom
The
of God.
in the Jewish Apocalypses and
figurefirst appears
was
appropriated by early Christianity. He was
the same
not
as
a
Satan, but, though sometimes
historical character
often an
supernatural being, was
like some
Roman
Emperor who persecutedthe
church.
His downfall
of the first
to be one
was
results of the
Messianic
triumph. Until thus
possessedof
supernaturally defeated he seemed
and capable of withstanding
unconquerable power
temporarily the Christ.

as

AND

and Monoof freewill against


champion of historical

advocate
a

criticism.
ANTIPHON.
A song or chant, sung
responvoice or chorus alternating
with the other
the chorus answering the precentor.
"

one
sively,
or

ANTIPHONARY."

antiphons for
ANTIPOPE.
who
was

A
book
in the Roman

use

or

of

collection

liturgy.

A claimant
of the papal chair
elected canonically,and whose
claim
not officially
ties
recognized. The Catholic authori"

not

was

twenty-nine antipopes.

enumerate

ANTISEMITISM."
Antipathy to and persecution
of Jewish peoples by Aryans, whether
socially
called since the appearance
of a
or economically,so
pubhcation in Germany in 1880. Opposition to
Jews dates from pre-Christiantimes,the beginning
being the persecutionsunder Antiochus Epiphanes.
When
the Roman
Christian
an
empire became
attitude of opposition toward
Jews was
istic
characterof many
of the rulers and ecclesiastics,
and
of various
accused
crimes.
In many
they were
civihzed
countries
deprived of civil
they were
in France
rights,such disabilities being removed
in 1791, in Great Britain in 1830 and in Germany
in 1869.
The
modern
the
tendency to oppose
Jews has taken the form of massacres
in Russia
and of social and civic ostracism in Austria and
The
has been
marked
movement
Germany.
by
unjust accusations on the part of Anti-Semites and
sometimes
unreasonable
the
apologies on
part of
Jewish writers.

(qq.v.)

ANTINOMY.
clusions,
Mutually
contradictory conbe rationallyproved;
both of which
may
but which cannot
both be true.
introduced
Kant
the term into philosophy,showing how the attempt
to apply the categoriesof experience to transcendental
reality involves antinomis, and thus precludes
absolute demonstration.
"

ANTIOCH.
Cityin Asia Minor on the Orontes,
founded
by Seleucus Nicator about 300 B.C., which
became
the third largestcity in the Roman
empire.
first evangehzed, according to the N.T. by
It was
Jerusalem
later led by
and
was
fugitives from
Paul and Barnabas.
first
Here the behevers
were
called Christians (Acts 11 : 26). Christianityspread
rapidly,and Chrysostom estimated the Christian
population in his day at 100,000. It later was
so-caUed
Antiochian
the seat of the
school of

ANTITRINITARIANISM."
Opposition to, or
denial of,the doctrine of the trinity.
The doctrine of three persons
in the godhead has
irrational.
frequentlybeen so interpretedas to seem
the assumption that
on
Against such irrationality,
it inheres inevitablyin the doctrine of the trinity,
and
have
various men
protested. Most
groups
the Socinians, the
these are
important among
Deists,and the Unitarians.

"

theology (q.v.).
SYNOD
OF."
A
ANTIOCH,
synod
convened
in 341, and set forth an orthodox
but
of the
Most
deposed Athanasius.
dealt with ecclesiastical matters.
ANTIOCHIAN
or

SCHOOL."

which

creed,
canons

theologicalschool
tendency, represented by prominent teachers,
A

the center of whose influence was


The
at Antioch.
first noted scholar was
Lucian
(see Ltjcian the
historical treatment
an
Martyr) who advocated
of scripture as
opposed to Origen's allegorical
method.
Lucian's
Arius
followers were
Among
defenders
and
Eusebius
of Nicomedia, the
of
Arianism
(q.v.). Other
representatives of the
school, Eustathius, Diodorus, Chrysostom and
Theodore
of Mopsuestia were
opponents of the
doctrine.
Arian
Theodore
became
the
great
representative of Antiochan
theology, being an

ANTONINUS

PIUS."

Roman

138-

emperor,

161; under his pohcy of toleration the Christians


enjoyed a considerable respite from persecution;
during his reign the Gnostic controversy became
The Apology of Justin Martyr (q.v.)was
acute.
addressed
to him; possibly also that of Aristides.
heaven
ANU.
The
god of ancient
triad with
associated
in the supreme
Ea (qq.v.).
"

APATHY.
or

Stoicism

"

Indifference

or

passionate feeUng;
(q.v.).

Babylonia

insensibiUtyto
a

and

EnUl

tion
emo-

characteristic

of

APHRAATES."
A "Persian sage" who flourished
throughout the 4th. century; the first strong writer
attributed ten
of the Syrian church to whom
are
homihes.
of
LITERATURE."
A
APOCALYPTIC
group
endeavor
Christian
Jewish
and
writings which
of symbols and revelations
to set forth by the use
of his people from the oppression
God's dehverance
of their enemies, the certain triumph and joy of the
righteous,and the general conditions of life after
death.
of this literature were
Elements
probably derived
of early Semitic religious
from the general stream

21

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

however, to have developed


seems,
It does
the influence of Hellenistic culture.
in the Old Testament
not appear
except in such
as
Zech.,chapters 9 to 14, and the book
passages
This latter is commonly
of Daniel.
regarded as
the parent of the Uterature and sets forth God's
certain deliverance
of the Jews
from
the Syrian
thought. It

under

oppression.
Apocalypticism differs from prophetism in that
it purports to be written by men
long since dead,
and
it therefore
(pesudonymously) represents
in symbols. It does not
coming events indistinctly
attempt explicitmoral and rehgiousinterpretation
of current
history,and is therefore of an esoteric
character.
Its claim to acceptance hes in its symbolical
expositionof historyas seen in visions by its
authors.
It served
to express
the enmity and
hopes of persecuted groups without exposing them
to charges of disloyaltyto the government.
In a
it portrayed revolution
in the disguiseof
sense
for Christian
favorite medium
a
religion.It was
writers in the second
Christian
century. The
embodied
material
from
apocalypses doubtless
Jewish sources.
Unlike those however, they do not
look to political
revolution.
There
is no standardization
of symbol beyond
the conventional
separation of animals into those
that do harm, like wolves, and
those that are
like sheep. The
former, together
serviceable,
with birds of prey, are symbols of the oppressors,
and the latter are symbols of the saints. The visions
are
usuallyattributed to angelsor to the "unveiling"
of the divine plans to the author who
represents
himself as having been caught up into heaven, there
to be given superhuman
knowledge of the future.
The
imagination of the writers was
strained
quiteunreand the literature as a whole is confused
and, with the exceptionof certain writingshke the
Apocalypse of Baruch and the canonical Apocalypse
of John, is without hterarydistinction.
See EschaBook
Enoch.
op
tology;
The
have
chief Apocalyptic writings which
been preserved to us outside the Bible are:
The
Shepherd of Hernias (about 125 a.d.);the Book of
Enoch
(100 B.C.-64 B.C.); the Slavonic Secrets of
Enoch
of Jubilees (about
(4 B.C.-70 a.d.); Book
100 B.C.); the Assumption of Moses (about 100 b.c.);
the Testament
of the Twelve
Patriarchs
(before
200 A.D.); the Ascension of Isaiah (about 200 a.d.);
the Apocalypse of Ezra
(about 70 a.d.); the
(50-100 a.d.); the Sibylline
Apocalypse of Baruch
Oracles (infinal form about 150 a.d.).
Shailer
Mathews
APOCRYPHA.
A term
apphed to a group of
religious
writingsof the Hebrews
which, while not
regarded by the Jews as being fullyinspired,were
yet held in high esteem.
These works are ascribed in many
to well
cases
known characters in Hebrew
history. They were
literature written
in the
part of a considerable
centuries immediately before or after Christ, and
served to supplement the history and teaching of
the Old Testament.
They were
incorporatedin the
Septuagint and later in the Old Latin and the
Vulgate editions of the Scripture. The Council
of Trent (1546) recognizedas canonical the following:
I and
II Maccabees; Additions
to Esther;
History of Suzanna; Song of the Three
Holy
Children; Bel and the Dragon; Tobit; Judith;
of Jesus,
Apocalypse of Baruch; the Wisdom
the son
of Sirach, or
dom
Ecclesiasticus;the Wisof Solomon; but omitted
1st and 2nd
Ezras
(3rd and 4th in the Vulgate) and the Prayer of
^

"

Manasses.
These
used
by

eleven are
included
in the Bible
now
the Roman
CathoUc
church.
In
the
Protestant editions of the Bible all fourteen are

AND

ETHICS

ApoUinaris of Laodicea

sometimes
included as a separate group between the
Old Testament
and
the New
Testament.
They

however^not

regarded as possessed of the


the
canonical
books.
authority as
See
Canon.
The Anghcan church uses
the ApocrjTjha
are,
same

in its lessons for edification but does not treat them


as
possessedof the same
authorityas the canonical
books.
the
Of
Apocrypha the most
important are
Ecclesiasticus and the Wisdom
of Solomon
among
the religious
the
writings; 1st Maccabees
among
historical. The
other material
is mostly of the
character
of haggadoth or
stories organized for
homiletic purposes.
In the New
Testament
church there grew
up a
the
very extensive literature which dealt with much
same
subjectsas those treated by the books which
Testament
gradually were
shaped into the New
See Canon.
These books, however, never
canon.
have gained anything like the respect accorded
to
the Apocrypha of the Old Testament.
The term
"
"
is sometimes
Apocrypha of the New Testament
applied to them, but such use of the term is hardly
and may
to give a false impression
justifiable
serve
that there was
of the New
a sort of second
canon
Testament, correspondingto the Apocrypha of the
Old.
This apocryphal material of the New
Tes("Bment
followed the same
general classes as the New
Testament.
Thus we have (1) the various Gospels
(ofPilate,of the Hebrews, Egyptians,Peter,James,
Thomas, Arabic Gospel of the Childhood, of Joseph
the Carpenter, of Jesus, Philip, of the Twelve
others known
Apostles,togetherwith fifteen or more
to us
only in fragments and mostly written to
estabhsh
heretical doctrine);(2) the Acts
some
(ofPaul and Thekla); (3) the Epistles(of Paul to
the Laodiceans
and the Corinthians); (4) Apocalypses
(the most important being the Apocalypse
of Peter); (5) Teachings (of Peter and of Paul).
A vast hterature of the same
general nature as the
books of the New
Testament
canon
appearedduring
the first four Christian centuries.
Shailer
Mathews
the
APOCTASTASIS."
A term
derived
from
Gr. of Acts 3:21, meaning the final "restitution
of all things." The
is used as a basis for
verse
belief in the ultimate
universalityof salvation.
Sin is explained as ignorance or delinquency, and
has
correction.
The
doctrine
punishment as
found its chief exponents in Clement
of Alexandria,
Origen, Gregory of Nazianzen, Gregory of Nyssa,
of
Confessor
Maximus
and Scotus
Erigena, some
the mystics of the Middle
Ages, certain sections of
the Anabaptists,18th. century German
rationalists,
denomination.
and
in the modern
Universalist
and orthodox
It has been opposed by the R.C. Church
Protestantism.
trine
docThe Christological
taught by ApoUinaris the Younger, bishop of

APOLLINARIANISM."

said
He
Laodicea.
hved
about
He
310-390.
ideal humanity
that it is impossible to combine
and perfect deity in one
personahty, and hence
denied
the complete humanity of Christ, saying
that the Logos took the placeof the rational human
soul in the historic Jesus.
ApoUinarianismwas
condemned
by several local councils,and finally
council
of Constantinople,
by the ecumenical381 a.d.
of
The name
APOLLINARIS
OF LAODICEA."
father and son, both of whom
taught
men,
rhetoric in Laodicea.
ApoUinaris the Younger
who hved about 310-390 was
a friend of Athanasius
of
and a great theologian and writer, but most
his peculiar
lost. For
been
his writings have
views see Apollinarianism.
Christological
two

Apollonius of Tyana

DICTIONARY

RELIGION

OF

APOLLONIUS

A Neo-PythagoOF
TYANA."
philosopher and rehgious reformer of Tyana
in Cappadocia, whose
hfe approximately spanned
rean

the first Christian


ascetic and
was

century.

In

manner

of life he

vegetarian, wandering through

lands, teaching and


being taught. He
many
studied medicine
and his biographer,Philostratus,
credits him
with miraculous
heahngs. Probably
He
he possessed psychotherapeutic power.
shipped
worin
moral
reform
and advocated
the sun
social customs.
His miracles and teaching have
been compared by Hierocles (305 a.d.)and Voltaire
with those of Christ with whom
he was
neous.
contemporadivine
been accorded
He
to have
seems
honors during the first three Christian centuries.

of

an

sense.

AND

ETHICS

22

appeal to supernaturalrevelation in a distinct


is thus adapted to a monistic
Christianity

world- view.
Stress is laid on
reasonableness
of
rather than
content
miraculousness
of origin.
on
Conservative
often feel that this may
theologians
involve a betrayal of essential Christianity
rather
than its defense.
4. The vindication of Christianity
in the lightof
historical criticism. Modern
critical examination
of
the sources
and
the history of Christianityhas
shown
that biblical behefs are
conditioned,
historically
and that Christianity
is constantly in the
of development. The
idea of a static
process
for all
religion authoritativelyorganized once
to the conception of a growing and
gives way
"

changing rehgion.
To meet
this situation,two
distinct types of
A
systematic defense of
modern
apologeticexist. The one seeks to conserve
Christianity
against all important objections.
the authenticityand supernaturalauthority of the
Apologeticsdefends the content of faith rather
Bible in the face of criticism,
than expounds the full rehgiousimport of doctrines.
sometimes, however,
luteness distinctly
An ideallyperfectdefense would estabhsh the absomodifying traditional conceptions. The
and conclusions,
of Christianity;but an apologistusually other type accepts critical methods
is seeking to give to Christian behefs a positive and exhibits the vital function of Christianity
in
the historyof which it is a part, so as to show its
ing
place in the culture dominating the age.
By relatChristian doctrines to accepted philosophical
or
indispensable contribution to the welfare and
scientific theories,
of humanity.
The first type makes
more
apologeticsprepares the way for
progress
the positiveuse of such theories in the construction
sweeping claims,but frequentlyfails to apprehend
the full import of historical criticism.
of theology. The
trine
The second
development of Christian docdominated
tions.
is largely
by apologeticconsideratype is calculated to win the approval of critical
what
Apologetics thus not only defends existing minds, but the conclusions reached have a somein
tentative character not conducive
to dogmatic
behefs,but also aids a developingChristianity
its task of leaveningand interpretingculture.
assurance.
1. The
Great
Christian
Apologetics
II. The Problems
Modern
Apologetics.
of
in
1. The
History.
defense of early Christianity Any defense of Christianitymust
give primary
The
consideration to the doctrines
which
occasion
stantly
against Judaism.
earlyChristians were conrepresentation.
compelled to argue against skepticalmisImportant examples of such doctrines
difficulty.
The
of Evil,the
the Existence of God, the Problem
written
as
a
are
Gospels were
historical argument
for the divine power
and prerogativeSupernatural,the Divinity of Christ,and the Life
of Jesus.
The
christology of the early after Death.
church Was
In deahng with the difficulties which
arise in
shaped under the pressure of apologetic
ing
is a strikconnection
with
these doctrines,modern
necessity. The Epistle to the Hebrews
getics
apolomust
example of earlyapologetics.
giveespecialattention to certain aspects
2. The vindication of Christianity
of modern
in the Grecothinking in order to satisfyinquiring
Roman
minds.
three of these may
be mentioned.
Two
or
Empire. Persecution of Christians by the
Roman
and popular prejudiceagainst
1. Justice
be done
science.
must
to modern
government
them
called forth defensive
Justin
On the one
statements.
hand, the assured results of scientific
be frankly recognized, even
Martyr and other Apologists (q.v.)of the 2nd.
investigationmust
if such recognitioninvolves a revision of doctrine.
tians,
century vindicated the purity of the hves of Chrisand
in addition
commend
of science must
undertook
On the other hand, the hmitations
to
anti-rehgious dogmatism
Christianityas the absolutely true philosophy. be understood, and
Origen (q.v.) in the 3rd. century elaborated a
masquerading under scientific garb must be exposed.
Christian
In general,it may
be said that science is a foe to
philosophy consciously
superior to any
non-Christian
unwarranted
system.
Augustine (q.v.)produced
pretensions of theology rather than
the most
elaborate apologetic
ful
fruitwork conditioned
to the verifiablefacts of Christianity. The
by
Greco-Roman
culture in his City of God, which
investigationsof recent years in the fields of
nish
of history so as to
interpretedthe entire course
psychology of rehgion and history of religionfurshow the culmination
in the
material for a scientifically
of the divine purpose
much
satisfactory
over
triumph of Cathohc
paganism.
Christianity
apologetic.
3. The
rational vindication
2. A new
interpretationof the supernatural is
of Christianity.
After
western
of the tension between
civilization became
some
theology and
nominally
relieving
the main task of apologeticswas
critical science.
to
Christianized,
Rehgious experience is psychologically
establish harmonious
behefs are historicaUy
Christian
relations between
natural,and religious
doctrines
and
rational
to be natural
was
thinking.
seen
products of human
philosophy. This
undertaken
in the natural as
is found
of God
The
elaborate scale by the represenan
on
tatives
presence
of Scholasticism
positivelyas in the supernatural. Rehgiously an
(q.v.). Revealed doctrine
rather
shown
for its spiritualcontent
to be a necessary
is valuable
was
event
supplement to natural
is a
This type of apologetichas been continued
than
for its metaphysical origin. There
reason.
in both Cathohcism
and Protestantism
to this day.
general tendency to regard miracles as unusual
such
violation of
It seeks to retain unimpaired the appeal to an
events
exphcable without
any
scientific protest.
authoritative revelation.
natural
would
tant
ProtesThe best known
laws as
arouse
rather than on
treatise of this kind is Bishop Butler's famous
Stress is laid on
spiritualcontent
theories of origin. The Bible is vindicated by the
Analogy of Religion Natural and Revealed to the
rather than
Constitution and Course of Nature
(1736).
God-reveahng quahty of its message
In the
19th. century, Schleiermacher
composition. The
(q.v.) by a theory of miraculous
of his
the power
and Hegel (q.v.),followed by numerous
of Jesus is based
on
scholars, supremacy
tian
of Chrislife to compel worshipful adoration rather than on
a completely rational interpretation
gave
thus virtually
origin. There is a growing
a doctrine of physical
doctrines,
ehminatingthe need
APOLOGETICS."

"

"

"

"

"

23

DICTIONARY

OF

AND

RELIGION

ETHICS

ApostolicCanons

theology recognizes only the apostasy of faith.


regarded apostasy
early Christian emperors
criminal act, involving civil disabilities. In
a
as
unity.
3. The
primary emphasis in apologetics is
post-Roman times apostates have been dealt with
moral
being the
being laid on
questions. Is Christianity by ecclesiastical law, excommunication
demands
of modern
usual punishment.
adequate to the enormous
social
and
industrial
full
development? The
An
official of the early church
of Christianityin this respect has not
APOSTLE."
significance
Christian apologistsare bringing
yet been reahzed.
appointed and "sent forth" by Christ to be an
with power
to work
of Christian ideaUsm, showing
to lightthe resources
eyewitness to his resurrection,
that Christianity
is superior not
only to other
miracles,make converts, and organize churches.
ethical programs,
but also to the currentlyaccepted
The word
was
applied originallyto the Twelve
standards
of nominally Christian
chosen
Paul,
by Jesus to be his messengers.
people. The
basis as
here is not so much
to vindicate the ideals
difficulty
however, claimed apostleshipon the same
of Jesus as to prove
that modern
it was
claimed by the Twelve, although his position
Christianityhas
the will and the power
to embody
in life.
rested in appointment by the risen Christ and
them
In conclusion,it should be said that while the
been universallyacknowledged
not to have
seems
This more
in the non-PauUne
churches.
apologeticof our day with its critical understanding
general
in the
of current
social
of the term seems
to have been extended
use
scientific,
philosophical, and
ideals is inevitably somewhat
New
Testament
disturbing to those
period to such persons as Matthias,
who wish a complacent faith,this very disturbance
the
Barnabas, and others who
apparently met
of conventional
attitudes is stimulating a more
ship
requirements of the title. Paul holds that apostleserious study of Christianityand is contributing
the offices of the church
was
primary among
to the vitaUzing of its doctrines and its ethics.
and was
the result of a charism.
Gerald
Smith
The preciserelationshipof the apostlesto the
Birney
churches
APOLOGIST."
which
be best seen
can
(1) One who writes in defense
they founded
of Christianity. (2) A designation of certain of
at
through the letters of Paul to the churches
the Fathers of the church in the 2nd. century, chief
Corinth
and Phihppi. Their duties seem
to have
whom
Justin Martyr, Aristides,
were
Melito, been largelythose of oversightand generaldirection,
among
and the author of the Epistle to Diognetus. See
rather than that of authoritative
interference in
reluctance to draw a sharp line between
the natural
and the supernatural. The world is regarded as a

Apologists.

APOLOGISTS."
This word is usuallyemployed
in a special sense
to designate certain
Christian
leaders of the 2nd. century who
wrote
various
treatises in defense of their religion. The
earUest
of the group
addressed
was
an
Quadratus, who
Hadrian
about
at Athens
apology to the emperor
the year
Another
defensive
125
treatise
a.d.
from the pen of Aristides,
Christian philosopher
a
of Athens, seems
been
written
to have
shortly
before 150 a.d.
At Rome
Christianityfound a
vigorous champion in Justin, frequently called
Justin Martyr, whose
be
literaryactivity may
to
150
165 a.d.
roughly assigned to the years
His so-called First Apology made
behalf
of
on
to the Roman
and his Dialogue
Christianity
emperor
with Trypho defending the new
religionagainst
Jewish critics are
His
especiallyworthy of note.
the
to
pupil, Tatian, also addressed an Oration
Greeks
allegingthe superior truth and antiquity
of Christianity
all Greek
culture.
Athenaover
perhaps was
an
Athenian, directed an
goras, who
Marcus
Aurelius and Comappeal to the emperors
rnodus
probably in the year 177 a.d.
During the
ninth
decade
of the 2nd. century Theophilus of
Antioch
behalf
composed a vigorous apolgy on
of Christians in three books addressed to a heathen
called Autolychus. Minucius
temporary
conFelix,a Roman
of Theophilus, set forth the superior
merits of Christianity
in a work modeled
after the
quent
Subsedialogueform of Cicero's De natura deorum.
writers
such
Irenaeus
and
Tertullian
as
are
but they
apologeticin their interests,
similarly
not usuallyclassed in this group.
are
See Apologetics.
S. J. Case

The

church
to
affairs. At the same
time Paul seems
have beUeved
that he had power
to act in questions
of discipline
wherever
faith itself was
not involved.
sador
The fact that the apostleas a witnessingambaswas

or

the renunciation of faith under pressure


of persecution.
The R.C. church recognizestwo specialsorts
of apostasy:
of the monastic
(a) abandonment
life without
of
permission; and (6) abandonment
clerical orders
in the
Protestant
same
way.

to

APOSTOLIC
AGE."
The
designation of that
period of the history of the Christian religion
beginning with the death of Christ and ending with
of
the close of the 1st. century.
The
sources
information
Testament
for the period are the New
writings(exceptingII Peter and Jude), and certain
extant
non-canonical
writings written about the
close of the period but reflecting
its conditions,as
of Barnabas, Clement
e.g., the Didache, the epistles
of Rome, and Ignatius. For the functions of the
officers of

the period see


Apostle;
Bishop; Presbyter; Pastor; Deacon.

APOSTASY."
defection
(1) In Greek literature,
from a miUtary officer. (2) Hence
used in Christian
of the faith,
terminology for the abandonment
disobedience to the recognizedauthority. Sometimes
it took the form of heresy (q.v.); sometimes

constantlytravelingapparently seems

have resulted in the 2nd. centuryin the apphcation


of the name
apostleto a group of itinerant preachers,
the preciseduties of whom
not clearlyknown,
are
but whose status is sketched in The Teachingsof the
Twelve Apostles.
The Cathohc
churches teach that there has been
of bishops to whom
and through whom
a succession
transmitted
were
by the laying on of hands the
and authority of the early apostles which
power
of the
give sole vahdity to the administration
sacraments.
See Apostolic
Succession.
Shailer
Mathews
APOSTLES'
CREED."
shortest and the
The
best known
of the creeds, dating in its official
form from about 500 a.d., but traceable in variant
phrasing back to the so-called Roman
Symbol
in the 2nd. century. The
tradition of apostolic
be traced back of the 4th. century.
origincannot
See Crhbds
and Articles
op Faith.

APOSTOLIC

BRETHREN."

An

Prophet;

ics
order of ascet-

They
arising in northern Italy about 1260.
purported to five in apostolicpurity, emphasized
held
to
apocalyptic ideas. They
poverty and
into conflict with the church and were
forcibly
came
suppressed.

of

APOSTOLIC
the 4th.

CANONS."

century of unknown

Christian

writing
authorship. It

Apostolic Church

OF

DICTIONARY

reproduces the catechetical teaching preservedin


the Didache
(q.v.)and also reproducesthe ApostoUc
Constitutions (q.v.). It contains also decrees of
various
synods and
councils, notably that of
Antioch
The
341.
number
85.
They
canons
include a list of O.T. and N.T. books, but omit
Revelation

and

add

I and

II

Clement

and

the

ApostoUc Constitutions.
A
APOSTOLIC
DIRECTORY."
CHURCH
work
purporting to be of apostolic origin, but
coming from Egypt and dating from about the
3rd. century.
It contains
legal precepts, both
ethical and ecclesiastical.
APOSTOLIC
A collection
CONSTITUTIONS."
of church
teachings and decrees dating from the
3rd. century but attributed to Clement
of Rome.
They are arranged in eight books and are 85 in
number.
Although not widely accepted they have
historical
had a considerable
influence and
have
value because preservinga pictureof the Christian
life in the 3rd. century.
They draw largely on
the Didache
(q.v.),and
(q.v.),the Didascalia
Hippolytus of Rome.
APOSTOLIC
DELEGATE."
the Roman
curia,delegatedas

of
A representative
presidentof a national
in
or provincial
council,or having papal jurisdiction
ecclesiastical. Called also papal delegate.
matters
See Legate.
APOSTOLIC
church who were

Writers of the early


with the apostles
term
of Rome, Barnabas,
a
applied to Clement
Hermas, Ignatius,Polycarp and Papias.

FATHERS."

contemporaneous

"

APOSTOLIC
SEE."
A church
founded by an
apostle and thus claiming apostoUc authority;
used to designatethe Church
of Rome, and formerly
used of the churches at Antioch,Ephesus, Alexandria
and

Jerusalem.

APOSTOLIC
SUCCESSION."
The
doctrine
the uninterrupted line of succession
in the
episcopacy from the apostlesto the present. The
doctrine is maintained
by the Roman, Greek and
Anglican churches, the former two and the High
Anglican church
counting it essential to the
vahdity of the ministry. See Order, Holy.
of

AND

RELIGION

ETHICS

24

of appetite.
exaggerated protest against the power
Antinomianism
(q.v.)is an exaggerated neglect of
their influence.

See Ethics.

APSE.
semicircular
or
(1) Architecturally,
a
semioctagonal enclosure,with a domed
covering,
which
the aisles or
choir of
usually terminated
ancient basilicas,
and which
contained
the altar
and
the bishop's seat.
the
(2) Ecclesiastically,
end of the church containing the altar,no
eastern
"

matter

what

the architectural

form

may

be.

ST. THOMAS
(1227-74)." Count of
of Monte
by the Benedictines
Dominican
in Naples (1243),
a
studied
with
Albertus
in Cologne and
Magnus
Paris and
himself
became
teacher
dominant
a
(Cologne 1248, Paris 1252, Italy 1261, Paris 1269,
Naples 1271). Blending church dogma with the
AristoteUan
science newly brought from
Spain,
Aquinas was
opposed as a "modernist," but his
cans
profound theology became
obhgatory for Dominiand Jesuits and in 1879 was
for
made normative
the Church.
Prolific with commentaries
ture
Scripon
and Aristotle,
he furnished encyclopedic constructions
of aU knowledge in harmony with dogma
in his Summa
Catholicae fideicontra Gentiles (after
1261) and the Summa
Theologiae (after 1265).
mental
fundaNatural
he argues,
demonstrates
reason,
man's
like God's
and
truths
existence
ethical duty, but requires to complete and
fect
pertruth the revelation of Trinity, Incarnation,
these
Sacraments, Eschatology. Dealing with
cannot
higher truths, reason
give demonstration
but can
be persuasive by showing the absence of
contradiction.
Aquinas broke with Augustinian
intellectualism
tradition and
restored the Greek
which gave primacy to the intellect. By his social
ethics he retains a modern
interest. He views the
which is due to a social instinct
state
sary
as a necescompletion in
stage of Hfe leading to its own
the church, the realm of grace.
F. A. Christie

AQUINAS,

Aquino, educated
Cassino, became

"

ARABIA,

"

RELIGIONS

OF."

in extent, too

Arabia

variegatedin character
unit.
lastingreligious

to

is too

vast

produce
informed.

well
not
For ancient times we
are
Our earliest sources
South Arabic inscriptions.
are
is published,
Of these a fair number
more
many
of those
stiU unpubUshed.
The interpretation
are
serious differenceshas given rise to many
at hand
APOTHEOSIS."
Deification:
the practise of
of opinion. They exhibit in general a fairlyhigh
state of culture and
to the rank
exaltingrulers,heroes, or conquerors
religion. Most of them are
number
of gods
of gods, and offeringto them
divine honors, e.g..
a
rehgious in character and name
but do not present a system
in various capacities,
Emperor-worship (q.v.).
of reUgion. The features exhibited are not unlike
APOTROPAISM."
A technique of riddance for
those of other Semitic religions
(q.v.)in a similarly
deities are
of civihzation.
The
state
averting or overcoming evil. Among
primitive advanced
peoples apotropaic ceremonies are those m which
( Ishtar, the planet
largely astral. 'Athtar
under various
unites to exorcize demons
the group
by such pracVenus) is masculine, as is the moon
tises
as
or
beating, carting away,
Shams, the sun, is a goddess. El occurs
boating away,
names;
Incense and
shedding the blood of a victim, as in the case of
frequently,mostly in proper names.
Azazel (cf.Lev. 16th chapter).
its use in the cult has its home, probably its origin,
in South Arabia.
tus
APPETITE.
The native sense
of need in the
For North Arabic peoples we have from Herodoscattered
and
physical organism, expressed in a craving for
(111:8) down
fragmentary
Nowhere
does their religionappear
the satisfaction of corporeal wants
ing
information.
and stimulatbest
effort to procure
satisfaction.
primitive. At
only fragmentary
Appetites are
whoUy
directed either toward
remnants
of rudimentary totemistic,animistic,
as
self-preservation
hunger,
discernible,but no
etc., concepts are
thirst,etc., or toward propagation of the species fetishistic,
other ism.
sexual desire.
clear-cut system or phase of totemism
or
as
Appetites are in themselves nonCrude
rites are
found, worship of stones, trees;
moral, but their connection with pleasureand pain
givesthem ethical significance.Where the behavior
repugnant forms of sacrifice (human; animal by
of a person
is dominated
by appetites the person
drinking the blood and consuming, raw and fresh,
unsocial and
hence
becomes
immoral.
possibleshred). Progress is observable,e.g.,
Morality
every
in rites of affiliation or treaty: contractingparties
involves control of appetitesin subordination
to a
actually lick each other's blood; mingle it on
approved end. Asceticism (q.v.)is an
rationally
=

"

25

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Aram

and in the
set up as symbols, crude altars,
thinking in the Mohammedan
or mementos;
mediaeval
world generally.The mediaeval
world
substitute animal
blood; dip fingerstogether,in
all such rites disappear. The
scented water; finally
was
a
theologicalworld, very different from the
morning star is,as in the south,first a male deity, antique world of Aristotle. The problems of its
thinkers are not the main problems of Aristotle and
later under foreigninfluence a goddess, al-'Uzzah.
the Greeks.
They are theologicalproblems, the
By 600 A.D. the cult of a number of gods is stillahve.
especiallyin festivals connected with fairs and a
problem of creation,the problem of the attributes
of God, the problem of free will. These
"truce of God," shrewdly developed by the miUionwere
formulated
aires of Mecca.
The
are
by the Mu'tazilites late
gods themselves
given
scientifically
little thought or reverence;
there is no
theology in the 8th. and early in the 9th. century. These
Mu'tazilites
introduced
into
favored
the use
of reason
worth
for the more
the najne.
Even
thinking,instead of the mere
ance
acceptgoddesses, AUat
("the goddess," fem. of Allah) Mohammedan
and
of revelational
traditional
and Manat, old worshipersfear after their
formulae;
al-'Uzzah,
death desuetude.
they are the rationaUsts (but not freethinkers)of
shadowy, has
Allah, somewhat
minds
no
a
cult,but enjoys in many
curious,ill- Islam; with them begins the history of Arabic or
defined supremacy.
Mohammedan
problems thus
philosophy. The
formulated
the
the polytheistic
the problems that
This
that
are
means
stage for
engross
well
above
Arabia
is passing. Judaism
and Christianityare
as
"philosophers"par excellence named
the theologians; it is for the solution of these,
as
penetrating the peninsulafrom the north and from
the South.
Arabia creates
Then
with Mohammed
not for mere
historic or abstract scientific interest,
that the Arabs
handle
of monotheism
suitable for itself and
him,
a form
more
go to Aristotle and
for a large part of Asia and Africa (see Mohammedanism)
reverentlyindeed,but with sovereignmastery; the
scheme
of the writingsof these phiand thrusts out the older forms.
losophers
or framework
is constructed wholly upon these problems.
PresentlyArabia is again divided againstitself.
From
this largerpoint of view Arabic philosophy
Karmatian
Kharigiterebels seize and hold Oman.
is not a mere
schismatics overspread Bahrein, the Yemen, and
chapter in the historyof Aristotelianfor a space hold Mecca.
ism, but a large section,perhaps the foremost
ing
Now, to the joyof expandsection in that chapter of human
the
thought, wherein
straightlaced Wahhabite
Christianity,
orthodoxyof the Nejd, the Shi^te-colored South, it wrestles with the problems of monotheism, with
the conception and understanding of a world given
and the Hidjaz and Mecca, Sunnite with cosmopolitan
for it by that monotheistic
to it, constructed
nondescriptadmixtures,are fightingeach other.
revealed religionwhich
is the chief characteristic
M. Sprenglinq
ARABIC
PHILOSOPHY."
The
thought throughout Europe and
philosophical of mediaeval
Western
endeavor of the mediaeval
Asia.
Near East,Mohanunedan
Beginning with the Mu'tazihtes,it
of the "phiin its world- view and Arabic in its language. In its
losophers"
develops in the divergent currents
and the kaldm theology of the Ash'arites,
selves,
narrowest
sense, as used by writers in Arabic themand finds its apex in the genialGhazalt (1058-1111),
the name
philosopheris appliedto those men
only who expounded Greek philosophy,especially only to settle back to the broad level of orthodox
it
all its limitations
Ash'arite
Aristotle with a neoplatonicvarnish.
theology. With
of the
in the formulation
half dozen names
An even
of outstanding "philosophers"
goes beyond the Greeks
of this type are stressed,
and
in manuals
hauer)
problemof causation (where it foreshadows Schopenand in Ghazalis keen critiqueof the function
articles under
the heading Arabic
Arabian
or
brain (which
of sense
of
Three
perceptionand of the human
Philosophy or Philosophy of Islam.
and
is nearer
to Hume
Kant
than
these are of the Eastern half of the Moslem
world:
anything in
themselves). Nor would
Europe before these men
al-Kindt,the only pure Arab of the lot (ca.850),at
of Arabic
statement
or
near
philosophy be complete
Bagdad; al-Farabt,died at Aleppo 950;
any
without
mention
of Ibn Khaldun
and Ibn Stna, 980-1037.
The other trio is of the
(1332-1406) and
his philosophy of history,which prefiguresmodern
West, Spain and North Africa: Ibn Bajja, died
hammedan
1138 at Fez in Morocco; Ibn Tufail, a sort of
evolutionary thought.--Sufism, (q.v.) i.e.,MoJean Jacques Rousseau
of mediaeval
mysticism demands
separate treatment.
Islam, died
M. Sphbnglikg
1185 at Morocco; and finallyIbn Rushd, born
of
dismal
under-world
abode
ARALU.
The
Five of
1126 in Cordova, died 1198 at Morocco.
stones

sophica

"

the dead in ancient Babylonia.


well known
in Europe in late mediaeval
times; the latinized forms of their names
(Alkindius
GUAGE.
LANARAMAIC
Alfarabius,Avicenna, Avempace, Averroes),better
ARAMAEANS,
ARAM,
known
Occidentals even
Aram
is the name
of a people,not of a
to most
today than their
hint of the profound influenceplace. Where
originalforms, give some
applied to a localityit is usually
of the
they exerted on the thought of the Schoolmen
joinedto a place name, Aram of Damascus
Had Arabic philosophydone nothing more
etc.
than to
two rivers,
documents
in written
Their language appears
and a few others to mediaeval
give through these men
from the 8th. century b.c. on.
It is their language,
more
Europe a much
complete Aristotle than
it had, it would
still deserve to be held by us in
which marks them as one of the great groups
chiefly,
The
drawbacks
of a threefold
of Semitic peoples which, as far as history reaches,
gratefulmemory.
Greek
to Syriac to Arabic
to Latin,
are
translation,
pressing outward from desert Arabia toward
through which it had to pass before reachingEurope, the surroundingfertile lands. Of the great layers
offset by the fact that the selection of material
are
or
they are the third,being preceded by
groups
and the manner
of presentationwere
better adapted
the Assyro-Babylonians and the Amorites
(Canaanto mediaeval
ites). The fourth great layer are the Arabs, who
understanding in the Mediterranean
world than the originalwould
have been.
hold the field to the present.
This latter consideration
in the nomad
should give pause
to
The home of the Aramaeans
stage,
those who would make
all Arabic philosophy but a
just before they appear in historical notices,is the
passing phase in the history of AristoteUanism.
haps
Syrian desert. Thenoe, as early as 2000 B.C., perThis view, for long and until recentlyvery generally
and farmers
earher, they trouble merchants
held, is too narrow
and
unfair to retain a
the lower Euphrates. Pushed
too
by difficulties
on
world's thought.
within and behind their land they drift and press
permanent
place in the modern
It does not take into account
With
Abraham
the close relationship into the fertile lands roundabout.
between the developmentof theological
and philo- and Jacob they appear in Palestine (Deut. 26:5).
these

were

"

"

Aranyakas

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

By the 13th. century they are thoroughly at home


Mesopotamia.
Adaptabilityto new
surroundings and great
and traders are
abilityas merchants
outstanding
characteristics.
the
units
in
Small, detached
of the great push are absorbed by the earlier
van
settlers and adopt their language and
as
letters,
in

Abraham-

Jacob-Israel did in Canaan.


In the 8th.
find kings in northern Syria,some
with
non-Semitic
to
changing from Canaanite
names,
Aramaic
in their inscriptions.
Presently,in Assyrian
and Achaemenid-Persian
becomes
times, Aramaic
the linguafranca of the Levant, and so remains
in
some
measure, until Arabic Islam thrusts it into the

century

we

background.

Religiously
they do

creative; it is
gods,beliefs,
practices. They fallin with and foster the tendency
toward
syncretism. Then
they cling,sometimes
with strange tenacity,to their syncreticformations.
At Harran
of paganism survived to
a curious form
Moslem
In
days, well into the 8th. century a.d.
difficultto

name

Christian times

not

appear

Aramaean
specifically

Aramaean

came

though Jesus spoke Aramaic, and

to

mean

pagan,

early records of
him
written in that tongue.
were
Despite this,
Aramaic
(or Syriac, its chief literary dialect)
became
for centuries the chief spoken tongue and
vehicle of eastern Judaism
and Christianity.
literary
Nestorianism,thrust out of the Graeco-Roman
world,
became
the dominant
form
of Christianity in
Sassanian
Persia and carried its religionand the
Syriac tongue as far East as the heart of China.
Monophysitism gained one of its chief strongholds
in the Syriac-speaking churches.
Arabic
Islam
presently reduced the sphere of Christian Syriac
materially. But
though severely circumscribed
buffeted a millennium and
and
more
by adverse
with
fortune,these people have clung to their own

AND

ETHICS

26

In the Neolithic age archaeologyshows that men


held a polydaemonistic system of beliefs similar
to the rehgions of existing savages.
Megalithic

throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa,


consisting of standing stones
(menhirs), stone

monuments

tables (dolmens) and


circles (cromlechs),
stone
mark the sanctuaries of this period.
In the period subsequent to the invention
of
writingarchaeologyfurnishes additional material
in the knowledge derived from
inscriptionsand
from documents.
In the Age of Bronze, as early
5000 B.C., hieroglyphicwriting was
as
invented
in
Babyloniaand in Egypt, and from that time onward
down
to the beginning of the Christian era
copious
records were
written in both scripts. The discovery
of these documents
and of numerous
sacred objects
excavators
has made
by modern
struction
possiblethe reconof the Babylonian and of the Egyptian
religions.See Assyria and Babylonia, Religion
of.
of; Egypt, Religion
The religion
of Canaan
quest
conpriorto the Hebrew
has recently become
known
through the
excavation
of a number
of the mounds
of Palestine.
It is seen
to have been a primitive form
of polydaemonism
combined
with
the
beginnings of
polytheism. See Baal; Canaanites, Religion
of.
Archaeologythrows much lighton the popular
religionof ancient Israel. It shows that the early
histories of the Old Testament
correct in accusare
ing
the Hebrews
of adopting the high places of the
Canaanites, serving their gods, and sacrificing
children.
It also confirms modern
criticism of the
Old Testament
by showing that there was
a
gressive
prodevelopment of religiousideas during the
centuries that followed the conquest.
In the classical civilizations and in the Christian
civilizations of Europe archaeology is an important
aid in the study of the history of religionby
ideas
discoveringthe artistic expressionof religious
in architecture,sculpture, painting, and
minor
sacred objects.
Lewis
B. Paton

the tenacity
of old Harran.
Aramaic
And
now
Christians
the borders
m
of Mesopotamia, Asia
tunate
Minor, and Persia,callingthemselves by the unforof Assyrians,are clamoring for recogname
nition
with a voice, which
ARCHBISHOP."
In the Roman
Catholic church
only adverse political
constellations
and
the Armenian
and
massacres
an
archbishop is a bishop who has oversight of
inaudible
Christian
Western
several other bishopricsas well as charge of his
to
appeals make
His duties include the callingand
M. Speengling
own.
powers.
ing
presidover
provincialcouncils,the oversight,with
ARANYAKAS."
The
class
the
of a
of
the assent of the council,of his suffragans,
name
and the
sacred books
of India later than the Vedas
and
In the
hearing of appeals from episcopalcourts.
used
Eastern
church
the archbishop has not always
Brahmanas,
by hermits who have given up the
fife of householder
and retired to the forest for
metropolitan rank, and the title is more
common.
meditation
and study. See Sacred
Literatures.
In the
Lutheran
church
the
metropoUtans of
Sweden
and Finland bear the title. In the Anglican
ARCANI
DISCIPLINA."
The secret instruction
church there are the archbishopricsof Canterbury
and of York, and the jurisdiction
regardingbaptism and the Lord's Supper which in
is similar to that
the early centuries of Christianity
of the R.C. dignitaries.See Bishop.
was
given only
to those who
were
baptized. The practicedated
from the later 2nd. century.
ARCHARCHDEACON,
ARCHPRESBYTER,
PRIEST.
Officials in the early and
mediaeval
ARCHAEOLOGY."
The
science
which
from
church, so called because of their superiorpositions
the remains
of human
the groups
to which
industry and art seeks to
they belonged. In the
among
the life and
reconstruct
Middle
of
to exercise concame
siderable
thought of the men
Ages archdeacons
former times.
For the ages prior to the invention
but since the 16th. century the
power,
of writing it is the only source
of information
in
officehas declined in importance,givingway usually
times an
to the office of vicar-general.In modern
regard to the religionof mankind.
the EoUthic
From
and
from
archdeacon
in
the earlier
the
Protestant
Anglican and
age
Paleolithic age (500,000b.c?) no evidences of religious
Episcopal churches is an official charged with part
ideas have yet been discovered.
Ceremonial
of the bishop's administration
of a diocese.
See
burials are
first found
in the Acheulian
epoch.
Deacon; Presbyter; Priest.
These
existence of
suggest belief in the continued
and
the dead
ARCHDIOCESE."
The
the
possibly worship of their spirits.
territory under
Where
existed the animistic theory
of an archbishop.
a belief in spirits
jurisdiction
of the universe held by modern
savages probably
also existed. In the Magdalenian epoch (ca.25,000
head
of
several
ARCHIMANDRITE."
The
models
and
of men
of animals and drawings
monasteries
of the same
times
B.C.)
congregation, or someThese may
of one
have served
stone and ivory appear.
on
largecommunity in the Greek church.
The office dates from the 5th. century.
uses.
magical or other religious
,

"

27

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

ECCLESIASTICAL."
A
tory
deposiof historical value
of records and documents
church
relative to any
or
religiouscommunity;
also apphed to the documents
themselves,e.g., the
Vatican archives.

ARCHIVES,

ARCOSOLIUM.
form of the tombs
early Christians.

An arched recess,
in the Roman
catacombs
"

being
used

one

by

The
ARHAT
of
(ARAHAT)."
highest rank
sainthood in early Buddhism,ascribed to one
who
has gained enlightenment and become
perfect in
the eight-fold
path.
A heresy,chieflyassociated with
ARIANISM.
Christology,so designated from its chief exponent,
Arius (q.v.),
The origin
a presbyterof Alexandria.
of the teaching reverts to the tendency, appearing
in Justin Martyr and Origen, to call the Logos "a
second God," subordinate
to the divine Father, in
"

the

interests

of monotheism.

At

the

council

of

one.

AND

Thus

ETHICS

Arius

there are
two
ultimate
principlesin
material substratum
and the differentiating

the
substances,

essence
or
form-giving idea, matter
and idea the dynamic, while
being the potentiality
the combination
is actuaUty. Substances
of
are
three kinds, nature, man,
and God.
In man
the
is soul and the body is the
differentiating
essence
material
element.
The
Supreme
Being is an
exceptionto the rule,and is supernaturalsubstance,
He is the
consistingof pure form without matter.
prime Mover, himself unmovable, the necessary
result of the principleof causahty. He
is pure
thought, and is Himself the subject of his contemplation.
The specialsciences deal with groups
of specific
facts,deduced from primary principles.
or firstscience,
Philosophyis a science of universals,
the subject-matter of which
is God, and
thus
embraces
all other principlesand first cause.
Aristotle's psychology was
a theoretical duahsm
of body (matter) and soul (essence),the former
tion
being capacity or potentiaUty,and the latter funcor
actuality. His epistemology represented
the human
mind as a recipientbut not a creator of
ideas.
It is a blank page, possessing the faculty
for shaping ideas.
ceptual.
Knowledge is therefore con-

Nicaea, 325, the orthodox party defended the consubstantiability{homoousios)of the Son with the
Father in oppositionto the Arian positionthat the
created by and essentially
Son was
different from
human
The
soul stands
between
the
the
Father
animal
and
(heteroousios or
anomoios)
though
God, partaking in the sensibility,
the
orthodox
umphed,perception and memory
of the animal, and in the
pre-existent.Though
party trithe strugglewas
still more
bitter in the
of God.
Hence
reason
morality is a characteristic
the councils of Nicaea
and Constantinople.
of humanity, and virtue consists in an equiUbrium
period between
In the post-Nicene period the watchbetween
word
and the animal
reason
elements, a mean
of the Arian
between two
totle
In poHtical theory Arisextremes.
party was
homoios, meaning
tends
"similar," Christ being given a representative
argued that monarchical
government
of both genuine
toward
the maximum
of virtue and happiness.
function, and deprived at once
In the Patristic period, Aristotle was
attacked
deity and humanity. A mediating party also
appeared, called Semi-Arians
(q.v.),whose watch
by some, as Irenaeus and TertulUan, while others
word was
But the Alexandrians,especially
homoiousios,meaning of "similar essence."
ignoredhis works.
During this period about eighteen councils were
Clement, hailed him as a forerunner of Christ to
the Hellenic world.
convened, the various partiesanathematizing one
Boethius, through his Latin
another
their metaphysicaldifferences,
but
version of a part of the Organon, introduced Aristotle
over
the western
church.
The
Arabians
to
orthodoxy eventually triumphed at the council of
notably
appearedAvicenna
and
revived
Aristotle in the
Averroes
Constantinople,381, and Arianism
gradually disfrom
the East.
It was
that form
of
11th. and 12th. centuries.
Through their influence
the Teutonic
barbarians
Latin translations of and commentaries
totle's
ArisChristianity to which
on
and it persistedamong
converted
them
until
works were
tian
were
introduced
to Jewish and Christhe 7th. century.
See Christology.
thinkers.
Moses
Maimonides, the Jewish
first the
the movement.
At
writer, continued
ARISTOTLE
AND
ARISTOTELIANISM."
church
condemned
Aristotle's physics (1209) and
his metaphysics (1215),but his system was
too well
Aristotle,Greek philosopher,384-322
B.C., born
in
fitted to Catholicism
at Stagira,hence called "the Stagirite." He was
for that attitude to persist.
Athens 367-347
the pupil of Plato, in Mitylene
declared "precursor of Christ in
as
By 1300 he was
tutor to Alexander
343-335
in the latter part of
as
things natural as John the Baptist was in matters
the reign of Phihp, and again in Athens for 12 years
of grace."
The
most
whom
Albertus Magnus (q.v.)
followed Avicenna
teaching in the Lyceum.
significant
facts were
his relationship
with Plato,which made
he regarded as the best interpreterof Aristotle.
Albertus was
the teacher of Thomas
possiblehis philosophicallabor,and with Alexander
Aquinas (q.v.),
which
enabled
him
for his
to collect materials
the greatest of the Catholic theologians. In him
have
Aristotehanism
ecclesiasticized. The
we
libraryand data for his scientific work.
the standpoint of literary
form Aristotle's
From
dualism of Aristotle was
carried over
as
a dualism
works may
be classified as dialogues,didactic,and
between
rationalism, the
supernaturalism and
rhetorical works; from that of subject-matter as
church
and
the world.
The
hierarchical system
ology, of his concepts from
universals
logic,natural science,primary philosophy or thethrough classHis erudiand miscellaneous.
tion
ethics,
history,
concepts to particulars provided Aquinas with
and literary
the tools for vindicatingthe divine authorityof the
production were encyclopaedic.
is a philosophy of individual
Aristotelianism
Church's knowledge. The deductive method of his
substances
as
opposed to the Platonic philosophy
logicis the method of Catholicism in its theological
of universal forms, the former
and ecclesiastical pronouncements.
emphasizing the
natural and substantial as against the tendency of
A. S. WoODBtrRNB
the latter to the supernaturaland abstract.
These
ARIUS
(256-336)."Presbyter of Alexandria
of his
substances
heretic because
concrete
condemned
comprise reahty, possessing who was
as
a
attributes distributable into categories. Universals
views concerning the substance of the Son.
ness.
As a man
he was
of good character and earnestare
reallypredicatesof the particulars. The generative
ordination
four: a material
of real being are
After having preached and taught the subcauses
which is passive,a formal cause
which is ideational,
of the Son to the Father and maintaining
cause
which
stance
subefficient cause
is active, and a
that he was
of similar rather than the same
an
andria
is purposive. These
condemned
final cause
which
four are
he was
by the Synod of Alexreduced to two by combining the last three into
at
(320-321),and subsequentlycondemned

Ark

DICTIONARY

the
the Council
and banished.
None
of Nicaea
less his view found
followers and at times
many
gained control of the imperial court.
(See ArianISM.) In the latter part of his lifeArius was recalled
banishment
from
and would
have
been received
back with honor into the church had he not died the
day preceding that set for the service.
the
ARK.
literature,
(1) According to Hebrew
of
largefloatingvessel built by Noah by command
Yahweh, as a refuge from the deluge (Gen. 6:5
9:17). Comparative mythology furnishes parallel
traditions in Indian Hterature where
Manu
plays
the role assigned to Noah
(Catapatha Brahmana,
in
and
and
Mahabharata
Bhagavata Purana),
is
Babylonian hterature where the part of Noah
assigned to Xisuthrus
{Gilgamesh).(2) The
"

"

hidden
basket in the bulrushes in which Moses
was
until found
(Exod.
by the daughter of Pharaoh
(Deut. 10:8),
3:12). (3) The ark of the covenant
ark of the testimony (Exod. 25:16), or ark of the
of acacia wood,
revelation; a sacred chest made
with
overlaid and lined with gold,and surmounted
cherubim.
took the ark with
two
The
Hebrews
them
in their travels,since it symboUzed for them
in the presence
of Yahweh.
(4) The ark of the law
is a chest used in Jewish synagogues
as
a repository
for the scrolls of the Torah.
(5) In the Ethiopian
church, a chest which has been dedicated to serve
altar.
as
an
(6) Metaphorically used for the
institution of
church
the divinely authorized
as

salvation.
OF."
A Synod caUed at Aries,
ARLES, SYNOD
in S.E. France
Constantino
in 314 by Emperor
and
to settle the dispute between
the Catholics
Donatists.
It was
thoroughly representativeof the
Western
provinces,33 bishops being present. The
prohibition of the rebaptisra of apostates with
the Trinitarian formula
was
a decision against the
Donatists.
Three bishops must
be present for an
The
episcopal ordination.
majority of the 22
concerned
the discipUne
of clergy and laity,
canons
and were
called forth by the necessityfelt by the
church
define its position since its imperial
to
recognition. See Donatism.
CHURCH
OF."
A church
kindred
church
in form, but independent in
organization,and differingfrom the "orthodoxy"
of the main
bodies of the Eastern
and
Western
churches
in rejectingthe decrees of the Council
of Chalcedon.
Tradition traces back the introduction of Christianity
into Armenia
to a legendary mission of the
to King Abgar, together with
Apostle Thaddaeus
supposed visits of Bartholomew, Simon, and
Jude.
There
is no
historical authority for this.
The
real origin of the Armenian
church
is to be
attributed to the mission of Gregory the Illuminator
in the 4th. century, which has been decorated
ea,rly
with
much
later legendary matter.
Under
his
influence Christianity
to be formally
even
came
adopted as the national religionof Armenia.
The breach with the Greek church was brought
about by the opposition of the Armenians
to the
decision of Chalcedon
(a.d.451), which they held
to favour Nestorianism.
In the year 535 the separation
made
final by the Council
of Tiben,
was
anathematised
which
the Orthodox
church
and
added
"who
crucified
a monosophysite clause"
was
for us"
to the Trisagion, i.e.,to the doxology
Frota the times of the
"Holy, Holy, Holy," etc.
earUest Turkish
invasions the Armenian
Christians
have suffered cruel persecution,culminating in the
of recent times. See also Monophysites.
massacres
F. Adeney
Walter

ARMENIA,

to

the

Greek

"

AND

RELIGION

OF

ETHICS

28

ARMINIANISM
AND
ARMINIUS."
The type
of doctrine
Arminius
who
taught by James
studied at Geneva, Basle, and Leyden, and finally
called to the chair of theology in the
in 1603 was
after his day
University of Leyden
soon
very
Arminianism.
began to be termed
Frequently,
has been
made
to connote,
however, the term
besides the formally expressed tenets of Arminius,
doctrinal
from
conceptions logically deducible
His departures from the Reformed
them.
teaching
,inwhich he had been reared scarcely went beyond
the rejectionof unconditional
election and irresistible
In place of these features of the reigning
grace.
Calvinism
he affirmed
conditional
election and
man's
freedom
to accept or to reject divine overtures.
"

"

The

immediate

followers of Arminius
in the
whom
Uytenbogaert, Grotius,
Limborch
Episcopius, and
were
prominent
of Remonstrants
from the titleof
acquired the name
the document
which
they put forth in 1610, the
after the death
of Arminius.
In the five
year
articles of this manifesto, while giving not a little
emphasis to man's
spiritual dependence, they
rule out unconditional
limited atonement,
predestination,
and
irresistible grace,
and
speak of the
doctrine of certain perseverance
to inquiry.
as
open
Later the positiveaffirmation of the possibility
of
strant
falUng from grace became characteristic of Remonor Arminian
tion
teaching,as did also the repudiaof the notion of imputed or hereditaryguilt.
So
far as
Netherlands
the
are
concerned,
Arminianism
after the
to its best very
came
soon
death of the founder.
indeed granted toleraIt was
tion
after the brief period of proscriptionwhich
followed its condemnation
by the Synod of Dort
(1618-19 q.v.); but it was to find its most fruitful
fields in other regions. Anglican high churchism
it patronage in the time of Laud
and
again
gave
dist
after the Stuart restoration.
Through the Methoit made
alliance with
wherein
movement,
warm
a
evangehcal faith, it acquired specially
effective means
of dissemination.
dered
Support is renit, furthermore, by a consideration of the
acterized
extent
its essential points of view charto which
and
the teaching of the early church
later found lodgment in Lutheranism.
C. Sheldon
Henry
ARNOLD
OF BRESCIA."
Ascetic and reformer,
b. at Brescia
in Italy, date unknown.
He
was
educated
for the priesthood, and became
a
pupil
of Abelard.
He was
of worldly
a vigorous opponent
of
corruption in the clergy and of temporal power
the Curia.
His maxims
"Clerks who
have
were:
who possess
monks
estates, bishops who hold fiefs,
into conflict
be saved."
He came
property, cannot
with Pope Eugenius III, Emperor Frederick
BarAs a result of the
barossa, and Pope Adrian IV.
and
combined
opposition of Frederick
Adrian,
Arnold was
in 1155.
put to death at Rome

Netherlands

"

among

"

MATTHEW
ARNOLD,
(1822-1888)." English
educator, literary critic,poet and author; his
works
of a critical,
liberal and
on
religionwere
ethical character, and
exercised
considerable
a
Literature and Dogma, and God and the
influence.
books of his deaUng with
Bible are two well-known
religion.
ORGANIC"
A law regulating
ARTICLES, THE
pubhc worship in France, introduced by Napoleon,
comprising 44 articles relatingto Protestantism and
77 relative to Catholicism.
the separationof church and

The
state

FORTY-TWO."
ARTICLES,
adopted by the AngUcan

faith

law stood
in 1905.

until

of
A
confession
Church
in 1552,

29

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Aryan Religion

THIRTY-SEVEN."
A form of the
ARTICLES,
Belgic Confession (q.v.)arranged ia 37 articles in

gathered under the general title of*


sky-father,are the only gods and they
not
are
anthropomorphic but vaguely conceived
forces. The
nature
Aryans could stillbe called
atheists in historic times by visitors who
had
a
pantheon of personalgods with human characteristics.
There
been
to have
two
seem
great public
ceremonies:
of securingrain in summer
one, a means
mimetic
when
by
a
magic
processionwith vessels

1531.

of mead

subsequentlyrevised
Nine

Articles

into

the

so-called

Thirty-

(q.v.).

THIRTY-NINE."
The officialconfession
of faith of the Anglican Church, adopted in
England.
See Church
of

ARTICLES,
1571.

These
the

powers,

sky

or

water

or

moved

around

great fire with

spoken spellsand finallyextinguished the fire by


emptying their vessels into it,the other, common
to many
peoples,an attempt to assist the powers
of lightand warmth
in their strugglewith cold and

THOMAS
bishop
(1353-1414)." ArchARUNDEL,
of Canterbury; also filled the offices of
bered
archbishop of York and lord chancellor; rememtime.
the fives of
for his severe
Then
persecution of the Lollards, darkness at the autumn
of the translation of the Bible into
cattle and, stillmore
and prohibition
were
potent,the lives of men
given to revivifyana
strengthen the sky powers.
EngUsh.
That
of cosmic
a
dawning sense
order, of a fate
BROTHERS."
An
ancient
Roman
to twelve members
charged with
and blessing
certain ceremonies for the protection
revival under
In the religious
of fields and crops.
Augustus, the emperor secured election to the college
and the functions of the Fratrea Arvales were
larged
enceremonies
to include sacrificial
on
important
household.
occasions connected with the Imperial
While performing important rehgious duties in the
hood
gave the prieststate, the presence of the emperors
the nature of a select social club.

inevitable than
the powers
of
element
of their early world-view
has been suggestedby Schrader and seems
plausible
in view of the development of several Aryan groups.
There are no temples,and no organized priesthood,
who know magic spells
and incantations
though men
form the beginning of the later families of priests.
About
the hearth grow
up affections and customs
which raise it into divine status in almost all the
To feed it,to keep it burning when
Aryan groups.
fire is difficult to make, to guard it from pollution
becomes
a
reUgious duty. The early loyaltiesare
An Indian religiousreformation
Blood
ARYA
to kin and
is essential.
to chief.
SAMAJ.
revenge
established by Dayanand Sarasvati
where,
movement
Hospitalitywas freelygiven, though, here as elsethe stranger and
the beggar were
in 1875.
It is an
more
attempt to establish a purely
feared than welcomed.
dead were
The
buried in
monotheistic cult founded on the Vedas, which are
of the revelation of God
the source
at the
or
rough-hewn coffins at a "crossroads"
as
interpreted
border of the common
land.
ethical teaching is of a
The
With
the dead man
and of all science.
favorite possessions,
were
placedhis tools,weapons,
high type. The Samaj is distinctlyIndian and
meat, drink and in earliest times his wives and
bitterly opposed to Christianity. It has been
victims to the
successful,but less significant slaves. The practiceof givinghuman
numerically more
dead was
than the Brahma
Samaj (q.v.).
earlygiven up, but the burial ceremonies
of the historic Aryans show clearlythat it was
once
The word Aryan is here
RELIGION."
the rule. After the burial came
ARYAN
purificationrites
which
in water
and a solemn
feast. The dead were
used to refer to the Indo-European race
posed
supin
the parent stock of the peoples known
to dwell in the earth but at stated times, at
formed
the home, at the grave, on the anniversaryof death,
later historyas Teuton, Scandinavian, Slav, Greek,
and
Indian.
the birthdayand in the family ceremonies,food
on
Emerging
Celt, Iranian
Roman,
offered to them
the Baltic as a
under the name
of "fathers"
from the stone age in territorynear
was
or
"grand-fathers." Such family rites were
type
fairlyhomogeneous people of cattle-raising
very
ing
important not only to prevent the ghost from becomthey spread to form the cultural groups we know in
it from a
a danger to the family but to save
history. To write the story of their religiouslife
in that prehistoric
period when they dwelt together wretched existence. There is sufficient evidence to
held at
and
was
suggest that a great public ceremony
neighbors on a far-flungtract of woods
as
from
the earth,were
a precarioustask.
Using which all the dead came
pasture land is necessarily
the knowledge of the elements
to all the
common
placated,fed and dismissed by public rites. Such
and the Greek
forms as the Celtic Samhain
eve
branches of the old family,with specialattention
become
and developwhich
have
stabilized
Anthesteria
be its continuation
ment.
to those
may
groups
of origin and
There is no indication of a heavenly abode
nearest
to the pointy
remembering
of the dead.
of securing
that everywhere religionis man's way
They belong to the underworld;
the
and
in relation to the
life-values and
life-security
crossroads, the place of burial,was
natural environment
we
dangerous. The representationof the
especially
attempt to picturethis
may
underworld powers in the form of a snake and the
primitivereligion.
prehistoric
in the form of
ancestor
idea of the return
of an
shows
The early history of the various groups
which
coils by the hearth fire is
fearless people,
the "house-snake"
them as a vigorous, life-loving,
feasting,drinking and games
so
common
Aryan peoples that it probably
deUghting in fighting,
among
Their religiouscult centers about the
of chance.
belongsto the primitiveperiod.
that
of the Aryans was
On the whole the religion
heavenly nature powers, the home fire and the
of a confident,happy and successful people. The
family. There is littleevidence of a cult of motherearth common
to agriculturalpeoples. The sky
gods are generous, placable powers of light and
for morality.
fife. There
is no
divine sanction
of sun, its rain,its lightare the
with its warmth
There
hands.
how
The Aryan took that into his own
important things. It is easy to understand
is no abject fear of dread powers and no quest for a
eagerlythe herders of cattle in a land where known
heaven to compensate for a frustrated life on earth.
and unknown
enemies
prowled in darkness would
a lifeof vigorand
The
Well-knit family and clan loyalties,
rain
welcome
the dawning hght of heaven.
ARVAL

limited
priesthood

which

was

nature,

more

was

an

"

life to cattle and to men.


The boisterous
thunder-storm
cleaving the oak with its lightning
bolt is another power before which they must stand
in awe, and the oak, perhaps,was the sacred tree.
meant

plentv under a Sky-God giving light,warmth,


to land and herds developedthe race
and fertility
which

was

to

historyof human

factor in the
the dominant
become
Haydon
A. Eustace
culture.

Ascension

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

30

As an astral deity Ishtar appeared as


ASCENSION."
of the body of the
The passage
as 'Ashtart.
risen Christ into heaven.
a
war-goddess, being identified with the planet
This ascension
differs from
assumption (q.v.) Venus, the leader of the stars,in Semitic and Greek
cults. She was
rather
also the goddess of fruitfulness and
in that it was
of the body of the resurrection,
her cult meant
than a body untouched
a deificationof sensuousness,
by that experience. This
although
this was
spiritualizedas the mainspring of the
experience is referred to only in Acts 1:9, other
tender human
emotions.
In the O.T. she appears
references being to his resurrection.
Mathews
the feminine
as
Shailer
counterpart of the Canaanitic
baals in which
the sexual aspect predominated.
ASCETICISM."
treatment
(1) A methodical
Goddesses.
of the body as evil and opposed to spiritual
welfare, See Mother
involvingthe practiceof fasting,flogging,ceUbacy
ASHUR.
The
and other more
means.
(2)Less
or less disciplinary
god of the Assyrian
supreme
of self- pantheon representedby a solar disc with wings.
for the purpose
specifically,
self-discipline
of
and
control
the cultivation of spiritual
quahties
ASHVAGHOSHA."
A Buddhist
the personality.
writer of the
1st. century a.d., the author of a life of Buddha,
Asceticism
is found in developed rather than
the Buddha-chanla.
less
or
primitive
religions.It pre-supposes a more
recognizing a
organized philosophical dualism
ASH
WEDNESDAY."
The
first day of the
strugglebetween body and spirit. It is therefore
Lenten
to be distinguished
from the painful
practiceswhich
period,forty days before Easter, so called
from the ritual use of ashes as a symbol of repentinitiation and ritual methods
adopted
ance.
accompany
The
ashes
So far as
secured
are
by primitivepeoples to secure success.
by burning the
from
be traced,
asceticism seems
to have come
palms used the previous year on Palm
can
Sunday.
The day is observed
Catholic
It
in the Roman
and
those of India.
oriental religions,
particularly
Anglican churches.
passed westward, assimilatinglocal practices in
Persia,Greece, and above all Egypt. Alone among
ASINARII.
An
the great reKgionsof the ancient world,the Hebrew
epithet applied first to the
became
Jews, and afterwards to the Christians,as e.g., by
system never
ascetic,unless exception be
continued
Tacitus because they were
said to worship an ass.
made
Uke the Nazarites who
of groups
in more
Ad
Nationes
to
maintain
customs
(See Tertullian:
simpler nomadic
1, 14; Apologia
ing
the
In 1856 a discovery was
made
on
XVI).
highlydeveloped civih'zations. The most outstandin
t
he
Palatine
of
sketch
scratched
stone representing
ascetic religion
is probably Hinduism
a
(q.v.),
devotees of which have from earHest days_
the victim having a man's body and an
a crucifixion,
sought
ass's head, probably a 3rd. century travesty of the
existences
release from
the cycle of successive
of the
crucifixion of Jesus,although it may
be of Mithraic
of the body by means
through the purification
origin.
voluntary infliction of pain, or the practiceof some
form of self-discipline.
The methods
ASOKA."
of asceticism include the limitation
Emperor of India (273-231 b.c.)."
of food,poverty, celibacyand austerities of various
He is chieflyknown
because of his use of the royal
for the spread of Buddhism
it is hoped to reduce the
sorts.
resources
By such means
by missionary
body to subservience to the spiritand to acquire teaching to Ceylon, China, Thibet, Syria and the
devoted to human
not
West.
merit in heaven.
Such
methods
service,
are
always
Merciful,tolerant,
his own
as
empire on the ethical basis
they often tend to the suppression he estabhshed
successful,
rather than to the discipline
of natural impulses. of kindlyrespect for the sanctityof all Uving things
In consequence,
the rightof the meanest
the ascetic of the extreme
thing to a full life. For
type is
liable to
he is perhaps
the spread of Buddhism
abnormal
as
a religion
psychical conditions,which
sometimes
in hysteria,visions, the most
themselves
important figurein history.
express
other neurasthenic
or
experiences.
ASPERGES.
The rite of sprinklingthe congreA
development of the ascetic practicesin
gation
with holy water
before the celebration of the
to pagan
while
due in large measure
Christianity,
influences and survivals,
in
R.C.
called
the
honor
Mass
the
from
furthered by the
was
High
church, so
given by the church to ceHbacy on the part of its first word of the verse, Ps. 51:7.
priestsand nuns, as well as to its introduction of
ardent
fasts for all members
The monasASPIRATION."
An
of the church.
tery
longing for the
influential
realization of a kind of life much
of Cluny (q.v.),was
particularly
purer and higher
in spreading ascetic practices,
while the Irish penitential than one's ordinary attainments.
desire to
Rehgious aspiration is the earnest
system, when introduced upon the Continent,
or
favor, or to possess
experience God's presence
impulse.
gave it a new
realities of the divine world.
The discipline
of one's self throughthe subjection inwardly the spiritual
of physicalimpulses to moral control is the permaIt expresses itself in worship, prayer, consecration,
nent
value of ascetic practices.As such self-control, and often in specificreligiousdiscipUne, such as
Moral
aspirationconsists in the desire
however, does not involve the premises of asceticism, asceticism.
is the motive
it cannot
See Hinduism,
to realize ethical ideals,and
properly be so termed.
power
Mathews
to
Shailek
religiouslyand
living. Both
Buddhism, Monasticism.
genuine moral
is an intenselypersonalvaluation
morally aspiration
ested
disinterASGARD.
of spiritual
The dwelling-place
of the gods in
ideals,as contrasted with more
Teutonic rehgion.
of contemplating the good.
ways
"

"

"

"

"

ASHKENAZIM."

(From the Hebrew

name

in

Gen. 10:3.) A term used by the Jews to designate


the Jews of Central and Eastern Europe and their
descendants.
They differ in ritual and
from the Sephardim. (qv.).

in customs

Hebrew
of goddess of
name
origin, appearing in Babylonian as
Ishtar, in Greek as Astarte, and in Phoenician

ASHTORETH."

Sumerian

A mediaeval dramatic
OF THE."
ASS, FEAST
presentationto impress events of BibUcal history,
such as the story of Balaam's
ass, the flightof the
holy family into Egypt. Generally of a burlesque
character.
of the province of Eastern
Part
Assam
in British India since 1895;
N.E. of Bengal.
1826-1895
a separateprovince,

ASSAM.

Bengal and
from

"

31

OF

DICTIONARY

About
Sh millions are Hindus, 1^ millions Muslims
of
The Hindus
and 1 million inhabitants animists.
know
such by conversion
though we
Assam
are
which they were
brought
very littleof the process by
and Sakti have been the
cult of Vishnu
in. The
Hinduisrn.
of
Assamese
predominant elements
can
Missionary work has been carried on by the Ameriand
since 1891.

Baptists since 1841


Pioneer

Mission

the

Assam

Frontier

of a sect of secret
A
member
ASSASSIN.
which
murderers
originated in Persia at the close
of the Shi'ites.
of the 11th. century as a branch
The
sect was
operative in Persia and Syria for
felt
was
nearly two hundred
years, and its power
In principle their beliefs
during the Crusades.
is
corresponded with the Isma'ilites. The name
from the
derived from hashish,an intoxicant made
juiceof hemp leaves which was given to the Assassins
about to be sent on their mission
when
they were
known
of death.
The leader was
as Sheikh-al-Jabal,
Old Man
of the Mountains.
or
"

CLERGY."
OF THE
ASSEMBLIES
FRENCH
The quinquennial gatherings of the French
clergy
for the
from the 16th. century to the Revolution
appointment of the taxes exacted by the kings of
France from the church, and for the transaction of
other ecclesiastical business.

ASSEMBLY,

GENERAL."

See

AND

RELIGION

ETHICS

Assyria,Religion of

certaintyas to God's favor.


by God, the Christian could

Sure of acceptance

state of

cease

to concern

about
himself
petty
ecclesiastical penance.

details of merit
about
or
doctrine
of personal
The
assurance
was
emphasized in oppositionto rehgious
formahsm
by the leaders of Pietism (q.v.)and by
John
has
Wesley (q.v.). The basis of assurance
been variously defined,emphasis being laid sometimes
of God
the promise of the Word
on
(Luther),
sometimes
the direct inner testimony of the
on
the divine
on
Holy Spirit(Wesley), and sometimes
election (Calvin). At times the emotional
ence
experiof assurance
has been
so
overemphasized
The real
to lead to the danger of fanaticism.
as
of the doctrine is in its affirmation of a
significance
with
genuine personal experience of communion
God
in contrast
formal
to a mere
profession of
Gerald
Smith
Birney
religion.
ASSYRIA

AND

BABYLONIA,

RELIGION

OF.

the religionof Babylonia


Strictlyspeaking,this was
and Assyria from
the earliest times to the
fall of the neo-Babylonian empire in 538 B.C.,
though in Babylonia it survived until the beginning

"

of the Christian
Such
writers as Herodotus
era.
and Berosus tell us a httle about it,but the principal
form
of information
sources
concerning it are the cuneiinscriptionswhich have been found in such
in Mesopotamia.
Babylonia, the
large numbers
mother
the land of rehgious origins;
country, was
sembly.
AsAssyria, developing later,borrowed
largelyfrom

General

Babylonia.
ASSEMBLY,

See

WESTMINSTER."

minster
West-

Assembly.
ASSIZE

OF

CLARENDON."

council

vened
con-

Clarendon, England in 1164 by Henry II,


and
who
the English bishops
compelled Thomas
called the Constitutions
to subscribe to 16 articles,
of Clarendon
designed to transfer the control
(q.v.),
of ecclesiastical affairs from
Rome
to England.
The
clergy refused to conform, and Henry had to
at

people and their gods. In Babylonia


mingled, the Semites from Arabia, called
called
affinities,
Akkadians, and a race of unknown
Akkadians
hair and
Sumerians.
The
wore
long
shaved
both head and face.
beards; the Sumerians
1. The

two

"

races

lished
Akkadians
first in the land and estabwere
The
their Semitic gods at various centers.
beardless Sumerians
coming later worshiped these
bearded
gods, mingling, of course, in their worship
Sumerian
elements.
some
a land
Babylonia was
tory
of city-states.From
long before the dawn of histhe articles in 1172.
renounce
to the rise of Babylon, about 2100 B.C., one
citytion
another.
ASSUMPTION."
The
of the cortransference
state often succeeded
During the dominaporeal
of each, its deitysecured a degree of worship
individual into heaven.
body of some
death
Such
translations are
both without
(as from subject cities. To the Babylonians the world
to
must
full of spiritswith which men
was
come
according to Jewish Apocalyptic literature was true
kind
of Abraham,
a
Fundamentally their rehgion was
Isaiah, Moses)' instead of death (as terms.
of Enoch
of polydemonism,but through the power
of the cityin the case
and Elijah); or after death.
the
In Christianity
states the gods of a few places emerged from
the only assumption that has
of spirits
and became
into doctrine is that of Mary who after her
the chief deities of
great mass
grown
death was
These
Enlil of Nippur
taken up into heaven bodily,according to
the country.
gods were
both the Roman
trine
and Greek
This doc(calledin Akkadian
Bel), Anu of Erech, Enki of
churches.^
Eridu (inAkkadian
into dogma
Ea), Nannar of Ur (inAkkadian
although never
formally made
is universallypreached.
(in
sun-god, Shamash
Sin), and the Akkadian
Sumerian
Utu). In all the cities a mother goddess
she was
AUGUSTINIANS
OF THE."
also worshiped. By the Sumerians
was
ASSUMPTION,
called
the Akkadians generally
A R.C. congregation,originatingin France in 1845,
given many
names;
and
members
in
1000
her Ishtar.
having at present about
During the pre-Babylonian periodthe
various countries.
worship of a weather god, Adad, and of a corn god,
also introduced, apparently from the
Dagan, were
FEAST
OF
THE."
A festival
The
West.
ASSUMPTION,
worship of these along with that of
fixed that it persisted
became
celebratingthe bodily ascension to heaven of the
so
Nergal of Kutha
of Babylonian history.
It is
Virgin Mary
subsequent to her death.
through the whole course
observed
in the Roman
Church
Some
other deities,
such as Ningirsuof Lagash and
on
Aug. 15th, and
in the Greek church from Aug. 15th to 23rd inclusive.
of Kish
Zamama
were
widely worshiped tiU the
smaller town
rise of Babylon.
Each
(and there
ASSURANCE.
The inner conviction that one
in Babylonia) had its deity. The larger
were
many
deities. These
subordinate
had also many
towns
enjoys God's favor and has been forgivenand saved
the principal
often made
through faith in Christ.
were
by differentiating
In emancipating men
from dependence on the
varied
from
of epithets. They
gods by means
Catholic church, Luther
insisted strongly on
the
period to period. A very popular vegetationdeity
doctrine of inner assurance
of salvation,whereby a
known
^Ashnan,Ningishzida,
was
by various names
last of these names
believingChristian might know himself to be saved
Dumuzi.
The
persisted and
without
Tammuz
needing to consult a priest. Justification was Hebraized
as
(Ezek. 8:14). During
by faith,he contended,included the creation of a
the dynasty of Agade (2800-2600 b.c.) certain
The

"

"

Assyria,Religion of

DICTIONARY

OP

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

32

another myth represents the mother goddess,Nintu,


has learned
of this. The custom
the secrets of
jealous because man
vowing that he shall not five forever.
however, sporadically continued
agriculture,
by later
was,
3. Temples and priesthoods.
With such deities,
dynasties. Most of the kings of the dynasty of Ur
rate
deified in their hfetime and elabofriendly yet capricious, the Babylonians and
(2458-2341) were
addressed to them.
into relations.
Several of the
From
Assyrians sought to come
hymns were
before the dawn
of
of historytemples of brick were
kings of Nisin and Larsa were
deified;the name
erected
to
the great Hammurapi
of Babylon is sometimes
artificial brick
them, usually upon
ceded
preEach
terraces.
temple, in addition to the shrine
by the determinative for deity,and the same
of the deity for whom
it was
is true of a few kings of the Kassite dynasty (1750contained minor
built,
sanctuaries for other deities. To each temple was
While all these spirits
1175 B.C.;.
worshiped
were
attached a ziggurat,
or
Anu, now
as
gods, three were
especiallyhonored:
stagedtower, to represent a
mountain
built a
peak, and at Lagash Gudea
regarded as god of heaven, Enlil (Bel),regarded as
brazen sea, to represent the ocean.
The temple was
god of the land, and Enki (Ea), regarded as god of
formed
thus a kind of epitome of the world.
into
the deep. About
2500 b.c, they were
In the temples
the gods were
served by elaborate priesthoods,the
triad representing air,earth, and water, which
a
of
which
increased in complexity as
continued
to be reverenced as long as the religion organization
time advanced,
Schools
for the trainingof the
lasted.
Enki
(Ea) had also been regardedas the
the
When
from time immemorial.
priests existed in many
god of wisdom
temples. Here the art
of writing was
about 2100 B.C.,
and hymns
taught,and the Uturgies
city of Babylon became supreme,
the
its god, Marduk, began to be worshiped over
employed in the services copied. The temples
less
owned
whole
of Babylonia, and, with his somewhat
large estates, and their archives have in
of account-tablets
some
cases
yielded thousands
prominent consort, Zarpanit, an offshoot of the
which reveal many
of the features of the economic
to be
old mother
goddess Ishtar, he continued
lifeof Babylonia.
worshiped throughout the history. In time he
4. Liturgies and
absorbed
hymns. The
qualitiesof both Bel (EnMl) and Ea, and
Uturgies and
hymns are of great interest since they reveal the
myths in which they had been prominent were
in their places. thoughts and conceptions of the worshipers. In
reshaped in order to put Marduk
the
these compositions the gods are depicted in all their
later became
Nabu, god of Borsippa, who
into
Their might and greatness are
patron of learning and eloquence, also came
power.
especially
praised. The worshipers believed that the gods
prominence after the rise of Babylon. During
the Kassite period a second triad consistingof Sin,
and were
enjoyed being thus flattered,
accordingly
the moon,
lenient to men.
The hymns
Shamash, and Ishtar,representing
disposedto be more
sun,
formed.
to Enhl
and Venus, was
In later times Adad, the
him
with
the
(Bel) connect
especially
and the violent storms
thunderbolt
weather god, was
sometimes
of Babylonia.
put in place of Ishtar.
One of them speaks of the thunder as his word, just
Assyria emerged as a dependent state about
the Hebrews
2100 B.C. and became
as
regarded thunder as the voice of
independent about 1600 b.c.
Yahweh.
the head of
In the hymns Nannar
Its principaldeity was
Ashur
who was
to
(Sin) appears
the Assyrian pantheon throughout the history. be very popular, and the appearance
and movements
of the moon
He
embodied
dwelt upon
the characteristics of the Assyrian
in describing
are
him.
The
so-called penitentialpsalms were
ployed
emwarlike, ruthless, and cruel.
nation,which was
in times of trouble,national or personal.
Ishtar of Nineveh
was, at least in the later periods,
find the Babylonian conception of sin
his consort.
In them
and Adad
also reverenced,
Anu
we
were
been in the main
to have
Bel and Ea, the other members
of the first
as
were
simply misfortune
or
triad.
In later periods of the historyBabylonian
the worshiper is wretched, he
misery. Because
have
offended
some
gods were
introduced,especiallyNabu and Nergal. infers that he must
deity.
He
2. Relation of gods to men.
The myths concernbe made
assumes
to
ing
that, if the deity can
wretched
these gods reveal something of their worshipers' appreciate how
he is, the divine heart
ideas of them
will relent,and the anger
and their relation to the world and
that has caused his misfortune
will pass away.
No deep sense
to men.
of sin or
According to one
cycle of myths, both
and irrigating
water
It is
men
conception of its inwardness is revealed.
begotten by natural
were
that sufferingatones
for sin. The belief
generation from gods and goddesses. The Babylonians assumed
fond of cosmogonicmyths, or
in the efficacyof intercession prevailed,and one
were
especially
From
myths that explained the originsof the world and
god is often asked to intercede with another.
its institutions.
time immemorial
sacrifices were
In addition to those just alluded
offered. About
and of agri2500 B.C. they consisted of oxen, sheep,goats, lambs,
to, which explain the origin of man
culture,
myths of the creation and the flood were
fish,eagles,cranes, and the viands eaten by men.
also in circulation
time
before 2000
As
b.c.
They appear to have been regarded as food for the
advanced
elaborated
of creation
a
was
myth
gods rather than as having atoningefficacyfor sin.
into an epic of seven
Tammuz.
The
for the
universal characteristic
cantos.
It accounted
5. Ishtar and
of Semitic religion
the worship of the
and for the earth
was
origin of the gods themselves
and heavens
mother
by the conquest of a watery chaos by
goddess Ishtar. The Semitic background
of Babylonian religionenabled
her influence to
Marduk, god of Babylon. The kinship of gods and
indicated
in the myth of the begetting of
with
Sumerian
it, although, blended
permeate
men,
men
by a god and goddess, and emphasized by
goddesses,she was often called by Sumerian names.
the deification of certain kings,as already noted,is
Connected
with her cult were
primitivesexual rites,
further
which were
perpetuated until the time of Herodotus
emphasized in the Gilgamesh Epic, in
which
Gilgamesh and Engidu are defied,and in
designed to secure
(cf.Bk. I. 199). Such rites were
which the goddess Ishtar offers herself in marriage
abundant
with
the
an
offspring. Connected
male and female ministers of
to Gilgamesh.
temples there were
While the line between gods and men
not
the goddess whose function appears
to have been to
was
could not
of sterility.
while the deities
in the cure
one
men
represent the divine powers
cross, and
sometimes
consorted
with men,
nevertheless
they
They are recognized in the Code of Hammurapi,
called by various
The
should become
where
wise and
were
as
names.
jealous lest men
they are
immortal
have had a deleterious
themselves.
service of this goddess must
In the Adapa myth
as
as
Ea is said to have hed to Adapa lest he should eat
influence
Babylonian social fife. Closely
upon
the food that would
make
him
connected wiljh the worship of the mother goddess
immortal, and
deified
kings were
Sin is the best known

during their lifetime. Naraminstance

"

"

"

"

33

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Astrology

was

and of social justice.


problems of social organization

muz),

This

that of her son (later


husband) Dumuzi
(Tama
god of vegetation. As vegetation dies
beheved
die.
The
to
down each year, Tammuz
was
mother goddess was
thought to be in great sorrow
An ancient myth
of the loss of her son.
account
on
recounted how on one such occasion she had forsaken
world,
the underthe upper world and gone down to Arallu,
to bring him up to hfe again. At that time
the earth had ceased.
all procreativeaction on
the whole
During the time of the death of Tammuz
land was filledwith wailing,
by the women.
especially
Elaborate rituals for a worship of wailing in the
It contains
temples has been preserved to us.
such doleful repetitions
as the following:

was

in part due

to

their conviction

that the

the part of men.


gods demanded
on
righteousness
In the myths the gods might lie to men
and to one
another, but nevertheless they punished human
liars. It thus happens that in the Code of Hammurapi
has taken
provisionis made that,if a man
oath in the presence
of a god, his unsupported
an
word shall be regarded as truth.
In generalethics
the Babylonians were
fullyabreast of other nations
of the period. The less civilized Assyrians were
more
backward, though in privateethics they may
not have fallen behind the Babylonians.
George
A. Barton
ASTERISK.
A utensil consisting
of two crossed
arches,either silver or golden,used in the Greek
church to protect the eucharistic bread from the
coveringveil.
"

The
The

....

lord of
lord of

vegetationno longerlives;
vegetationno longerhves;
[repeatedsix times]
husband no longerlives;
my

ASTROLOGY.
A science which pretended to
foretellevents in the affairsof earth by a knowledge
of the nature
and
of the heavenly
movements
bodies.
It was based upon the idea of an inevitable
between the movements
of the stars and
relationship
the hfe of man.
Two main phases are to be distinguished,
the Babylonianand the Roman.
The supposed science had its originin Babylon
about 2400 B.C.
The
observed
places of the
heavenly bodies in relation to the observed happenings
earth were
on
organizedinto a system of prognostication
of the good or evil chances in any
projectedundertaking. On the other hand, unusual
happenings or arrangements in the heavens were
to mean
certain favorable or unfavorable
interpreted
events for the governments of the various divisions
of the known
world.
The chief gods, Anu, EnUl,
and Ea, were
assigneddivisions of the heavens ; the
"

The lord Tammuz


no
longerlives;
The lord of the dweUing no longerlives;
The spouse of the lady of heaven no longerlives;
The lord of Eturra no longerlives;
The brother of the mother of the vine no longer
lives.
With
such iteration the whole land was
plunged
into mourning. When
itwas beUeved that Tammuz
had risen again,in accordance with psychological
law, the ecstatic joy was
correspondinglygreat.
The
celebrated in festivals to these
event
was
deities of fertilityfestivals that were
not always
"

chaste,
believed
6. Life afterdeath. ^Althoughit was
that the god Tammuz
rose
annually from the
dead, the Babylonians had no faith that men
could share his fortunate fate. Their conceptionof
the under-world is graphically
set forth in the poem
Ishtar's descent
the underworld.
The
on
to
goddess is said to have determined to go
"

Unto
Unto

the house of darkness,the dwellingof Irkalla


the house whose enterer never
out
comes
Along the way whose going has no return,
Unto the house whose enterer is deprivedof light.
Where
dust is their food,their sustenance
clay.
Light they do not see, in darkness they dwell;
They are 'lothed like birds with a coveringof wings.
Over the door and bolt the dust is spread.
Into

this cheerless world the dead departed with


a
happy resurrection. The tweKth
tablet of the Gilgamesh Epic tells how wistfully
the Babylonians longed for a more
cheerful hereafter
and for reunion with loved ones, but that
such hope was
The
no
granted them.
epic in
lines sums
two
their attitude as they contemplated
up
this prospect :

hope of

no

I will sit all day and


I will sit all day and
The
many

hostile

weep!
weep!

Babylonians believed in the existence of


spiritsbeside the gods spiritsthat were
"

to

men.

These

demons

haunted

every

they brought diseases;they were


ever
believed that
It was
men.
ready to leap upon
they could be controlled by certain formulae,especially
cranny;

if these were
uttered in connection with certain
ceremonies.
fulfil these functions long
To
incantation texts were
compiled,and, no doubt
often employed. It thus happens that Babylonian
ceremonies merge off insensibly
into magic.
religious
7. Ethics. In spiteof the limitations of their
for such an
religious
conceptionsthe Babylonians,
earlyfolk,developed a comparativelyhigh ethical
standard.
code of Hammurapi,
The
well as
as
fragmentsof earliercodes,shows that they had solved
with a fair degree of success
of the initial
many

rulinggods.Sin,Shamash, Marduk, Isthar,Ninib,


identified with the moon,
Nergal,and Nebo, were
and planets. Their changes in relationship
sun
taken to be the result of a divine planand the
were
inference followed that one
who could understand
the will of these divine rulers whose action produced
good or illon earth would be able to foretelland to
The religion
of Persia and
prepare for the event.
the science of Greece revealed to Babylonia and Assyria
the futility
of this childish science and destroyed
astrologyin its home land.
It was
destined,however, to have a new lifein
the Roman
with all the
Empire to which it came
But it was
glamor of an oriental wisdom.
radically
idea was
added that the unichanged. The new
verse
is a vast organism in which every particle
is
involved with every other in a constant
interplay
of influences under
fixed law.
read this
To
a
cosmic mechanism
the characteristics of the old
gods and of mythicalpersonages were assignedto the
stars and constellations bearing their names,
the
divisions of the zodiac allotted to various sections of
the earth and intricate interpretations
made of the
arrangements of the heavenly bodies accordingto
time.
The significance
of the system was
that in
it seemed
such a universe of ordered movement
vidual.
possibleto forecast the fate and future of any indithe science of casting a
Astrology was
consulted for
horoscope and the astrologerwas
infalUble guidance regardingany future event or
ambition.
By the attractiveness of its rehgious
of Fatalism,by its emphasis on order
philosophy
and destiny,the pseudo-science
quered
completely conworld and maintained its sway
the Roman
side by side with the real science of astronomy into
the Middle Ages.
Probably its greatestservice was to prepare the
of the stars,
way, by knowledge of the movements
for the genuine physicaland astronomical sciences.
A. Eustace
Haydon

Astruc, Jean

DICTIONARY

RELIGION

OF

ASTRUC,
JEAN." French R.C. scholar,1684dis1766; an eminent physician whose studies in eases
of the
of the skin led him to an examination
Levitical legislation
regarding the clean and the
unclean.
This study led him to a critical investigation
which resulted in an analysisof the Pentateuch
into two documents
the basis of the two divine
on
and Elohim.
Yahweh
names,
for god used
An early Aryan name
originallyby the Indian and Iranian branches of
this race.
In Iran it retained its meaning, forming
Mazda
part of the title of the great God, Ahura
to mean
(Ormazd) while in India the word came
demon in the later rehgion.
ASURA.

"

divine figuresin early Vedic


ASVINS.
Two
religioncalled "lords of the horses" and identified
with the morning and evening stars.
"

ASYLUM.
persons

^An

"

inviolable

fleeing from

place of refuge

pursuit, such

as

for

run-away

defeated soldiers. Among


or
slaves, criminals
primitive peoples totem
centers, specificplaces
whole villages
and sometimes
(O.T. cities of refuge,
lands tombs
serve
as
asylums. In Muhammadan
of saints and
are
so
regarded. Among
mosques
such as the Slavonic and
some
primitivereligions,
such developed reUgions
Teutonic,as well as among
and
those of the Greeks, Hebrews, Hindus
as
Romans, the sanctuary or temple was regardedas
of these
an
asylum. On the conversion of some
the right of asylum continued
people to Christianity,
in connection
with the church.
It thus
continued
in England and
France
till the 16th.
century and in Spain until the 19th. century. As
to the genesis of the idea, Westermarck
suggests
the hypothesis that the deity like the man
was
under obhgation to shelter the one
who had taken
from being
refuge in his home to avert the curse
transferred to him.
The fire god of early Iranian religion:
ATAR.
in developed Zoroassymbol of the purityof Ormazd
"

ATHARVAVEDA."
One
of the four divisions
of the Vedic scriptures,
consistinglargelyof charm,
incantation
and
Sacred
See
magic formulae.
Scriptures.
ATHEISM.

A disbelief in the existence of a


in control of the universe.
The word is often looselyemployed as a term of
who
opprobrium to designate any one
adversely
criticizes current
rates
theologicaldoctrines. Thus Socmodern
was
charged with atheism; and some
thinkers who
have
repudiated the conceptions of
theologicalanthropomorphism have been called
atheists. Since atheism denotes a negativeattitude,
it may
be associated with agnosticism (q.v.);or it
find expressionin some
antitheistic philosophy,
may
such as materialism
or
pancosmism.
Atheism
arises out of an
adverse
criticism of
crude or anthropomorphic ideas in theology, and
hence is a secondary rather than a primary religious
attitude.
The most
important organized development
of atheism
occurred
in India, where
in the
Sankya system in Buddhism, and in Jainism
(qq.v.)religionwas
interpretedin terms of selfrather than of dependence on
salvation
discipline
from the gods. In modern
times the development
of modern
science has led to attempts to explain
the entire universe without reference to any divine
in harmony with
Being. But Agnosticism is more
the spirit
of science than is a developed atheism.
Gerald
Smith
Birney
ATHENAGORAS."
of
the
Christian writer
last quarter of the 2nd. century; wrote
Greek
two
and
of an
the
treatises,one
apologetic nature
other on the resurrection.

ATARGATIS."
A Syrian
Goddesses.
Mother

ATAVISM.
Lat.
meaning
ancestor, used

goddess of fertihty.

biological
term, derived from the
or
great-great-great-grandfather,
to signify reversion
to traits or
characteristics of a grandparent or more
remote
ancestor

which

"

have

not

appeared in

the parent.

ATHANASIAN
of the three
CREED."
One
eccumenical
creeds
emphasizing details of the
doctrine of the trinity,
used in the Roman,
officially
Greek and Anglican churches.
It is of Latin origin,
probably in the 6th. century, although it bears
of Athanasius.
See Creeds
(wrongly) the name
Faith.
Articles
op
AND
SAINT
ATHANASIUS,
(293-373)."Bishop of
Alexandria
and theologian; took orders when
very
archdeacon
He
under
Alexander
of
was
young.
Alexandria, and in 326 succeeded him as bishop.
His tenure of office was
of storm and stress owing
one
succeeded
to the Arian
controversy. Athanasius
Alexander as the defender of orthodoxy against
and SabeUianism,
Arianism
declaringthat Arianism
would lead to polytheism and that SabeUianism
made
impossible the unity of the Father and his
Son.
His interest in the reahty of salvation
own
led him to insist on the divinityof Christ.
Thus
the use
of homoousios
he defended
(q.v.)against
homoios
homoiousios
or
(qq.v.). Owing to the

"

personalGod

Peninsula
and
mountain
the
on
of the Chalcidian
peninsula on the
by
Aegean Sea; designated "the Holy Mount"
orthodox
Greeks; a great center of Greek monasticism.
The
hbraries
contain
of its monasteries
valuable manuscripts.
many
eastern

See

34

influence of Eusebius
of Nicomedia
and
other
Arians,Athanasius was exposed to the vascillations
of the emperors' opinions, and
five times
was
expelledfrom his office,
though always permitted to
His zeal and persuasiveexpositionof the
return.
Nicene Christologyled to his being honored
the
as
"father of orthodoxy."

ATHOS.

trianism.

ETHICS

AND

"

side

A term occurring frequently in the


ATMAN.
hterature
of the religionsof India, derived from
the Skt.,an, found in the Rig Veda as tmdn, meaning
"breath."
The word
acquired the meaning of
of
soul."
One
of the elements
"the individual
trine
docthe teaching of the Upanishads is the Advaita
that atman
brahman
vidual
(q.v.),i.e.,the indisoul is identified with the world soul.
"

of establishing
ATONEMENT."
The
act or
means
God
and man.
In
reconciliation between
Christian
theology it has reference chieflyto the
work of Christ as accomplishingthis reconciUation.
1. In
'pre-Christian religionthe reconciliation
conditioned
between
was
largely
gods and man
of the estrangement
estimate of the cause
an
upon
to the
and the habilityof man
between
the two
effects of divine displeasure. In the more
primitive
types of religionthis estrangement is due to some
neglect or insult which has been offered by some
of the tribe to its deity. This might be a
member
ritual
breaking of the taboo, the neglect of some
tive,
performance, disobedience of the god's representamethod
of
the usual
In such
cases
etc.
fice.
would
be a giftto the god as sacrireconciUation
intended
to
all sacrifices were
While
not

35

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Atonement

held
in bondage
in Sheol. This
of those of this
involved an
elaborate expositionof the descent of Christ into
and varied from the
the abode
of the departed spirits,
well as the
as
offeringof material for a feast in which the god
of both the Father and the Son in the
to the sacrifice of a human
being. participation
might participate,
the Divinity of Christ.
lifein the different communities
deceptionof Satan regarding
As the religious
The theory,however, was
ingly
easilyunderstood because
varied,the requirementsof the gods became increasof the practiceof the time.
The aspersionwhich
standardized with a subsequent Uabilityto
increase in violations of the ritual. In the penito
tential it cast upon the morality of God does not seem
have occurred even
to such outstanding leaders as
of Babylon particularweight is
prayers
Origen, Augustine, Gregory, and Epiphanius, by
given to neglectsof this character.
the theory was
whom
held.
The gods were
regarded as reconciled by presenting
The first attempt at systematizing the signifiwhich the priestaccepted in behalf of the
a gift
cance
of the death of Christ with other Christian
mark
deity. The acceptance of this gift would
made
the
the completion of the reconciliation between
doctrines,was
(1033-1099) in
by Anselm
These
of different his famous
treatise Cur Deus Homo.
In this work
giftswere
worehiper and the God.
utilized the practicesof a feudal state as
extent
Anselm
were
adapted to
sorts, and to some
well as the concepts of the growing penitential
the economic
capacity of the worshiper, as well
system.
caused the break in
The death of Christ he held made satisfaction
of that which
as to the nature
the worshiper and
to the divine honor
the friendlyrelation between
for the debt which
humanity
otherwise could never
his god.
have paid. Anselm
educes
In the Hebrew
of
the
sacrifices no scripturalauthority for this satisfaction,
but
religionmany
partook of the nature of confession of ritual sin both
simply refers to what were
evidently current ideas
individual
national.
elaborate codes of
in his social order.
and
The
The reconciliation accomplished
sacrificewhich developed in the Hebrew
by the death of Christ is within the divine nature
rehgionwere
concerned
itself as a prequisiteof reconciliation between
God
in the removal
of hindrances to the
to his people. In most
and man.
in Jesus was
reconciliation of Yahweh
Humanity as represented
enabled
these infractions of divine law were
ritual
cases
by the incarnate Son to pay not only
and ceremonial,and the sacrificeswere
the debt which
ingly
correspondhumanity owed God, but since
of ritual character.
Jesus himself was
sin and so was
In the great Day of the
not guiltyof any
established
not under
obUgation to die, to make satisfaction
Atonement, however, the sacrifices were
of
In return
for this uncalled
to the divine honor.
in expiationof the national sin for the purpose
entitled
for service on
the part of Christ he was
re-establishing
friendlyrelations between Yahweh
from
and the nation.
the Father
the right to exThe sins of the nation were
tend
posedly to ask a boon
supbeUeved
who
forgivenessto certain persons
placed on a scapegoat, which instead of
him.
being killed was driven into the wilderness.
upon
The Aijselmic theorywas
in Christian religion. The world
not universally
2. Atonement
adopted
in which
by the Schoolmen,although it graduallyfound favor.
Christianitytook its rise was everywhere
A more
marked
by the practiceof sacrifice as a part of the
pressingquestion was whether the death of
Christ was
in itself possessed of such worth as to
between
of establishing reconciliation
process
it the only conceivable grounds for God's forGod
and
make
giveness
It was
man.
natural, therefore,that
of men,
form of sacrificialvalue should be given to the
whether
some
or
(Duns Scotus) God
several conceivable alternadeath of Christ,since aU Christians believed that
chose to regard it among
tives
See Acceptireconciliation had been accomplishedby faith in
as
possessed of such worth.
him.
absence of sacrifice in the new
The
religion lATION.
after its separation from
The
the temple worship at
extra-scriptural
conception of satisfaction
fitted in so admirably with the contemporary
Jerusalem
led to the rise of sacrificialterms
as
tices
pracThus
he
of the European civilization that it continued
of evaluating the death of Jesus.
means
hold
to
is representedby Paul as the sacrificial gift(Rom.
increasingsway for a very long period. In
the case
of the Reformers
the death of Christ came
3:21), presented,
by God himself,and not by man.
to be regarded as a satisfaction to the justiceof
This analogy of sacrifice became
frequently used
God
well as to his dignity. A substitutionary
in the Bible, and
the reconciliation which
as
was
had
of experience because
men
penal value was also discovered by which Christ
already a matter
cried "Abba, Father," was
declared to have been
the punishment due
to
beUeved to endure
was
made
this point of view
From
possiblebecause of the death of Jesus Christ, i believers individually.
would
Jesus actually bore the punishment which
Strictlyspeaking, the death of Jesus does not
he
the requirements of actual sacrifice,
otherwise have been borne by the elect and thus
meet
as
The
for God
to forgive them.
not offered on the altar and there was
was
no
priest opened the way
to receive the gift,
there an offeringof his
also increasingly
developed
nor
was
conception of debt was
and Jesus was
the
life by any
regarded as having actually paid
worshiper since his death was
outgrowth of enmity rather than faith. The Epistle the debt which otherwise humanity must have paid.
these difficulties
An
undertakes
to the Hebrews
to meet
interestingvariant from this generalfine
in the theory of
of development is to be seen
a
by showing that Jesus offered himself,and was
to the effect that the death of Christ did
high priestsuperiorin importance to those of the
GxQl-ius,
to
Aaronic order.
not change the attitude of God, but served
The
writers do not elaborate
indicate that law could not be violated without some
New
Testament
the sacrificial analogy in their exposition of the
form of suffering. By this view the death of Christ
and majesty of divine
testified to the supremacy
effect of the death
of Christ on
God, and this
fact has given rise to a very considerable Kterature
law without emphasizing the thought of satisfaction
This
in which effort is made to find a unifyingconception. to either the honor or the justiceof God.
As a matter of fact,the church of the firstmillennium
theory was
subsequentlydeveloped in the New

expiate the
character

were

fault, the
very

number

numerous

"

"

made
httle systematic use
of the death of Christ,
and
its doctrine of forgiveness and
salvation
included no effort to expand the thought of the New
Testament
beyond the simple analogy of sacrifice.
The
that Christ's life was
prevailingtheory was
a ransom
given to Satan in return for the souls of
the patriarchsand other religious
he
persons whom

England theology.
has
Although the doctrine of the Atonement
been
never
organized into a dogma comparable
of Christ,
with that of the Trinity and the person
yet within orthodoxy the satisfaction theory in one
from or another and the imputation of Christ's righteousness
have remained dominant.

At the

same

time

Atonement, Day of
there have

been other

DICTIONARY

RELIGION

OF

theories for the purpose

of

showing how the roconcihation or the at-one-ment


has been accomphshed.
It is necessary
to speak
of the moral influence theory, which first
especially
gained position by its formulation
by Abelard.
The various views of this type have in common
the
belief that the reconcihation between
and God
man
does not involve any propitiation
of God or expiation
of sin on the part of Christ. His hfe and death
are
examples calculated to stimulate and guide the
beUever to the love of God and he died vicariously
but not as a substitute.
According to McLeod
Campbell and other
Scotch theologians,
Christ sympathetically
gathered
an
erringrace to his heart and died because of the
for that race
repentance which he made
on^e
Bushnell
cross.
taught that the death of Christ
and'
vicarious but not substitutionary
was
was
a
revelation of the divine love calculated to deepen
faith and repentance.
It is to be noticed that all these theories of the
Atonement
are, so to speak, ex 'post facto. Their
tion
champions have always started with the convicof the reconciliation as a matter
of experience.
The doctrine of the Atonement
has been organized
for the purpose
of making it appear
that such
reconciliation is consonant
with what
to a
seems
given period fundamental
justiceboth in theory and
of these
practice. The consequent crudities in some
explanations are not their essential quaUty: viz.,
the unconquerable conviction that the God of law
is also the God of love,and that in the act of forgiveness
he does not violate the moral order which he
Shailer
has established.
Mathews
OF." A Jewish hohday,
DAY
the tenth day of the month
of Tishri

ATONEMENT,
observed

on

manded
(corresponding approximately to October) comin the Bible (Lev. 23:26-32). Marking
the conclusion of "the ten penitentialdays" of
it is the most
solenan day
earnest
self-examination,
of the Jewish
calendar, calUng for fasting and
Its Uturgy is a
sunset
to sunset."
prayer "from
soul-stirringconfession before God,
deep and
pleading for forgiveness and
repentance, and
Divine aid in strivingfor better things.
.

Harold
F. Reinhart
before the entrance
to
were
penitents who
early churches, where
denied admission
gathered to invoke the prayers
of the faithful.
ATRIUM.

An

"

open

court

AND

ETHICS

36

submitted to the Pope, such as the


juridicalcases
Auditor Papae, Auditor Carrier
ae, and the Auditor
of the Rota.

AUFKLAERUNG,

THE."

See Enlightenmbnt.

AUGSBURG
of
CONFESSION."
A statement
behef drawn up by Melanchthon, and presented to
the Imperial diet at Augsburg in 1530 by a number
of Protestant
references
the
to
princes. The
Lord's
Supper were
subsequently modified by
Melanchthon
ism.
to be less opposed to Calvinso
as
The two forms have been a source
of division
Lutherans,
See Creeds
Confessions
and
among
Faith.
OF
RELIGIOUS
The
PEACE
OF."
AUGSBURG,
of a council held in Augsburg, 1555 to
outcome
settle a religiouscontroversy in Germany.
The
council decreed that all who adhered to the Augsburg
whatever
be the edition,were
to
Confession,
be included as Protestants.
It left to secular rulers
the matter
of control over
rehgion in their own

territory.
AUGSBURG,
AUGURY."

INTERIM

OF."

See

Interim.

See Divination.

AUGUSTINE
(354-430)." Aurelius Augustinus,
of the most
influential men
in Christian history
born in Tagaste, Numidia, a student in the higher
schools of Carthage, early found
in himself the
conflict between
his philosophic ideals and
the
For nine years he
passion of his sensual nature.
adhered to the Manichaean
sect, attracted by their
intellectual freedom
and
the simphcity of their
explanationof evil from a warfare of two principles.
He was
at last by their capriciousspeculations
repelled
and reduced
baffled
to a skepticism which
his mind
divided
Made
his wiU.
as
a
sensuaUty
teacher of literature in Milan in 384, his wavering
felt the spell of the authoritative
nature
church
administered
At this
as
by the great Ambrose.
lations
time, too, Neo-platonism known through the transof Victorinus
aided
the solution of his
from
the
spiritualproblem, emancipating him
materiaUstic
Neotheology of the Manichaeans.
platonism and Christian truth were for him blended
in one.
Subdued
also by the new
ideal of monasticism he resolved to end his irregular
marital ties and
hve a cehbate life,
resolution which later in his
a
Confessionswas idealized as a conversion.
Baptized
(387) in Milan he returned to Africa,was ordained
presbyter (390) and from 395 to his death was
Bishop of Hippo, he and his clergylivinga common
life of voluntary poverty after the monastic
ideal.
In this period under the influence of Paul's Epistles
rehgionbecame for him the problem of reconciliation
of the sinful heart and a merciful God.
Augustine
is in fact the first theologian to develop Paul's
conception of ethical redemption as the work of
irresistible grace
an
transforming the will. The
controversy with Pelagius (412 ff.)sharpened his
formulation of this and the conflict with schismatic
tative
Donatists intensified his conception of the authorichurch.
F. A. Christie
Augustine's theology. The influence of Neoplatonism in Augustine's religiousdevelopment
into his Christian
was
strong, and was carried over
experience as a profound mysticism. God is the
only Being with independent existence. AU other
beings derive whatever reahty they have from God.
of existence is
To be deprived of this divine source
evil. Evil is thus defined as privationof good.
Translated
into Christian doctrine,this mysti-^
cism emphasized the inherent inabilityof sinful
one

ATROPHY.

biology, the cessation


development and wasting away of an organ
analogously,spiritual
stagnation.
"

In

of the
or

parts

^A male Asiatic deityand counterpart


ATTIS.
of Cybele, the great mother.
The
Cybele-Atti:
cult belongsto the group of Mystery Rehgions (q.v.).
"

In R.C.

ATTRITION."

trition
imperfectcontheology,
springing from imperfect
The highest motive
is the love of God,
motives.
and repentance springing therefrom
is contrition.
See Penance, Contrition.
or

repentance

AUBURN
DECLARATION."
A declaration of
at Auburn, N.Y.
faith made
by representativesof
School party in the controversy between
the New
Schools
New
of the Presbyterian
the Old and
declaration
included
mentals
fundaThe
the
church.
and received the endorseof Calvinism
ment
General
of the
Assembly in 1868. See
Presbyterianism.
The name
AUDITOR.
of the Vatican court
"

to certain dignitaries
hear and investigate

appUed
who

"

37

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Australia,Religions of

told some
good. Goodness must be created in
6,000 aborigineshave thus far been won
Catholic
be maintained
and
by combined
Protestant effort.
by God, and must
by God's
in man.
These
This
creative divine
sustaining power
aboriginalpeoples are rapidly disappearing
is prevenient (i.e.,
it acts
as
A century
a result of the impact of civihzation.
activityis grrace,which
desire for salvation)and coin man
there were
some
a
to create
operating ago
200,000 aboriginesin Queensland
it strengthens the good purposes
alone.
Henry
H. Walker
(i.e.,
created by prevenient grace). Since the work
of
RELIGIONS
be initiated by God, divine election is
OF."
Of
all the
AUSTRALIA,
grace must
the real ground of individual salvation.
primitive peoples the hunting tribes of Australia
lated
Augustine vigorouslyopposed all conceptions form the most considerable illustrationof an isoof salvation by human
merit (see Pelagianism),
homogeneous group.
They were formerlyhela
to be the most
and
thus
in
But
primitiveof peoples and to have a
inspirationto Luther,
gave
mental
capacity intermediate between the highest
ments
identifyingtlie channels of grace with the sacraand ministrations
of the Cathohc
but a closer acquaintance
Church,
apes and civihzed man,
with them
has led to a revision of this opinion.
he gave
a
to
jjowerful rehgious reinforcement
Catholicism.
Gerald
Birney
Smith
Living in a dry country, dependent on game, needing
their problems far
to hold together,they have met
AUGUSTINE
OF CANTERBURY."
than was
at first supposed.
more
skillfully
Missionary
Writers
the mythology of the Australians
to the Anglo-Saxons, sent by Gregory the Great in
on
the firstarchbishopof Canterbury
He became
acter
596.
are
constantlyreferringto the unsystematic charof their legends. They have no fixed genealogy
where
he died, 604 or 605.
His work, organized
the co-operationof a large number
of the heavens, no
to secure
so
as
recognized history,no cycle of
divine legends. But all this is as we
of missionarymonks, was very successful in making
should now
formed
transconverts, and many
expect from the condition under which they have
temples were
pagan
into Christian churches.
From
him dates
developed. They could not produce a theologyany
of Roman
CathoUcism
the estabhshment
in England
than the Africans. The earlier attempts to
more
and the supplanting of the old British church.
what the people believed about the future
set down
the creation of the world
and
life,gods, spirits,
AUGUSTINIAN."
out of the
(1) Pertaining to the life resulted,indeed, in teasing statements
the
natives but the statements
for the most
or
were
theology of Augustine (q.v.). (2) An
part
it is to
misleading. As in all primitivereligions,
exponent of the doctrines of Augustine. (3) Any
ceremonies
of the monastic orders and congregationsliving customs
and
and
not to intellectual
one
formulations that we must turn for an explanationof
according to the so-called Augustinian rule. The
their rehgious life. Each
behef
of
has his own
man
principleAugustinian order is the "hermits
about any
St. Augustine" or "Austin friars,"
founded
in 1256,
specific
problem that is presented,but
of our
to which Luther belonged. The barefooted
to their
problems have not come
Augusmany
attention and hence they lack our doctrinal systems.
tinians are
reformed
a
congregation of the same
order.
It has been said that they do not beheve in immortality,
for the reason
that they do not have any
AURICULAR
CONFESSION."
A
private idea of mortality. In a world where every object
to respond with a definite attitude
acknowledgement of sin into the ear of a priest, in nature seems
toward
the people in it,there is no rrieaning
to a
prescribedby the R.C. church, on pain of the loss
belief in immortality for there is nofdeath.
of the privileges
of membership in the church and
times
Someman

to do any

man

Christian

burial.

Auricular

confession

Austrahan
mother
is said to carry the
her back tillit decomposes and then
on
to carry the bones in her sleepingbag.
Catholic
III. in 1215 decreed that every
Most of the features which characterize primitive
Innocent
confess at least once
the
rehgions in general are to be found among
annually. The canonical age
of confession is seven
Australians,but the most remarkable
ing
distinguishyears.
characteristics
of their culture are
in the
AUSTERITIES."
Acts of rigorousself-disciplineinitiation ceremonies
which, indeed, occur
ever}'in the interests of rehgiousor moral purity such as
where but are developed more
where.
highly here than elseThe key to the ceremonies
is to be found
to involve serious hardships. See Asceticism.
in the fact that the control of the life of the tribe
MISSIONS
TO."
The
is in the hands of the old men.
Into the company
AUSTRALIA,
tion
populaconsists of from 50,000 to 74,000 aborigines, of the old men
the boys are
brought with great
and mystery, and
ceremonies
ca.
lastingfor
5,000,000whites,and ca. 32,500 orientals. The
secrecy
London
weeks
or
are
Missionary Society'sefforts near
Sydney
carefully
months, and even
years,
with the extinction of the tribes served,
ended
through with, the net result of which is to
gone
1861.
ca.
AngUcans, Moravians, Presbyterians perpetuate the exact system then prevailing. Into
and Lutherans
initiated and
have work
in Queensland; Anglithis ceremony
is ever
no
woman
cans,
accidental
in Northern
North-West
death
is or
the penalty for an
was
Territorj^ and
It was
into the company.
entrance
Australia;Presbyteriansin Victoria;two German
by a woman
Societies in South Australia, the New
South Wales
even
puni-shableby death to look upon the sacred
made
to
wooden
a
Aboriginal Mission (interdenominational)in New
bull-roarer,
paddle which was
South
sound by being swung
at the end of a string. The
Wales; the Anglicans in the Torres Straits
tribes
ceremonies
the different Austrahan
a populationmade
(Moalsland Mission,1907) among
among
not uniform but in all of them the initiate is given
the latter
are
up of aboriginesand South Sea Islanders,
ous
lessons and is treated to very strenutransplanted thither from Austraha.
Anghcans,
very solemn
times
rites. Sometimes
out, somea tooth is knocked
Presbyteriansand Wesleyans carry on work among
other ceremonial
the Chinese
Cathohcs
there is circumcision
or
immigrants. The Roman
have missions in West
and North-West
Austraha.
surgicaloperations.
Austrahan
Missions
combine
The result of such a system is not difficultto see.
evangelism with
industrial training. The
With the power entirelyin the hands of one
has aided
group
government
of public
in the support of schools and the estabhshment
of
and with an elaborate and effective method
reservations.
Natives are encouraged to own
it is possibleto have a society that is
education
their
be entirely
ever
static. No
All
almost
own
society can
land, and are instructed as to its use.
was

first

proposed in lieu of public confession by Leo I.


Lateran
Council
Fourth
under
(440-461). The

an

dead

baby

DICTIONARY

Authority

stable,but the Australian

approached

OF

very

RELIGION

closely

to it.

feature of the lifehas been pointed


interesting
A hunting people lives by means
by Dewey.

not
and
and
of stimulations
excitements
has
of drudgery. Thus
learned to endure the monotony
it arises that the people who have best succeeded
in stabiUzingtheir social structure are most tolerant
of new
inventions in the form of the ritual of control.
Novelty in the initiation is at a premium and
nmch ingenuity is expended in the embellishment
of the ceremonies.
there is another
Besides the initiation ceremony,
feature of Australian
religionthat is noteworthy,
ties
Some authorinamely the development of totemism.
of
consider that Austraha
is the originalhome
this be true or not, the
totemism, but whether
ceremonies which are engaged in for the multiplication
of the totem
elaborate than elsewhere.
more
are
These
ceremonies
include dances
and, unhke the
in by the women.
initiations,
they are participated
Where
the totem
is an animal the magical increase
in the supply of the animals is obtained by moulding
a
heap of sand into the form of the animal and
various parts are thrown into the air by the participants.
is more
celebration of the fish totem
The
other parts of the
and
compUcated. The arms
of the clan are pierced
body of one of the members
with bone daggers after which he descends into the
water, his blood mingling with the fish and causing
abundant
an
supply. Grass seeds scattered into
the same
the air serve
for the grass totem.
purpose
Besides the usual dances which are common
to
primitivepeople in general,the Australians have an
institutional dance
called Corroboree, which may
be a very solemn and serious ceremony,
connected
with
for commemorative
propitiatory rites or
At times the women
joinin these dances
purposes.
and occasionallythey are characterized by license.
Ellsworth
Faris
AUTHORITY."
The
right to declare what is
obUgatory in beUef and practice and to enforce
obedience to such declarations.
In a looser sense,
the abihty of a person
to give expert judgment:
the authority of a historian or a scientist in a
as
field where he has specialknowledge.
In the realm of rehgion,God, as creator of the
has authority to declare what is
world and of men
rightand to enforce obedience to his decrees. Any
law or utterance
which can be proved to come
from
God
is therefore authoritative.
Different theories
of authorityarise from different conceptionsof the
agenciesthrough which God speaks.
1. The authorityof inspiredscriptures. Oracles
and words
of inspiredprophets are
regarded as
of divine origin. In the more
utterances
highly
collected in
are
organizedrehgionssuch utterances
the form of sacred scriptureswhich
the final
are
of appeal. This is pre-eminently true of
court
and Mohammedanism,
where
Judaism, Christianity,
the authorityof scriptureis based on a doctrine of
"

specific
inspiration.
The

Roman

Catholic

church

tative
adds to the authori-

ETHICS

38

Holy Spiritto interpretscripturearight. As

of fact the creeds and confessions of the


branches of Protestantism guide the interpretation
of scripture to a large extent, and
in
of church discipHnethese are authoritative.
cases
Historical critical study of the biblical writings
introduces radical modifications in the traditional
theories of inspirationand inevitably affects the
notion of authority. See Biblical Criticism.
2. The authority
of a priorirational principles.
There are certain fundamental principles
axioms
or
to which all thinkingmust
conform.
Mathematical
relations and logical
not to be evaded.
are
principles
The authority of such fundamental ideas has been
supported by appeal to a doctrine of innate ideas,
mind.
Kant's
divinelyimplanted in the human
critical philosophy made
certain a prioriprinciples
regulative,and he attempted to expound ethics
and religion
in terms of conformity to the dictates
of these a prioricategories.
A rehgious philosophy may
be organized on
the basis of such rational principles.Confucius
ance
emphasized the necessityof livingin accord(q.v.)
with the rational order of "heaven."
cism
Stoi(q.v.)urged a life of rational unity with the
divine order in the cosmos.
Deism
(q.v.)
attempted
to reduce
rehgion to certain universal rational
doctrines which
all men
must
accept just because
they are rational.
A criticalexamination of the processes of reasoning
reveals the weakness
of too extensive an appeal
to a prioriprinciples.Our convictions are
formed
of experienceto so great an
by the circumstances
extent, that it has been found necessary to test
ideas by critical examination
rather than by reference
to an
underived
a
prioriauthority. Modern
and more
thinkingis thus more
appealingto experimental
testing rather than to "authoritative"
a

An
out

the

AND

matter

various

"

dogmas.
3. Authority in
sponding
politicalgovernment. Corredoctrine of authoritycomto the religious
ing
from divine pronouncements
is the theory of
the "divine right" of kings. Hammurabi
(q.v.)
is pictured as receivinghis code of laws directly
from the hands of the god Shamash.
The emperor
of Japan is the "Son
of Heaven."
Mediaeval
that
rulers
politicaltheory generally assumed
Protests
were
divinely commissioned.
against
poUticalarbitrariness appealed to certain divinely
"

willed functions which


the ruler was
to fulfil. If
he failed to fulfilthem, he forfeited the authoritj^
which belonged to these functions.
The
tion
Declaraof Independence vindicates the revolt of the
American
colonies against England by an
appeal
and of Nature's God"
to "the laws of Nature
(see
Law
In modern
of
Nature).
democracy poUtical
authority is regarded as power
delegated by the
people to elected agents to be exercised for the
common
good; but the constant
appeal to principles
of justiceindicates that real authorityis conceived
stable than
as
consistingin something more
the will of an accidental majority. See Law
cal;
PolitiGerald
Birney
Justice.
Smith

scripturesthe dogma of the authoritative


church.
AUTOCEPHALI."
Of
According to this doctrine Christ officially
a
name
self-headship;
organized his church, estabhshing the apostlesas
apphed to bishops in early Christian times who
authoritative
interpreters of Christian truth.
recognizedno ecclesiastical superior.
The bishops,as successors
of the apostles,
continue
their authority,and according to the decision of
AUTO
DA
FE." Portuguese for "Act
of the
the Vatican
Council
Faith."
The
of the ceremony
in which
cessor
name
(1870) the pope as the sucof Peter has authority to speak ex cathedra
of the Inquisitionin Spain against
the sentences
the mouthpiece of the church.
as
Cathohcism
heretics were
pubhcly announced, and the condemned
insists that
authoritative
executed by secular authority.
an
were
scripture requires
persons
authoritative interpreter
in order to avoid error,
an
the
church
and
AUTOMATISM."
provides this. Protestantism
(1) In ethics, the theory
that man
and
acts involuntarily,
that therefore
rejectedthe authority of the church, assertingthe
his behavior
is non-moral.
abihty of every individual under the guidance of
(2) In psychology,

39

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

action that is mentally determined where the subject


is not conscious of the mental process.
AUTONOMY.

"

Freedom

of action from external

AND

ETHICS

Aztecs,Religion of

is endowed
with personal immortaUty; that a few
choice souls enjoy fellowshipwith the Universal
the giftof prophecy; and that
and, in consequence,
the world of ideas,souls,physicalforce,and corporeal
emanations
matter
from God.
are

control;a term employed by earlywriters for political


but from the 17th. century appliedalso
liberty,
and reUgion. Kant
AVIGNON."
used the word
to morals
to
City in the department of Vauthe facultyof the will to determine
its own
cluse,France, the residence of seven
1309mean
popes,
moral
by the objects willed.
laws, uninfluenced
1377, and of two anti-popes,1378-1408; remained
is commonly employed in opposition to
The term
as
papal property until the French
Revolution,
1791.
heteronomy or subjectionto external authority.
AUXILIARY
is appointed as
than
where more

BISHOP."
A
R.C. bishop who
auxiliaryto the diocesan in cases
one
bishop is required.

AVALOKITESVARA."

An
important divine
the merciful savior of the
present age he is closelyassociated with Amitabha
he is generallygiven
(q.v.). Among bodhisattvas
in
supreme rank as the active presence of the Buddha
is the ruler of the western
this world while Amitabha
Paradise.

figureof Buddhism.

As

AXIOM.
(1) In logic and mathematics, a
the
propositionaccepted as self-evident without
necessity of demonstration, and hence available
for further deductions.
(2) In epistemology, a
sary
propositionor principlethat is regarded as necesThe
truth, immediately known.
going
thoroughempiricist in epistemology is opposed to
"

regardingany

truth

as

axiomatic.

THE
GREAT."
An
American
AWAKENING,
developing in the third and fourth decades
18th.
century, promoted by Jonathan
Immoderate
AVARICE.
passionfor the tion
acquisi- Edwards, the Tennent
brothers,Whitefield,and
and
See Virtues
and
hoarding of wealth.
others, in which thousands
professed conversion,
much
emotionalism
Vices.
was
manifested, the national
consciousness
stimulated, the moral tone of the
A Hindu
word
for divine incarnaAVATAR.
tion:
nation uplifted,and theologicalcontroversy provoked.
usually used to describe the coming of the
revival
of the

"

"

supreme

God

of the world

in animal or human
form in each
and for the world's salvation.

age

AWE.

"

of
feeling

reverence

involvingactual

potential dread induced


by some
object or
Awe
is an
event
suggesting sublime
mystery.
ness
aspect of religious
experiencedue to the consciousor

Lat. Hail Mary; (1) A salutaMARIA."


tion
the Virgin Mary founded
Luke
on
1:28,
authorized
expanded into a formal prayer officially
by Pius v., 1568. (2) The appointed time for the
when
the Ave bell is rung,
of the Ave Maria
use
the Aves
(3) The rosary beads used to enumerate
recited.
as
AVE

to

of contact

with the divine.

RELIGION
OF."
At the time of
AZTECS,
the Spanish conquest of Mexico
the rulingpeopleof
the country were
Tenochthe Aztec, whose capital,
titlan,was on the site of the present Mexico City.
The
AVERROES."
The Aztec were
last of the great Arabic
an
imperialpeople,holding under
learned
their sway
matics,
the greater portion of the population of
in mathephilosophers,1126-1198, was
They had occupied this position
law, medicine, philosophy and theology. central Mexico.
brief time, having emerged from
and
but a relatively
eminent as an advocate of Greek science,
He was
advanced
Aristotle.
commentator
on
Through Moses
as
a
savagery, under the tutelageof the more
exerted on Christian
than two
his influence was
Maimonides
peoples whom
they superseded,not more
of the Spaniards.
or three centuries before the advent
thought and he may be said to h ave introduced the
of the Middle
It is this fact of a relatively
schoolmen
recent acculturation
Christian
Ages to the
which alone can
which so characterized the theology
for the paradoxicalAztec
account
AristoteUanism
in its combination
of savagery
and refinement.
Philosophy.
of the period. See Arabic
religion,
of the most
hideous
Externally it is one
collection of texts
AVESTA.
A
containing religiousdevelopments of mankind, having been
attended
sacrifice upon
the preservedsacred Uterature of the Zoroastrians.
a scale probably
by human
elsewhere
of the language and religion never
It is the oldest memorial
equalled and in forms horribly
cruel by ceremonial
branch
of the Indo-Europeans.
of the Iranian
cannibalism,and by a monstrousness
of imagery perhaps surpassingall others.
Only a fragment has been preserved. The rest
and
Internally,in its prayers and rituals as preserved
perished during the Greek, Mohammedan,
is
to us, in not a few of its ceremonies,which included
Mongol invasions of Persia. Zoroastrianism
the Parsis of India.
best preservedtoday among
baptism,confession and penance, and a conception
The
most
(with of the devotional
life,Aztec religion compares
important texts are the Yasna
of paganism
texts grouped
forms
other
its appendix the Vispered),liturgical
favorably with most
of
and far surpasses
The only explanation
around
the Gathas "hymns" (the oldest and most
many.
ceremonial
this situation is that the more
refined phases of
sacred texts)
; the Vendidad, a priestly
the religionwere
derived from peoples of a finer
code like Leviticus; the Yashts, hymns of praise
and more
astrianism.
mature
to the good spirits
(in a later dialect). See Zoroculture,and such peoples,already
and
in Yucatan
neighboring
decadent, dwelt
regionsat the time of the discovery.
The Aztec pantheon was
AVICENNA
motley,
a polytheistic
(980-1037)."An Arabian physician
the author of
and philosopher,versed in sciences,
organized,however, accordingto a trulyremarkable
resembles the
which were
calendric scheme which in many
a Canon
ways
works, foremost among
many
ployed
medical science,two commentaries
on
Aristotle, astrology of the Old World and Uke this was emon
Aztec deities
of divination.
and a couple of encyclopedias. In his physical
for purposes
oriented
and grouped with
and
of them
most
are
psychologicalideas, there are evidences of
lieved reference to this cosmico-temporalcycleof stations:
beAristotehan
He
and
Neoplatonic influence.
of the active and
the maize-god,or lord of food and life,
presidingover
that through the contact
the noon
hour, the death god over the midnight,
passive inteUect the mind acquiredideas; that it
"

Ba

DICTIONARY

OF

AND

RELIGION

and the hours of dawn


under Xiuhtecutli,
and eve
lord of fire,symbolizing the hearth of the world.
Various other deities hold the intermediate positions,
the exact number
of which
is uncertain, although
there appear
to have been in the dominant
system
twelve lords of the day and of the upper
world,
and nine of the night and of the lower world.
The great gods of Aztec cult include a triad of
high deities along with a secondary group of only
Huitziloless importance. The
tribal deity was
state,
pochtli,probably brought from the savage
and known
primarily as a war-god. It was to this
sacrifices
human
deity that the most
numerous
ing
of war-captiveswere
made.
Tezcatlipoca,"SmokMirror"
(probably the sky),was the supreme
he is identified with
deity in a cosmic sense:
with the night-winds,and
phases of sun and moon,
the quarter^ of heaven.
The
greater portionof

ETHICS

40

the finer Aztec

addressed
to this god,
are
prayers
Lord very good, very
"invisible,
impalpable
compassionate, very
noble, very
precious."
Quetzalcoatl is the third great deity, certainlya
and
also cosmical in character.
pre-Aztec divinity,
It is this deity who was
the center of the remarkable
....

tales of a bearded
white man
to teach
come
law
of life,persecuted, departing over
the
waters, but promising to return with a new
reign
of peace
and
purity. Tlaloc the rain-god and
Chalchiuhtlicue
the goddess of flowing waters
are
also of great cult importance; Xipe Totec, god of
vegetation was
worshiped with frightfulrites,his
victims beingflayedalive; but the most
horrible
figureof all was
Mictlantecutli,the skeleton god
of death, whose
grim visage seems
everywhere to
have haunted
the imaginations of the Aztec race.
See Mexico, Religions
H. B. Alexander
of.
the

B
head and
^The bird-like figurewith human
which
symbolized for ancient Egypt the
revivified soul or intelligence
of the dead person.
BA.

"

Different spellingsof a
BEL.
all of the Semitic dialects and
of "possessor" or
the general meaning
of the word as epithetor title
The usage

BAAL,
word

BEEL,

having

"

to

common

in the temperaments
of certain
reactions following experiences of
and temptation.
distress,

people
doubt,

planati

arms

"lord."
of the deity was
general.
very
able
been innumerIn Canaan
there seem
to have
Baalim
whose
worship,
(pi.),
gods of fertiUty,
like that of their female counterparts, the Ashtacharacterized
roth (Ishtars),was
by the grossest
sensualityand licentiousness. The Hebrew
ets
prophwere
unsparing in their denunciation of these
flourished on
cults which
the "high places" and
"under every green tree."
Such practices,
common
the world over, were
to primitivereligion
meant
to
abundant
increase of field and
garden as
secure
well as of flock and herd.
of the local
How
many
baals attained to the dignityof personal names
we
tribal or
after they became
cannot
tell,but even
city gods they continued to be addressed as Baal.
So Melkart
of Tyre remained
the Tyrian Baal; the
to us
goddess of Byblos is known
only as the
baalat (fem.)Gubla and the Old Testament
ets
prophfound it exceedinglydifficult to keep the Israelites
from applying this epithetto Yahweh.
Both the Hittites and the Phoenicians worshiped
baals of the skies. In Babylonia and
a baal or
addressed as bel,but
AssjTia all of the gods were
the bel par
very early Enlil of Nippur became
excellence.
Later
Marduk
of Babylon attained
the "elder
known
to this dignity and Enlil was
as
bel."
D. D. Luckenbill

and

the

BAETYLS.

"

BAHAISM."

Sacred

stones

or

pillars.

See Behaism.

BAHYA
BEN
A Jewish philosopher
JOSEPH."
who flourished in Spain the firsthalf of the eleventh
Halebabot"
century. He was the author of "Hobot
(Duties of the Heart) a system of Jewish ethics,in
he
moral
which
emphasized the spiritual and
the legaland formal.
cerity,
Sinaspects of religionover
humility; and repentance are presented as
essential virtues; and the love of God
the most
as
F. Reinhart
the highest aim in life.
Harold
BAIUS
(1513-1589).
(OR DE BAY), MICHAEL
versity
Belgian R.C. theologian; chancellor of the Uniof Louvain, and leader of the anti-scholastic
Baius is regarded as
reaction of the 16th. century.
condemned
of Jansen, and
was
by
a
precursor
Pius V. and Gregory XIII. for his ultra-Augustinian
"

tendencies.
OR BALDAQUIN."
(1) A stone,
the high
elevated over
metal canopy,
altar in largerR.C. churches,and usuallysupported
but sometimes
supported by chains. The
by pillars,
is from the Itahan
baldacchino, the ItaUan
name
for Bagdad where the cloth of the canopy
was
name
of
See Ciborium.
made.
(2) Also the canopy
preciouscloth carried in processionover the euchaBALDACHIN

wooden,

rist or

or

dignitary.

A god of lightand moral purity in


BALDER.
Norse mythology. His death through the trickery
of Loki IS at once
a symbol of the fading sumrner
of the approaching
beauty and lightand an omen
of the world and the gods.
doom
"

BAALZEBUB."

-See Beelzebub.

BAB, BABI, BABISM."

"

BABYLONIAN
See Assyrian
BACKSLIDING."

and

See

Behaism.

AND
ASSYRIAN
RELIGION.
Babylonian
Religion.
The

reversion

to

wrong

or

sinful habits and


or

version,
practisesafter reformation, conprofessionof reUgion. See Apostasy.

Calvinistic-Arminian
cerned
concontroversy was
with the possibihtyof a permanent apostasy
after conversion, the Calvinists on
the ground of
predestinationsupporting the negative view, while
the Arminians
declared that the freedom
of the
human
will was
sliding
impaired by such a denial. Backhas led
return
to evil ways
as
a temporary
Protestants to preach the need of renewal and
many
Modern
sanctitication.
psychologistsfind an exThe

HOSEA
(1771-1852)." One of the
BALLOU,
founders of UniversaUsm
(q.v.)in America, and the
several
of its tenets; founded
lucid advocate
most
UniversaMst
extensively in
magazines, and wrote
defense of its doctrines; opposed Calvinistic and

views.
legalistic
of
Councils
OF."
COUNCILS
BALTIMORE,
the R.C. church in the U.S.A.,which have dealt with
of doctrine, education, property, law,
matters
and
journals, discipline,and
sacraments, books
convened
societies. Plenary councils have
secret
There have also been ten
in 1852, 1866, and 1884.
councils
provincial

from

1829-1869.

41

DICTIONARY

OF

male infant.) An artistic


(Italian,
the infant Jesus; especially
figurerepresenting
the doll-like image used in certain R.C. churches in
connection
of the
with the liturgyand symboUsm
Christmas
to
feast,and exposed from Christmas
BAMBINO.

"

is
in a crib or manger.
The best known
the Santissimo
of the church of Santa
Bambino
Maria
in Ara Coeli, Rome, to which
miraculous
powers are ascribed.

Epiphany

BAN.
(1) A
have superhuman
"

or

curse

denunciation

AND

RELIGION

supposedto

See Blessing
to harm.
power
Cursing.
official edict imposing
AND
(2) An
certain duties,such as militaryservice,on
gion.
rea
official declaration
(3) An
by the R.C.
church excludingoffenders from the privileges
of
the sacrament.
_

KRISHNA
MOHUN
BANNERJEA,
(1813ISSS). Indian Christian leader and scholar,born
tianity,
a Hindu, a Brahmin
by caste; converted to Chris1832; ordained as an AngHcan clergyman,
in Sanskrit and
1839; became a recognizedauthority
Hindu philosophy; presidentof the faculty
of Arts,
of Calcutta,1867-9.
University

"

ETHICS

Baptism, Ethnic

in the word of institution,


water but from the Spirit
in the adult conditioned
by faith. In infants the
Holy Spirit,by a mysterious working, excites faith
that they truly beheve.
All infants within the
so
church are saved, even
if unbaptized; concerning
those outside of the church
is permitted to
one

cherish hope.
6.

Reformed doctrine.

Baptism, conditioned

"

on

is a sign and seal of the covenant


of grace,
faith,
that is,of regeneration,
forgiveness,and newness
of fife. The
mode, whether
immersion,affusion,
ever,
or
sprinkhng,is indifferent. Baptism is not, howto salvation;for the non-elect it has
necessary
recent view disregards
significance,
yet the more
the questionof election. Infant children of parents,
the
one
or both of which
are
on
professingChristians,
of grace and of
covenant
ground of the Abrahamic
the family as a rehgiousunit,have a right to baptism.
It is an initiatory
rite to church membership.
Consecration
of infants by baptism receives special
No
emphasis in relation to religiouseducation.
that an inner change is produced
claim is advanced
in any case
it is not to be
by this ceremony;
no

repeated.

7. Anglican doctrine. ^Through baptism the


sin removed,
soul is regenerated,the guiltof original
of eternal
BANNS
OR
and the Holy Spiritbestowed.
A germ
A publication
tion
BANS."
of intenwhen made ecclesiastically.fife is implanted in infants which
to marry,
they may later
especially
such an announceThe R.C. church stilldemands
ment
by their free will either developor neglect.
This embraces
and it is customary in the evangelicalchurches
8. Doctrine of Baptistchurches.
three points: (1) personalChristian experience as
of Great Britain and Germany, but is not a requirement
of baptism; (2)immersion;
essential prerequisite
for a legalmarriage in Great Britain.
an
(3)rejectionof infant baptism on the ground that it
lacks a sure
BANTU.
See Africa, Religions
tive
apostolicsanction, that the rite is
of; PrimiReligions.
meaningless except as a sign of personalfaith,that
to baptize in hope of later faith issues in frequent
CHRISTIAN."
A sacramental appliBAPTISM,
cation disappointment, and that it introduces into the
church
of water to a person, whether by immersion,
an
incongruous, unregenerate element.
of Christ,
Others who hold this positionare Disciples
affusion,or sprinkhng.
sion,
a
1. In primitiveChristianity.Baptism,by immer(qq.v.). This was
Dunkards, and Mennonites
characteristic position
of the Anabaptists.
in the name
in accordof Christ,was
ance
at first,
9. Doctrine of the Societyof Friends {Quakers).
with earUer Jewish rites and the baptism of
Baptism of which that of John, appointed only for a
John, a symbol of purification.
Later, for Paul
wherein by a
and others it took on
sacramental
or
a
mystical time, was a figure,is wholly spiritual,
sin and rises
vital union with Christ one puts away
character,so that whereas it had been simply a
to newness
of life. Infant baptism is in no
it was
sense
now
symbol of changed inward disposition,
binding,since it is to be referred to neither precept
regarded as expressing the believer's union with
but only to human
nor
Christ in his burial and resurrection.
practiceof the scriptures
tradition.
C. A. Beckwith
2. Patristic theory. TertuUian
attributed to
the water
of baptism a magical virtue derived from
ETHNIC"
There are two phasesof
the presence
of the Holy Spirit.Except for martyrs,
BAPTISM,
condition of salvation; the rite baptism in infancy and the baptisni of
an
baptism became
indispensable
adults which admitted
if its benefits were
to full social and religious
lost,it could not be
the usual fluid is water;
privileges.In both cases
repeated,hence arose a tendency to postpone the
The rite of infant baptism,which had
though blood, wine, oil,and honey are sometimes
ceremony.
form
varies. Sprinkling,washing,
used.
The
been advocated
by Irenaeus but contested by Terthrice immersion
referred by Origen to apostoHcusage.
or
(Thibet)
pouring, immersion
tulUan, was
all be found.
is usuallypublic
The ceremony
Augustine prescribedinfant baptism on the ground
may
of kin
and is performed by the father or one
near
that it removed
sin,the condition without
original
the Teutons
which infants could not be saved, and this theory
as
commonly, by a
among
or, more
determined
the practiseof the church.
priest(India,Iran, America, China, Japan, Celts,
of infant baptism the
3. Scholastic and later teaching. Thomas
Thibet, etc.). In the case
Aquinas
In its earliest
is usually given at this time.
iaught that baptism removes
from adults original name
the
the rite was
and actual sin,from infants only originalsin,that
use
probably intended to remove
contagion of the strange potenciesconnected with
is,guiltbut not concupiscence. The Council of
birth and to guard the child from dangers of the
Trent, relying upon
Augustine and
Aquinas,
threatened
its life. It came
world which
demon
affirmed that the effects of baptism are (1) release
to
frorn actual and originalsin together with temporal
also,by the addition of the naming ceremony,
include the recognitionof the legitimacyof the child,
punishment due to sin; (2)impressing an indeUble
its receptioninto the clan,its relation to the ancestral
ship
mark; (3) adoption as sons of God and memberto the protection of the
line and admission
in the church.
of the
member
child became
life. The
a
4. The Eastern church. This church, requiring
group
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

threefold immersion, holds that hy baptism all


sin is removed; without
baptism children are not
saved.
5. Lutheran
doctrine. The efficacyof baptism,
which confers forgivenessand grace, is not from the
a

"

kinship group.
adult ceremonies
are
twofold,either forms
of societyor,
into the responsibilities
to peculiar
of specialreligious
in the case
societies,
rehgiousstatus or privileges.To the first class
The

of admission

OF

A DICTIONARY

Baptism for the Dead

belong the worldwide ceremonies of initiation at


adolescence when
by social rites the youth is said
to be "born
anew," "reborn,"or "twice-born,"as
To the second
in Australia,Mexico, India, Iran.
ceremonies known
class belong the group of religious
Orphic, Great Mother,
as the Mysteries
(Eleusinian,
Mithraic) where the idea of release from moral
involved and the candidate secured a new
as gave
such union with the Savior God
the usual
of immortal life. Water
was
assurance
medium, though the cult of the Great Mother,
of blood in the taurobohum
use
Cybele, made
(q.v.). In both the initiatoryrites and in these

evil was
life and

ceremonies
higherreligious

it was

customary

to

AND

RELIGION

give

ETHICS

42

(1640-41) that immersion

alone is baptism. They


the civil war
and CromwelHan
time
(1641-59). A strong connectional
zation
organiestablished with associations,
was
general
general superintendency.After
assembly, and
the persecutionsunder Charles II. their churches
wrecked by controversy and excessive disciphne
were
and
of the survivors
most
became
Unitarian.
Under
the influence of the evangeUcal revival a
the
remnant, reinforced by new
converts, formed
Connection
New
of General Baptists(1770) which
engaged successfullyin all kinds of evangelical
work until the amalgamation with Particular Baptists

multiphed during

(1891).
From

the candidate a new


name.
Common
elements run
(1) the removal

opment,
through the whole develof a dangerous contagion
(tabu, uncleanness, evil); (2) the admission to
social status; (3) the acquiring of new
powers.
themselves side by
maintain
Magical elements
side with the evolvingsocial values.

a Puritan congregationthat returned from


Zeland (1616)several groups of convinced anti-pedobaptists

peaceably withdrew
(1633 onward) until
Calvinistic Baptistchurches had been
formed
in London.
These Particular Baptists also
prosperedduring the revolutionary
period (1641of educated
60). A considerable number
ministers
Hatdon
adopted their views and many
held high
members
A. Eustace
Like the General Baptists
positionsin the army.
tian
An early ChrisDEAD."
THE
FOR
BAPTISM
of baptizinganother as the tive
representa- they suffered severely under Charles I. Reacting
custom
and Socianism
against Arminianism
of them
many
of a candidate for baptism who had died before
became hyper-Calvinistic
and averse
to evangeUsm.
the
orthodox
Among
receiving the ordinance.
Though they did not co-operate in the evangehcal
it was
early discontinued,but heretical Christians
revival of the eighteenthcentury, men
like Ryland,
tained
mainand Montanists
such
the Marcionites
as
became
imbued
Fuller, Carey and HaU
with its
it.
and
able to liftthe denomination
were
spirit
to a
high plane of missionaryendeavor.
After years of
VOW."
A promise made
BAPTISMAL
by a
partialco-operation Particular and General Baptists
candidate about to receive baptism. The practise
united in 1891.
have a
Enghsh Baptists now
2d. century, reference being
dates back
to the
membership of about 500,000 and well equipped
It is
found
in TertuUian, De Corona, chap. Ill;
with
ministers
and
institutions are
contending
stilla part of the R.C. ritual. The form is a renvmcinobly for civil and religious
hberty and world wide
ation of Satan, his works and his pomps.
evangelization.
The firstBaptist church in America
founded
was
of
BAPTISTERY."
A
a
building or portion
by Roger Wilhams, an educated Enghsh Separatist,
the
church, or a reservoir in the church set apart for
in Massachusetts
who, after a stormy career
(1631administration
of baptism. In the early church
banished.
ment
36), was
Having established a settlethe
immersion
and
baptistery
was
customary
on
NarragansettBay on the basis of liberty
included the basin and a room
for the neophytes.
of conscience he introduced
behevers'
baptism
usually independently (1638) and organized a church.
Baptisteries,as separate buildings, are
tions
of circular or polygonalform, containingthe addiHe
became
convinced that the ordinances
soon
of dressingrooms
and a catechumen's
room,
had been lost in the great apostasy and could be
is pracimmersion
and sometimes
Where
a choir.
tised
restored only by special
divine intervention.
withstanding
Notis a reservoir within the
to-day the baptistery
the defection
of their leader
the
church; where baptism is by sprinklingthe place church persistedin a feeble way, but divided on the
of the baptistery
is taken by the baptismalfont.
question of the layingon of hands, those insisting
it holdingalso to general redemption. Another
upon
BAPTISTS.
characterized by
A denomination
founded
church was
at Newport
(1641"44)
insistence on behevers' baptism, democracy, liberty under
John
Clarke, an educated Enghshman, as
of conscience,rejectionof infant baptism and all
muiister.
Calvinistic Baptistchurches were
formed
sacramentaUsm, and an effort to reproduce apostoUc in Massachusetts,
Maine, Pennsylvania and South
Carolina
Christianity.
(1662-83) with much
oppositionfrom
medieval
In their main features they have ancient,
the authorities;but by 1741 most
of these had
and
John
become
^teenth
divided and feeble. The churches of the
century antecedents.
the
Smyth, Cambridge Fellow, gathered a Separatist Philadelphia Association (1707 onward) were
congregationat Gainsborough (1606). Persecution
exception. Drawing recruits from New
England
drove them
to Amsterdam
and Wales its churches increased,
and by missionary
(1608). In 1609, after
effort exerted an influence in the middle and southern
controversy with the ministers of the older English
church
colonies.
Rhode
founded
Island College was
there,Smyth and his associates disowned
and fostered by this body. The General Baptists
their previous church estate, baptism and ordination,
and
behevers introduced
as
baptism anew
prosperedin Rhode Island and Connecticut.
and
reorganized with Smyth as pastor. Smyth
Baptists held aloof from the Great Awakening,
afterward repudiated the transaction and was
of converted
but thousands
soon
Congregationahsts
excommimicated
turned Baptist and these Separate Baptistswon
with
the majority by Helwys,
the
and
adhered
to
South.
In Virginia,
Murton
Those
who
others.
Regular and Separate Baptists,
Helwys returned to England (1612) and founded
having co-operated in a successful struggle for
in
entry.
churches in London, Tiverton,Sahsbury and Cov1785.
Widespread
rehgious liberty, united
Smyth and his associates sought fellowship revivals after the Revolution brought multitudes
with the Mennonites.
into their ranks.
Both
Rehgious enthusiasm and dearth
parties had become
by 1644

seven

"

Arminian

and

some

of the

former,

became

ministers caused hundreds


of illiterates
tarian. of educated
Unito enter the ministryand a widespread aversion to
form of organeducated ministers and to every
ized
work
resulted. A few mindenominational

the first EngUsh advocates


They were
of liberty of conscience.
Along with the Calvinistic anti-pedobaptiststhey became
convinced

43

DICTIONARY

OF

churches
in northern
isters and
southern
and
cities had supported Carey's work
in India and
when
they learned that Judson and Rice on their
had
to India as Congregational missionaries
way
become
Baptists (1812) were
willingto undertake
Rice returned
their support.
successful
and was
in organizinga number
of local missionary societies
and at last in securinga national Baptistconvention
decided
to
meet
(1814) which
trienniaUy and
State
Board.
Conventions
were
appointed a
formed
by friends of missions and education.
institutions were
founded
Educational
in the
various
Home
Mission
and
Publication
states.
Societies grew
of the Triennial Convention.
out
estabhshed
in different
Theological Seminaries were
felt.
parts of the country as the need became
MissionarjrBaptists have rapidly increased in
numbers, intelhgence,and equipment. They are
harmonious
themselves
and
becoming more
among
less polemical in relation to other
evangelical
Christians. There are now
about 6,000,000 Baptists
in America
and about 7,000,000 in the world
manifest
their fellowship
who
by co-operating in
the Baptist World Alliance.
In the United States,all but about 350,000 of
than 7,500,000Baptists are in the organithe more
zations
known
the Northern
as
Baptist Convention
(1,285,416), the Southern
Baptist Convention
and
the Colored
(3,113,355),
Baptist organizations
distinct bodies with
(2,735,007). Other
statistics
of 1919 are: the Free Baptists(ca.65,000,
vention
Arminian, united with the Northern
Baptist Conin the 2d. decade
of the 20th. century);
Free-Will
Baptists (54,833, Arminian, practicing
and anointing of the sick with oil);
feet-washing
General Baptists(33,466 Arminian); Old Two-SeedPredesiinarian
in-the-SpiritBaptists (387,holding
to the specificelection of the seed of God
to
salvation and the seed of Satan to reprobation);
Primitive (or "Hardshell") Baptists(80,311Hyper-

calvinistic)
{21,521)]
SeparateBap; RegularBaptists
tists
(4,254)an organizationformed as a result of
the Whitefield revival)
; Seventh Day Baptists(8,475,
observingSaturday as the Sabbath) ; Six Principle
Baptists(ca.400),holding as fundamentals
ance,
repentfaith,
baptism,layingon of hands, resurrection
of the body, eternal
United Baptists
life),and
(22,097,a union in the South of "Old Lights" and
"New
A. H. Newman
Lights").

ETHICS

AND

RELIGION

Banutbite

regularsessions

of the Sunday school have been its


The
"Philathea"
movement
(for
women) was
organized 1895 in the same
church.
"Philathea"
is a Greek
word, meaning "lovers of
truth."
Its general aim
and
methods
the
are
those
of
the
Baraca
same
as
classes. Classes
found in all
organized on these principlesare now
Christianized
countries,and are knit together in
enthusiastic world wide Baraca-Philathea
an
Union
of nearly one
million members.
Ira M. Price
chief features.

BARAITA
"

(aramaic: outside; plural:Baraitot).


porated
teachingof the Tannaim
(seeTanna) not incorin the collection of the Mishna
(q.v.).

BARAKA."

See Mana.

BARD.
A class of poet-minstrelin the early
Celtic world who
combined
the offices of singer,
custodian
of legal
genealogist,historian, and
have been closelyallied to
knowledge. They may
the druids.
Their satires were
greatlyfeared since
accredited with the power
of killingby
they were
of such chanted spells.
means
"

BARDESANES
(154-222)." Gnostic
preacher
and writer;Persian by birth ; Edessa was
the center
of his labors.
He taught a mixture
of Chaldean
and other elements.
mythology, docetic Christology
He has the credit of winning Edessa to Christianity.

"

BARLAAM
Greek

and

jo ASAPH

reUgious

(OR JOSAPHAT).
of

romance

the

seventh

or

An
eighth century, based on the story of Buddah.
Indian
prince named
Joasaph is brought up in
ignorance of all human
at length
suffering. When
he perceivesit,he despairs,but is converted by an
old

monk

named

Barlaam.

court

debate

on

Christianity
follows,in which the representative
of Christianitytriumphs, appropriating for his
the substance
of the second-century
argument
Apology of Aristides. This romance
was
very
popular in the Middle Ages, and was translated into
allthe languages of the west.
Edgar
BARNABAS.
gave

who
Paul

The surname
to Joses,the Levite from

occupied a

J. Goodspeed

which

the apostles
Cyprus (Acts 4:23)
prominent place as a co-worker with
"

in the New
Testament
He was
referred
era.
the prophet, teacher (Acts 13:1) and apostle
(Acts 14:14). He is traditionally
reported to have
founded
the churches in Cyprus and in Milan.
His
of Hebrews
and the Epistle
authorship
(Tertullian)
of Barnabas is no longer accepted. He is said to
have suffered martyrdom in Cyprus.
to

BAR-COCHBA
given to Simon

The
name
(BAR-KOKHBA)."
bar Coleba who
Messiah
as
a
acknowledged by many
Jews, including Akiba ben
Joseph, led the Jewish revolt against the Romans
in 132 A.D. and for three years defied the power
of
Rome.
His defeat was
the occasion for the final
and ruthless destruction of Jerusalem.

as

BARNABAS,

EPISTLE
OF."
An
epistle in
chapters, written in the first quarter of the
2nd. century by an Alexandrian.
In Alexandria it
was
accepted as from the famous Barnabas, but
it is at present thought to be anonymous.
Its
Sinaiticus shows
that it was
place in the Codex
received as a sacred book by the ancient church in
the East, but it was
never
so
regarded in the West.
It is counted among
the ApostolicFathers.
21

BAR

MITZVAH."

(Hebrew, "son

of the commandment,"
the commandment
to whom
one
i.e.,
the
Jewish
the
term
applies)
apphed to
boy of
thirteen years
of age, designating him as having
reached
the age of moral responsibility.
On
the
first Sabbath
after the thirteenth birthday,the
bar mitzvah is called up to the Law, by which act,
he formallyaccepts responsibility
for his own
acts.
This occasion is observed as one
of festivity
by the
family and the community.
Harold
F. Reinhart
"

BARACA-PHILATHEA

BIBLE
CLASSES."
modification of the word "Beracah,"
It was
meaning "blessing" in II Chron. 20:26,
firstgiven as a name
Oct. 20,
to a Bible class of men,
Efficient class organiza1890, in Syracuse, N.Y.
tion,
adaptation of business principles to the
Christian life and the study of the Bible at the
"Baraca"

is

'

GOSPEL
OF." An
apocryphal
ten
of the Middle Ages (13th.-16th.
century),writin Itahan from a Mohammedan
point of view,
quite lacking in historic sense.

BARNABAS,

work

BARNABITE."
A R.C. minor
rehgious order
called Clerks
founded
in Milan in 1530 originally
Regular of the Congregation of St. Paul, but named
of St. Barnabas
Barbarites
from
the monastery
given to them in 1538.

Barnes, Albert

DICTIONARY

OF

ALBERT
BARNES,
(1798-1870)." American
Presbyterian minister and author, especiallynoted
for his commentaries
which were
of a popular type
and

had

an

extensive

sale.

CAESAR
BARONIUS,
(1538-1607)." Italian
cardinal,noted for the ecclesiastical history which
sincere
he produced in 12 volumes
which
a
was
the
from
attempt to write history scientifically
R.C. point of view.
GEORGE
BARROW,
(1803-1881)." English
traveller and author.
He served the British and
Foreign Bible Society in Russia and in Spain, and
noted for his facilityin acquiring languages
was
and his knowledge of the gypsies.
HENRY
(1847-1902)."
BARROWS,
JOHN
ment
American
Congregationalist;organized the Parliaof Religions in Chicago, 1893; presidentof
Oberlin
College, 1899-1902; first lecturer in the
Orient in the Barrows
Lectureshipof the University
of Chicago.
of rods used in
The small bundle
of the Parsee
sacred ceremonies
rods may
reUgion.
represent the twigs of
the sacred plant which
were
spread as an altar
for the sacrificial offeringsin ancient times.
BARSOM.
connection

"

with
These

BARTHOLOMEW."

One

of the twelve

AND

RELIGION

ETHICS

44

had already elected.


The
ultimate effect of the
strugglewas favorable to the papacy.
Shailer
Mathews
BASIL
THE
GREAT
(ca.330-379)."Bishop of
Caesarea
and one
of "the Three
Cappadocians,"
elder brother of Gregory of Nyssa. He collaborated
with Gregory of Nazianzus
in preparing a compilation
of Origen's works, the Philocalia.
Basil was
defender of orthodoxy against Arianism.
a zealous
He advocated
the ascetic ideal,
and attained renown
author.
as
a
Cappadocian
See
preacher and
Theology.
BASILIANS.
Monks
or
nuns
observing the
rule of Basil the Great.
exclusive
His rule became
in the East so "Basilian" is virtually
equivalentto a
Greek
Catholic
monk, though a community was
organized in France in the 19th. century and has a
branch
in Toronto, Canada.
"

BASILICA.
(1)In Athens a porticoin which the
archon basileus (whence the name) presided. (2) A
Roman
hall of justiceof rectangularform divided
into aisles and nave, and later adopted as
by pillars
of early church architecture.
a form
(3) A church
in the form of the old basilica,
to
or cathedral
or one
which
the Pope has given the name.
(4) A legal
code,
code, beinga Greek adaptation of the Roman
issued by Basil the Macedonean
in 878, and in
revision in 885.
"

apostles

Jesus, according to the Synoptic Usts. It is


commonly supposed that he is to be identifiedwith
Bartholomew
Nathaniel, the name
being a patronymic,
that his name
would
be Nathaniel, son
so

of

.of Tholomew.
BARTHOLOMEW'S
OF ST.
DAY, MASSACRE
On Aug. 24, 1572, St. Bartholomew's
Day, was
of Huguenots in France
begun the great massacre
de Medici, queen
at the instigationof Catherine
Mother
of Charles IX.
First Coligny (q.v.)
was
slain at his home, and then the massacre
spread,
the estimated number
of the slain being from 10,000

BASILIDES.
A
Gnostic
teacher and
writer,
who
lived in the reign of Hadrian
(117-138) at
Alexandria.
is mentioned
He
in the writings of
of Alexandria
and Hippolytus.
Irenaeus, Clement
couched in
His statement
of the problem of evil was
the concepts of Persian duaUsm.
The solution is
Gnosticism
(q.v.).
"

"

to

100,000.

BASIN.
A vessel,ordinarilywith
of metal, used in the Jewish
made
early churches for ablutions.
"

and

flaringsides,
and in
ritual,

Immersion
in or cleansing
BATH, BATHING.
with water.
The Levitical legislation
emphasized
the rehgious value of the cleanhness of the body,
to be of ceremonial importance.
so that bathing came
See Lev. 16:4.
such as Hinduism
Other religions
fication.
have given the bath a place in the cult. See Puri"

BARUCH.
Hebrew
meaning
(1) A
name,
of an
associate of Jeremiah.
"blessed," the name
of an apocrjrphal
(2) The name
book, found in the
LXX, Vulgate, and Douai versions,the canonicity
of which
is not accepted by Protestants.
It is
torian
hisBRUNO
BAUER,
(1809-1882)." German
variouslydated from the 3rd. to the 1st. centuries,
and theologian. He
It is composed of poorly integratedparts and
B.C.
taught in Berlin and
dox
evidence
shows
of plurality of authorship. See
Bonn, 1834-1842, beginning his work as an orthoApoceypha.
Hegelian. But his critical work, begun about
destructive that in 1842 the governso
ment
1840, was
cancelled his hcense and he retired,
COUNCIL
OF
spending
BASEL,
(1431-1449)." The
of history and
Council held in Basel which
his remaining years writing works
attempted to reform
the Church
in accordance
with the decision of the
theology. The merit of his critical work lay in its
the
Testament
Council of Constance
as
(q.v.), to hold general attempt to interpretthe New
and controversies.
councils regularlyat the expirationof certain definite
outgrowth of vital religiousmovements
periods.
"

The Council was


called in Basel in order to meet
the problem of the Hussites,but hostility
between
it and the Pope immediately developed. It compelled
Eugenius IV. to admit its authority,made
compromises with the Hussite leaders,abolished the
and other papal taxes.
annates
The Council spUt
over
helpingthe Greek Empire againstthe Turks, and
the anti-papalsection remaining in Basel suspended
the Pope. In turn the Pope excommunicated
the
Council and summoned
another
at Ferrara
(later
removed
to
Council at Basel
Florence). The
elected an
anti-Pope (Felix V.) who, however,
and
not recognized by the European powers,
was
Basel
Council
at
subsequently resigned. The
the cardinals
thereupon elected Nicholas V. whom

MICHAEL

BAUMGARTEN,
German

(1812-1889)."

ology
theologian; professor of theRostock, 1850-1858, which chair he lost

Protestant
at

because
founders

of his liberalism.
He
was
one
of the Deutscher Proieslantenverein

of the
in 1865.

CHRISTIAN
FERDINAND
(1792BAUR,
biblical criticand church historian,
1860). German
In most of
head of the so-called Tubingen school.
his work he was
losophy
strongly influenced by the phihe applied to history.
of Hegel, which
pretation
the Tendenz (tendency or bias)interThe result was
of the New
Testament
books, to which
"

Baur

found the

key in

the

oppositionbetween the

45

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

Begging, Significanceof

THOMAS
A (ca.1 1 18-1 170)." EngUsh
and
archbishop of Canterbury. As
chancellor,Becket was
capable and efficient,
ing
earnthe friendshipof Henry II. When
he became
in
he
refused
to
be a tool of the
archbishop
1162,
King, and within a year trouble began. The
conflict culminated
in the Constitutions of Clarendon,
1164 (q.v.),to which
Becket
was
compelled
When
he repudiated his promise,
to subscribe.
he fled to France, where with the assistance of the
Alexander
the struggle.
III., he continued
pope,
In July 1170 a formal reconciUation
effected
was
and Becket returned to England,but in December,
he was
murdered
by royahsts. In 1172 the R.C.
church
canonized
Becket
and for a long time his
shrine in Canterbury was
the object of pious pilgrimages.
chancellor

persistentlypersecuted,especially
George Jeffreys. Baxter
voluminous
best
the
known
of
his
was
a
author,
works
being The Saints' Everlasting Rest. His
theology was modified Calvinism, making a distinct

placefor

ETHICS

BECKET,

Petrinethe
Pauline-Gentile
Christianity and
work
While
Baur's
Jewish
wing of the church.
greatly stimulated the critical historical study of
the New
Testament, it was
impaired by his too
rigorousappHcation of his hypothesis.
Edgar
J. Goodspeed
RICHARD
(1615-1691)." English
BAXTER,
he was
1641-1660
puritan and theologian. From
minister at Kidderminster, the place being transformed
under his influence.
He dechned the bishopric
of Hereford in 1660,and in 1662 left the Anglican
continued
church.
He
to preach, but during his

remaining years
by Chief

AND

was

Justice

free grace.

VENERABLE."
The first English
BEDE, THE
scholar of renown,
PIERRE
(1647-1706)." French
losopher
phipriestand author,672 or 673-735.
and man
of letters ; professorof philosophy
in Latin the Ecclesiastical History of the
He wrote
at the Protestant
University of Sedan until supEnglish Nation (Hisloriaecclesiastica gentis Anglopressed
in 1682, and afterwards in Rotterdam.
He
ences.
rum) which contains a few autobiographicalreferHe also wrote some
treatises on science and
was
greater as a critic than as a constructive
historical and
thinker. His greatest work was
number
of commentaries
and homia
a considerable
lies.
critical dictionary.
He
translated the 4th. Gospel into AngloSaxon.
BEADLE.
An officer in the church of England,
whose
duties are
the maintenance
BEDLAM."
of order
in
A
contraction
for "Bethlehem"
churches and churchyards during service,
attendance
hospital,first opened in London
as
a priory for the
the clergyin the vestry, as well as oversightover
monks
and nuns
of the Star of Bethlehem
in 1247.
on
certain matters
of parish administration.
In 1330 it was
being used as a hospital,and by
1403 there were
lunatics housed
there.
In
some
1547 Henry VIII. gave
it to the corporation of
BEADS, USE OF." See Rosary.
London as a hospitalfor the insane,so that it was
fact that the beard
is a distinguishing
BEARD.
The
the firstsuch hospitalin England and the second in
feature of manhood
is perhaps the reason
is used figuratively
for
Europe. The word Bedlam
for certain customs
and beliefs which have arisen.
confusion.
primitive and some
sophisticatedpeople
Many
HENRY
WARD
regard it as a Divine gift and therefore sacred.
BEECHER,
(1813-1897)."
To pull it or to mutilate it was
insult (II Sam.
American
an
preacher, author and reformer; pastor
of Plymouth
10:4). Its voluntary removal
was
a
symbol of
Congregational Church, Brooklyn,
of the greatestpulpit
mourning (Ezra 9:3). The savage
thought that
N.Y., 1847-1887; was
one
the possession of part of another's
beard
orators of America, preaching the love of God as the
gave
him magical power
him.
This idea hes behind
of the Gospel. He
leader of the
over
essence
was
a
the scrupulous care
of the beard on the part of
the slavery question; and
mediating party on
Muslims.
In certain sects of Christians
it has
in promoting a better understanding
accomplished much
been considered sinful to cut the beard.
between
England and the U.S.A. in those
critical days. Though not a technical scholar in
BEAST.
from
the 2nd.
In Jewish
of wide culture
literature,
a
man
specificsphere he was
any
and of great influence in transforming theological
century B.C., in early Christian literature and in
Islamic literature,
a
mythical monster, of dragonlike
sympathies during his later years.
which is the incarnation of opposition
appearance,
and
His people. Such
to God
BEELZEBUB."
and
symbolism
(Also written Baalzebub
is probably derived from
Babylonian mythology.
Beelzebul.) A god, lord of flies,worshiped by
the PhiUstines and consulted by idolatrous Hebrews.
BEATIFICATION,"
In the R.C. church a papal
In New
Testament
times the name
was
applied to
declaration
that the deceased
under
sideration the princeof the devils.
conperson
is worthy of limited homage, including
the title of "Blessed."
It is frequently a step
RELIGIOUS
SIGNIFICANCE
OF.
BEGGING,
toward
canonization
(q.v.). Beatification is of
Poverty and asceticism have often been regarded
kinds:
two
ideal conditions of the cultivation of spiritual
(i)equipollent (or equivalent) which
as
life. To own
springs from popular sympathy which the church
property was to divert the attention
of the
from divine to earthly things. To indulge in the
(ii)formal which is the outcome
approves;
decision to venerate
church's
the
a
on
good things of life was to act contrary to the spirit
person
double ground of holiness of Ufe and miracles.
of him who called for self-denial from his followers.
It follows from this principle
that the most religious
BEATIFIC
immediate
VISION."
An
vision of
persons practisedthe severest asceticism in an age
God
which
is a portion of the future bliss of the
that interpretedreligionin those terms, and they
saved.
The
belief is founded
such passages
had
of those who
to live by the contributions
on
I Cor. 13:12, I John 3:2, Rev. 22:4.
as
respected them as saints. It was but a step from
penniless saintship to saintly mendicancy. St.
BEATITUDE."
of supreme
Francis of Assisi,accepting literally
the command
(1) A condition
divested himself of his
of Jesus to sellall possessions,
happiness or blessedness.
(2) The name
applied to
of the declarations of blessedness which Jesus
any
property and founded an order of brothers who, as
made
in the "Sermon
the Mount"
in Matt.
mendicant
on
wanderers, sanctified begging as divinely
0:3-11 and Luke 6:20-22.
ordained. In similar fashion the Brahman
ascetic

BAYLE,

"

"

"

"

Beghards

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

expects to obtain provision for his bodily needs,


and even
maintains
the theory
a reforming Jainism
of pubUc support for the devout.
The
beggar is
of grace
to the giver,for he provides a
means
a
channel for almsgiving,and almsgiving accumulates
merit against the day of reckoning that is to come.
See Charity
and Almsgiving.
Henry
K. Rowb
BEGHARDS.
Communities
of lay brothers,
mainly artisans,
correspondingto the Beguines.(q.v.)
The earliest records are of communities
in Belgium
in the first half of the 13th. century.
As these
associations dissolved,the name
associated
became
with wandering mendicants
through the similarity
of the name
with "beggar." The Beghards were
vive
persecuted by the secular clergy,and did not surthe 14th. century.

AND

ETHICS

46

Babists joinedBeha'uUah
and accepted
Bible, Kilab-i-aqdas(the most holy book),
which, influenced by Christian ideas of love and
marks an advance
Babism.
justice,
on
In 1892 Beha'uUah
died,having forestalled with
curses
any claimant,who might supplant him, as he
had supplanted the Bab.
His sons
quarreledabout
leadershipand interpretation.The minority party
began propaganda in America
at the Columbian
Exposition in Chicago in 1893. American
converts
to the majorityparty.
were
soon
won
over
They
issue literature in English from Chicago, where the
of
building a great Bahai temple is planned.
Americans
scarcely understand
fully certain
Asiatic aspects of the new
religion. Beha'uUah
Most

tine.

"

hoods
BEGUINES.
'The name
of certain lay sisterin Germany
and the Netherlands, of which
called
communities
the correspondingmale
are
of these
communities
founder
Beghards. The
Lambert
de Begue (ca. 1187),a priestof Liege.
was
differed from
These
communities
regular orders
taken were
in that the vows
not irrevocable.
At
the Reformation
the orders were
suppressed in
countries.
The existingbeguinages in
Protestant
in the
Germany are almshouses for poor spinsters;
like the originalcomNetherlands
munities.
they are more
"

his

new

had

two

wives

and

concubine.

E. G.

Browne's

notes. The

versity
Episode of the Bab (Cambridge Uniauthor's
Press,1891),356-73, and the same
Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion(1918),
154-64

and

193 should

not

be overlooked.
M. Sprengling
BEHAVIORISM."
These

BEHAVIOR
AND
indicate respectivelya recently developed
method
of studying the psychology of animals and
and
the doctrines of consciousness
and the
men,
organism which it involves.
The method
is to observe the responses
of the
be either
organism to stimuli. The stimulus may
experimentally set up or such as operates in the
of ordinary experience. The significance
of
course
the stimulus and the nature of the organism'sreaction
determined
are
by the inherited instincts of the
organism and its previousexperience. In principle
the method
recognizes no difference between the
behavior of the lower animals and man
except that
the latter may
become
much
more
complex and
refined. No
is taken of the findings of
account
introspectionand the concept of consciousness is
The ideal of the behaviorist
completely discarded.
is to make
psychology as completely objectiveas is
chemistry or physics. "Thinking" is identified by
of the larynx,
one
investigatorwith movements
pleasure and pain with the various contractions
and relaxations.
Behavior
is indeed highlyindividuaUzed
in man
but
intimate
acquamtance
with
man's
afford
a
past and his environment
for
and
for
means
even
understanding
predicting
his conduct.
The whole organism thus becomes
the
subjectof inquiry. An action is not viewed as the
function of any one
less of a conscious
part, much
agent, soul or mind, but of the entire system of
and
muscles
nerves
as
organized by inheritance
and
experience. The results achieved have the
attraction
of definiteness and co-ordination
with
other more
developed sciences but the formulations
admitted by its advocates to be very incomplete.
are
In so far as the term
behaviorism
represents a
metaphysical theory it is on the side of materialism
and
mechanistic
theory, but these implications
have
not
been worked
out
beyond the negative
attitude taken toward consciousness and any power
of introspection. Such
tendencies
extreme
ought
not, however, to obscure the value of the method in
the
and
determining
capacities
accomplishments of
individuals and bringing many
duct
phenomena of conout of the realm of mystery and mere
theory.
Edward
S. Ames
BEHAVIORISM."
See Behavior
Behavand
terms

Asiatic religionin origin


BEHAISM.
A new
connected
with Shi'ite Muhammadanism
(q.v.).
immediate
Its two
and
antecedents, Babism
Sheikhism, are clearlycloselyrelated to that party
of Shi'ites,
whose
hopes center in the succession
of twelve
Imams
Imams.
(sometimes ImamMahdis), in common
parlance leaders in the ritual,
to these people certain descendants
of Mohammed
are
in whom
the Godhead
manifests
itself to
humanity. Of the twelve Imams
recognized by
this party the last took office in the year 260 of the
Mohammedan
Era
873-74
He disappeared
a.d.
and
date of his
mysteriously, and the manner
death are not known.
Many think him stillalive.
To him Messianic,in part chiliastic,
hopes attached
themselves.
the
Mohammedan
Accordingly as
1260 (1844 a.d.)approached, some
men
began
year
to look for a new
with his return.
era
The new
movement
was
inaugurated by Sheikh
al-Ahsai
(rehgious Elder) Ahmed
(d. 1826) and
his successor
Kazim
of Resht.
They claimed to
be in communication
with the absent Imam
and
announced
his
return.
Their
followers, the
Sheikhis, called them
Babs, "gates" between
humanity and the Imam.
In 1260 AH
(1844 a.d.) a young
discipleof
of Shiraz proclaimed himself
Kazim, Ali Mohammed
such a Bab.
This is the originof what is now
called Babism.
His claims
did not
stop there.
Influenced by followers of various ranks he became
the
Imam
Mahdi.
His
unfinished
book, the
revelation inaugurating a new
a
new
Beyan, was
religion. Political claims led to his imprisonment.
Armed
risingsof his followers brought about his
execution in 1850, and severe
persecutionsof his
adherents in Persia from that time forth.
Mirza
Yahya, entitled Subh-i-Ezel
(Dawn of
the Bab's successor.
He fled with
Eternity) was
other leaders to Turkey.
of propaganda
Because
in Persia they were
of the
removed
in 1863 from Bagdad
BEHISTUN."
The
name
locaUty in
to
found the great rock inscriptions
Persia where
are
Adrianople. There
Yahya's elder and abler
brother Husain
Ali, entitled Behd'ullah (Splendor of Darius, important because of the fight they
of God), in 1866-67 announced
himself Messiah
of
throw upon
the rehgious ideas of the Achaemenian
rulers. See Zoroastrianism,
new
a
dispensation,to which the Bab was
a mere
forerunner.
The
was
following year Subh-i-Ezel
to Acre in PalesSee Baal.
banished to Cyprus, Beha'uUah
BEL."
"

47

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

THE
DRAGON."
An
apocryphal
the Book
of Daniel which identifies
Daniel with Cyrus, and explainshis being cast into
the lion's den because he destroyeda dragon which
was
an
object of worship.

Benedict

AND

BEL

supplement

to

Calvinistic confession
has become
in Belgium
and Holland,and of the Dutch
Reformed
church
See Confessions
Faith.
in America.
op
BELGIC
of

CONFESSION."

faith,dating from 1561 which


the symbol of the Reformed
churches

AND

the

reunion

ETHICS

Z77."
1334-1342, negotiated toward
of the Greek
and
Latin churches;

began the buildingof

a splendidpalace at Avignon
where he lived.
Benedict
XIII.
title assumed
(1) The
by
Pedro de Luna, antipope, 1328-1422
1423.
or
From
1394 when
he was
elected by the cardinals
until his death he persistedin keeping up the schism.
(2) Pope, 1724-1730, made unsuccessful attempts
to reform clerical morals, and was
trator.
adminisa weak
"

Benedict

BELIAR."
Two
In the O.T. the word

forms
of the same
word.
is used as a common
usually signifying a worthless or wicked
noun,
1 : 15 this wicked power
or thing. In Neh.
person
is personified,
and this use is the basis for the identification
of Belial with Antichrist or Satan
which
in the apocryphal literature and N.T., as
occurs
II Cor. 6: 15.

BELIAL,

See Faith.

BELIEF."

Benevolence

XIV.
eminent
an
1740-1758, was
author, was
friendlyin his relations
with the European sovereigns,and unsympathetic
"

scholar and

toward the Jesuits.


Benedict ZF."
1915-.
BENEDICT
OF
NURSIA
(ca.480- ca. 544)."
The founder of western
monastieism
and framer of
the Benedictine
rule. Educated
in Rome, he fled
as
a youth to a cave,
a life of asceticism,
following
and meditation
for three years.
Disciples
prayer,
attracted to him, and he founded
the famous
were
Monte
at
in
His
Cassino
rule was
monastery
Italy.
"conspicuous for its discretion,"making scholarly
reading and labor in the fields compulsory as well as
the specific
rehgious disciphne.

ROBERT
FRANCESCO
BELLARMINE,
Catholic
ROMOLO
(1542-1620)." Italian Roman
ecclesiastic and
theologian,a vigorous champion
of ultramontanism
and the greatest exponent of
Catholicism
He
in the modem
world.
one
was
of the council in Galileo's first trial,
his attitude
BENEDICTINES."
The
monks
who
live in
being judicial,
claiming,however, that Copernican- accordan(!e with the rule of St. Benedict of Nursia
ism should be presented as an hypothesis until scientifically
(q.v.);also called Black Monks, owing to the color
attested.
He was
a cardinal,
theological of their habit. In 596
Augustine of Canterbury
professorin Louvain and Rome, and archbishop of
introduced
the order into England. In 1846 it
Capua.
introduced
into America.
The
Benedictines
was
in the conversion
of the Teutonic
accomplished much
See Gongs
BELLS.
Bells.
and
the civilization of N.W.
Europe, and in
tribes,
and learning. The order
BELTANE.
A Celtic midsummer
festival for
the spread of education
and lay brothers as well as monks.
the production of fertility.It required a freshly includes nuns
kindled fire in which
burned
sacred tree
were
a
BENEDICTION."
(1) In Evangelical churches
(probablythe oak), an animal representativeof the
human
victims.
and formal intercession with God for his
a solemn
vegetation spiritand one or more
such as is used at the conclusion of public
The cuttingof mistletoe before the victims could be
blessing,
slain was
rule of the ritual. Since the fire and
for
a
worship. (2) A blessinginvoked by one person
of a rather on
the fertility
the
another as the benediction
symbols (tree,animal, man) were
a
son.
the community
of magical power
element in the sacraments
source
brought
(3)In R.C. usage, a liturgical
these into contact with fields,
or
whereby the person
object is purified,
houses, and people
consecrated
to holy service by virtue
or
in various ways
by jumping through the fire, sanctified,
ing
of the divine authority vested in the church.
decoratingthe houses with branches,carryingburnthe fields,
and
brands or scatteringashes over
BENEFICE.
In canon
law, the right to enjoy
eating the flesh of the victims.
certain ecclesiastical revenues
by virtue of being
BENEDICT.
The name
of fourteen popes, and
the occupant of a church
office which
has been
endowed
of rendering certain specific
account
or
on
one
antipope.
of souls is
services. In the Roman
church the cure
Benedict 7.-574-578.
not
condition
of a benefice; in the
Benedict 77 ."683-685.
a
necessary
The law
Benedict III.
855-858, was chosen by the clergy Anglican church this restriction is made.
and people but for a time was
not recognized by
regulatesthe conditions for canonical appointment,
the circumstances
the Emperor, Louis II.,who appointed Anastasius
by which the officeis vacated,and
the rightsand obhgations of the benefice.
as antipope.
Benedict 77.- 900-903.
BENEFIT
OF
THE
A
V.
His pontificatelasted less
CLERGY."
Benedict
964.
privilege
accorded
Middle
when
than two
months
he was
to the clergy of the
deposed by the
Ages in
could
to all who
England, and later extended
Emperor Otto I.
elected by Otto
VI.
Benedict
read, of being tried for offences before the bishop's
972-974, was
In some
rather
than
the secular court.
court
the Great, but, on the emperor's death, was
dered
murit resulted in the miscarriageof justice. It
cases
by the people.
elected by those
abolished in the U.S.A. in 1790 and in England
VII.
Benedict
was
974"983, was
in 1827.
who had driven out Benedict VI.
7777." 1012-1024.
Benedict
ing
BENEVOLENCE.
Benedict IX.
Literally"willingor wish1033-1048, a nephew of Benedict
to promote
well" to others; an ethical purpose
VIII.
X.
the well-beingof others.
Benedict
deposed by
1058-1059, was
sions
Catholic
The term
into prominence in the discuscame
Hildebrand, and is reckoned by some
of the British Moralists
authorities as an antipope.
(q.v.),who were
Benedict XI.
1303-1304, a scholar and author
endeavoring to establish the foundations of moral
of several commentaries.
He obtained
with
conduct
in native human
impulses rather than
peace
declared
of the papacy.
France which had b"2ii an enemy
in external authority.Benevolence was
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Bentham, Jeremy

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

of the human
ing
a natural capacity
mind, leadto altruistic behavior.
In Christian ethics,
the ideal of charityor love is employed to denote
such conduct, and Christian love is regarded as a
divinelycreated attitude rather than as a natural
impulse. By certain American
theologians(e.g.,
Jonathan
the
is made
Edwards) benevolence
all morality flows.
virtue, from which
supreme
Edv/ards defined it as "that habit or frame of mind
wherein
consists a dispositionto love being in
general." This is readilyidentified with Christian
love.
In popular speech benevolence
means
giftsof
social enterprises.
to support religious
or
money
Birney
Smith
Gerald
to be

BENTHAM,

(1748-1832)." Noted

JEREMY

Enghsh

writer on
legal and moral subjects. He
what
is perhaps the most
thorough-going
gave
which
must
analysisin existence of the principles
guide individual conduct and legislation
designed to
See
the maximum
secure
happiness for mankind.

Utilitarianism.
BERENGAR
Scholar and ecclesiastic,
OF TOURS."
born
and
1000
probably between
1010,
d. 1088.
He is noted for the prolongedcontroversy
which he had with the church over
the Eucharist,
Berengar being discipUned because he refused
to accept the doctrine of transubstantiation.
GEORGE
BERKELEY,
(1685-1753) "Irish
educated
at Trinity
bishop and philosopher; was
Dubhn, and in 1713 took orders. In 1728 he went
to America, intending to found
a college in the
Bermudas
to train missionaries to the Indians,but
not supported. After his return he was
made
was
bishop of Cloyne, 1734. His writings include the
New
Theory of Vision,the Principles
of Human
Knowledge, and Dialogues. He is noted for his
theory of subjectiveidealism which asserts that the
edge
only certain knowledge which we possess is knowlof our
ideas.
Berkeley himself denied the
existence of a material world,holding that our ideas
stimulated by direct divine activityare
BERNARD

OF

CLAIRVAUX

(1090-1153)."

Mediaeval
He
entered
preacher and monk.
a
Cistercian monastery and was
appointedabbot of
the Clairvaux monastery in 1115.
To his intense
zeal and
added unusual
irigorousdevotion were

giftsas

preacher,so that he

became
famous.
He was
drawn into ecclesiastical affairs where his
powerfulinfluence resulted in the termination of
the long papal schism by the abdication
of the
antipope in 1138, and in the election of a Cistercian
in 1145.
He was
as
than
pope
greater spiritually
intellectually.
Although no match for Abelard's
ence
logicin the controversywith him, his personalinfluenabled him to triumph in the name
of religion.
His power lay in his zeal,faith,
ity,
sincerityand humiltogether with his administrative and oratorical
which made
him the embodiment
of the ideal
powers
of mediaeval
monachism.
He
wrote
extensively
various phases of Christian
on
life,
many of his
hymns occupying a cherished place in Christian
a

BERNARD

OF

CLUNY."
of the tweKth
Monk
noted for his long poem
of nearly
century,especially
thousand
three
Unes
De
contemptu mundi, in
which is set forth the writer's conceptionof monastic
hfe. The
contains
number
of hues
of
a
poem
famous
section was
spiritualbeauty. The most
translated by Neale as the hymn
"Jerusalem
the
Golden."
BERNARDINES."
resuscitated

of monks

The

Cistercian (q.v.)order
of Clairvaux.

by Bernard

ETHICS

48

BEROSUS."

A Babylonian priest of the 4th.


who
wrote
a
History of Babylonia
fragments of which have been preserved.

century

only

BES.

b.c.

"

demon-dispellinggod

of

ancient

Egypt who

guarded the articles of the toilet and


the friend of children.
His task of warding off
was
evil spiritsprobably accounts
for his grotesque
shape, dwarf body, short legsand gorgon-likehead.
Behavior
BESTIALITY."
appropriate to beasts
and therefore degrading in character when
found
in human
beings. The more
primitivethe society,
the more
the dispositionfor men
to manifest these
in
qualities.Bestiality appears
a
gluttonous
abuse of the appetitefor food, wanton
sexual practices
includingintercourse with beasts,and inhuman
of enemies.
treatment
BESTIARIES.
Mediaeval
treatises on animals
in which
human
and
moral
characteristics are
ascribed to them, whereby they are used as reUgious
the devil,
symbols for Christ,the soul,immortality,
virtues and vices. See Symbolism.
"

BET

HAMIDRASH."

(Hebrew:

study.) School,in connection


which

adults

study the

Jewish

with

house
the synagog,

of
in

Law.

BET
AND
HILLEL
BET
SHAMMAL"
(Bet
Hebrew:
house
two
of.) The
great Rabbinic
schools that flourished in Palestine
during the
founded
1st. century. They were
respectivelyby
Hillel and Shammai
and
in their many
tions
disputathey follow their masters, the School of Hillel
being characterized by its moderation and that of
Shammai
by its severity.
=

BETHLEHEMITES."
Three
Christian orders
have carried the name:
a 13th. century association
in England of Dominican
type; the Knights and
who
Hospitalersof the Blessed Mary of Bethlehem
for a few brief months
fought the Turks in the
15th. century; and a Central American
order of
Brothers founded at the close of the 17th.
Bethlehem
century and placed in charge of the hospital of
in Guatemala.
Mary of Bethlehem
BETROTHAL."

The

accompanied

soon

hymnody.

AND

ceremonial.

of pledgmg
certain folks by

act

among

to
a

riage,
mar-

religious

See Marriage.

BETTING.

^The act

of wagering some
specific
againstanother with reference
issue.
The
uncertain
is
to an
practice
generally
considered morally objectionable. See Gambling.

thing or

amount

"

over

WILLIBALD
man
(1823-1900)." GerProtestant
preacher and theologian; court
ruhe,
preacher and theologian; court preacher at Karls1856-1860; professor of practicaltheology
in Halle, 1860-1900; theologian of the mediatingof the church
school, championed the freedom
His chief works
state
control.
Das
from
were
Leben Jesu, and Neutestamentliche
Theologie.

BEYSCHLAG,

THEODORE
(1519-1605)." French
BEZA,
theologian,educated in law and in Greek; practised
law in Paris 1539-1548; united with Calvinistic
church, Geneva, in 1548; occupied the chairs in
Geneva
and
at
Greek
at
Lausanne, 1549-1558
1558-1564, and in theology and Greek, 1564-1597.
his sucthe death of Calvin in 1564 he became
cessor
He
in office which positionhe held till1600.
author of considerable activity,writing a
was
an
defence of Calvin
in the burning of Servetus, a
biographyof Calvin and several theologicalworks.
On

49

He also
in Greek

DICTIONARY

publishededitions of
and

Latin.

the New

OF

RELIGION

Testament

AND

ETHICS

Bible

Christians

or

Bryanites

of the church's history. It is notegeneral course


worthy,
however, that the discussions concerning
the canonicityof certain books do not affect those

GITA."
erally which
most
essential to the historyof the
The name
of a poem, litare
"The Lord's Song," which forms a part of the
Hebrew
and the Christian rehgions. See InspibaNew
6th. book of the Mahabharata
and consists of
Testament.
(q.v.),
tion;
between
Krishna
and Arjuna. The
a conversation
Many of the writingswhich the Hebrew people
did not beheve
200 B.C. and 200 a.d.
date is between
The Gita
to "contain divine doctrines" were
is the most
widely used section of Hindu sacred
gradually grouped into a third collection. To
literature by the philosophically
Hindus
this belong some
of the most valuable writingswhich
minded
of the present. Its fundamental religious
down
to us from the ancient past. So
position have come
is that any action which is performed in disregardof
irnportantare they, that they are grouped in the
the fruit of action is good. Duty done unselfishly Bible used by the Roman
CathoKcs as a sort of intermediate
will result in overcoming
Karma
known
the Apocrypha
canon
as
(q.v.). The
(q.v.).
l
ife
of this material
active than
Much
added
religious enjoinedin the Gita is more
to the Greek
was
that of Buddhism
Brahmanism.
translation (LXX) of the Hebrew
or
At the same
canon
by the Jews
time the Gita contains diverse elements, and its
of Alexandria. Certain Roman
Catholic scholars have
undertaken
to distinguishthe authority which
teaching is not a unity. See Hinduism.
longs
beto the Apocrypha from that which
belongs to
BHAKTI-MARGA."
A
Hindu
for the
the other volumes of the canon,
but such distinction
name
Bhakti
was
stopped by the action of the Council of Trent,
way of salvation by faith in a personalGod.
has the sense
of trustingdevotion to one
who
can
April8, 1546, which directs the use of the Apocrypha
of the Old Testament
save.
Fully half of the people of India are counted
as
ations
Scripture. (For variof
this
theistic
of
followers
in the Eastern Bibles see Canon.)
as
religion. See
type
Hinduism.
2. The Bible as finally
the
recognized serves
as
basis for the theologyof the church.
It is regarded
The collection of sacred writingswhich
BIBLE.
by all branches of Christians as inspired that is to
the basis of the Christian Religion.
serves
as
otherwise would
say, as revealingthe truth which
1. The Bible consists of two main portions,the
not have been gained by man.
In the controversy
Old
Testament
and
the New
between
Testament.
The
the Protestants
and the Roman
Catholics
former
written
almost
in the 16th. and 17th. centuries,
was
the Bible became
entirelyin Hebrew,
although there are a few pages, chieflyin Daniel, a basis of authority with the Protestants,comparable
written
in Aramaic.
The
Old
Testament
with the authority of the Pope among
was
the
selected from the mass
literature because
of Hebrew
Catholics.* The necessityof such an ultiRoman
mate
its various writingswere
court of appeal led the Protestant
regarded as being inspired
scholastics
These
to attribute to the Bible Uteral infallibility.
by God.
writings are
organized in the
It was,
Bible in three parts
Hebrew
the Law, the Prophtreated in theology without regard to the
ets,
therefore,
and the Writings. It is probable that each one
historical origin of the books, or
the historical
of these three groups marks a periodin the selection
understandingof its meaning. As the Bible was
of the sacred writings,for the distinction between
Protestants this element of
very widely read among
the collection of the Prophets and that of the Writings
its authority became
essential to Protestant
ology,
theis hard to draw, as there are historical books
which was
built up by a combination
of passages
in the former and propheticbooks in the latter. (In
of Scripturechosen with littleor no regard to
the Greek translation of the O.T. the Writings are
their historical meaning. The
Bible became
the
called Hagiographa or Sacred Writings.)
of all religiousknowledge, and under
source
the
The exact date at which the canon
of the Old
influence of this new
conception of its inspiration
Testament
closed is hard to state.
The opinion
it was
was
appealed to by a great varietyof theologies.
is now
almost
scholars that the
universal among
The Bible became, as its were, a set of divine oracles
Book
of Daniel
and
of the
to be used as a source
and support of theologies.
very probably some
The rise of the historical method
Psalms, if not other material of the Sacred Writings,
of the study of
Hterature in the first half of the 19th. century had
belong in the last two centuries before Christ.
It
would
be natural,therefore,that there should be
a
profound influence in modifyingthis conception
difference of opinion as to the acceptance
of the Bible.
some
It began to be studied from the point
of some
of these books.
A point in illustration
of the originnot only of itsvarious books,but,also,
of
of this is to be seen
in the controversy among
the
the various possibleportions of the books.
This
rabbis as to Esther.
See Canon; Old Testament.
historical inquiryresulted in a new
of the
appreciation
The New
Testament
is composed of a group
of
Bible as a product and record of religious
experience
if not authorship.
writingssupposedly of apostolicorigin,
singularlyunified and
progressing along selfconsistent hues.
In this sense
These, hke those writings which composed
it may
be used in
the Old Testament, were
selected from a considerable
theologyas the record of a revelation of God in
hterature.
of the Old
human
Also, as in the case
this
experience. In the Old Testament
some
Testament, there was
uncertainty as to the
experience is interpreted largely through the
of
certain
books
admitted
to
be
the
New
to
medium
of the history of the rise and fall of the
right
Testament
Jewish
By the middle of the 3rd. century,
Testament
from
state; and in the New
group.
limited
the point of view of the experienceof Jesus and those
to
however, these questions were
Such a view gives
James, Hebrews, II Peter,II,III John and Revelation
accepting him as the Messiah.
the canonical
those
full recognition to the historical origin of the
books; and among
among
admitted
that were
the Apocato the canon,
never
the historical development of the experilypse
Scripture,
ence
of Peter,the teaching of the Twelve
and the historical valuation
of the various
Apostles,
the Epistlesof Barnabas
and Clement, the Acts of
concepts in which the experienceof God is set forth.
The trustworthiness
of the record is not confused
Paul, and the Shepherd of Hermas.
By the middle
of the 5th. century the limits of the canon
with questionsof literal infallibility
and leads to a
were
closed in the West, but discussions as to certain
better understanding of the Christian movement.
Shailer
Mathews
books, notably Revelation,continued in the East for
BIBLE
CHRISTIANS
OR
BRYANITES."
a
A
century longer. The influence which led to the
and so the final constitution
closingof the canon
sect which
offshoot of Methodism, founded
was
an
of the Bible as a closed hterature,belongs to the
by William O'Brien in Devonshire, England, in

BHAGAVAD,.

"

"

"

Bible

Societies

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

50

the discovery
of the correct text.
Another
of information upon
the text is found in the
old translations of the Scripture,
the date of some
of which hes further back than that of our oldest
MSS.
These
often
reflect a
different original
from that found in any
MS.
Still another source
for the text is at hand
in the quotations
of the
Old and New
Testaments
found m the writings of
the early Church
Fathers.
The search for the answer
of the parent church
in the United
Methodist
to the second question
church.
yields Literary Criticism, commonly known
as
in distinction from the lower^or
Higher Criticism,
textual criticism. Here the critic aims to discover
BIBLE
SOCIETIES."
Organizations for the
translation and distributionof the Bible,in whole or
everything that will throw lightupon the author's
words.
Is the writing under
in parts. Among
the
the earUest societies were
review
poetry or
Corporationfor the Promoting^and Propagating of prose? This is by no means
always an easy or an
the Gospel of Jesus Christ in New
is it a
England (1649), unimportant problem. If prose,
mere
matter-of-fact
the Society for Promoting Christian
annalistic record, or is it didactic,
Knowledge
founded
and
in 1698, and the Canstein Institute, homiletic
When
(q.v.),
imaginative in character?
founded
it written
and
in Halle, 1710.
under
The largestsocietyis the
what
was
circumstances?
don,
Was it all written at the same
in LonBritish and Foreign Bible Society,founded
time and by the same
1804,whose circulations have reached 1 1,000,000 hand, or is the writing a composite production?
What
sort of person
the author, to what social,
was
copies of the Scripturesin a year, and whose total
distributions exceed 300,000,000copies in over
500
pohtical or ecclesiastical group did he belong?
What
did he seek to accomplish by his
ous
languages and dialects. There have been numerpurpose
and what means
utterance
did he employ to attain
most
societies. The
European
important
association is the American
American
Bible Society, it? How
much
did he owe
and
to his predecessors,
what was
his influence upon
of 31 kindred societies
organized by representatives
posterity?
Most
of the data with which the literarycritic
in 1816, whose annual circulation exceeds 2 million
work are
must
in the literature itself
to be found
copies.
which he is working. Evidence
as to date wiU
upon
in allusions to contemporary events or
BIBLICAL
COMMISSION."
A commission
tablished often appear
esto past history. Characteristics
in 1902 by decree of Pope Leo XIII., comof vocabulary,
posed
of a committee
of cardinals
assisted by
stylewill tell for or againstthe
syntax, and literary
theologicalconsultors,the duties of which include
unityof the writing. Consideration of the religious
standards and aims will helpin dating a book and in
the defence of Catholic exegesis,the decision of
of Biblical criticism in dispute among
matters
determining questions of authorship and unity.
Catholic scholars,and the occasional publication But there is also the necessityof pursuing a process
of comparativecriticism. This will have to do first
of studies on
the Bible.
with similar writings within the Hebrew
Hterature
BIBLICAL
CRITICISM."
does one
Psalm compare
The art of accurately itself. How
with another,
one
code with
determining the origin,purpose, and meaning of the
or
prophecy with another, or one
Biblical Uterature.
another?
We must
however, and
go further afield,
The function of criticism. ^The term
cism"
"critiinstitute comparisons between
Hebrew
Uterature
and
the idea of
brings before the average
Babylonian on the one
man
hand, and between
and
the other.
captiousfault-finding.The aim of a justcriticism, Hebrew
Egyptian Uterature on
How
do the legends in Genesis compare
with the
however, is to see a pieceof Uterature exactlyas it is
and to estimate it without
prejudice of any kind, corresponding myths and legends of Babylonia?
favorable or unfavorable.
How
do the former owe
The result of the process
much
to the latter?
What
of criticism may
be increased appreciation rather
is the difference between
the psalms of Israel and
than depreciation,and the greater the hterature
those of Babylon?
Does
the Messianic
prophecy
under study the more
of Israel owe
certain is it that criticism
its inspirationto the Messianism
of
will but enhance
its value.
BibUcal literature has
Egypt? Only by such investigationsdo we come
littleto fear and much
to gain through a thoroughly to a fuU appreciationof the value of the Bible.
scientificcriticism.
J. M. Powis
Smith
Kinds
BIBLICAL
INTRODUCTION."
This
term
is
of criticism. The criticism of literature
itself with two questions: (1) Is the text
concerns
now
applied to the literaryhistory of the Old and
of the document
New
Testaments.
preserved in its originalform?
Since almost all theological
science has to do with
mean?
The search for
(2)What does the document
the proper
the answer
to the first questionyields
cism,
Textual Critiunderstanding of the Scripturesthe term
sometimes
called "Lower
Criticism."
Introduction
Both
wide field.
might be made to cover
a
the Old and the New
At the present time, however, we
Testament
offer a wide field
mean
by BibUcal
for the pursuit of this science.
Both
that science which endeavors
cover
to disoriginated Introduction
centuries ago and the originalmanuscripts
the date and composition of the various BibUcal
many
have
books.
It then arranges
the component
long since disappeared. The oldest MS. of
parts
the Old Testament
in their true historical sequence.
tury
Many of the books
goes back only to the 9th. cenand
of
the
New
discovered
be
Testament
to
the
4th.
to
and
are
A.D.,
composite,
they must of
These
oldest MSS.
be carefullyanalyzed into their elements.
century a.d.
were
certainly course
from
which
these were
This process,
which
is caUed
the higher (better,
preceded by other MSS.
of knowing how many
criticism is simply the appUcacopied,and there is no means
Uterary or historical)
times the process of copying had taken place. But
tion to bibUcal literature of the methods
which are
used in the study of other ancient books.
There
copying is always attended by error.
are
in existence thousands
of MSS.
of the Biblical
A question which
now
naturaUy suggests itself is
whether
Biblical Introduction
variations.
should be extended
texts, representingalmost innumerable
critic must
The
examine
these minutely, determine
include
called Apocrypha.
the
books
to
The
their relative ages and habitats,group them
Catholic scholar will naturally
Roman
include them
in his discussion,and from the pomt
of view of
accordingly,and estimate aright their contribution
1815.

Mr.

O'Brien's

DICTIONARY

dictatorialness caused

sension,toward
dis-

in 1829.
But
resultingin his withdrawal
continued
its identity,growing and
the church
expanding until in 1882, it numbered 300 ministers
and
scattered
34,000 members
throughout the
United
States and the British Empire.
In 1884
branch
the Canadian
joined in the union of all
Methodist
bodies,which was followed by a similar
union in Austraha, and in 1907 by the absorption

"

"

source

51.

DICTIONARY

OF

be no doubt that
can
In practice,however, Protestant
this is correct.
scholars reaUzing the special importance of the
canonical books
usually confine their discussion
H. P. Smith
to them.

purelyliteraryhistory there

BIBLICAL

THEOLOGY."

Bible,considered

apart from

AND

RELIGION

The theology of the


the later theologyof

Old

ETHICS

Testament.

Biblical
form

understood, must

ever

doctrine.

Biogenesis

Theology,when

thus

the basis of Christian


E. F. Scott

BIBLIOLATRY."
Literally,book-worship;
travagant
exand uncritical devotion
to the Bible as
possessingdivine authority apart from a properly
scientific estimate of its contents.

the church.
BIDDING-PRAYER."
made
In the Anglican church.
distinction was
times no
Until modern
the prayer
called because^
and the orthodox
between
the teachingof Scripture
so
preceding the sermon,
It was
taken for granted that
originallythe preacher bade the people pray foi'
system of doctrine.
the church, the king, royal family, etc.
ous
In thf
the Bible was
whole, constitutinga harmonia single
Lutheran
tion
church, a prayer for specific
objects,so
bodyof divine revelation;and that this revelacalled because the deacons bid the people pray for
formulated
had been accurately
in the various
these things.
in the fight of
creeds,and had to be understood
it was
them.
At the Reformation
perceived that
the then prevaifing
BIDDLE,
JOHN
(1615-1662)."Teacher,
theologywas often at variance
known
with Scripture,and an attempt was
the founder of
made to revise
author, and theologian;
as
several times imprisBut
the
it in conformity with Bible standards.
English Unitarianism ; was
oned
for his heretical views.
idea still persistedthat the teaching of the Bible
and traditional dogma were
the same.
essentially
Towards
the end of the 18th. century this view began
ALOIS
EMANUEL
BIEDERMANN,
(1819studied
The Bible was
to undergo a modification.
versity
1885). Swiss theologian, professor at the Uniwith a new
a
nd
to
was
seen
of Zurich,who elaborated a profound system
feeling,
belong
literary
to a different age and a different world of thought
of theology on the basis of Hegelian monism.
His
from
the
later creeds.
The
creeds
themselves
chief work was
Christliche Dogmatik.
examined
and
aUowance
were
was
historically,
made
for the manifold influences which had helped
BIGAMY.
(1) In criminal law, the marriage of
stillassumed
to mould them.
But it was
that the
while the firstis living. (2) In canon
a second
spouse
Bible contained
coherent
a
system of revealed
law, the marriage of a second wife after the death
truth,in which the Old and New Testaments
mented
suppleaction which in the R.C. Church is
of the first,
an
each other.
Efforts were
made
to bring
an
impediment to holy orders.
all the inspired
writers into harmony, and thus to
build up a scheme
should correof doctrine which
spond
BIGOTRY.
A stubborn
adherence
to a given
with the teaching of Scripture.
faithfully
creed or party or ideal accompanied by an intolerant
For a variety of reasons
this conception of a
attitude
toward
differingbeliefs,including
biblical theologyhas now
broken down.
It is recognized
unreasonableness
the part of the adherent
self,
himon
(1) that the Old and New Testaments, though
and a disposition
to coerce
others to agreement.
that
between
them
related,
are
quite distinct;(2)
The word
meant
religioushypocrisy in 16th. century
fies a periodof several centuries,
in which reUgious
usage.
ideas were
that
both
largelytransformed; (3)
Testaments
comprise a number of different types of
BIKSHU
lower
of the two
(BIKKU)." The
teaching; (4) that in both of them we must reckon
in early Buddhism
grades of disciples
applied to one
with influences from without, as well as with an
who had entered upon
the way
that leads to the
inner
development. Biblical Theology is now
higher state of the Arhat.
treated,therefore,under the two separate heads of
O.T.
and
N.T.
theology. The theology of the
BILO CATION."
The
hypothesis that a being
Old Testament
is viewed in its relation to the
of body may
have more
than one
location at the
national life of Israel. The
is traced out
process
time
without
same
multiplicationof substance.
whereby a primitiveform of religionwas developed
It is involved in the R.C. defense of the doctrine
and purifiedby the ethical teaching of the great
of the real presence
of the body of Christ in the
hardened into a legal
prophets, and was
latterly
Eucharist.
New
Testament
system.
theology is likewise
studied historically.
The Gospel evidence is sifted,
The celebration of the Mass twice
BINATION."
in order to discover the originalmessage
of Jesus;
the same
ministrant.
The
on
day by the same
then it is shown
how this message
understood
in
was
R.C.
permits binafion
specifically
only under
the primitive church; how
it was
interpretedby
Paul; how it was re-stated by the Fourth evangelist exceptionalcircumstances.
and the author of Hebrews
in terms of Alexandrian
BINDING
AND
See Keys,
LOOSING."
thought. The old conception of a singlebody of
Power
op
the.
truth,revealed in the Bible and formulated in the
creeds
has
thus
disappeared. Modern
enquiry
seeks rather to do justiceto the different phases
BIOGENESIS.
A term no longerin use among
of thought represented in each of the Testaments,
used to express the view that Hving forms
biologists
and to the changes of outlook which found
arise only from hving forms.
The term arose
can
sion
expresin the later history
when
of doctrine.
"spontaneous generation" had its behevers.
There is a sense, however, in which the theology Certain early experiments seemed
to indicate that
of the Bible
still be regarded as a whole.
in a completely lifelessand sealed solution organisms
may
When we apply the historical method
would
This was
to the various
called spontaneous
appear.
books
of Scripture we
become
of certain'' generation,or "abiogenesis,"as distinct from lifeaware
ideas (e.g.,
the Kingdom
of God, the moral
ment
generation,or "biogenesis." With the improvelaw, eternal life,forgivenessof sin) which were
in connection
of technique,however, especially
graduallydeveloped in the religionof Israel and
with bacteriology,
it was
discovered that the "hfecame
to their fruition in
and that the "sealed"
less" solution was
not lifeless,
Christianity.In order
to apprehend
these ideas in their Christian form it
solution was
not
always sealed against certain
IS
necessary to trace them back to their roots in the
has disappeared
organisms. Abiogenesis,therefore,
"

"

"

"

peat

Biretta

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

as a doctrine based
upon
any observation,and with
it this use of the term biogenesis.
The term is also used as a synonym
for evolution
as
appUed to the plant and animal kingdoms. See
Evolution.
John
M. Coulter

ETHICS

divinelyguaranteed vehicle of the inherited


culties
TertulMan),and 3rd. centurydiffi(Irenaeus,
arising from

About birth,as about


universally associated religiousrites
and behefs.
The desire for children,the desire to
and to insure the health and
protect the mother
future of the child,give rise to efforts to drive
possible evils and bewitchments, to secure
away
dehvery, to bring to the child the protection
easy
for it the proper
of good powers,
finallyto secure
These various motives
recognitionof fellow men.
have given occasion not only for important religious
ceremonies, such as purificationafter child-birth,
circumcision,baptism, but also to a great number
of superstitions
which are stillpresent in European
such as faith in charms, dread of changefolklore,
lings,
stories of good fairies. In virtuallyall pagan
there are goddesses whose
especialcharge
religions
is birth, and
under
whose
protection expectant
mothers are placed. The belief in defilement as an
accompaniment of childbirth (cf Leviticus,chap.
rites,is
purificatory
13), hence callingfor especial
form is rather
frequent,although its more
primitive
the dread of witchcraft at this dangerous period.
Among certain peoples mothers dying in childbirth
were
regarded as thereby made heroic,and special
Belief in re-birth of
honors
were
given them.
quent,
infants still-born or early dying is also not infrethere is held to
and in some
religions
pagan
be a speciallimbo for the souls of such, awaiting
rebirth.
is the rightto inheritance or to social
Birthright
station as a consequence
of birth condition.
Its
most
important forms are the rightsfollowingfrom

BIRTH,
death, are

BIRTHRIGHT."

legitimacy or
illegitimacy; primogeniture, or
seniorityof birth; the rightsof sex, male children
commonly being given priorrecognition;the rights
the social station of the parof rank, due
to
ents.
peoples,including the ancient
Among many
classical peoples and
modern
some
Orientals,
birthrightdepended upon recognitionof the child
by the father,who had, if he chose, the right to
of an
unborn
the child. Devotion
or
first-born child to sacrifice or to religious
service is
another
parental right frequently recognized in
H. B. Alexander
religions.
pagan
expose

beUeve
BIRTHDAY."
Those
who
in astrology
and some
others regard certain days as lucky and
African
tribes practise
others unlucky. Certain
infanticide of children born on unluckydays. With
the horoscope and
the elaborate
astrology came
arrangement of lucky and unlucky days based on
the astrological
signs evident on the day of birth;
others.
Hindus, Chinese and many
as, e.g., among
Among many
peoples birthdays are celebrated as
days
embodying the idea of the renewal of life. Birthand gods are made occasions
of martyrs, saints,
mas
of special celebration,e.g., the Christian Christobservance
of Rama's
(q.v.)and the Hindu

birthday.
BISHOP."
The
earliest officers of Christian
churches
called both presbyter (elder)and
were
bishop. In Acts 20:28 Paul addresses elders as
bishops. Officers appointed by the apostles are
called presbyters
in Acts 15 :23,bishopsin / Clement

52

42.
church
Apparently each
had
community
several bishops,both in the East {Didache 15) and
in Rome
(/ Clement 44, Hermas, Vision III. 5).
Probably the name
bishopwas apphed to an elder
presiding over
worship and
distributing alms.
in
the
2nd.
Early
century a monarchic
bishop is
found at the head of a body of presbytersin Syria
and Anatoha
{Epistles
of Ignatius)and by 150 a.d.
in Rome.
The bishop was
soon
acknowledged

BIRETTA.
^A square
cap with three ridges on
its upper
surface worn
the official cap of R.C.
as
ecclesiastics. The
biretta for cardinals
is red,
for priests as a
for bishops is purple or black, and
faith
black.
"

AND

persecution resulted

acceptance of the bishop'smonarchic

the

in disauthority

cipUneand

his priesthoodby divine rightover


souls.
This meant
a citybishopwith power
over
a single
at synods the bishop
community, but by presiding
of the provincialcapital became
(3rd. century) a
metropoUtan or archbishopwith growing jurisdiction
over
others, while synods of larger areas
(Syria,
Egypt,Italy)developed the higherrank of Patriarch
for Alexandria,
tension
Antioch,Rome, Byzantium. Exof a
to a
diocese
bishop'sjurisdiction
when
Teutonic
invaders
beyond the city came
settled on the estates of a gau or county subordinated
themselves
to the bishop of the old Roman
city
which was
the county seat, or (England and Germany)
from
the fact that the first bishops were
missionaries serving a large area.
All bishops at
first were
equal but by an historical process (presiding
at synods, appeals,
receptionof decisions) a
which
with
the
primacy of great centers
arose
11th. century became
for the Roman
bishop in
archic
theory and increasinglyin fact an absolute monall western
bishops. The episcopal
power over
constitution of the Cathohc church was
renewed
(1415),
by the action of the Council of Constance
but after the Council of Trent bishops tended to be
of the Pope. This subordination
to the
deputies^
is increased by the modern
separationsof
papacy
church and state.
Originallyboth the laityand the
clergyjoined in electinga bishop. The assumption
by Teutonic kings of the right to confirm or even
to appoint led to the Investiture
dispute which
ended (1122) with the provisionof election by the
then
chapter, excluding the laity. The
pope
installed in spiritualfunctions
and the king in
pohticaland property rights. However, in Cathohc
countries the state has usuallyhad the right of
and in Protestant
German
the
states
nomination
chapter elects one whose acceptibihtyto the government
States was
is assured.
When
the United
a
mission country nominations
sent both by the
were
diocesan priestsand the bishops of the province to
the Congregationfor the Propagation of the Faith.
In 1908 the United States ceased to be a mission
and the Apostolic Constitution of Pius X. placed
in the control of the
the choice of bishops virtually
of State.
Cardinal Secretary
and
in Deimaark
The
Lutheran reform, save
superintendents. Calvin's
Sweden, substituted
ecclesiastic above
church recognized no
a
pastor.
churches of America
In the Methodist
bishops are
san
diocechosen by the General Conference, have no
and are properly Superintendents. In
power,
Great Britain the title is not used by Wesleyans.
Certain other Protestant bodies employ the term but
shoot
only in the Church of England and its American offis there an
episcopaloffice resembhng that
of Cathohc
F. A. Christie
history.
'

An Arabic formula meaning "in


BISMILLAH.
in the Koran
the name
of Allah" which appears
as
the opening phrase of each section and is used by
of each act of
Moslems
at the commencement
of
ceremonial.
It is also used as a potent word
ences
in itselfto ward off evil influhaving efficacy
power
and to assure
a safe beginning of every action.
"

53

DICTIONARY

RELIGION

OF

ETHICS

AND

filood

BLACK
or any
ART."
The
term
"black art," or
saints,
holythingswas included in blasphemy
which was
"black magic," is a traditional perversionof the
punished rigorously.In Muhammedantinctionism, blasphemy includes contemptuous
classical "necromancy"
necromantia
(meaning disspeaking
of Mohamet,
with the dead) being
a
guilty Muslim
being considered
by communication
corruptedinto negromantia (asif from negro-, black), an apostate,his punishment being death.
doubtless due to association with the conception of
HELENA
PETROVNA
black art comprises all
the devil as black.
The
BLAVATSKY,
(1831forms of magic supposed to be due to collusion with
1891). Russian authoress who traveled extensively,
and with Col. H. S. Alcott founded the Theosophical
evil spirits,
as well as
proper; the term
necromancy
has even
been applied to astrology. "Black magic"
Societyin New York in 1875. Her most important
is contrasted
with "white
work, Isis Unveiled,is an attempt at a systematic
magic" which includes
of theosophy. See Thkosophy.
innocent forms of wonder-working, such as legerdepresentation
main
and various forms of divination not deemed
A condition of happinessor
BLESSEDNESS."
to be due to intercourse with spirits.
which
in Christian and
theistic
H. B. Alexander
other
felicity
is associated with the divine favor upon
BLACK
A
DEATH."
religions
or
pestilence of Oriental
experience,whereas in ethical
originresembhng in many
jjresence in human
particularsthe bubonic
and non-theistic thought such as Buddhism
it is
plague,appearing in Italy (1348),from which, over
related to the attainment
of a right state of mind.
trade routes, it rapidly spread into large areas
of
See Matt. 6:3-11; Dhamma'pada, ch. 15.
of its mortality
western
Europe. In consequence
estimated as high as fortyper cent of the
variously
AND
CURSING"
BLESSING
The power
of
population and heaviest in Italy, France, and
the spoken word seems
to men
at a certain stage of
England great structural changes took place in
should
or
as
we
society. With the scarcityof labor,wages rapidty thought to be something uncanny
and
the older aristocracy
rose
injuriousword is a curse,
largely supwas
planted say supernatural. The
the helpful one
Class interests
a
blessing. As thought became
by one risingfrom the masses.
clear the theory was
formed that the curse
became
more
or
pronounced, discontent acute, and
rife. Not
and
the efficiency
irreligion
only were
blessingwas of force because the speaker was in
moral tone of the clergyimpaired by the admission
communion
or
or
specialrelations with a demon
into the priesthoodof the immature, untrained,and
divinity. The demon
might by the efTective form
worldlyminded, but non-residence and pluralism, of words be bound to a physicalobject (Aladdin's
secured the footing lamp) and obhged to do the bidding of its owner.
seeminglynecessary in this crisis,
from which in later centuries it was
But a curse, even
if pronounced by a common
difficult to
so
G. Mode
inherent force.
Peter
dislodgethem.
might work harm by its own
man,
and
death had
men
near
Magicians, priests,
BLACK
FAST."
The
most
of cursing and
rigorous form of
blessing. Thus,
especialpower
fastingin R.C. history,the austerity
relatingboth
the blessingof Isaac once
given to Jacob, though
to the food and time.
Latterlythe rigorous requireintended
for Esau, could not be reversed.
ments
When
have been relaxed.
is active in making the curse
the divinity
or blessing
effective the form
is usually that of a prayer.
BLACK
The
for
FATHERS."
popular name
Examples are not rare, however, in which the
the congregationof the Fathers of the Holy Ghost
the divinity
rather than entreats
speaker commands
and the Immaculate
Heart of Mary.
him.
The
vokes
judicialoath in which the witness inon
himself,in case he lies,is a
vengeance
BLACK
The
attached
to
FRIARS."
name
natural development from the curse.
One
of the
Dominican
monks
in England because of the color
earhest examples is the Hebrew
formula: "God do
of their garments.
and more
too if I do not do thus and so."
to me
so
H. P. Smith
BLACK
of God
and
Church
JEWS." The
PRIESTLY.BLESSING,
(Jewish.) In the
Saints of Christ,composed chieflyof negroes who
Jewish ritual,
the PriestlyBlessing
(Num. 6:22-27)
claim to be the descendants
of the true Jews.
is pronounced in the Synagog, according to the
orthodox, on certain holy-daysby the descendants
BLACK
for
MONKS."
The populardesignation
of the old priests; or, according to the reform
monks
of the Benedictine
order.
Jews, by the Rabbi dismissingthe congregation
at
services.
the close of some
BLACK
RUBRIC"
The declaration which commands
kneeling at the end of the order for the
OF THE."
See Future
BLEST, ABODE
Life,
celebration of the Holy Communion
in the Anglican
Conceptions
of
the.
church
the
black
prayer-book, so called from
lettersin which it was
formerly printed.
BLISS.
ness.
See Blessed"

"

"

"

Supreme

"

nuns

BLACK
SISTERS."
The name
because of their black habit.
BLACK

SUNDAY."

See

happiness.

given to Alexian

Passion

See Alexians.

Sunday.

BLOOD.
of

"

significant
as
Religiously

a
relationship,

means

of

basis

the

or
conciliation,

tainer
con-

of power.
the Greek, to injureby
From
BLASPHEMY."
The
basic idea concerning blood is
common
blood is the life."
speech; literally,
defamatory speech;specifically,given in Deut. 12:23, "The
less
The
spoken or written words insultingto God.
or
Consequently blood is everywhere more
Levitical legislation
prescribed the death penalty sacred,and its use sacramental.
for blasphemy (Lev. 24:16),as did also the Roman
Blood
is universallyregarded as the bond of
law.
In England and
the United
States, it is
(through
Relationship is natural
relationship.
punishable by fine, imprisonment, or corporal birth) or artificial (through ceremony). In the
punishment, but the law is seldom put into effect. latter case common
to flow in the
blood is made
Formerly,blasphemy was defined so as to include
veins of men
by contact of fresh wounds, by two
denial of certain orthodox
Christian behefs, such
men's drinking each other's blood, or by drinking
the Trinityand the authority of the Scriptures. blood drawn
as
from a third source, making a bond as
In France speaking against the Virgin Mary, the
close as if it came
through birth. Among primitives

Blood-Brotherhood

DICTIONARY

OP

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

rA

this bond extends over


the clan or tribe: one common
BLUMHARDT,
CHRISTOFF
JOHANN
(1805blood flows in the veins of every
clan-member.
1880). Swiss pastor of unusual religious
power,
When
tribesman
is
believed
blood
who
in
Arabs
"Our
the
a
slain,
possibihtyof divine healing
say:
Its social value Ues in the protechas been shed."
through prayer, and who established and superintion
tended
of life imder conditions of nearly perpetual
institute for religious
an
healingat Bad Boll.
strife.
He was
of sincere and devout life,
a man
and exercised
wide influence.
The blood-feud is a consequence
tionship.
of blood relaWhen
clansman
is slain,a relative
a
him.
to
FRIEDRICH
VON
(familyor clansman) is bound
BODELSCHWINGH,
avenge
This may
involve
counter
(1831-1910). Influential Lutheran pastor, noted
reprisals,and feuds
for his vigorouspromotion of the work of the Inner
arise which last generations.
affect gods
As a means
of conciliation blood may
school at Bethel in
Mission, and for his theological
to counteract
(see Sacrifice); an exami)lein the human
the rationalistic
Prussia, founded
sphere
tendencies of the theologicalfaculties in the uniis that Australians
drink each other's blood at a
versities.
feast to settle difficulties.
As sacred,blood may
be (a) forbidden as food;
before
A name
BODHISATTVA."
or
to consecrate
a
(b) eaten
appliedin Buddhism
ceremony
to those who are destined for future Buddhahood.
(India),
or to
givingtestimony, to provide an omen
They are the great cosmic saviors who pass through
sanctifyor make powerful a fetish (Africa).
the ten stages leading to complete knowledge and
A concomitant
notion is that blood has potency,
after successive existences accept at last the peace
working beneficently or harmfully according to
of essential Boddhahood.
It
See AvalgkiteSvara.
circumstances.
Its beneficent
powers
vary.
imparts strength to the old (Australia);gives a
BODY.
The physicalpart of an organism, disvictor the life or courage of a slain enemy
tinguished
(Africa)
;
from its bionomic
its spiritual
bestows
on
or
ghosts (Odyssey,
being.
temporary power
XI. 34 "f.);sustains the dead; and on
several
as organized from
a
priest The conception of a man
modes
of being is well-nighuniversal,the physical
confers
of prophecy. It prevents
and
power
mode
and averts
or material
(thebody of the living,the corpse
cures
disease,makes marriage fruitful,
evil influences (India). Bathing with it (actually of the dead) being conceived as the bond, envelope,
of the life,spirit,soul, mind, or other
home
from sin or defilement
or
or
metaphorically)purifies
contrasted
modes
with it. In primitive thought
(Mithraism, Dyaks, East
Indians; cf. many
Christian
and in early religiouspracticesthe distinction of
hymns).
material
and
of or restrictions
immaterial
does not
Its perilsappear in prohibitions
clearly exist;
its use.
Some
kinds are especially
dangerous. the body is rarelyconceived as fixed in form, while
upon
of
various
elements
The
blood
childbirth and of menstruation
the
added
thereto to constitute
ara
themselves regarded as more
are
or less
supremely perilous. Usually, when blood is shed, a livingman
it must be buried to protect the passer-by. Parents
It is first with
by the physicalsenses.
perceptible
look upon
not
it for a certain period after
Plato that the distinction between
the material
may
the birth of twins (Africa). The husband's
soul is sharply drawn.
blood, flesh and the immaterial
drunk at marriage, remains in the wife's veins and
Nevertheless,the conceptionof a body from which
reveals and punishesinfidelity
sublimated
life or soul can
be disengaged,
a more
(India).
George
W. Gilmore
temporarily as well as permanently, exists from the
BLOOD-BROTHERHOOD."
lowest savagery
A fraternal bond
culture.
upward through human
formed
of the mingling of blood.
idea of body and
The influence of the disjunctive
by the ceremony
The conceptiongrew out of the primitiveconception
soul has been one
of the most profound both upon
of kinship as necessarily
ritual and speculation.The body as the house of
See
blood-relationship.
Brotherhood.
nally;
the soul requirespurification,
internallyand exterwith appetites,
it calls for temperas endowed
ate
ascetic control, for castigation,etc.; as
or
BLOOD-COVENANT."
A
solemn
agreement
of life,
subject to profound changes in the seasons
into which
two
parties Have
entered, sealed by
it calls for ritual safeguards,often among
savages
each drinking,being infused with,or smearing themselves
it demands
burial
for mutilations; as a corpse,
with the blood of the other.
See Covenant.
and rites of allayingthe dead.
Speculativelyit is
difficultfor man
totallyto separate the conception
BLOOD-FEUD.
^A form
of primitive justice
of life from that of embodied
life;hence arises the
which
the
maltreated
in
or
family of a murdered
ideas of a partiallife attendingthe corpse, as among
individual assumed
the responsibility
of vengeance
of incarnation
the Egyptians; of bodilyresurrection;
in kind upon
the offender or his kin.
It is found
and reincarnation; of a transfiguredor sublimated
in especialvigor among
the Semitic
and
Aryan
spiritualbody; of astral,ghostly, or phantasmal
peoplesthough the Indo-Aryans seem
early to have
tion;
bodies, etc. See Asceticism; Burial; Incarnathe blood-revenge stage. The
outgrown
growth
Resurrection; Soul; Spirit.
of more
closelyknit societies caused the adoption
H. B. Alexander
of the principleof wergeld (ransom) to a large
(1575-1624)." German
JAKOB
BOEHME,
tic.
mysextent.
When
the state was
established
the
firmly
maker.
His parents were
a shoepeasants and he was
right and responsibihty of blood-revengepassed
and
Bible
study,
reading of
By prayer,
into the hands of the king who, in the name
of the
he acquiredthe spiritof a mystical
books,
mystical
the culprit.
community, exacted
on
vengeance
opposition in his
visionary. He met with much
Even
the blood-feud had its strict rules and was
a
day, but his works subsequentlybecame a source
form of crude,though wasteful,justice.
Friedrich
of inspirationto such
as
great minds
did not
Schlegel,Hegel and ScheUing. Boehme
guinity.
ConsanBLOOD-RELATIONSHIP."
See
orthodox
though
doctrines,aldepart from the current
methods
and mystical
he used the allegorical
"

"

"

"

"

of
BLOOD-REVENGE."
in tribal
The
custom
societywhereby the next of kin of a murdered man
is bound
the murder
to avenge
by the death of the
murderer
of the murderer's tribe.
or of one

interpretation.

BOETHUSIANS.
the time of the
in thought.
to them
at

"

Jewish

Saducees, and

flourishing
related
closel}'

sect

55

OF

DICTIONARY

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Bornholmers

A Christian community originatBoniface V. Pope, 619-625, influential in


BOGOMILS.
ing
in Bulgaria,owing its name
Bogumil
Christianizing
to a priest,
England, creating Canterbury as a
Metropohtan see.
a
(927-968). The beliefs of the Bogomils were
dualism
Marcion's
of Manicha"an
and
fusion
Boniface VI. Pope for 15 days in 896.
Boniface VII." Pope, 984-985.
gnosticism.Miracles,sacraments, and ceremonies
He
and
broiled
emasceticism was
Boniface VIII." Fope, 1294-1303.
were
interpreted spiritually
the papacy
in a number
of conflicts with
Eastern
movement
spread over
required. The
and
condemned
in
European nations by his arrogance
Europe. The order was
officially
pomp.
He was
the author of the bull,Unum
Sanctam
In 1650 the Bogomils,having accommodated
1111.
(q.v.).
their doctrines to orthodoxy, were
absorbed into
Boniface IX.
Pope, 1389-1404, was
pohtically
active and succeeded
in restoringRoman
order in
the R.C. Church.
the papal states.
His pontificatefell during the
A 15th. century
time of the papal schism, and rival popes, Clement
BOHEMIAN
BRETHREN."
radical reform than was
VII. and Benedict
sect committed
to a more
XIII., held office at Avignon.
the national
from
(Calixtine)church of Bohemia
which it sprang.
SAINT
BONIFACE,
(680-754)."Missionary
From
He
the 9th. century the church in Bohemia
to Germany, and proconsul of the Papacy.
was
intensely nationalistic (language, liturgy). was a Saxon by birth,a great scholar and preacher,
The Hussite wars, 1419-1432,followingHuss' (q.v.) going as a missionary to Frisia in 716.
His influence
and Prankish
with the
was
death, voiced these national aspirations,
large on both the German
desire for religious
Two
reform.
Martel
The
partiesresulted, churches.
protection of Charles
moderates
contributed
From
732-754
he
to his success.
(Calixtines,Utraquists), and radicals
(Taborites). By accepting the Compacts (q.v.), was archbishop. In 754 he was murdered
by the
1433,the former secured concessions (freepreaching, Frisian pagans.
for laity)and leadership. The
Taborites
cluded
incup
and
irreconcilables(destroyed
by Romanists
BONIFATIUS-VEREIN."
A
society for the
interests
Utraquists,1434), and others whose
tions
protectionof R.C. interests in the Protestant secThe
latter attached
were
supremely religious.
of Germany.
themselves
the Chelcic
Brethren.
to
Rejecting
force, and living strictlyby the Gospel, they
BOOK
The
OF
COMMON
DISCIPLINE."
retired,1457, to Kunwald, Lititz,where
they
church
to the book
name
on
given
organization
assumed
Unitas
Fratrum
Brethren.
the name
or
in 1560.
drawn
by the Scotch Presbyterians
up
In 1467 they became
an
independent sect (Matthias
A revised edition appeared in 1578.
ordained
1494 the
bishop by Waldenses). From
and
lost its idiosyncracies
movement
became
BOOK
book
COMMON
PRAYER."
The
OF
sympathetictoward the intellectualand spiritual
tendencies of the age (Universities,
Reformation). containing the forms and modes of public service
appointed by the Act of Uniformity, 1549, for use
Bohemian
Protestantism
all but annihilated
was
in the established
used
church
of England, and
and
Commenius
during the Thirty Years War.
with
certain modifications
by other Protestant
Jablonsky preservedthe history and traditions of
bodies.
tillthe brotherhood
the Brethren
reconstituted
"

"

"

"

was

and
broadened
by
Moravian
Brethren

Zinzendorf
(q.v.). Henry

(q.v.),and
H.

the

Walker

BOLLANDISTS."
The
Belgian Jesuits, who
the publishersof the Acta Sanctorum
(q.v.),
named
from
John
Bolland
so
(1596-1665), the
Jesuit father who was
of the principal
organizers
one
of the work.
The
Belgian edition of the Acta
Sanctorum
has reached
63 volumes.
They also
publish a quarterlyperiodical,the Analecta Bollandiana.

One
BOOK
DEAD."
OF
THE
of the sacred
books of the religion
of ancient Egypt, the contents
of which are largelymagical formulae and charms.

are

BOOK
of Revelation,
OF LIFE."
In the Book
destinies are
human
heavenly book in which
The
portrayed as being recorded.
imagery is
Oriental peoples who
have picto many
common
tured
a

the

existence

of celestial books

or

tablets

containingthe wisdom of the gods and mythologies


inhabitants.
concerning the earth and its human
HORATIUS
BONAR,
(1808-1889)."Scotch
Such
ideas may
be paralleledfrom
the religious
hymn writer,and Presbyterianminister. He wfote
literatureof Babylonia,Egypt, Persia,India,China,
several religious
books, and edited several journals.
Islam,and Judaism.
prominent
They are especially
Many of his hymns are in common
usage.
in apocalypticliterature such as Enoch, Daniel,and
Revelation.
ST.
BONAVENTURA,
(1221-1274)." R.C.
theologian. In 1243 he entered the Franciscan
of
WILLIAM
BOOTH,
(1829-1911)." Founder
order,and by 1255 rose to the office of generalof the
for
the Salvation Army
educated
(q.v.). He was
order.
He
of Roger Bacon
was
a
contemporary
the Methodist
Connexion
New
ministry, and in
and Thomas
Aquinas, and stood in opposition to
1865 founded
the Christian Mission for social rehef
both.
was
prevented from
By his orders Bacon
in East
London
which
subsequently developed
His philosophy was
Neolecturingat Oxford.
(1876),into the Salvation Army of which Booth
suffused
with
Platonism, and his theology was
commander-in-chief
until his death.
was
Platonic influence.
He was
canonized by Sixtus IV.
in 1482.

BOOTHS,
BONIFACE."

of nine Popes.
Boniface I. Bishop of Rome, 418-422.
Boniface//."Pope, 530-532.
Boniface III. Pope, Feb.-Nov., 606, obtained
from Emperor Phocas
recognitionof the primacy
of Rome.
Boniface IV.
Pope, 608-615, received from
Phocas the Roman
pantheon which was converted
into a church.
The

FEAST

OF."

See

Feast

of

nacles.
Taber-

name

"

"

"

Danish
BORNHOLMERS."
A
sect,
pietistic
island of Bornholm
in
named
from the Danish
of the
the center
the Baltic Sea, which
became
movement.
It was
the development of an evangelistic
in Sweden
movement
(from 1846) which spread
to Denmark
where
the leader, 1863-1877, was
P. C. Trandberg.
so

BosBuet, Jacques

DICTIONARY

RELIGION

OF

BOSSUET,
(1627-1704).
JACQUES BENIGNE
French R.C. diyine,
renowned
as
a pulpitorator
and controversialist. His dominant
was
purpose
to reunite Catholicism and Protestantism, but he
to
make
too pedantic
was
a
popular appeal. In
the quarrelbetween
Louis XIV. and the pope, he
tried to support the papacy
while opposing the
"

Jesuits.
BOUNDARY."

In all parts of the world early


careful to mark
the limits of their
lands. Where
there were
natural
no
markings,
established as
trees, stones, or waste
places were
artificial marks.
Such
boundaries
were
sacredly
preserved and the boundary mark carried its own
the transto inflict penalty upon
gressor.
magical power
When
gods arise such figures as Min,
Hermes
and Terminus
have as their chief function
the protecting of the boundaries
In
and roads.
the
places an annual ritual of re-establishing
many
markings was performed. Unknown
dangers lurked
at the boundaries
Jack o' Lanterns, restless souls,
witches
especially,as at the cross-roads,where

peoples

were

"

"

boundaries

met.

The
BOURIGNIANISM."
doctrinal system of
Mme.
Antoinette
Bourignon, a French visionary
and
mystic (1616-1680); a type of quietism in
which spiritualecstasy rather than cult or dogma
is made
paramount.

BRAHMA.
As
differentiated from
Brahman
is the personal creator
god, known
by many
names,
e.g., Hiranyagarbha, Prajapati,Narayana.
"

he
He

forms
In

one

of the Hindu

triad with

Vishnu

and

literature he has an
early Buddhist
the
important place as the supreme
figureamong
gods; he holds his position in the epics but in
the later religiousdevelopment recedes before the
But see
growing popularityof Vishnu and Shiva.

Piva.

also Brahman.
BRAHMAN.
rence
(1) A word of frequent occurin Indian reUgiousliterature. The etymology
is uncertain,but most
writers trace it to the root
used in the neuter it refers
brh, "to speak." When
to power
and when in the masculine to the
or force,
who
one
meaning of
possesses the force. The
the word
has
developed historically,
(i) The
spoken hymn, or prayer or magic formula. Then
Then
as
(u) the power in that prayer or formula.
the sacrifice retired the hymn in the cult,it meant
in the sacrifice. When
the ritual
(in) the power
developed, the sacrifice was
regarded as the most
came
potent force in the world hence "brahman"
to mean
(iv)the cosmic force,or the world-soul.
See Atman.
(2) The designationof the highest
of the four Indian castes.
See India, Religions
Philosophies
and
of.
"

commentaries
The
prose
sacred Vedic texts of India.
They
are
exegetical and speculative, giving detailed
explanation of the sacrifices.
BRAHMANAS.
added
to the

"

BRAHMANASPATI
The
(BRIAHASPATI)
Lord of prayer; either the heavenly priestof the gods
the personification
and deification of the magical
or
of the brahmanical
priesthood.
power
"

BRAHMANISM."
The
religionelaborated by
the Brahman
the period of
priesthood between
Vedic
Religion (q.v.) and the development of
Hinduism
(q.v.).
Brahmanism
and
Hinduism
terms
The
are
often appliedindiscriminately
to the whole religious
development of India after the Rig-Vedic period.

AND

ETHICS

56

It is convenient
to restrict the former to the earlier
sacerdotal phases, the latter to the period when
fers
difpopular elements preponderated. Brahmanism
from Vedic Religionbecause
of the extreme
comphcation of its ritual,which relegatedthe gods
to a subordinate
end in
position and became
an
because
of its lack of a
itself;from Hinduism
fervent devotion to a personal god, and because of
its emphasis on knowledge and ritualistic works as
the chief means
of salvation.
1. Historical settingand date. The Punjab was
no
longer the center of civilization. Culture was
centralized in the valleysof the Ganges and
now
Jumna.
The period may
be dated roughly between
1000 and 200 B.C.; but Brahmanism
lingered on
long after that, and the beginnings of Hinduism
confuse the outlines.
soon
2. Social background. ^In the
fertile plains
and enervatingclimate of the Ganges valley life
became
easier and more
settled. The development
of greater political
solidation
unity was accompanied by a conof the priesthood and its exaltation to a
Caste (qv.) and the
positionof social supremacy.
doctrines of karma
(q.v.)and transmigration(q.v.)
made their appearance;
and with them a pessimistic
attitude toward
life and a negative ethical ideal.
Asceticism
became
a
prominent factor. As the
spoken language changed, the hymns of the RigVeda
became
archaic and obscure.
Interpretation
became
This, togetherwith the hymns,
necessary.
handed
attention was
down
was
orally. Minute
One
accent
paid to accent and grammar.
wrong
this
might vitiate a whole sacrifice. To master
complicated science an education became necessary.
Scholars gathered around
famous
teachers.
There
ensued a period of formalism and polemic; a recasting
of received
doctrines and
elaboration
of
an
minutae
men
parallelto that of the period of the schoolin Europe.
A priestlytheoryof the ideal life
developed (the four Agramas), perhaps largely
but stillof great influence on all later
theoretical,
(ReligiousStudent)
thought. (1)The Brahmacarin
spent years (accordingto one theory, twelve years
for each Veda) in the house of a teacher,Hving a
and memorizing the sacred
chaste,abstemious
life,
texts.
(2) He returned home, married, and became
Grhastha
a
(Householder); performed all the
religiousand social duties prescribed by priestly
tradition.
his hair turned grey, and he
(3) When
had a grown
who might succeed him as head of
son
the family, he went, alone or with his wife, to a
hermitagein the forest. There Hfe involved fewer
religiousand social duties,and left him freer for
meditation
the meaning of the ritual and of reUon
abandoned
then
gion in general. (4) He
any
fixed abode and lived as a Sannyasi (one who completely
Bhiksu
the world) or
(Beggar),
renounces
subsisting
a
wandering as
solitarymendicant
This is the ideal picture from
entirelyon alms.
A man
the Brahman
might pass
point of view.
from the first to the third or fourth stage, or remain
permanently in the second. The theory applied
only to the three higher castes, for the Qudras were
always rigorouslyexcluded from a knowledge of
The K?atriyas and Vaigyas were
the sacred texts.
with a short term of studentship.
contented,doubtless,
texts
All the Vedic
except the
3. The texts.
hymns of the Rig-Veda belong to Brahmanism.
consists of hymns, mostly from the
The Sama-Veda
The
YajurRig-Veda, set to elaborate music.
consists of sacrificial formulae, mostly in
Veda
is made up, for the most
The Atharva-Veda
prose.
Around
the texts of all
part, of magic charms.
there grew
body of explanation
four Vedas
a
up
and
interpretation(interspersedwith myths and
legends),long,rambUng texts in prose called Brahradical
certain
In
speculativecircles
manas.
"

"

"

57

DICTIONARY

OF

from
the ritual itself to
thought tended
away
allegoricaland symbolical interpretationof
the
to speculation
the inner meaning of the ritual,
on
and act (hymn and ritual). The
of word
power

ETHICS

AND

RELIGION

Brahmanism.

considered the greatest power


in
Brahman
(the hymn and
was
employed to denote
the immanent
cosmic
cosmological
energy,
the
universe.
in
Prajapati became
a
power
of
the neuter
Brahman.
personal manifestation
what
The Upanishads tried to define more
closely
There
this Brahman
was.
is, however, no one
system of philosophy,only vague, inconsistent gropings based on associative thinking rather than on
thinkingrigorouslycontrolled by the objectsof the
that
The final_
external world.
answer
given was
is the same
Brahman
as
Atman, the force within
the soul. The
of its vital energies,
the body, the sum
of the
the
essential doctrines
Upanishads are
following:(1) The individual soul is identical with
soul.
the world
(2) The individual existence of
the soul is for it a state of suffering. Coupled with
and transmigration,
this are the theories of karma
view of life. (3) The individual
and a pessimistic
soul may
be freed from its misery by union with
the
the world soul. This union is realized when
conscious of its identitywith
individual soul becomes
Brahman.
Salvation is not, as in the Rig-Veda,
material joys, but the
a personallife of enhanced
into the unified,
merging of the individuality
theistic
panwhere
Brahman
individuahty is lost.
admits of two interpretations:
The first statement
in
(1) A complete identityof the two, a monism
which the external world fades away
to nothingness,
becomes
bears the
illusion. (2) The
Atman
an
relation to Brahman
that the spark bears to
same
fire. The
a
predominant note is the second:
pantheism which does not deny the world,
vague
the
to it; Brahman,
but
Uttle attention
pays
ground.
soul,and the salvation of the soul are in the foreis no
for beUeving
There
good reason
formulated
that the doctrine of illusion was
definitely
it
in the Upanishads. But if not formulated
hovered
the union
the edge of consciousness
as
on
and more
with Brahman
became
more
a
mystical
For
mok"a (release)chief emphasis is
process.
laid on knowledge,not the accurate
knowledge of
the ritual or of the sacred texts, or a controlled
of
observation
intellectual knowledge based
on
the material world, but a knowledge of the irmer,
esoteric meaning of the sacred,revealed texts; and
ate
this passed over
into an intuitive,
mystical,immediThis trait is characteristic
knowledge of Brahman.
of all later Hindu
thought. Some emphasis
is laid on reUgiousworks, but only as a preparation,
is true of asceticism,
katharsis.
The
same
as
a
worked
into the theory of the
which
was
over
not all of priestly
fourth A^rama.
Asceticism was
of it developed independently and
origin. Much
then amalgamated with priestly
theory. Whenever
and
asceticism
mysticism begin, conservative
creed and
dogma and social barriers begin to
break down.
the theory of transmigration
From
and from the animistic conception of the unity of
all life developed the idea of ahihsa (thesanctityof
all life)which
largelymodified the old ritual by
symbolic substitution of other thingsfor the animals
came

to

be

rifice

an

the
its
the

universe,the word
magical potency)

this period
From
sacrifice became
a cosmic
power.
izing
This rationalthe Aranyakas (ForestBooks)
come
in the
Upanishads,
tendency culminated
and divorced from the
which became
philosophical
Brahmanas
diffuse and unritual. The
were
so
wieldy
of
felt for short summaries
that need was
the ritual. Further, in their interpretationthey
followed the order of the hymns in each Veda, not
the hymns were
used in the
the order in which
ritual. This summary
given in the Sutras,
was
texts of almost
algebraicbrevity. Of the authors
for
of certain Sutras it is said that they cared more
the saving of a singleshort vowel than for the birth
These texts fallinto three classes: (1)The
of a son.
Crauta Sutras deal with the elaborate,aristocratic
sacrifices. (2) The Grihya Sutras deal with
Soma
the simplerhousehold ceremonies.
(3)The Dharma
to the gods and
Sutras deal with the duties of men
another.
tain
to one
They are largelysocial and conof the later law-books^. Each
of
the germs
the four Vedas has its own
Brahmanas, Aranyakas,
Upanishads, and Sutras. Further, as Brahman
northern
culture spread over
India, divergence of
of rituahstic details gave
practicein the matter
The schools
rise to different schools for each Veda.
differed littlein their fundamental
texts,but in the
and later texts the divergenciesbecame
Brahmanas
four classes of priests,
were
very great. There
Veda
The Sutras of any one
with each its Veda.
giveonly the duties of one class of priests.
This
4. Ritualistic Brahmanism.
was
tially
essenpriestlyand aristocratic. It centered around
ritual of extreme
complexity demanding three
a
priests,and a large expenditure. The
fires,
many
the same
that of the
as
pantheon remained much
The chief difference is in the supreme
Rig-Veda.
and the growing importance
positionof Prajapati,
much
and
of Vishnu
Qiva (Rudra). There was
more
cosmological speculation. The
significant
the
thing is the difference in attitude toward
gods. The gods fall into the background. The
of the priests,
ritual and the power
as
controlling
in
the forces engendered by the
are
sacrifice,
the foreground. The
gods are Hke figuresin a
puppet show managed by the priests. The whole
sacrifice becomes
a
magical operation; the force
verse;
set in motion
by it is the greatest in the uniit depends the welfare of the universe;
on
The gods
the gods are obhgatory intermediators.
but they
have powers
greater than those of men,
must
themselves
perform sacrifices in order to gain
would
rise if the
"The
not
their desires.
sun
priest did not sacrifice." "Verily there are two
kinds of gods; for,indeed, the gods are the gods;
studied and teach
and
the Brahmans
who
have
sacred lore are the human
gods. The sacrifice of
these is divided into two kinds : oblations constitute
the sacrifice to the gods; and giftsto the priests
that to the human
who
have
gods, the Brahmans
studied and teach sacred lore."
The reHgiousgoal
slaughteredin the sacrifice.
the dutiful performance of ceremonial
The
works.
Brahmanism.
6. Popular
Grihya and
was
The
ritual itself was
Dharma
were
chiefly
entirelya personal matter.
Sutras, the rites of which
himself (with one
There was
state rehgion; there were
no
no
temples
performed by the householder
idols. The benefit of the sacrifice accrued only
for ceremonies
directions
or
fire),give elaborate
and
of pregnancy
to the man
(and his family)who had it performed. beginning in the third month
5. Philosophical Brahmanism.
Toward
the
reaching up to the time of burial: birth,namefices
end of the Rig-Vedic periodan effort had been made
marriage, burial,sacrigiving,tonsure, initiation,
at the
to find some
the gods, and
sort of unity behind
for the departedancestors, ceremonies
behind
the many
forces of nature.
This philosophicalbuildingof houses,about cattle and ploughing,about
istic
the first fruits,morning, evening, and
midday
tendency developed chieflyout of ritualconsiderations.
and guests, etc.
A mysterious power
emanated
worship, duties to Brahmans
from
matters
with
the cult, espeeverything connected
Marriage and the begettingof a son were
cially
from the hymn or prayer.
male
Since the sacno
of extreme
importance. If there were
.

"

"

"

Brahma

Samaj

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

descendants
for the dead, the
to perform ceremonies
souls of the ancestors
were
jeopardized. Hence the
necessityfor earlymarriage. Further,for a girlto
at puberty was
be unmarried
considered
lent
equivato the destruction of a Ufe.
The details of the
ceremonies
invented
not
were
by the Brahmans
and imposed upon
the people for their own
dizement
aggranthan were
the Qaruta ceremonies.
more
any
All were
based
on
widespread popular
beliefs and customs, but were
elaborated by priestly
ingenuity to a degree of complexity found nowhere
else in the world.
The
priests,of course, did
of
utilize the
tacit
popular acknowledgment
social
their own
priestly sanctity to estabUsh
primacy. Popular Brahmanism, however, marks
already what is so characteristic of Hinduism, the
conservative
of amalgamation
between
process
priestlytheory and popular beUefs and customs.
W. E. Clark
BRAHMA
An
eclectic theistic sysSAMAJ.
tem
founded
in India in 1830.
The founder was
influenced by a comRam
Mohan
parative
Roy, who was
study of religionsto organize a society
which should conserve
the best in Hindu
thought,
and
be loyal to India and adopt the monotheism
ethics of Christianity.
second
The
great leader
Debendra
the society
Nath Tagore under whom
was
based
tended
toward
Indian
theism
a
distinctly
on
Ramanuja's philosophy. The third leader was
Keshub
Chandra
Sen, who attempted to establish
universal theism with stillmore
a more
pronounced
Christian
the
elements.
Since
emphasis on
Keshub's
death
in 1884 the Samaj has lacked
in leadershipand vitaUty. The system is rationalistic
and stresses the ethical and social sides of
religion. It has exercised an influence altogether
out of proportionto its numerical
strength,because
of the personnelof its membership.
Unfortunately
it has been hampered by divisions into sects.
"

ETHICS

AND

58

the peoples of the East, especiallythe


of breathing
Hindus, that the ritualisticsignificance
has received most
conscious attention,a part of
in hohness of the Hindu
the discipline
seeker consisting
in regulated breathing,thought to
be
symbolic of the processes which sustain the life of
the world, which is itself viewed
the periodical
as
inbreathing and outbreathing of the spirit of
among

Brahm.

There

are

philosophy of
atmosphere and

traces

some

in ancient

Greek

similar

conception of a worldat least


a breathing universe; and
like idea is suggested in Ps. 33:6,
a
figuratively
where the breath of the Lord is spoken of as creative,
and Job 4 : 9, where it is spoken of as destructive.
Undoubtedly the idea of the sanctity of
breathingis associated also with the idea of speech,
the instrument
of prayer
and supplicationand of
while some
sacred songs;
notion of supernatural
breath is associated with the propheticinbreathing
of vapors
(asof the Pythia at Delphi) and with the
notion of prophesying to the winds
(Ezek. 36:9),
or of winds
as being the vehicles of gods and
spirits.
See Inspiration; Soul; Spirit;Wind; Word.
a

H. B. Alexander
BRETHREN."

See

BRETHREN,

BOHEMIAN."

Dunkards

(Progressive).
See

Bohemian

Brethren.
BRETHREN
See Brothers

OF
of

BRETHREN
Adamites.

BRETHREN,

the

COMMON
THE
Common
Life.

OF

THE

FREE

LIFE."

SPIRIT."

See

MORAVIAN."

See

Moravian

PLYMOUTH."

See

Plymouth

Brethren.

BRETHREN,
Brethren.

DAVID
BRAINERD,
(1718-1747)." Missipnary of the Scottish Society for the Propagation
of Christian
Knowledge of the Indians of New
York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. He endured
much
hardship,and died after four years of heroic
service from tuberculosis.

RIVER."

BRETHREN,

UNITED."

BRETHREN,

LITURGICAL

USE

OF."

See

Holy

Meals.
STRIKING
THE."
BREAST,
(1) An
act,
symbolic of penitence,performed in certain parts
R.C.
of the
liturgy. (2) A symbol of mourning
certain rehgious groups,
among
e.g., the Hindus.

See

Brethren.

United

ren.
Breth-

Greek
and
Roman
contains the daily
services and prayers for the canonical hours.
Its
of the higher
daily use is binding on all members
communities.
orders of clergyand of certain religious
BREVIARY."

BREAD,

See River

In

the

book which
churches,a liturgical

In criminal law, the act of pledging,


presenting,receivingor extortingan advantage
giftby a person in the dischargeof pubhc duty
BRIBERY.

or

"

BREATH.
The
breath as an
certain type of behavior.
Because
to induce
a
image of life is
natural and universal.
Gen. 2:7, is only one
of a
of its anti-social character it is morally condemned.
multitude of illustrations to be drawn
from the lore
of
BRIDE.
See
Marriage.
inevitably man
many peoples showing how
tion.
typifieslivingby the breathing which is its condiwords
for soul, including classical
See Marriage.
BRIDEGROOM."
Many
and
Hebrew
examples (Hebrew ruah, nephesh,
Latin
The building of a passage
BRIDGE.
a
across
anima, spiritus,Greek
psyche, pneuma),
hark back to "breath"
"wind"
their original river was
or
as
a
dangerous work for early peoples and
life to
was
meaning; while certain rites,such as the wellthought to requirethe sacrifice of human
known
Roman
custom
of the inhaling of the
the river powers
to give securityto the structure.
last breath of a dying person
(Vergil, A river,as a boundary to be crossed by a bridge,
by a kinsman
Aeneid
iv. 684, and
the idea of a bridge-passage
religions
others) point to a literal gave to many
identification of the soul with the departing lifeThis is especially
into the other world.
noteworthy
breath.
In ritual the breath is often symbolized and
in the eschatology of Persia and Islam.
Bridges
sacred.
built
direction
of
This
is
of
under
the
as
the
t
rue
regarded
were
particularly
religiousofficials
American
times
evident
in
and
breath
which
is
the
whom
in
Roman
the
Indians,among
as
early
from
the sacred pipe is
Christian
title of Pontifex
mingles with the smoke
applied to the chief
viewed
as
a
commingling of the life-breath of the
priest.
smoker
with the life-breath of nature, while frequently
SAINT."
breathing upon the sick is thought to be
BRIDGET,
(1) (452-523),one of the
It is, however,
efficacious in restoring health.
patron saints of Ireland,(2) (1302-1373), a cele"

"

"

59

DICTIONARY

brated saint of Sweden, founder

of the

OF

RELIGION

Brigittines

AND

ETHICS

Bruno, Giordano

STOPFORD
AUGUSTUS
BROOKE,
(1832of letters,a
1916). Enghsh minister and man
clergyman of the Anghcan church, 1857-1880,
"

TREATISES."

BRIDGEWATER

series

of

when

he became

Unitarian.

He

was

noted

as

Uterary critic.
ness
eight treatises "On the power, wisdom, and goodin Creation"
pubhshed
of God, as manifested
BROTHERHOOD."
A
from the 8th earl
in 12 vols.,
relationship of close
so named
in 1833-1836
mutual
will a proregard and service arising from either
of Bridgewater (died 1829), by whose
vision
made
for the writing and pubof 8,000 was
lishingnatural kinshipor membership in a common
society
order.
Unselfish social relations are normally developed
in family hfe and these are widely used as analogies
written statement
BRIEF.
(1) Legal, a condensed
by which to describe and organize various social
of the argument and the authorities to which
A brotherhood
is a group
in which all the
clesiastical,
groups.
appeal is made in a case brought to trial. (2) Ecmembers
have
of the Pope, less formal than
equal standing and share equally
a rescript
in the rights and duties of the group.
hoods
BrotherBriefs.
See Bulls
and
a bull.
be organized for various religious
and
may
AUGUSTUS
(1841-1914). moral ends,ranging from mutual benefit associations
BRIGGS, CHARLES
to organizationsfor serving social need.
Monastilogical
American
theologian,professorin Union Theocism (q.v.)is one
of the most
wide spreadforms of
Seminary, New York, occupying the chairs
In Christian history there
religiousbrotherhood.
of Hebrew, 1874-1891, Bibhcal
theology, 1891have
been
which
and symboUcs,
have
repudiated
encyclopaedia
many
groups
1904, and theological
sacerdotahsm
and have estabUshed
munities
com1904-1914.
religious
Briggs was a Presbyterian,and was
with
the
General Assembly for heresy
cited before
equal authority for all members.
Such
communities
have
because of views concerning the Bible growing out
frequentlypreferred the
Brothers
Brethren (q.v.) to the name
name
or
of his advocacy of Higher Criticism.
Charged
Church.
modern
In
life there
in 1893 suspended
numerous
are
with heresy in 1892, he was
fraternities with more
less elaborate initiation
or
from the Presbyterianministry. In 1899 he entered
ceremonies where men
of the Protestant Episcopal church.
the priesthood
pledgethemselves to promote
certain mutual
interests. The
mediaeval guilds
works.
the author of many
He was
theological
often regarded as brotherhoods, and some
were
modern
trades unions take the title,
as, e.g., the
^A culture
BRIGIT.
goddess of the Irish
Brotherhood
of Locomotive
Engineers.
the patron
in various places appears
as
Celts who
is
A
wide
variety of ritualistic ceremonies
medicine, metal-work
deity of learning,fertility,
hood.
found in connection with initiation into a brotherfire. Under
Christianityshe
and of the domestic
another's
blood,
Drinking or sucking one
Saint Brigit.
became
blood ritual,parconsecration
common
by some
taking
of a common
ceremonial meal, and a mystic
R.C.
monastic
A
BRIGITTINES."
order, introduction to the secrets and duties of the brotherhood
about 1350 by St. Bridget of Sweden, and
founded
exercises are common
means.
by disciplinary
which spread over
Europe. There are nine existing
Sisterhoods represent similar relationships
among
Holland
Bavaria
in
(1),
(1),
England
communities,
women,
e.g., the Sisters of Charity.
of
all
women.
and
composed
Spain (5),
(2),
Gerald
Smith
Birney
A
BROTHERS
THE
COMMON
LIFE."
OF
The
MORALISTS."
BRITISH
name
given
founded
men
by Gerard
community of devout
of philosophersin England during the
to a number
Groot
his disciple Florentius
(1340-1384) and
18th. century, who
sought to find an independent
It was
an
Radewyn.
attempt to revive piety.
in their
foundation for morahty.
The members
of the community continued
lived in a period when
British morahsts
The
Thomas
a
vocations,and practised communism.
of ethics was
foundation
the theological
being
of the community. By the
Kempis was a member
Rationalism.
See
discredited.
They
middle of the 17th. century it had ceased to exist.
Deism;
sought to estabUsh morahty in unquestionable
of
all
is
that
it
independent
fashion by proving
ROBERT
(1550-1633)." A leader
BROWNE,
of self-evident
external authority, growing out
active first as a school
Enghsh Separatists,
among
grounded
considerations. Morahty was sometimes
teacher,and later as a clergyman of the established
in
in the ultimate nature of things,and sometimes
church.
He protestedagainstepiscopalauthority,
Hutcheson
of
intuition
men.
immediate
the
and formulated
that theory of church government
elaborated
the doctrine of a distinct moral sense.
subsequently developed into
(Brownism) which
Others laid stress on an innate feeUng of sympathy,
Independency (q.v.)and CongregationaUsm (q.v.).
Others,
or
originalimpulse to benevolence.
an
BROWNIE."
In Scottish mythology, a spirit
again, emphasize the evident utilityor happinesschief names
of benevolent
producing effect of morahty. The
temperament
imaginedto enter the
are
Shaftsbury,Hutcheson, Cudworth, Mandeville, farm houses and do the work while the inhabitants
cussionsare asleep.
Their disSmith, and Bentham.
Butler, Adam
of great value in stimulatinga scientific
were
Smith
Birney
Gerald
See Congregationalism.
BROWNISM."
study of ethics.
of the

or

same.

"

"

"

ItaHan
GIORDANO."
philosopher,
A party within the AngliCHURCH.
BRUNO,
can
order
He entered the Dominican
that,influenced by the historical spirit ca. 1548-1600.
of his views was
account
persecuted
at 15, but on
the Established Church
on
of Germany, defends
and fled from Rome
in 1576, going to Geneva, Paris,
suited
it flexible,
Erastian grounds, seeks to make
senters.London, Wittenberg, Prague, and in 1591 returning
disbroad to embrace
to the age, and sufficiently
imprisoned
of thought
to Venice where the agents of the Inquisition
It insists on absolute freedom
burned
After a long confinement, he was
him.
and speech, and opposes
compulsory subscription
It has had the distinguished
leadership at the stake in 1600. He rejectedAristotelianism,
to creeds.
of Copernicus.
of Arnold, Whateley, Maurice, Stanley, Kingsley, and accepted the heliocentric hypothesis
He said the unity in the varyingphenomena
Farrar,Henson, and others.
BROAD
church

"

Bryanites
of

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

the

universe is God, who


is not creator
nor
but soul of the world.
This philosophy
threatened
Catholic
to undermine
doctrine, and
therefore incurred the church's displeasure.

prime

mover

AND

ETHICS

60

and effect. Within


of cause
the cognizable world
and effect is supreme,
the law of cause
everything is
Buddha's
subjectto change,nothing is permanent.
him
analysisof the individual showed
only five

skandhas, "aggregates" (matter, feelings,senseBRYANITES.


Methodism.

See

"

Christians;

Bible

and
consciousness)
perceptions,pre-cQspositions,
allof which are subject
to change, are impermanent;

in them
is nothing changeless and eternal.
From
this came
the doctrine of anatta "no-soul."
Does
this denote an
absolute and categoricaldenial of
soul (any being in itself)or does Buddha
any
merely argue against the current animistic ideas of
soul?
The denial seems
to denote only the denial
of a permanent soul anywhere in the five aggregates;
in them is to be found only that which is conditioned,
produced, and therefore perishable. If there is
be outside of them,
BUDDHA."
See Gautama.
anything permanent it must
not subjectto change and to the operation of cause
istic
and effect. Buddha
BUDDHAGHOSA."
writer of the
A Buddhist
repudiatesboth the materialattitude involvingan eternityfor an individual
fifth century a.d.
work
is the
whose
best known
Visuddhi
soul, and the nihilistic attitude which sees only
Magga ("Path of Purity") in which he
of the
complete annihilation;both conceptionsare heresy.
gives a concise statement of the significance
"There is,O monks, a non-born, a non-becoming, a
Buddhism
of his period.
If there were
not, there
non-created,a non-caused.
would be no refugefor that which is born, becomes,
BUDDHISM."
The rehgion of a sect founded
is created,is caused."
This permanent something
"The
by Siddhattha Gotama
(latercalled Buddha
deal
cannot be reached by speculation,which can
EnUghtened.")
only with the five aggregatesof the world of cause
Beginning as the reUgion of a small group of
and effect;it is to be attained only by the saint in
all of
monks
in Magadha
it graduallyspread over
his state of mystic insight.
India; thence to Ceylon, Burma, Siam, Cambodia,
3. The indeterminates.
Constantlyrecurringin
Tibet, China, Mongolia, Corea, and Japan. In
the sermons
references to the indeterminates
India it failed to maintain
and merged into
are
itself,
Hinduism.
(whether the world is eternal or not, whether the
about
world is infinite or not, whether the soul is the same
1. The Founder.
born
^Buddha was
man
the body or different from it,whether
560 B.C. at Kapilavastu, northeast of Benares, in
a
as
Such
exists in any
the
foothills of the
or
not, after death)
Himalayas. According to
way,
as
tradition he was the son of the chief of the Qakya
resolutelyrefused to answer
questions Buddha
not tending to edification,
not having to do with
as
clan; was reared in luxury,but at the age of twenty"Just as
the fundamentals
of the religioushfe.
nine abandoned
home-life
(leaving his wife and
the great ocean
has one
taste only,the taste of salt,
India at the time
child)and became a Wanderer.
fullof earnest, deeply religioussouls seeking just so this doctrine and this (uscipUne have one
was
To Buddha
taste only,the taste of dehverance."
and
wandered
salvation; each
preached and
the impermathe most obvious thing about Mfe was
of many.
but one
Buddha
gathered disciples.
was
of objects,their constant flux and flow.
Of the other contemporary sects only Jainism has
By
nence
endured.
For
six years
he sought help from
cUnging to them, as a result of the forces set in
motion
Brahman
in
teachers and others with whom
he came
by good and bad acts, results rebirth in a
never
enaing circle. There must be, he felt,some
contact, practiced the severest
asceticism, but
hism
found no comfort.
Then
under the Bo-tree, "the
permanent. Early Buddescape, something more
austere
not an
tree of enUghtenment," the truth flashed into his
was
philosophy but a religion
emotional
filled with
mind.
For forty-five
about the
mysticism, the personal
years he wandered
in
the same
expressionof which is psychologically
country on his ministry,preaching salvation.
what the creed and theology.
all reUgions,no matter
II. Essential Doctrines
hism.
BuddPrimitive
op
^
The
4. Nirvana.
1. The Four Noble Truths.
The essentials
permanent something, the
of Buddha's
summum
bonum, the rehgious ideal is called
teachings are best representedby the
It is a mysticalexperiencewhich canNirvana.
not
first sermon
at Benares.
First comes
a statement
word
The
be defined or described.
of the Middle Path which avoids the two extremes
means
of habitual devotion to the pleasures of sensual
hterallythe going out of the fireof anger, of wrath,
of greed, of desire. It is a state of passionlessness
both of which are
things and to self-mortification,
in the present hfe.
be attained even
which
"low and vulgar,ignoble,unprofitable,
and fit only
may
of
became
of the saint after death was
one
for the worldly minded ' '
tion
What
Then follows the enunciaBuddha
refused
which
about
of the Four Noble Truths: (1) All individual
the indeterminates
course
to speculate. Buddha, like Socrates,suited his disexistence is misery. (2) The cause
of this misery
he talked,was
an
to those with whom
adept
is tanha
to objects'of
"thirst,"the attachment
his doctrine as a medicine,
at dialectic. He looked upon
(3) The possibiUtyof release,of becoming
sense.
the
who could cure
unattached
and passionless. (4) The Noble Eightfold
upon himself as a physician
If a man
herent
adPath consistingof Right Views, Right Aspiradisease of individual existence.
an
was
tions,
of one
point of view about the world and the
Right Speech, Right Conduct, Right Mode of
out
himself with pointing
contented
soul Buddha
Livelihood,Right Effort,Right Mindfulness, and
with showing the plausibihtyof the
the objections,
Right Contemplation.
cussion.
2. God, the soul,and the world.
In this sermon
oppositepointof view, the futihtyof any such disto his own
he came
hism
Then
there is no mention of God or of Soul.
point of view,
Early Buddwhich through
which discarded allsuch speculations,
did not know
a personal God, a Creator and
certain ethical principles
Buddha
did not deny the gods; but the
lessness
passionRuler.
brought to a man
he
of mind
whatever
and
contentment
gods are merely higher and more
powerful than
Be reborn as a
might believe about God, the world, and the soul.
a
by good deeds,may
men;
man,
and must
The teaching is a pragmaticethics,intenselypracthe gods pass away
tical
god, but at last even
and metaphysical
and human, not theological
be reborn. Buddha
emphasized the inevitability
BUCER
(orBUTZER), MARTIN
(1491-1551)."
German
reformer and theologian,a contemporary
and
In 1548 he decUned
supporter of Luther.
to sign the ti-uce between
tants
the Catholics and Protesto flee to
at Augsburg, whereupon he had
England. He was
given a chair in divinity at
Cambridge, where he died ten years later.

"

"

"

"

"

"

61

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

its general appeal and


Hence
like Brahmanism.
Brahmanism
ism
outside of India.
and Hindusuccess
with the Indian
too
were
closelybound
up
much
social structure
outside of
to have
success
India.
found
5. Ethics and mental discipline.Buddha
certain ethical principleswhich to his mind, and,
as
history has shown, to millions of other minds,
would work, would lead to the cessation of hatred
and desire,craving and discontent. For the practice
of these principlesmental
control was
sary.
necesBuddha, however, distrusted deeply the
mobilityof the mind, and doubted the possibility
of entirely
detachingoneself so long as one remained
in contact with worldly
things. He insisted on life
monk
essential to salvation.
The
as
a
an
as
thoughts are wayward and hard to control. On
the least slackening of attention they jump from
one
object to another as monkeys leapfrom branch
to branch.
monkhood.
Buddhist
monkhood
6. The
was
discarded.
not based on asceticism,which Buddha
It gave
and
congenialseclusion for meditation
in India
mystic contemplation. There were
many
who abandoned
homelife,became Wanderers, and
of ascetics,
formed groups
but the Buddhists
order
was
closelyorganized,with elaborate rules and a
and therefore maintained
bi-monthly confessional,
itselfand grew at the expense
of the looser ascetic
"

"

groups.
III. Mahayana
Philosophical
tions.
Speculaand
Later Buddhist
thought, in characteristic
Indian
rational basis of
a
fashion, demanded
belief. Within
three centuries after Buddha's
two
or
in the order which gave rise
death came
a split
yana,
to the two
great schools of Hinayana and Mahathe Little and the Great Vehicles.
On the one
hand a body of conservatives clung to the thought
that Buddha
who had lived and struggled
was
a man
and preached and entered permanently into Nirvana;
that he lived on only in his teachings. The
Radicals extended his lifeinto the past and future,
worked
out a theory of pre-existences
and mythological
existences,and found at last in the continuity
going through these lives a unity identical
with the law or order of the whole cosmos.
The
Transcendentalists
carrying this thought farther,
analyzing every
concept by a dialectic process,
showing the contradiction involved in any finite
concept (any concept involving a limitation which
has an
developing ideas of absolute
antithesis),
Being as distinguishedfrom relative Being, could
in the
find no placefor this universal Buddhahood
and placed it in the reahn of absolute
visible cosmos
literally
emptiness,
Being,in ^unyata. This means
but does not, as has often been
stated, mean
vacuity and complete annihilation. Qunyata is
neither Being nor
from
Non-being, as understood
the point of view of common-sense
realism, but
transcends
both.
From
the point of view of this
synthesisthe phenomenal world has no meaning.
in Ceylon,
In Hinayana
now
Buddhism, found
Burma, and Siam, which keeps close to the old
naive realism of primitiveBuddhism, the ideal was
"saint" who
attained Nirvana himself
the Arhat
and entered into it permanently to come
no
more
into the world.
To the Mahayana
this is a selfish
ideal. The
their ideal. He
Bodhisattva became
attains sainthood, but instead of entering into
Nirvana
continues
to transmigrate in order
to
imitate the lifeof the Buddha, to become
a Buddha
in some
future life,
all men.
The conto help save
cept
of karma
was
enlarged. Good karma, instead
of helpingonly the one
it was
by whom
acquired,
could be transferred to others and help them.
The
was
as
a
opened for the conception of Buddha
way
God manifestinghimself to men
to
by incarnations,
"

saints in

AND

ETHICS

Bulls and

Briefs

mythologicalheavenly existences,for

conceptionof Nirvana

as

the

heaven, for the invention

of hells.
IV. Tantric
Buddhism.
By the 7th. century
had
approximated to Tantric
A.p. Buddhism
Hinduism.
Magic played a largepart. Animistic
soul concepts crept in. Asceticism and the acquisition
of miraculous
(coupled with mystical,
powers
magicalformulae and diagrams) were important for
the attainment
of Nirvana.
Female
deities,as
counterpartsof the male deity,and sexual elements
became
prominent.
V. Decline
Buddhism
of
in India.
Buddhism
has been extinct in India since about
1200 a.d.
For the cause
to look not so much
to external
we
are
Buddhism
persecution as to internal conditions.
needed
who
would
earnest, zealous monks
preach
morahty to the laymen, and by personal example
the
The monks
keep
precepts before their minds.
became
lax in their moralityor plunged into metaphysical
scholastic
speculation and
wrangling,
thereby losingtheir hold on the people.
VI. The Texts.
hism
In the 3rd. century b.c. Buddwas
adopted as the state religionby AQoka,
the Constantine of Buddhism, and a canon
formed
at a council held under
taken to
his auspices was
Ceylon in a language not far removed from the
original Magadhi. This
canon
(with perhaps
later additions) has been
preserved intact. In
India the language of the texts changed as the
spoken language changed, and when Sanskrit was
freelyused as the common
literarylanguage, the
texts were
In the 1st. century
put into Sanskrit.
A.D. , at a council held by the greatScythian emperor
As
formed
in Sanskrit.
was
Kanishka, a canon
Buddhism
and
vanished
from
India this canon
the later texts based on it were
have
lost. Some
been preserved in Nepal; most are stillpreservedin
Tibetan and Chinese translations.
It is doubtful whether the Pali canon
as a whole
before
represents the unified tradition of Buddhism
the splitinto sects.
Already in it scholastic and
See India,
mythological tendencies are evident.
Religions
ligions
of, for statistics. See also China, Religions
of; Japan, Religions
of; Thibet, Reof:
of.
Korea, Religions
W. E. Clark
"

"

"

BUGENHAGEN,

JOHANN

(1485-1558)."

German
Luther

Protestant
reformer, a close friend of
and
Melanchthon.
the
Wittenberg was
of his activity. He
is remembered
for his
scene
skill as an organizer,
and for his assistance to Luther
in translating
the Bible.

BULLINGER, HEINRICH
(1504-1575)." Swiss
Reformer, a friend of Zwingli and Calvin, and
after the death of Zwingli his successor
at Zurich.
He was
of the framers of the First and Second
one
Helvetic Confessions (q.v.)
which reflecthis views on
the Lord's Supper and predestination.
BULL-ROARER."
A flat pieceof wood
which,
when
rapidly on a string,makes a roaring
swung
sound
like thunder.
in many
It is found in use
parts of the world in the initiation ceremonies of
primitivepeoples. Its nature is kept secret from
the uninitiated to whom
it represents the dread
of its
of the unknown
spiritforces. Evidence
and
from
use
comes
Africa, Australia,America

Melanesia.
BULLS
AND
BRIEFS."
In the broadest sense
the
bull is any pontifical
act authorized under
seal of the pope,
pertaining to the authority or
of the Roman
Church, whether dealing
economy
tion,
with points of fact,or questionsof law, administraetc. The term is derived
doctrine,discipline,
a

Bulls

Briefs

and

DICTIONARY

OF

AND

RELIGION

ETHICS

62

and an
Invocation,usually ending with the word
"Amen."
A Valedictoryconcluding the bull was
of early and
permanent
usage, generally in the
when, as under the early popes,
singular even
the plural
used in the first part of the
was
pronoun
bull. The form of valedictoryat first varied,but
since the pontificate
of Hadrian
valete"
I the word "Benehas been fixed. Originally
the word
was
written put, but was
gradually abridged until it
evolved
into the papal Monogram
in the time of
Leo IX.
The
do not sign the bulls. The
popes
Pagina, Scriptura,Decretum, Privilegium,Precepum,
is the signature. Dating. Under
sives
kinds of misAuctoritas.
The three most particular
papal monogram
under the early popes
Empire the popes used the consular
were
Synodical Letters, the later Roman
the
with
Exeats or letters of credential,and Decreta, i.e.,
fasti to designate the year,
calendar to
of the papacy
Kalends, Nones and Ides of the Roman
authoritative pronouncements
upon
denote
the month
and day. When
the consular
and
matters
of administration
discipline.These
elections ceased in the middle of the 6th. century
last constitute one
of the most
important sources
the popes dated accordingto the year of the reigning
of canon
law.
See Law, Canon.
I (772-95) every
From
the time of Hadrian
emperor at Constantinopleuntil the breach between
the Iconoclastic
what
its character, the Greek and Latin churches over
papal document, no matter
ing
called a bull. The Benedictine mediaevalists of
Controversy(q.v.),after which they dated accordwas
to the name
and year
of the Frank
kings.
the 17th. century divided all papal bulls into two
the first pope to date according to his
fication Hadrian I was
categories "great" and "little" bulls. The classiof the popes
own
not a scientific one, for it rested not
pontificate. Some
clung, until
was
well down
in the Middle Ages, to the chronological
of the document, but wholly
the substance
upon
its form.
The
former class comprisedthose
practiceinaugurated by Constantine of dating by
upon
documents
emanating from the papal chancellery the year of the indiction (q.v.). Gregory VII was
III
which
By the time of Clement
complied with every detail of chancellery partialto this usage.
became
composition touching title,salutation,invocation, (1187)dating by the years of the pontificate
signature,dating, etc., and the style fixed. In the 15th. century Nicholas V introduced
valedictory,
the year of the incarnation as an additional date.
or
distinguishedby an
composition of which was
Hadrian
I (772-95) initiated the system of doubleor
rhythmic cadence (cursus) which was
assonance
to indicate the date
of composition
read aloud,as all bulls of impordating, one
tance
very effective when
of a
(scriptum)of the bull, the other to indicate the
were
promulgated, through the mouth
date of publication. During the period of conflict
ance
inheritan
papal legate (q.v.). This practicewas
with the German
the popes
often
schools of rhetoric.
were
from the ancient Roman
emperors
and frequently counter-popes
"little" bulls lacked many
of these diploThe
matic refugeesfrom Rome
As a precautionary measwere
ure,
opposed to them.
insignia,often being emitted without all of
in order to prevent the bulls of counter-popes
them
except the papal title and papal signature,
confused
those
with
of
the
lawful
Bulls
are
pope,
technically entitled being
i.e.,monogram.
Calixtus
II
(1119-24) suppressed the date of
according to their opening words (as secular laws
gether
also in the Middle
were
Ages), as Ausculta Fili, scriptum and substituted designationof place towith date of publication.
Unam
Sanctam, etc.
of "great"bulls what
In the case
is known
as
The history of papal bulls forms an important
to concentric circles
chapter in mediaeval palaeography and diplomatic. the Rota is also added, i.e.,
drawn
Certain of the popes, notably Gregory I (590-604), with a cross
through their center, the inner
circle enclosingthe papal monogram,
and a motto
I (772-95),Nicholas
Hadrian
I (858-67), Leo IX
in the zone
from Scripture
between
the inner and
(1049-54), Eugenius III (1145-53), Eugenius IV
the outer circle. Beyond the papal seal and papal
(1431-47),made permanent changes or introduced
pensable
other witness is absolutely indisno
that the dates of their pontificates monogram,
so
new
practices,
of a buU.
But in the
to the authentication
have served to periodizethe history of the papal
of "great" bulls the seals of the papalchancellor
case
chancellery. The most important of these features
and cardinals,
at least those in Rome, were
The early popes sometimes
as follows: Name.
are
usually
attached.
The last "great" bull bearing the pleninamed
themselves before,sometimes
after the name
tude
lery,
of the diplomaticinsigniaof the papal chancelof the person addressed.
No fixed practiceobtained
that pertainingto the Council of Trent in
tillthe time of Nicholas I, with whom
the usage of
was
1564.
estabUshed.
first was
putting the pope's name
the time of Eugenius IV the tendency has
From
used
title except
earUest popes
Title. The
no
of the term
been
"bull" to
to restrict the use
phrase
episcopus,with or without the qualifying
doctrine
The
ecclesiae Romanae.
catholicae ecclesiae or
important papal pronouncements upon
and to appointments of cardinals and
and discipline,
word papa
(pope) is only occasional before Gregory
are
the Great, who also introduced
the title servus
vorum
serbishops. All other official acts of the pope
to
known
as
practically answer
Briefs, which
Dei, and the invariable titular formula of the
"httle"
bulls.
Benedictine
the
Use
designation of
of the 9th. century.
pope since the middle
As these are said to proceed ex motu
of the Salutation is rare
before the 7th. century.
propriosuch a
is not infrequentlycalled a Motus
document
Propri.
The
early popes sometimes
spoke of themselves
ments
in the singular,sometimes
in the plural; but the
Finallyit is hardly necessary to add that all doculatter usage was rare except in addressingpatriarchal
emanating from the papal chancellery are
Westfall
Thompson
James
written in Latin.
bishops, metropohtans and great lay princes like

from the metal seal or bulla (inthe papalchancellery


in
almost always of lead),affixed to the document
certification thereof.
Besides this insigniaa bull
also invariablyhas the titular formula of the pope,
servorum
semis
Dei, and the papal Benevalete
written in the form of a monogram.
ogy
terminolBefore the 6th. century no systematic
ments
used to classify
the various kinds of docuwas
which were
issued by the papal chancellery.
find many
We
terms, such as Lillerae,Epistola,

"

the Germanic
kings. The tendency of succeeding
for use
of the first person
centuries was
singular,
and from the time of Eugenius III no other usage is
found.
On the other hand, in addressingthe pope,
Holiness'
"Your
the use
of the pluralpronoun,
the nature
is the proper
form.
Depending upon
of the bull there may
be a
Perpetual Clause
(ad perpetvum rei m^moriam, or similar words),

gious
(1628-1688)."English reliJOHN
BUNYAN,
author, born near Bedford, and reared in an
served
in the
He
atmosphere of Puritanism.
in the civil war, 1645, his
Parliamentary army
figuresfor
miUtary experience yieldinghim many
His rehgious experience began
his hterary work.

with

periodof

storm

and

stress

which

overtaxed

A DICTIONARY

63

OP

RELIGION

When
he joined
came
his nervous
energy.
peace
the Baptist church, and
soon
began to preach.
thrown into Bedford
Five years later (1660) he was
he remained
12 years.
jail where
During his
imprisonment he wrote Grace
Abounding (pub.
1666). In 1671 he was
released,but was
again
incarcerated for a brief period in 1675.
During
the periods of imprisonment he wrote
his immortal
Pilgrim'sProgresswhich was pubUshed in 1678 and
reached its tenth edition in 1685.
In 1682 he published
the Holy War, and in 1684 the second part
of Pilgrim'sProgress. He is acknowledged as the
of Christian literature.
greatest allegorist
The act of the interment
of a dead
which is usuallyan occasion for a religious
rite. See Death
Funeral
Practices.
and

BURIAL.

body, an

"

act

AND

Lepers, the
China

Inland
Peace

ETHICS

Caird, Edward

Leipzig Missionary Association,the


Mission
(in
Association.

Bhamo),

and the Missionary


A. S. Woodbuene

BURNT
OFFERING."
A form of sacrificein
which the whole of the victim is consumed
the
on
altar. See Sacrifice.
B U S H I D O .""Military-knight-ways."The
code of moral
action of the feudal retainers or
of Japan from the 13th. to the close of the
samurai
19th. centuries.
The
soul of the
knight was
loyalty but he was
expected also to have the
qualitiesof courage,
fortitude,honor, rectitude,
benevolence.
Hia
training was
courtesy and
intended
to produce fightingvalor, physicaland
moral courage.
His ideal was
honor rather than
wealth
the sword.
or
learning. His symbol was
The
spiritof old Japan, of loyalty to land and
is embodied
in Bushido.
The
word
emperor,
itselfis of comparatively modern
coinage.

RELIGIONS
MISSIONS
OF
AND
Burma
ing
is a province of British India,includthe
old independent kingdom
of
Burma
and
former
British Burma.
The
total area
is
BUSHMEN
OR
about
An aborigiBASJESMANS."
nal
240,000 sq. miles which includes the Chin
African folk,formerly
of nomadic
hills and Shan states.
The population in 1911 was
habits, the
dwell in the less fertile parts of
of whom
remnant
12,115,217as against 10,490,624in 1901.
Toward
S. Africa.
the north they have
The Burmese
mingled
are of the Mongoloid type, and are
with
the Bantus.
Their
Since the coming of the British
religionis an inferior
gay and vivacious.
indications of totemism.
there has been quite an influx of Chinese,Telugus,
type of animism with some
and Tamils.
About
65 per cent of the population
HORACE
other vernacuBUSHNELL,
(1802-76)." American
speak Burmese, but there are many
lars
in use.
The
theologian,
pastor in Hartford,Conn. ,and influential
degree of literacyindicates the
writer on theological
subjects.
progress of education, the proportion being 22 per
His work was
to
cent as compared with 6 per cent in India proper.
prophetic of the change soon
Protestant
In religion,
about
85 per cent of the people are
theology,whereby
appear in American
the Calvinistic framework
and the rigidmethod
of
Buddhists,6 per cent animists,3 per cent Hindus,
proof-textargument were
abandoned, and religious
31 per cent Muslims, 2 per cent Christians,besides
convictions were
derived from a study of Christian
small numbers
of Sikhs, Jains,Zoroastrians,Jews
tian
and Confucians.
The Buddhism
of Burma
is Hlnaexperience. His most important works are Chrisideals of modern
Buddhism
Nurture, in which many
(seeBuddhism) and has done much
yana
education
to enlightenthe people as it has fostered education
religious
are
anticipated;God in Christ,
in which an experiential
and a comparatively high ethical standard.
trine
interpretationof the docof the Trinity is substituted for metaphysical
A largeproportion of the Christian population
of Burma
in which
is comprised of Baptists and
Roman
disputation;and The Vicarious Sacrifice,
the doctrine of penal substitution is rejected in
Catholics.
Catholics have had missionaries
The
Roman
favor of the conception of redemptivesufferingon
and their
in Burma
for several centuries,
work
French
and ItaUan
sions. God's part.
misis divided between
Protestant
missions were
begun in Burma
in 1807 by the English Baptists, but the first
(1692-1752)."Anghcan
BUTLER,
JOSEPH
of the American
mission
that
was
bishop and philosopher. Beginning as a Presbypermanent
terian,
he joined the Church
of England when
a
Baptistswho began work in Rangoon in 1813 under
the leadershipof Adoniram
Judson
youth, entered the ministryand eventuallybecame
(q.v.). Their
wrote
successful work has been among
the hiU tribes, bishop of Durham.
He
most
important works
Christian ethics,but is best known
because of
The mission
on
especiallythe Karens and the Lahu.
is progressing his great apologeticwork, The Analogy of Religion,
has a fine equipment and its work
Natural and Revealed,to the Course and Constituiion
ail classes. The Societyfor the Propagation
amcng
of the Gospel opened work
This was
of Deism
in 1859 and has conducted
(q.v.)
a refutation
of Nature.
and
the ground that the objectionsagainst revealed
the Burmese
on
a
strong work among
missions at work
be urged with equal cogency
the Karens.
Other
Protestant
against
religionmay
Methodist
are : the American
Episcopal (since1879), the whole constitution of nature and that design
the English Wesleyan Methodists
(since 1889), in the universe is argued by analogies between
the Y.M.C.A., the Y.W.C.A., the Mission
natural processes and admittedly rational acts.
to the

BURMA,

TO.

"

CABALA."

See Kabbala.

religiousmatters,

e.g.,

the

government

of

Con-

stantine.
CAEDMON."

The

earUest

Christian

poet

of

losopher
England, hved in the latter half of the 7th. century,
(1835-1908)."Scotch phiCAIRD, EDWARD
and wrote
bibUcal and
and theologian;brother of John Caird; in
theologicalnarratives in
in the vernacular.
A hymn, which
1866 became
vigorous verse
professorof moral philosophyin the
Bede translated into Latin, is extant in the Northwas
umbrian
universityof Glasgow, and from 1893-1906
In philosophy
Christian
and is the oldest known
of Balliol College,Oxford.
master
dialect,
of the
hymn in a Germanic
and theology he was
a neo-HegeUan, and one
language.
The Eooluinfluential thinkers of his day.
most
CAESAROPAPISM."
That form of government
tion of Theology in the Greek Philosophersembodies
in which the political
ruler has supreme
his conception of religious
development.
authorityin
.

Caird, John

OF

DICTIONARY

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

64

crucified. (2) Any


(1820-1898)."Scotch theologian the place where Jesus was
1862 appointed professorof
sculptural
portrayalof the crucifixion.
divinityand in 1873 vice-chancellor and principal
pretation
interof Glasgow University. His theology is an
CALVIN, JOHN
(1509-1564)."Born at Noyon,
of HegeUanism.
of Christianityin terms
Picardy,trained for law, converted to Protestantism
about 1534 through unknown
published
influences,

CAIRD, JOHN

and

philosopher;in

CALIPH."

See Khalif.

an

annotated

edition

of Seneca's

De

Clementia

to

mitigate the

the 15th.
A
Hussite
sect
m
demanded
that laymen should be
permitted to partake of the wine m the eucharist.
See Utraquists; Bohemian
Brethren.
CALIXTINES."

century, which

OR

CALIXTUS,
three popes.
Calixtus
was

CALLISTUS

"

The

name

of

I. 217-222, condemned
SabeUius;
opposed in office by Hippolytus ; the catacombs
"

of St. Calixtus were


under his cemetery.
excavated
Calixtus II.
1119-1124, obtained a settlement
cordat
of the investiture controversy (q.v.)at the Conof Worms, 1122.
Calixtus ///." 1455-1458.
"

GEORGE
CALIXTUS,
theologian. In

Lutheran

(1586-1656)." German
troversy,
syncretisticcon-

the
effect

of
reconcihation
he strove
to
a
Western
Christendom
by eliminatingminor points
and Protestants,
of difference between
Cathohcs

reformers.
persecution of French
Associated with Farel,he estabUshed
in Geneva
a
theocratic church
order notable for its consistory
and
of
rigorous system
discipline.Becoming
unpopular in Geneva he temporarily (1538-1541)
established
himself
in Strasburg where
refugees
from
became
lands
acquainted with his
many
church service and system of theology. Returning
to Geneva
though countering vigorous opposition
he was
able to dominate
the city,making it famed
for its moral tone, educational
and economic
facilities,
hundreds
of preachers
prosperity. Here
trained for the Reformation
were
propaganda in
western
His most
Europe and notably in France.
important literaryproductions were
Catechism,
a
the
a
Commentary on Romans, and the Institutes,
last of which
embody the principlesknown
as
Calvinism, through which its author has rendered
his greatest service toward
See Calvinism.

militant Protestantism.
G. Mode
Peter

CALVINISM.
A name
given, more
narrowly,
A sense
of inner impulsion,
interpreted to the system of doctrine,or, more
broadly,to the
of action, entire attitude towards
Ufe, characteristic of those
as a divine direction to imdertake
a course
Christians known, in contrast
with the
Protestant
a lifework.
specifically,
1. Vocational.
Lutheran, as the Reformed, and one of whose most
tation
By an interestingmisinterpreillustrious teachers in the 16th. century was
John
of I Cor. 7:20 the idea arose
that each man
Calvin.
was
designatedby God to the Ufe work in which he
John
1. Calvin's achievement.
tion,
Calvin, of the
was
engaged, hence the English word call or vocasecond
as
generation of Reformers, standing on the
applied to one's occupation. The conception
is doubtless one
of great religious
significance, shoulders of Luther (whom he delightedto honor),
shared
with
Luther
and
all the Reformers
the
and is taking its placeas part of the modern rehgious
trine
fundamental
endeavor
artificial distinction
obliterate the
to
standpoint of the Augustinian docof the underlying
of grace.
Out
between
the sacred and the secular. That farmers
reUgious
consciousness
of which this doctrine is the expresand
and
are
sion,
carpenters, statesmen
merchants,^
he had
the genius to release a principleof
needed in the kingdom of God as well as ministers
and teachers,is a commonplace of modern
religious Ufe which reinstituted healthy granulation in the
diseased body of European: society and thus, as
thinking. The endeavors that are being made to
Mark
Pattison
The
Europe."
puts it, "saved
develop wise vocational guidance and instruction
vehicle by which this new
have deep religious
if the church
was
life-principle
spread
significance
may
Reformed
Churches.
the
takes its part in the making of a sound human
through Europe was
to be spoken of,accordingly,as "CalThey came
society.
vinistic" Churches
it was
of their own
not a name
2. Religious. There
two meanings of the
are
word
that have
become
somewhat
confused. It
choosing and the complex of their points of view,
take
has always been felt that a person who is to underphilosophical,
ethical,social,economic,
theological,
"Calvinism."
as
reUgious service should be divinelyappointed political,
The
creative
2. Calvinism
in its broad sense.
(Acts 13 : 7). But as the organizationof the church
of Calvinism
has left a permanent mark not
developed those alone could serve as ministers who
energy
had been "called" in regular order and by proper
only on the thought of mankind, but on the social
order of civilized peoples,the politicalorganization
authority. A minister is stillsaid to be called of
lifeof communities.
God
and also called by the church.
The practical of states, and the economic
of the conception is that each person
Taking its start in a readjustment of the religious
significance
its way first to a reformation of
relation it worked
should
with
of himself
seriouslytake account
reference to his opportunitiesfor service in the
tirety
morals,and thence to the reconstruction of the enof life. It has been, for instance,the source
world and should most
carefullyconsider those
liberties of the modern
and guardian of the poUtical
occupations which do not promise large financial
the
reward but do offer peculiaropportunitiesfor benefiting
world; and Max Weber has shown that even
the growth of modern
mankind.
capitalismwhich makes
By conference with friends and
industrialism
possiblehas its root in Calvinism.
by prayer, he should seek to put himself in an
that Protestantism
set
attitude to make
It was
his decision aright and to accept
only in Calvinism
the divine leading,
which
will come
a
complete world-system
to him
over
as
an
against Romanism
inner sense
of obhgation. What
istic
is thus characterhaving in it an organificpower capable of giving
to the entiretyof life. Accordingly
of the decision of Ufe work may
form and energy
also be true
that "of all the developremarks
in the decision to undertake all types of religious P. Hume
Brown
ments
of
Calvinism
and the Church
of Christianity,
service.
Theodore
G. Scares
alone bear the stamp of an absolute reUgion."
Rome
the
From
CALLISTUS."
3. Doctrinal
See Calixtus.
system of Calvinism.
point of view of its doctrinal system, Calvinisni may
either as theism come
to its rights,
CALVARY."
be looked upon
(1) The Anglicized form of the
be
and should
Latin calvaria,
equivalent to the Hebrew
golgotha; in which case it is a world-view
"

CALL.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

65

OF

DICTIONARY

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Campanile

spoken of as "the five points


comparison with other comprehensive not wholly accurately,
of Calvinism."
the reUgious relation in its
They are really the Calvinistic
or
as
obverse
the five points of Remonstrantism.
to
it stands in
case
purest expression, in which
be treated as the formative
Though they cannot
the other
with
contrast
great religionsof the
world; or as the logicalexpositionof evangelical principlesof Calvinism, however, they provide in
of its subtheir entirety a not unfair summary
stantial
it challengescomparison
case
rehgion, in which
B. B. Warpield
methods
of conceiving Christianity.
teaching.
other
with
pretation
interto its rights in a teleological
Theism
comes
METHODISTS."
A denominaCALVINISTIC
tion
to
of the universe,in which all that comes
of Welsh
aUorigin largely confined to Wales,
pass is explainedas the outworking of God's
combines
the evangelicism of Methodism
which
comprehensive plan, and is referred ultimatelyto
The
with Calvinistic doctrine.
the cause
of all things. The
beginnings of the
the will of God
as
traceable
to
Rev.
Griffith Jones
movement
of absolute
are
religiousrelation in its purity is one
tion
(1684-1761) The firstCalvinist Methodist associadependence on God, and is best expressedin a lifein
dates from 1743,but not until 1795 was
which an attitude of dependence on God, responsibility
tion
separaof England considered.
In
from the church
is sustained in all
and trust in Him
to Him
of ministers
1811 the body ordained the first group
emotional
and execuits activities,
tive.
intellectual,
and in 1823 issued their confession,founded
soul of evangeUcalism lies in utter
on
The
church
the Westminster Confession. The
ment
governdependenceon the grace or free mercy of God as the
and Congregationali
of Presbyterianism
into
is a combination
of all the efficiency
which
enters
only source
in
A vigorousmission is conducted
salvation.
All the revivals occurringin Wales since
From
N. India.
4. Fundamental
of Calvinism.
principle
dists.
each point of view alike the fundamental
principle 1735, have originatedwith the Calvinistic MethoIn many
is seen
to reside in its profound sense
of Calvinism
respects it is the strongestchurch
of churches of the
in Wales.
There are a number
He
of God and its reference of everything to Him.
mined
denomination in England, but the administrative
without reserve, and is deterwho believes in God
work
is done in the Welsh
to him, in all his
that God
shall be God
assembly. There are
vidual, about 190,000 communicants.
thinking, feeling,doing,throughout all his indirelations,is a Calvinist.
religious
social,
CAMALDOLESE."
The
name
This is often,but not very felicitously,
(from Campus
expressedby
saying that Calvinism is the pure embodiment
pf Maldoli, near Arezzo, Italy,the site of their first
of men,
R.C.
order
the
Lutheranism
of predestination,
the principle
rehgious
is, hermitage) of a
as
it is added in contrast, of the principleof justificaoutgrowth of a monastic reform by St. Romuald
tion
have
by faith. Both the doctrines of predestination earlyin the 11th. century. The Camaldolese
ideal
written rule,but endeavor
to practicean
of faith,however, were
no
and of justification
mon
comthe entirety of originalProtestantism; asceticism of silence,
to
prayer, and labor,combining
the claim at least of preserving solitude and community life. Their religious
garb
and Calvinists make
and an ample
is a white robe,scapular,cowl,girdle,
statement.
both
alike in their only consistent
cloak.
There is also a similar order of Camaldolese
Calvinism
What
reallyrepresents is logicaltheoFlorence.
near
centric thinking; a world- view, a religion,
nims
a soteriology, in which the vision of God in His glory
PLATONISTS."
A
of
CAMBRIDGE
endeavor
is to render to God
rules all,and the one
group
and philosophical
His rightsin every sphere of thought and action.
thinkers,of the latter
theological
of
The
formed half of the 17th. century, largely members
Re5. Chief depositoriesof Calvinism.
who
set forth theological
theologyis alreadygiven expressionin its Cambridge University,
and
Neodominated
fundamental principlesin the teaching of ZwingU.
by Platonism
systems
Platonism.
its first comprehensively systematic
It received
They opposed both the sacerdotalism
of Laud, and the rationalistic doctrines of Hobbes;
whose
formulation,however, at the hands of Calvin,
ize
known
day
as
Institutes of the Christian Religionremains until towere
Latitudinarians;sought to harmonrevelation and reason;
were
mystical,tolerant
of its chief classics. It has been embodied
one
and liberal. The best known
of the group are Ralph
since then,however, in a long series of important
the whole predoctrinal treatises,
have
which
Cudworth, Richard Cumberland, and Henry More.
on
served
remarkable conformity to type. Among
a
those by the
be named
the latest of these may
(1579-1623)." Scottish
JOHN
CAMERON,
American, Charles Hodge, and by the Netherlander, theologian,leader of a school of Calvinists,who
Herman
It has also found
expression, modified the doctrine of predestination,asserting
Bavinck.
the human
will is entirely
that God's influence on
naturally,in formal Confessions,which have been
moral.
of the extension
because
particularlynumerous
Churches
of the Reformed
through many
nations,
A section of the Scottish
CAMERONIANS."
the Church
in each
independent
requiring an
Covenanters
influential of
(1648declaration of its faith. The most
(q.v.)led by Richard Cameron
Helvetic
these are
the Second
Confession, the
1680),which after 1690 became a separate church.
fession They refused to take the oath of allegianceor to
Conand the Westminster
Heidelberg Catechism
exercise civil functions.
From
1743 they took the
has the advantage of
the last of which
versy
controReformed
name
Presbyterians; and in 1876 the
having been prepared after the Arminian
and of summing up thus the results of the
majority united with the Free Church of Scotland.
entire Reformed
development.
The
CAMISARDS."
Points"
"Five
6. The
designation of French
of Calvinism." The
against
rebelled in 1702-1705
who
Protestants
Canons of the Synod of Dort contain the replyof the
civil
Churches
made
Louis XIV., assertingreligiousliberty and
Reformed
to the "Remonstrance,
five points against the Calvinistic system by
on
rightslost through the revocation of the Edict of
Excited
the Dutch
of the early 17th. century.
Nantes.
Arminians
by persecution,and led by
frequently
enthusiastic preachersthe Camisards
istic
They reassert over againstthis protest the Calvindoctrines of absolute predestination,
particular developedfantastic ecstatic phenomena.
irresistible grace, and
redemption, total depravity,
considered in
world- views;

"

"

"

the

perseverance

of doctrine

are

of the

saints.

accordinglyvery

These

five heads
but

commonly,

CAMPANILE.
church or town

"

A bell tower in connection with


hall in Italy,usually detached

Campbell,

DICTIONARY

Alexander

OF

RELIGION

famous are those


from the church.
Among the more
in
of St. Mark's, Venice, Giotto's at the Duomo
Florence,and the leaningtower of Pisa.
ALEXANDER
CAMPBELL.
(1788-1866)."
Founder
of the aenomination, Disciplesof Christ
Campbell, and he were
(q.v.). His father,Thomas
Baptists,
Presbyterians,in 1812 became
originally
denomination.
the new
and in 1830 formed
They
taught baptism unto repentance by immersion, the
second advent of Christ,the abandonment
imminent
of creeds,a return
to the primitiveChristianityof
the New
Testament, and church union on these

premises.
McLEOD
(1800-1872)."
JOHN
CAMPBELL,
of heretical
convicted
Theologian; was
and expelled
teachings concerning the Atonement
from
the Presbyterian ministry by the General
Scottish

preached in
His
church.
his work, The Nature
to theology was
of the Atonement, in which the current doctrine
that the death of Christ rendered penal satisfaction
denied.
to God
was
Campbell held that Christ
offered vicarious repentance on behalf of humanity
and so satisfied God's justice.
Assembly,

1830.

in
contribution

Glasgow

an

For

16

years

he

undenominational

See

Campbell,

Alexander.
CAMPBELLITES.
Popular designationof the
Disciplesof Christ (q.v.)because of the foionder,
Alexander
Campbell.
"

66

includingthe impulse

of hunger, the disposal of


dead
sacrificeto the deity, the
kinsfolk,human
desire for revenge, a ceremony
of initiation,
and
various
magical practisesof the sympathetic
and
is usually
protective types. Cannibahsm
regulatedby ceremonials, and probably endocannibahsm
(the victim being a tribesman) is of

rehgiousorigin.
CANON.
cally
(1) The list of writings,ecclesiastiauthorized
as
constitutingthe Bible, (q.v.).
(2) A findingof an ecclesiastical council regarding
doctrine.
See Law, Canon.
or
discipline
(3) The
order.
rules of a religious
(4) A list of canonized
saints.
(5)An ecclesiastical dignitarywho receives
income for the conduct of services in cathedral or
an
churches.
In the Roman
church, canons
collegiate
five in a community as Canons
Regular. In the
Church
of England the rule of ceUbacy has been
removed, but the duties are the same.
(6) The
between
the Sanctus
and
portion of the Mass
the Lord's Prayer. (7) A class of hymns used in
the Eastern church.
"

CANON

uring
(BIBLICAL)." Canon, meaning "measthe term
which
first
was
rod," "rule," was
appliedby Christians in the second half of the 4th.
that collection of books which
has
the Christian church
as
Holy
each
Scripture. The
through which
processes
book passedbefore it was
recognizedas part of the
divine libraryare
too complex to be discussed in
But we
shall specify the epochs
this connection.
of those books seem
in which certain groups
first to
been collected and regarded as sacred and
have
authoritative.
The
gradual growth of the Old
Testament
culminating at the Council of Jamnia
at the close of the 1st. century a.d., and of the New
Testament
culminating for the West at the end of
lowing
the 4th. century a.d., and for the East in the folcentury, is one of the characteristic features
of their formation.
The
Old
Testament.
I. The
growth of the
Canon
be observed
in the
Old Testament
may
recognitionchronologicallyof the three groups of
it has been arranged. (1) The
books into which
the so-called five books of
first collection embraces

century

THOMAS."

CAMPBELL,

ETHICS

AND

been

a.d.

to

recognizedby

The
CANAANITES."
inhabitants of Canaan,
of the ancient names
of the land known
today
in the Tel el
first appears
as
Syria. The name
Tablets and is there used interchangeably
Amarna
with Amurru
lonian
Baby(Amorite-land),the common
designationof the Westland from before
Phoenicians
called themselves
The
2500
B.C.
Canaanites,and so did the Carthaginiansas late
the 5th. century a.d.
as
The inhabitants of Canaan
not a homogeneous
were
people. In most of the twenty-two passages
of the
of tlie Old Testament
where the predecessors
Moses, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers,
Israehtes are enumerated, the Amorites and Hittites
termed
the
"Pentateuch."
This
Deuteronomy,
Canaanites.
hold prominent placesalongsideof the
first publicly
also called "the law"
was
group
Tablets
Similar testimony comes
from the Amarna
recognizedas sacred and authoritative by Ezra and
and the Egyptian inscriptions
which also show the
forth
Nehemiah, about 444 b.c. (in Neh. 8:9). Hencein this region of Indo-European elements.
presence
Jewish writers referred to "the law" as the
and
The
(Amarna
of all the three sections
hieroglyphic,cuneiform
firstand most highlyinspired
Babylonian)and Old Testament records are our
of the Old Testament.
(2) The second collection
chief Uterarysources
for the study of Canaanite
is "the Prophets," broken into two subdivisions:
civilization. In addition we have the results of the
(a) that covering historical material, Joshua,
tion
Exploraexcavations
in Palestine (seePalestine
Judges, (I and II) Samuel and (I and II) Kings,
'
enable
the
to trace
us
story
Fund), which
'the former prophets"; and
called by Jewish writers,
neolithic
from the days when
the Canaanites
were
(6) that embracing pippheticutterances, Isaiah,
in
dwellers.
master
For centuries Egypt was
cave
'the Twelve
(Hosea, Joel,
Jeremiah, Ezekie?%"h(i
Canaan
and greatlyinfluenced its material develop"Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk,
ment, but in the growth of business and legalprocedure Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi) eight
well as in mythological thinking, the
as
was
reckoning. This group
books, by Jewish
influence of Babylonia was
much
about
stronger. The
authoritative
200
recognized as
B.C.,
reUgion of the Canaanites was Baalism (seeBaal).
and accorded an equal placeby side of "the law" as a
D. D. Luckenbill
second part of the Old Testament.
(3) The third

one

"

"

CANDELMAS.
Church
feast commemorating
the presentationof Christ in the temple, celebrated
Feb. 2nd.
The Roman
brating
church regards it as celethe purification
The
of the Virgin Mary.
is derived from the custom, introduced in the
name
11th. century, of blessingthe candles for the whole
year on that day.
"

CANNIBALISM."

by human

beings, a

The

flesh
eating of human
practiseof multiple origin,

called "the Writings" and


books
was
books not found
all the Old Testament
These in their order
in the firstand second groups.
Bible are, Psalms, Proverbs, Job,
in the Hebrew
Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes,
and
(I and II)
Esther, Daniel, Ezra-Nehemiah
for the most
These were
Chronicles
eleven books.
^art probably recognizedas authoritative in 132 B.C.
by Jesus the son of Sirach in the prefaceto the book
in disbooks that were
Those
of Ecclesiasticus.
group

of

embraced

"

67

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

pute in the times of Christ

(Esther,Song of Songs,
and Ecclesiastes)
were
finallyrecognizedas genuine
and authoritative
by the assembly of Palestinian
Jews held at Jamnia, near
Joppa, about 90 a.d.
puted
disThat Council by its public recognitionof the
books simply confirmed
and fixed what had
been already for a long time the opinion of leading
Jewish writers.
By that decision the full collection
books
was
(Canon) of Old Testament
informally
closed
embracing within its compass
exactlythose
Hebrew
books now
found in our
Bibles and also in
and Revised
the (English) Authorized
Versions of
the Old Testament.
collection of Old Testament
This same
books was
regarded by Jesus and the apostlesas sacred and
mon
authoritative,doubtless on the basis of the combelief of that day. Even
Jewish
the books
which, in some
quarters, had been held in dispute,
their way
to full recognition. The
gradually won
of the
church
founders
and
fathers
Christian
accepted in full the decision of the learned rabbis
of their day at the Council of Jamnia, and henceforth
of the Hebrews
the Old
Testament
was
revered and quoted as Holy Scripture. See Old
Testament.
did
and when
II. The
New
Testament.
How
the books
Testament
now
constitutingthe New
become
authoritative,and take their place by the
side of those already embraced
in the Old Testament?
"

"

Jesus,in his utterances, spoke with an authority


which
ranked
with that claimed
for the Old
soon
Testament.
The
ment
Testaapostles and other New
writers were
influential and effective in
so
their works and words and lives that they secured
the immediate
attention,gradual obedience, and
communities
of
of the Christian
even
reverence
their day. Their letters and other writings were
Christian
read in the churches
and
assemblies,
and were
received with a degree of sacredness and
divine
attributed to them
a
authority that soon
character.
During the 2nd. and 3rd. centuries the
be largely
growth of the Christian church may
attributed to the use which the pastors and evangelists
made
of these same
writingsin their preaching
and
preachers and
teachings. Early Christian
teachers used a larger number
of writings in their
contained in the New
church work than those now
Testament.
Early Christian writers,too, recognized
varying grades of authority in the apostolic
works
in their day, thus verifying the
current
ity
that the whole process of gaining authorstatement
ment,
was
gradual. As in the case of the Old Testament
Testathe so-called authority of the New
books was
a
growth through several stages
there was
and
centuries.
And
a
difference,too,
in the East and in the
between
the results seen
West.
first period in the East and the West
1. The
extended from the close of the apostolicage to about
The thirteen epistlesof Paul (Romans,
220.
A.D.
I and II Corinthians,Galatians,Ephesians, Philippians,Colossians,I and II Thessalonians,I,II,and
III Timothy, Titus and
Philemon) and the four
Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) were
received as sacred
read in the churches
and were
find also Acts,
and divine.
In the same
we
group
I Peter and I John
all with their authority generally
period
recognized by a.d. 220. In this same
also we
find the followingwritings as a kind of
candidates for admission
to authority: The Apocalypse
of Peter, Teaching of the Twelve
Apostles,
Shepherd of Hermes, Epistlesof Clement of Rome
and of Barnabas, Acts of Paul and a second Epistle
of the
of Clement.
read in some
These
were
churches,but failed to obtain generalrecognitionas
equal to the books found in the first group.
"

AND

ETHICS

Canon

(Biblical)

2. In the second
period (a.d.220-323) in the
there seems
been little progress in
West
to have
recognitionof the books stillin dispute. The early
church
fathers in general refer to those already
recognized as accepted and authoritative,and
probably under the influence of Origen, the greatest
scholar in the East, add to their list the Epistleto
the Hebrews, on the basis of its dependence on and
with
apostolic teachings in general
agreement
although not of apostolic authorship. The real
in both sections of the country,
tests now
at work
the East and the West, were
ments
(1) use of the docuin the churches and (2)apostolicauthorship,
(3) appeals to the teachings of those books as
against the heresies of the day. That is,church
usage and authorshiphelped fix the authorityof the
them.
books current among
be desig3. The third period in the West
nated
may
the last three quarters of the 4th. cenas
tury.
Several causes
conspired to fix the limits
to be regarded as
of the books
sacred:
(a) the
difference between them and other books was
sized
emphaby the persecutionsin which the destruction
of those very sacred books was
the chief aim.
That
fact stimulated
their production, so that Constantine ordered
through Eusebius fiftygreat Bibles
now
produced. (6) The
Scriptures were
being
prepared as a whole and so limits thereto became a
practicalquestion, (c) The preparation of creeds
for the church demanded
the fixingof the limits of
the New
There are many
Testament.
lists of the
books
of the New
Testament
which
have
come
down
to us from the 4th. century, but the first one
with those of our
to agree
present (Western) New
Testament
that of Athanasius,a.d. 397.
In the
was
Council
of Carthage recogsame
nized,
year the Third
approved and confirmed as its list (canon),
the same
books
New
Testament
that we
of the
Western
church have today.
On the other hand, the churches
in the East
under
the leadership of Origen and
other great
churchmen
slower in recognizingthe authority
were
of some
of the New
Testament
writings. Origen
to have
seems
recognized James, Jude, I Peter,
I John, and Revelation,but barred II Peter and II
and III John, while II and
III John, Jude
and
Revelation
refused recognitionin Antioch and
were
the Syriac-speaking world
the close of the
to
4th. century. Origen refers to the Gospel of the
Hebrews
the Gospels of Peter and
apologetically,
James, the Acts of Paul, and givesquotations from
Hermas
and
Barnabas
as
"Scripture," though
he admits
that Hermas
not
was
accepted by all.
It is, however, striking that Origen wrote
no
of the books not now
on
commentary
part of
any
New
Testament.
Eusebius
the
historian
our
took a long step ahead in the settlement
of the
troublesome
question. He made three lists of the
books involved in the dispute: (1) those recognized
and regarded as authoritative by all the Christian
churches and leaders.
These were
the four Gospels,
tion
Acts, Epistlesof Paul, I Peter,I John, and Revelawhich
he would
(doubtfully).(2) Books
bar them:
recognize though some
James, Jude,
II Peter, II and
III John.
(3) Books that he
regarded as spurious: Acts of Paul, Shepherd of
Hermas, Apocalypse of Peter, Teaching of the
Twelve
think,
Apostles, and perhaps, as some

Revelation.
In the Western
church during the 5th. century
Augustine (430 a.d.) laid down certain rules
by which the authoritative recognition the canonicity of the several books should be determined:
(1) the books accepted and acknowledged by all
the churches
should
be regarded as
canonical;
be
not
universally accepted should
(2) books
received
by the
subjected to two tests: (a) those
4.

"

"

Canon

(Buddhist)

OF

DICTIONARY

majority of the churches are to be acknowledged,


(6)those received by the ApostoUc churches are
to be preferredto those recognizedby onlya small
number
of churches
of less authority, in other
words, those not founded by the apostles. Augustine's
applicationof these tests gave him precisely
the books of our (Western) New Testament.
Jerome
New
(a.d.420) also accepted the same
Testament,
includingHebrews and Revelation,on the authority
earher
of.
writers,and not because of the opinions
of his day. Augustine's opinion and
Jerome's
Latin
Bible
'the Vulgate seemed
to
complete
the crystallization
of the Western
of the
canon
and

"

"

General
without
the edict of any
this before the middle
of the 5th.
Testament.
century. See New
III. Canons
Churches.
There
Various
op
is no
In
universally accepted biblical canon.
distinction from the Protestant canon
of today the
older churches adopted as their Scripturea collection
of biblical books either with omissions therefrom
Of those bodies mention
or additions thereto.
be made of only a few.
can
The
1. The
Syrian Church.
Syriac version
of Scripture is found
in two
distinct classes of
manuscripts, representing different rescensions.
But they agree on the books found in their canon.
Both classes omit II and III John, II Peter, Jude
and
Revelation, but contain all other books of
the Western
tions.
without any apocryphal addicanon
This version was
also the source
of the
first Armenian
which was
later revised
translation,
from the N.T.
Greek.
The Egyptian versions
2. The Coptic Church.
of the New
Testament
are
two, the Sahidic (Thebaic)
of upper Egypt, and the Bohairic (Memphitic)
of lower Egypt.
The
former exists only in fragments
today while the latter has been published
entire. This is the canon
of the Coptic church.
It
is identical in content with the canon
of the Western
This same
lack is
church, but omits Revelation.
found in the fragments of the Sahidic translation.
3. The Eastern or Greek Church."
We have seen
the Eastern
church
of
establishingas its canon
Scripturethe Septuagint,togetherwith its quota of
Wisdom
of Solomon, Judith,
apocryphal books:
Tobit, History of Bel and the Dragon, History of
of Sirach.
Susanna, I and II Maccabees, Wisdom
4. The Roman
Catholic Church.
'The power
of
tradition as well as the content
led the authorities
of the Roman
church to determine
by Council the
limits of their sacred volume.
had
The
church
sanctified by long usage Jerome's primary translation
of the Vulgate, except the Psalter which was
Jerome's
second
revision of the Old Latin.
No
formal
official decree of the Roman
church
had
fixed the limits of the Bible.
Disputes through
centuries on the authorityof the apocryphal books
were
suddenly settled by a decree of the Council of
that
Trent, April 8, 1546. This edict determined
in the canon
of the Western
church there should be
included Tobit, Judith, Additions
to Esther, Book
of Wisdom,
to
Eccleeiasticus,
Baruch, Additions
Daniel, I and II Maccabees, III and IV Esdras,
books
which
had been
revered
by long usage in
the church, and
whose
claim to recognitionhad
been
generallyrejected by the churches in the
early Christiancenturies.
all the canons
of other minor churches
Practically
based on one
other of those already named.
are
or
And
within most
even
of them
there was
liberty
allowed
in the
discussion of the comparative
of
the
books
authority
already regarded as sacred.
See Bible.
Ira M. Price
New

AND

RELIGION

ETHICS

6ft

the written

down
to us
Scriptures have come
Sanskrit.
and
Of these two, only the
of Ceylon, Burma
and Siam is complete.
Pali canon
It is called the Tripitaka or "three baskets" and
consists of the Vinaya-Pitaka or Basket
of Discipline,
the Sutta-Pitaka
Sermon
Basket
made
or
up of five divisions or nikayas (Digha, Majjhima,
the
Samyutta, Aaguttara, and
Khudda), and
Abhidhamma-Pitaka
Basket of Higher Religion.
or
This canon, brought togetherprobably by the time
in the 3rd. century B.C., was
of Asoka
the literature
of the Hfnayana sect.
The Mahayana
form of the
has an extensive literature but no authoritative
religion
in

Testament

Pali

canon.

Council, and

CANON

LAW."

See

Law, Canon.

"

"

ANGLICAN."
The rules and regulations
drawn
ecclesiastical convocation
in
up by an
1603 and ratified by James I. in 1604, as the official
expressionof English church law.

CANONS,

CANONS,

CANON
The language spoken
(BUDDHIST)."
by the founder of Buddhism
was
Magadhi but

See

Apostolic

CANONS,

COLLECTIONS
ANCIENT."
OF
of conciUar decisions and papal decrees
pertainingto church government.
Collections

CANONS,
standards
church.

of

Rules or
ECCLESIASTICAL."
conduct
or
doctrine, fixed by the

CANONESS."

"

"

APOSTOLIC"

Canons.

member

of

R.C.

secular

congregation under the rule of an abbess, and


of obedience and chastity.
governed by vows
HOURS."
Times
rule of the church, Roman

appointed by
or Anglican,
as
devotion, and, in
specificpurposes,
prayer,
England, the celebration of marriage. The usual
devotional hours are called matins
turnes
(includingnocand lauds),prime,tierce,
sext,nones, vespers,
and compline.
CANONICAL

the
for

canon

or

CANONIZATION."
The
Greek
and Roman
churches
is enrolled as a saint.
person
op; Beatification.

formal process
in the
by which a beatified
See Saints, Veneration

sacred song.
CANTICLE.
(1) A non-metrical
Usually adapted from the Scripturesand chanted,
"

in church
services.
also as the
known

(2) PI.

The

canonical

Song of Solomon

or

book

Song of

Songs.
CANTICLE
More
formal

pF

THE

BLESSED

VIRGIN."

designationof the Magnificat (q.v.).

The designationof collections


CANTIONALE."
of ecclesiastical music for the complete liturgyin
and Bohemian
the Lutheran
Brethren
services.
The
infliction by
CAPITAL
PUNISHMENT."
legallyconstituted authorityof the death penalty
for a specific
crime.
In the code of Hammurabi
a

"

collection of laws
'the death
offences.
penalty was
imposed for many
Progress
has been steadilymade in the direction of mitigating
the barbarity of the methods
of execution and of
of crimes for which
reducing the number
capital
punishment is inflicted. In the leading nations
today the punishment is confined to murder and
treason.
See Penology.
the

earliest extant

CAPITALISM,
the

present method

"

ETHICS
OF."
of carrying on

Capitalism is
industry and

09

DICTIONARY

OF

AND

RELIGION

ETHICS

Capitalism,Ethics of

to political
is subsidiary
It is
western
or intricately
Europe and in America.
power
involved in family prestige
and social status.
The
with older methods
of carryingon large
such as slavery or forced levies. It is
capitalistclass receives the successful business
enterprises,
contrasted also with sociaUsm, which
in the form
man
irrespectiveof family. It is also distinct
known
state
socialism would
in its ideals from the farmer class which, although
basic
as
carry on
industries through state resoui^es
and credft. It
owning property, gets little advantage from the
collective process
of modern
is contrasted
also with an
industry and finance,
agriculturalsystem of
farms
which
does
small
not
large works hard at manual labor,gets littlegain through
require any
accumulation
the labor of hired wage
of resources.
It signifies
the accumulation
workers, and does not
of property
realize the meaning of the power
by private hands of a store of tools and
be used to provide material
which
in combination.
It is contrasted
most
resources
can
sharply
with the wage-earning class,which
and equipment for manufacture
little
and
possesses
pay wages of
the
United
Great
and
salesmen
until products
laborers,managers
States,
Britain,
property. (In
and Germany the tendency to the accumuIn its actual operation, P'rance,
are
placed on the market.
lation
it operates
of wealth in the hands of a few is so uniform
largely through corporations. It
as to imply that this tendency is part of the system,
employs the great developmentof credit,by which,
of
though greatly aggravated in Great Britain by
through the agency of banks, the resources
of people and the earning power
great numbers
primogeniture. The richest two per cent in all
of future generationsare
these countries own
all made
than half
available for a
considerablymore
the wealth, the upper
middle
class,comprising
present enterprise. It implies the wage
system
of capitalare the employers,
in which the owners
about oneeight per cent of the population,owns
assuming risks and taking profits,whereas
two
third,leaving from one-thirtieth to one-eighteenth
of workers, commonly known
for the remaining four-fifths of the population.)
salaried
as
groups
and
The
attitude of the capitalist
is not militancy
workers, receive a relativelystable
wage
but no
for its own
profits. It therefore tends to form
sake,but as the builder of enterpriseand
wage
classes having a certain degreeof
the owner
of it .he resents any interference with his
sharply marked
interest in that
both
common
rightsof control and ownership, and hence opposes
normally desire
continuous
and
such recognitionof any group
lesssen his power.
as
industry (subject to
prosperous
limitation of output by either group
this
He is willingto give what he considers fair or even
when
liberal wages,
but is likelyto insist that he must
the more
of enhancing
be
seems
profitablemethod
the sole judge of what
is fair.
interests as to the shares
prices)but with conflicting
of total income which shall go to employers' profits
3. The capitalist
is a competitive group.
group
It observes
and workers' wages respectively.
strictlycertain "rules of the game,"
The ethics of capitalismmust
be understood
condemn
to
forgery, frauds of certain
e.g., which
In merchandizing
signify not the ethics of all engaged in modern
kinds,failure to keep contracts.
it has made
in recent years toward
ards
standindustry and business (the ethics of one group of
progress
these is treated under Labor
of quality and uniformity of prices. But in
Ethics
Movement,
caveat emptor
op) but the ethics which the system tends to foster, large fields of operation,the maxim
in the owning and
prevails. The logicalstandard of value is "what
managing class.
particularly
Individual
members
of the class may
in various
can
get" or "what the traffic will bear" rather
you
than any
assumed
intrinsic value or any
relation
respects be governed by their membership in other
to cost
of production. In this point it has enmined
reUgious, political,local or be detercountered
groups
by temperament or conviction to actions not
oppositionin other groups, particularly
when
ideal.
in accord with the capitalistic
prices for various kinds of quasi-public
services
have been in
1. The primary objectof capitalismis the carrye.g., railroad and gas rates
ing
of business and industryfor profit. It is not
on
question. Monopoly is in such cases
a
disturbing
factor.
the craftsman's interest in skill,
the inventor's
nor
interest in discovery,although these may
be utilized
4. In dealing with labor,capitalismhas in the
It is not the avaricious seekingof wealth
as means.
past also preferred the competitive method, as
contrasted with any method
of collective bargaining.
apart from the process of business; it is "making
It has stood for the "open shop," which means
Success from
in
not merely gettingmoney.
money"
vidual
the capitalistic
point of view is secured by building practicethat the employer bargains with the indiemployee and not with the union to which
up a great business,but the outstanding measure
ness
of success
is not so much
of the busithe efficiency
an
employee may
theoretically belong. The
its service to the public as it is the profits employer believes that in this way there is gjreater
or
incentive to individual efficiency.It goes without
secured as shown
in the annual balance sheet.
scarcity
Further,its conception,although not excluding saying that except in times of extraordinarj^
the spending of money
of labor,the open,
non-union
or the bestowal
i.e.,
shop, is highly
luxuries,
upon
of it upon
education
and philanthropy, does not
advantageous to the employer.
The central idea is that
6. In relation to the pubUc at large,capitalism
directlyfavor such uses.
has adopted the underlying
business enterprisefor profit is not
to
means
a
philosophy of Adam
he will
seel^his own
Smith:
if each man
tious
ostentareligion,
interest,
anything else leisure,
art,science,
the public good.
if not the all-sufficient,
promote, though unintentionally,
display but is itself,
at least the most
important, end and value of life. Capitalism believes the present system to be the
best yet devised for carryingon the world's industry
of acquiring wealth,
It is not merely the means
and
It believes that
it is both
prosperity is
commerce.
a
fascinatingoccupation and, under
ject
of
dependent upon givingcapitalisma free hand, subpresent-day conditions, the greatest source
which
of pubUc control over
to a certain amount
in comparison with
politicsis of
power
banking, etc.,which operates to stabilize
secondary interest and place. The logicaluse to
railroads,
make
is to
of the great bulk of wealth accumulated
pricesand values.
it as
6. The
use
capital for expanding business and
prevailingagency of capitalismis the
be
can
is impersonal. It
industry.
corporation. This
but as it is organized
the capital2. The class which best exemplifies
held to legalresponsibility,
istic
ideal becomes
for a singlepurpose,
not onlyan active accumulative
namely "for profit,"it does
class. As such it is, not admit other motives to enter into its conduct of
class,but a property-ownmg
interfere with profits. Both
would
affairs which
however, distinguishedfrom such a propertiedclass
in its relation to the pubhc and in its relation to
as the British landed
aristocracywith whom
prop-

business in

erty

contrasted

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Capitularies

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

the
corporation frequently pursues
workmen,
policiesvarying widely from the views entertained
directors
stockholders. This
or
by individual
impersonal attitude is of great importance in the
of
ethics of capitalism. It also explains much
the public attitude toward
corporations,since the
public refuses to treat a corporation in the same
has
treat an individual who
On the other hand, however,
the very
fact that the corporation is impersonal
its operationsin the
favors a stricter control over
Jamios H. Tufts
interest of public welfare.
way

it would

in which

feelingsand morals.

CAPITULARIES."
ing
originatLegal enactments
with the Merovingian and CarolingianKings,
called from their divisions into chapters {capiso
capitulariesincluded ecclesiastical
tulae). The
legislation
emanating from the councils of bishops
tians.
and by royal approval made binding on all Chris-

THEOLOGY."
CAPPADOCIAN
Cappadocia
in which
inland province in Asia Minor
an
Caesarea,the episcopalsee of Basil,was one of the
Nazianzus
and
Nyssa were
important towns.
placesof no importance except as the centers of the
temporaries
bishopricsof the two Gregorys. These three conknown
are
as "the three Cappadocians,"
their contribution to theologybeing the formulation
of the Trinitarian doctrine in terms of three hypostases
ousia
(substance). The
(persons) in one
thus individualizations
were
"persons" of the trinity
divine substance common
to the three,the
of one
aim being to avoid tritheism and Sabellianism.
was

CAPRICE.

AND

ETHICS

70

he had to flee Germany and spent the last twelve


years of his lifein Switzerland.
THOMAS
CARLYLE,
(1795-1881)." Carlyle,
like Coleridge,
mediated to England and America
the German
of thought which produced
current
Transcendentalism
and
the
interest in divine
Immanence.
At first a prey to skepticism, oppressed
by the mechanistic view of the Universe,
he reacted powerfully{Sartor Resartus, 1838) to
Goethe's
infused
with
conception of nature
as
deityand of each human will as an utterance of this
divine nature.
Despite his intense moral earnestness
Carlyletends to speak of the divine will as
Force, and his Heroes and Hero Worship, as well
well as his historical
as
the strong
works, glorifying
wills that have
shaped history,verge perilously
the doctrine that might is right. Though dison
trusting
poHtical democracy he was
a champion
of oppressed workingmen with a bitter hostility
to
the laissez faire economists.
He
dealt with the
social problem in Chartism (1829) and
Past and
Present (1843).
F. A. Christie

CARMATIANS."

See IsMA'iLis.

CARMELITES."
R.C.
A
mendicant
order,
founded
by Berthold, a crusader,on Mt. Carmel
in the 12th. century,and called in England "White
Friars" from
the white mantle
their
worn
over
brown
cloak.
St. Theresa (q.v.)introduced drastic
reforms into the order in the 16th. century, resulting
in a division into the discalced or barefooted
and
calced or older branch, the former section being the
active and numerous.
more

An
abrupt change of attitude,
plan without adequate moral grounds.
"

CARO,
JOSEPH
(1488-1575)." Great Jewish
and codifier,
born in Spain,
rabbi,mystic,talmudist,
CAPUCHINS."
A R.C. order of friars ing
his
originat- flourished in Palestine. His fame rests chiefly
on
in 1520 as an offshoot of the Franciscan
order, Shulhan-'Aruk
(set table), the latest and most
authoritative code of rabbinic law.
from their pointed hood (capuche). Their
so named
discipUneis rigorous,and purports to be a literal
purpose

or

of that of St. Francis.

CAROLINE
in

BOOKS."
books
Four
which
peared
apunder
magne,
the name
of CharleA member
of the highest official
CARDINAL.
forbiddingthe worship of images and pictures,
but approving their use
The cardinals form with
works of art for
as
body in the R.C. church.
and memorials.
ornaments
the College of Cardinals,the governing
the pope
body of the church, and elect a pope when there is
CARTESIANISM."
fixed by
The
The number
of cardinals was
philosophical system
a vacancy.
orders:
Sixtus V. 1586 at 70, divided into tjiree
originatingwith Descai'tes (q.v.),attempting with
mathematical
14
demonstrate
mental
fundaexactness
to
6 cardinal bishops, 50 cardinal priests,and
truths on the basis of indubitable facts of
Nomination
to the office is a
cardinal deacons.
the conscious
self
experience. These facts were
papal function,as is also the installation service.
nence
be
cannot
(cogito,
By decree of Urban VIII., 1630, the title of Emiergo sum) and the ideas which
attached to the office.
eliminated
The
existence of
by critical doubt.
was
God is held to be necessary in order to account
for
of consciousness.
VIRTUES."
Those
the content
virtues which
CARDINAL
conduct.
in human
most
deemed
are
necessary
SYNODS
OF." As the leading
Plato named
CARTHAGE,
prudence, courage,
temperance, and
of distinguished
city in northern Africa and the home
justice. The R.C. church calls these natural and
age
virtues
whom
adds three theological
was
bishops,among
faith,hope, and love.
Cyprian,Carththe seat of a largenumber
Vices.
of Synods during
was
See Virtues
and
the firstsix centuries of the Christian era.
Of these Synods the most important were
those
(1761-1834)." Pioneer mi^
CAREY, WILLIAM
(251,252, 253, 255, 256) concerned with deciding
sionary to India and Oriental scholar. In 1792
through his efforts the first Baptist missionary the attitude of the church to those who under persecution
had lapsed from the faith; and those which
societywas formed; and in 1793 he went to India.
Bible
dealt
with
translated
the
whole
in
into
which
in
the
He
or
arose
as
a
part
questions
great
and was
for 30 years professor Donatist controversy (seeDonatism)
(most impor26 Indian vernaculars,
tant
also
of Oriental languages in Fort WilUam
College.
401, 403, 404, 408, 418). Synods were
held
in connection
with
the Pelagian controversy.
RUDOLPH
CARLSTADT,
ANDREAS,
The
BODENSTEIN
VON
Synod of 419 indicated the independent
(1480-1541)." Protestant
attitude of the African Church toward the Bishop of
Reformer.
Originallya follower of Aquinas and
he became
of Luther, but
Rome.
a defender
Subsequent Synods (525, 535) dealt with
Scholasticism,
the relation of Arians to the Catholicchurch.
to revolutionaryviews which
gradually advanced
Mathews
After confUct with the state
led to estrangement.
Shailer
observance

"

"

790^791

71

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

CARTHUSIAN."
An
extremely vigorous R.C.
order of monks, established in S. Italyby St. Bruno
in 1086.
An almost solitary
life,
poor food with no
and scanty clothing,and a vow
of
meat, coarse
silence are their characteristic rules.

"

AND

ETHICS

Catechism

casuistry,in antithesis to the basing of moral life


attitude and intelligence
rather than rules,and
to the re-shapingof moral ideals in the very process
of applying them, is alien to modern
life. The
method
of legaldecisions forms its nearest present
J. F. Crawford
analogue.
on

PETER
CARTWRIGHT,
(1785-1872)."A
famous
pioneerevangeUst in the Methodist Episcopal
church
in America, noted
for his direct and
of preaching.
unsophisticatedmanner

CATACOMBS."
of some
Originallythe name
low-lying hollows (catacumbae)along the Appian
to designatethe subterranean passages
Way, came
excavated
there and afterwards
in other places by
THOMAS
the Roman
Christians for burial places. They were
CARTWRIGHT,
(1535-1603)."English
excavated
Puritan, who engaged in a long conflict with
principallyin the 3rd. and early 4th.
visited them in his boyhood
centuries.
St. Jerome
Whitgift,in which he defended Presbyterianviews
of church government as againstepiscopalianism.
(ca. 354). By the end of the 4th. century they
venerated
and visited by pilgrims,and were
were
After
the
CASSIAN,
JOHN
(ca. 360-ca. 435)." Monk,
repaired and restored by the popes.
who
founded
monastic
institutions at Marseilles, barbarian
invasions
and
two
they fell into disrepair
the firstin Western
in the 9th, century the bodies were
for the most
Europe. He was
among
to other places. The catacombs
canonized,and a feast in his honor was long observed
were
part removed
in Marseilles.
He wrote
two treatiseson monastic
soon
forgottenand remained so until 1578 when
life.
It should be
accidentallyrediscovered.
they were
observed that they were
made
not for concealment
CASTE.
A term
tians,
or refuge,but
applied to the division of
simplyas placesof burial,the Chrisof earlier times,preferring
like the Romans
societyinto exclusive classes,especiallyapplicable
"

to India.

burial to cremation.

The accident of birth determines


place
a man's
in the social order.
The
basis of society is the
endogamous group.
Marriage outside the group is
forbidden.
Food or drink may
not be received from
members
of lower castes or partaken of with them.
Each caste forbids certain kinds of food.
tion
Occupais restricted,
tional
in a large measure,
to the tradiof the caste.
Each group
claims a comone
mon
ancestor.
In India,the Brahman
castes occupy
but
a
positionof unquestioned social supremacy,
the invention
is not due
and fixation of caste
to priestly
entirely
aggrandizement. They,

as

sessing
pos-

religious
sanctity,as intermediators between
and
men
gods, as sole custodians of the sacred
tacitlyrecognizedas the highestmodels
texts,were
of ceremonial and racial purity.

Edgar

J. Goodspeed

INSTRUCTION."

CATECHETICAL

The

cipline,
dis-

includingespeciallythe impartation of the


fundamentals
of Christian
doctrine, considered
in the
as preparationfor full participation
necessary
fellowshipof the church.
It has been the almost universal theory of the
church

that

person

should

possess

some

gent
intelli-

appreciationof the meaning of Christian life


and
teaching before becoming a communicant.
called
The instruction given to the candidate
was
of impartation catechetical
from the early method
chumen
as
a cate(i.e.,
oral)and the candidate was known
(q.v.). The body of instruction gradually
written form
became
fixed and in its elaborated
called the catechism
was
(q.v.).
G. Scares
Theodore
CATECHETICS."
The science deahng with the
theory and practiceof instructingchildren and new
of Christian
in the fundamentals
converts
faith;
tionally
tradicalled because
has been
the catechism
so
chetical
employed. See also Catechism; CateInstruction; Catechumen.

The
for caste is variia,
earliest Sanskrit word
"color."
first line of demarkation
that
The
was
between
the white Aryans and
the dark-skinned
Dravidians.
basis of the system was
The
purity
of blood, of ceremonial
practice,of social custom.
Then
came
a fixation of the loose division of the
peopleinto priests(Brahmans) , warriors (Ksatriyas)
,
tillersof the soil (Vaigyas),and menials
(Qiidras);
of fundamental
the
CATECHISM.
A
in
became
and
position
occupation
hereditary,
summary
for
Christian
doctrine intended
for children and
social scale depended on
the nature of the occupation
men;
those uninstructed in the faith. See also Catechuand on purityof cult. Some of the twenty-four
Catechetical
Instruction.
hundred
tribal in origin,some
distinct castes are
tion
instrucIn the earlydays of Christianity
religious
some
national,some
occupational,some
religious,
oral and so naturallytook the
to change
due to crossingof blood,to migration,
was
necessarily
are
the whole
tion).
of custom.
formula
will cover
No one
name
teachingby oral repeticatechizing(literally,
In order to elucidate the truth the teacher
system. Caste does not tend to social or national
method.
would
castes
employ the question and answer
are
constantly forming. The
unity. New
and
fixed as set question,
This tended
to become
but changes slowly to
system is not absolutelyrigid,
In the middle
meet
Expulsion from
definite,
accuratelystated answer.
changes of social conditions.
"

the acceptedform of impartingknowledge


ages it was
to
came
in all subjects. Thus the word catechism
cast in the
mean
a body of elementary instruction
form.
Its present religious
of applying general
CASUISTRY."
The
art
question and answer
to date from the Reformation.
actions.
moral principles
to particular
(1)Broadly, use seems
The instruction
1. Early Christian catechisms.
casuistryis involved in all estimation of conduct
under moral standards.
(q.v.)in the early church
(2)But the term is usually given to the catechimien
under
limited to the settlement
of doubtful
was
cases
partly practical,concerned with his actual
fixed,authoritative standards, as in Jewish law, Christian living,and partly doctrinal,that he
Puritan
ethics,and especiallyCatholic practise, might be furnished with sound knowledge of the
Teaching of the
faith. The
of
fundamentals
where authoritative moral prescriptions
applied in
Twelve
the confessional made it necessary
to seek judgment
Apostles (see Didache), written in the
2nd. century, was
pose.
probably designed for this puron
specificconduct by moral experts. (3) Such
to involve three
Subsequent trainingcame
casuistry easily resulted in pernicious legalistic
the
of the most
elements.
One
important was
elaboration and evasion.
the term
Hence
now
to be learned,
Creed (q.v.)which was
Apostleis'
usuallycarries a sinister reference. In thiy sense

caste, for infringement of caste rules,means


social excommunication.

W.

plete
com-

E. Clark

"

Catechism

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

72

church
with fine
in which form the catechism has continued
explained, and believed. The
to the
insightearly realized that the Lord's Prayer is a
present time.
model of Christian aspiration,
and based its teaching
Calvin's Genevan
Catechism
(4) Westminster.
translated
for the
Scottish
regardingfellowshipwith God upon the petitions was
Presbyterians.
"

of this prayer.

The

The controversies of the century led to a demand


central doctrine of salvation
the meaning of sin that Chrisfor a more
tian
exact
definition of Christian doctrine,
teachers found
and
it necessary
the Westminster
to give careful
this
Assembly undertook
this subject. The
task.
instruction on
Two
catechisms
Decalogue was
were
published,the Larger
and the Shorter,in 1647, of which the latter is the
thought to be especiallyuseful for this purpose, as
each of the sins there forbidden could be presented
celebrated.
It is a most
more
elaborate statement
of Calvinistic divinity.It contains 107 questions
the
as
typical of a whole class of sins. Thus
commandment
and answers.
the basis for
was
against murder
Proceedingfrom the Scriptures it
instruction regarding all sins arising from anger
defines God, the Trinity,the eternal decrees,the
the commandment
or vengeance,
fall,the offices of Christ,the work of the Spiritin
againstadulteryfor
all sins of the flesh,and so on.
As the heathen
redemption, effective calling,
justification,
adoption,
tribes of central and northern
and the benefits thereof.
verted,
conEurope were
sanctification,
Questions
it was
useful to be able to put the
39 to 82 deal with the commandments.
Then
very
candidates
follows the consideration of the
for Christian
fellowship through a
of salvation
way
and the doctrine of the sacraments.
disciplinewhich emphasized the ethical meaning
Questions 98
of their new
faith.
to 107 deal with the Lord's Prayer. The
Creed is
While these three elements
of instruction were
appended to the Catechism,but is not explained.
employed during the Middle Ages, we do not know
catechisms have been put forth
(5) Numerous
that they were
from time to time by various Christian bodies and
ever
put into definite catechetical
form
before
the
Reformation.
in the
It was
Most
notable
by individuals.
the latter
among
indoctrinate
endeavor
logical is that of Isaac Watts.
to
Theodore
people against theoG. Soaees
that
the
catechism was
error
developed by
the reformers.
CATECHUMEN."
A
term
applied in early
The
three elements
2. Protestant catechisms.
to one
who
was
Christianity
receivinginstruction
which
bad been traditionally
still
employed were
preparatory to baptism and membership in the
used.
The
Creed
the expression of faith.
church.
The word is now
was
sometimes
used for one
The recitation and explanation of the Law
the
is receiving instruction preparatory to conwho
was
firmation.
of the obligation
statement
taken for the child by
See
also Catechisxm; Catechetical
the sponsors
and now
to be assumed
The
Instruction.
by him.
Lord's Prayer was
the means
of securing from
The first converts
to Christianity
Jews and
were
God the abilityto keep the commands.
Gentiles
To these
familiar with
the Hebrew
faith. The
added
and
were
the doctrine
answers
questions
acceptance of Jesus as the Messiah was sufficient to
upon
of the sacraments.
taken
their incorporationin the Christian comwarrant
Special care
was
munity.
in the phrasing of these latter statements
the
When
the gospel was
as
preached to the
controversies
who
had no knowledge of the Old Testaregarding the sacraments
were
ment
ticularly heathen
parkeen.
A very large number
of catechisms
to give them
background it was necessary
a
appeared of which a few stand out as of chief
period of instruction in the fundamentals of the
faith before they could be baptized and accepted
importance.
(1) Luther's. Martin Luther attached the very
Christians. Moreover
as
children
of Christian
families needed
to the instruction of the young
similar instruction.
greatest importance
There
was
in the Christian faith. For doctrinal reasons
he
therefore developed a class of novitiates who were
the
of
order
the traditional elements
rearranged
permitted to attend the services and to enjoy the
Christian fellowshipbut were
putting the Law firstin order to produce conviction
not admitted
to the
of sin,then the Creed as the expositionof grace, then
Lord's Supper, not even
ance.
being present at its observthe Lord's Prayer as the expression of Christian
Inasmuch
in a condition of
as
they were
life. These
followed
were
by the sacraments
learners.
tutelagethey were called catechumens
or
together with the exposition of confession and
When
the church was
satisfied that they understood
absolution.
He
in 1529
the articles of faith and were
put forth his catechism
tian
livinga worthy Chrisin two
forms, the smaller and the larger. These
life,they were
permitted to take the solemn
attained wide popularity and became
soon
ard
standof allegiance
to Christ and to receive Christian
vow
for the Lutheran
church.
baptism.
church differed
(2) Heidelberg. The Reformed
the adoption of infant baptism and the
With
on
some
important points from the Lutheran, and
acceptance of children into the church before they
it was
therefore that appropriate catewere
had to
capable of personal faith,the vows
necessary
chisnis should
be
The
catechumenate
prepared. Calvin
published be taken by sponsors.
thus
in 1536 and another, the Genevan
one
Catechism,
disappeared. Gradually,
however, the ceremony of
in 1545.
But the great Reformed
catechism of the
confirmation
was
the vow
developed, in which
16th. century was
the Heidelberg, published in
of allegiance
taken personallyby the candidate
was
1563.
It was
translated into many
when
attained
he had
sufficient maturity. The
languages and
is stillthe most popular catechism in the Reformed
which
reasons
same
formerly led to instruction
faith. It is a
of
highly elaborated statement
precedingbaptism now required similar instruction
creed
and
The
child passing through
doctrine, containing 129 questions before confirmation.
and answers.
It consists of three parts: (1) the
be called a catethis period of preparation may
chumen.
sin and misery of man,
(2) redemption by Christ,
which
includes
the Creed
and
the sacraments,
While the above statement
appliesespeciallyto
Life of the Christian,including the Catholic,Lutheran, and Anglican churches, a
(3) the Thankful
the Decalogue and the Lord's Prayer.
similar preparation is employed by other bodies
included
in
(3) Anglican. A catechism
before receivingchildren into full church membership,
was
the first Book
of Common
chumen.
Prayer (1549) which
without, however, the use of the term catefollowed the old order, the Creed, the Commandments,
G. Scares
Theodore
and
the Lord's Prayer, the order being
justifiedas faith,duty, and aspiration. In 1604
IMPERATIVE."
A
CATEGORICAL
phrase
there was
added a section upon
the sacraments
used
Kant
(q.v.) indicating the
by Immanucl
turns

so

greatlyupon

"

"

"

"

73

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

of the formal concepprioriabsolute supremacy


tion
of the ethicallyright. The
ethical imperative
is thus
normative
and
a
entirely formal
principleof action with a function analogous to
that of the categoriesin the realm of thinking.
a

and

AND

at

-;-apse
"

ETHICS

Cathedral

Architecture

rightangles to it. Beyond this a projection


which
was
commonly
semicircular,continued

the direction of the nave


and terminated
the structure.
A well known
exponent of the type
is St. Paul's at Rome,
though the building as'we
it todayis less than a century old. St. Clement's
see
CATENA.
A series of quotationsfrom Patristic
at Rome, though it too has been rebuilt,gives a
and other acknowledged authorities to form a comfine impression of the early church
because
the
mentary
the Scriptureor an elucidation of Christian
atrium
and old interior furnishingsare
on
preserved.
doctrine.
The earliest known
Those
catena is that of
not in full standing penitentsand
persons
converts
Procopius (d.528).
new
might gather in the atrium and
narthex.
The
within
the
congregation stood
CATHARI.
Puritans; the name
in the left aisle or in galleries
adopted by
church, the women
various reformingsects in the historyof Christianity,above.
The
clergy officiated,
facing the congregation
the Albigenses,Waldenses
New
Manichaeans
as
at the altar table in the transept, or read the
(q.v.).
their
Gospel and the Epistle from pulpits on
sides near
the transept end of the nave.
respective
CATHARINE."
See Catherine.
The
throne
cathedra
of the bishop and
lower
benches
for the inferior clergy were
in the apse.
CATHEDRA."
for the seat
There were
(1) The Latin name
adjoiningdependent buildings,such as
throne of a bishop in the principalchurch of his
or
the baptistryand the dwellingsof the clergy.
The Christian East showed
diocese;hence (2)A designationof officialteaching
great variety in its
of the church
by the bishop. Thus ex cathedra
Early Christian architecture. In the interior
is applied to a formal pronouncement
of the pope
of Syria,where
numbers
vast
of early churches,
in the exercise of his cathoUc
office,indicating, including some
cathedrals,still remain, ruinous
according to the decrees of the Vatican Council, and abandoned, the atrium might be omitted or
the infallibility
of such a pronouncement.
changed to a court at the side of the church, and
chambers
beside the apse
compensated for the
CATHEDRAL."
The church in which the bishop
absence of the transept. In Egypt, too, transept
has his throne
and
atrium
which
he
the
(Cathedra) and near
were
irregular and
sanctuary
resides. Its rank (episcopal,
politan,
metrothe axis
appeared as a separate domed
room
on
arch-episcopal,
of the nave.
patriarchal)correspondsto the dignity of
the see to which he belongs. Without
In
form
contrast
to the longitudinal
specified
church, or
and
of which the above account
or dimension,in addition to the sanctuary, choir,
has been given,
basilica,
the cathedral possesses
there developed contemporaneously the
central
an
nave,
episcopalseat in
which the bishop officiates,
attended by his chapter, type, especiallycharacteristic of Armenia
but best
which constitutes his council,and upon
which
volves known
deture.
by its manifestation in Byzantine architecof souls exercised through a vicar
the cure
The
great example is Hagia Sophia at
chosen
either from
its own
number
outside.
inner
and
or
Constantinople. The
atrium, outer
The members
of the chapter are called canons,
built as in the longitudinal
to
narthex,and apse were
each of which is assigned a stall. Of these canons
feature was
type; the distinguishing
a huge domed
central room
residence is required for a fixed proportion of the
that formed the body of the structure.
In many
tain
Though the atrium later disappeared,the arrangeplaces ceryear, usually three months.
ment
ceremonies
of the aisles about the central room
reserved to the cathedral,espeare
varied,
cially
and innumerable
the administration
of baptism. Its revenue,
modifications of construction and
decoration
were
provided by endowment
introduced, this central type
funds, is entirelydistinct
remained
standard for the territory
from those of the cathedral parish. See Bishop;
of the patriarch
of Constantinople just as
G. Mode
Peter
the longitudinaltype
Canon; Chapter.
did for the territoryof the Roman
patriarch.
CATHEDRAL
ARCHITECTURE."
Because
of overseas
Venice
the
connections
at
Meaning as
it does a church which is the seat of a bishop, the
eastern
type is echoed in St. Mark's; and, for all
word cathedral does not carry any definite implicatheir local pecuharities,
the traditions of Roumania,
tions
to architecture.
The same
as
Russia, and so forth,follow the Byzantine to the
building may
be a cathedral
date and not at another.
at one
present day, though the great height and eccentric
it
make
Thus, the history of cathedral architecture begins decoration of such a cathedral as Moscow
the
with that of the episcopateand with those scattered
to analyze the ground plan to see
necessary
of which
have
derivation.
we
pre-Constantinian churches
still more
In Western
enduring
inadequate
Europe the desire for more
inadequate records and
Under Constantine
remains.
drals
imposing cathebuildingsand the development of ecclesiastical
many
built in Italy,Palestine,and elsewhere.
were
two
organization were
important factors in the
of them, their general
evolution of architecture.
basilica had posThe
Though time has spared none
sessed
ally
features were
astical
but a wooden
therefore continuroof and was
permanently retained in the ecclesiarchitecture
of
Western
in need of repairand was
Europe. An
frequentlydestroyed
obvious
extensive open
most
the
court
atrium
by fire. The
frequently with a
vaulting was
about
achievement
the
which made
fountain in the center
and colonnades
of the Romanesque style,
lennium.
its appearance
at the beginning of the second milsides,separated the place of worship from the
corridor
Northern
street.
Beyond the court -a transverse
Italy (e.g.,Modena), the
narthex
such gave access
to the body of the
or two
Bamberg), and Southern
valley of the Rhine (e.g.,
aisle was
church
the regionof its fullest expansion. The
set
Here a wide middle
France were
nave.
off by longitudinalcolonnades
from
Gothic was simply a continuation of the Romanesque
and
narrow
;
much
lower side isles. The
in it,however, the problems of vaultingwere
latter had
sloping lean-to
often visible
more
roofs, the carpentry of which was
solved; it grew up in Northern
successfully
the interior,
St. Denis, Notre Dame
de Paris,etc.),
and above the abutment
of which
France (e.g.,
on
aisle beneath
the clere-storyof the middle
carried forward
into a great national stylein
was
rose
to Spain and Italy and
a
gabled roof. At the end opposite the entrance
England, spread southward
the aisles were
terminated
aisle
eastward
to Cyprus.
by a transverse
Through the periods of the
the heightof the middle aisle
was
Romanesque and the Gothic the clergy
becoming
transept or aisles,
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Catherine

de* Medici

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

and more
more
numerous
powerful. This reveals
in
itselfin the way
their part of the church
grew
relative size. The transept, which
originallyran
the end of the nave,
gradually advanced
across
toward the middle, leavinga long choir behind it;
passed the middle at
finally,the transept even
times and the resultant choir was
so
long that
in England a second easterly
transept was introduced.
Meanwhile
the cult of the saints had led to the
provision of countless subsidiary chapels, and in
the Gothic
cathedrals
of France lady chapels ran
all the way
around
the sanctuary proper.
The Renaissance
deflected the course
abruptlj^
of architectural
evolution
in Western
Europe.
Imitation of classicalbuildings,
the one hand, and
on
the
of Byzantine doming, on
the other, broke
tradition.
the
virility of time-honored
Only
Baroque style,spread everywhere by the Society
the
of Jesus, e.g., even
to Mexico, still retained
of a creative tradition.
But the vascillation
spirit
between
modern
conflictingideals makes
many
cathedrals seem
more
a harmonious
a medley than
composition. At present, however, serious attempts
are
being made to build in an orderlyfashion on the
solid foundations
of the past, though there is much
disagreement as to what past should be chosen.
Shafley
John
MEDICI
CATHERINE
DE'
(1519-1589)."
Queen of France, was influential duringthe period
of turmoil of the wars
of religion(q.v.). She was
a
CathoUc, and resolved to keep down
Protestants,
murder
of Coligny, and
yet not
utterly. The
of St. Bartholomew's
massacre
Day Were results
of her anti-Protestant
policy.

AND

CATHOLIC

ETHICS

74

APOSTOLIC

CHURCH,

THE."

denomination
growing out of a movement
religious
begun in England in 1830 and taking definite
A

Certain persons
form in 1835.
associated by
were
their exercise of specialspiritualgifts and
their
Edward
expulsion from other churches.
Irving
leader in this group,
hence the name
a
(q.v.)was

"Irvingites"was appliedto them, though repudiated


by the group itself. They do not publishstatistics,
all the
claiming that the membership embraces
services
are
baptized. Their
highly liturgical,
much
emphasis being placed on symbolism. They
are
millenarians,believing that the church must
make
spiritualpreparation for the millennium
by
the maintenance
and ministeries
of all ordinances
ordained
Hence
of God.
they support a fourfold
ministry of apostles,prophets, evangelists and
has spread to the U.S.A.,
pastors. The movement
Germany and Holland.
CATHOLIC
Church.

CHURCH."

See Roman

Catholic

CATHOLIC
An act passed
EMANCIPATION."
the British Parliament
under
the ministry
of Wellington and Peel in 1829 by which the civil
Cathohcs
under
which
had
Roman
disabilities,
suffered since the reign of Elizabeth,were
removed.

by

CATHOLIC
The
EPISTLES."
epistlesin the
New
Testament
which
addressed
to general
were
readers in contradistinction
from those addressed
churches
to specific
or
They include the
persons.
epistleof James, two of Peter, three of John and

Jude.

CATHERINE,

SAINT."
There
six saints
are
of this name
in the Roman
Cathohc
calendar.
The
famous
St. Catherine of Alexandria, who
most
are
in the time
of Maximus
professed Christianity
tortured on a wheel
(308-314) for which she was
and beheaded; and St. Catherine of Sienna (13471380),an ecstatic who received the stigmata.

CATHOLIC,

GREEK."
Belonging or
taining
apperthe Greek
designated
church, officially
the Holy Orthodox
Catholic Apostolic Oriental
as
Church.
to

ing
Belonging to or relatchurch, designated in its title as
Church.
the Holy Catholic ApostoUc and Roman

CATHOLIC,

ROMAN."

to the Roman

CATHOLICISM."
A term applied
CATHOLIC,
and practicesof the church to indicate
that they are universallyobserved.
CATHOLIC
SOCIETIES."
Aside from the
The spread of Christianitythrough the Roman
monastic
and clerical Orders
numerous
(q.v.)and
of different
Empire gave rise to a great number
Congregations (q.v.)of medieval and modern times,
with their own
behefs and practices. In no
the Church
of Rome
has developed a complex of
groups
small measure,
these were
the outgrowth of attempts
organizations, international,national
("Church
of various philosophiesand rehgions to appropriate Extension
Society of the United
States," etc.),
element
of Christianity. In opposing these
tion
some
diocesan,or parochialin character,for the cultivavarious groups, the church appealedto the Bible as
the laity.
of piety and charity,primarilyamong
the expression of apostolicviews and
confined to recent
times, the
authority. While in no sense
After the bishops came
to be regarded as the reprea remarkable
development
sentatives 19th. century witnessed
of apostolicteaching,there grew up a sort
of these organizations.
of Bishops' Christianity,which
described as
Sodalities.
tary
VolunI. Confraternities, or
was
that which was
held by all,everywhere and always.
and
associations
canonically established
This idea of a universal doctrine possessed by a
controlled.
They are of three sorts.
ecclesiastically
universal community
of believers,as opposed to
(1) Those
cultivatingpersonal piety through
Confraternities
of
Included
here are
veneration.
sects, heresies and schisms which emphasized some
the "Holy Family," "Holy Ghost," "Holy Name,"
particulardoctrine or practiceis the central element
in Catholicism.
"Holy Sacrament," "Sacred Heart,"and "Precious
After the Reformation, catholic character was
Blood"; of the Virgin ("Holy Rosary," "Our
claimed by the Roman
and Greek churches,as distinct Blessed Lady of Mt. Carmel," "Children of Mary,"
from the Protestant churches.
In late years,
etc.); of angels and saints ("St. Michael," "St.
however, it has been claimed by the Anghcan
Benedict," "St. Anthony of Padua," "St. Joseph,"
and Protestant
Episcopal churches on the ground
etc.).
that they are the representatives
of the historical,
(2) Those manifestingzeal for souls,or engaging
universal
Christian
Catholic
tering
church.
churches
in charity. Included here are Confraternities ministo the poor
regard themselves as the true agents of saving grace
("PurgatorialSocieties");to the
of which the sacraments
the channels.
conformists
Nonare
dying ("ofthe Agony of Christ"); to the conversion
of sinners ("of the Holy
Heart of Jesus");
are
regarded as schismatics,if not
heretics.
In Protestant
the words
indicate
to instruction in the faith ("ofChristian Doctrine");
usage
the universalityand completeness of the Christian
to family hfe ("of St. Francis Regis"); to church
music
system as distinct from variant theories.
("of St. Cecilia"); to temperance reform
Shailer
Mathews
("League of the Cross").
to doctrines

"

"

"

....

DICTIONARY

75

OF

RP^LIGION

(3) Those ministering to the needs of certain


classes of society. Included here are Confraternities
of Christian FamiUes";
such as the "Association
"of the Holy Childhood"
(missionary); "of the
"of the Blessed Virgin"
Child Jesus" (protective);
and
Sacristans";
(for priests);"of Mass-servers
GeseUenvereine (forjourneymen);' "of St. Raphael"
Arch-confraternities include
(foremigrants), etc.
and
several Confraternities having* similar names
and strong.
They are numerous
purposes.
Associations.
II. Pious
Distinguishedfrom
lished,
Confraternities
in not
being canonically estabthough approved by ecclesiastical authority,
cluded
and as being subject to milder regulations. Inde
here are
the Societies of "St. Vincent
Paul" (reUefof poverty); "for the Propagation of
the Faith" (missionary);the "League of the Sacred
Childhood
Heart"
"Holy
(intercessory); the
"

"

etc.
League" (missionary),
forbids membership in all strictly
secret
Rome
societies (Masons, Knights of Pythias, etc.),and
regards with suspicionorganizationsincludingboth

CathoUcs

and

Protestants.

Henry

H. Walker

The
title assumed
by the
of the Armenian
church, and of the
church.

CATHOLIKOS."

spiritualhead
Nestorian

CAUSE,

FIRST."

See First

Cause.

The patron saint of music


CECILIA, SAINT."
and the blind in the Catholic church, whose feast
is celebrated
22nd.
She
Nov.
was
probably a
Roman
lady of musical talent who suffered martyrdom
under Marcus
Aurelius between 176 and 180.
She has been a favorite subject for painters.
CELESTINE."
The name
of five popes.
and
Celestine I.,422-432, opposed Nestorianism
Pelagianism; the first pope to show interest in the
churches of Great Britain.
Celestine II.,1143-1144.
Celestine III.,1191-1198.
Celestine IV., 1241, died sixteen days after
election.
Celestine V., 1294, abdicated after five months,
and was
succeeded
by Boniface VIII. who put
him in prison where he died in 1296; canonized as
St. Peter Celestine in 1313.
CELIBACY
from
(CHRISTIAN)." Abstinence
taken
of the three vows
by the
marriage; one
Catholic monk, and
the
rule binding also on
a
priesthood. Very earlyin the historyof the church
the conceptionarose
that the celibate state was
more
conducive
to genuine piety than the married state.
those who
This gradually grew
into a demand
on
cil
The Counconducted
ecclesiastical ministrations.
of Trent (1545-1563) made
celibacyabsolutely
binding on all taking major orders or the monastic
The various Protestant confessions expressly
vow.
repudiatecelibacyas binding on their ministry.
Of the great
CELIBACY
(NON-CHRISTIAN)."
has developed the celibate
religions
only Buddhism
ideal in any
parallelto Christianity. The
way
and Japan give it no
native religionsof China
forbidden.
It
place. In Iran it was
expressly
entered
Christian
influence.
Islam
only under
In India the ascetic and mendicant
was
expected
first to have
passed through the married state.
Buddhism, however, developed orders of monks
of celibacy and
and nuns
who
under vows
were
celibate
wherever
this religion flourished such
Influenced by Buddhism
communities
found.
are
the Taoist groups
tude
of China have acquired an attiof approval toward celibacy. In Buddhism,as

AND

ETHICS

Celtic

Religion

the Jains,the rule did not apply to the laity


and monks
were
always free to return to the life
of the citizen. Ancient America
also requiredcelibacy
of the oflScialpriesthood,shamans
and medicine
among

men.

Greek
Platonist
who
CELSUS.
A
opposed
Christianityin the latter half of the 2nd. century.
The
Uterary work of Celsus has disappeared
except as voluminously and accuratelypreserved in
evidentlysincere
Origen'smasterly reply. He was
of Christianity
in attempting to show the inferiority
"

plete
philosophyand he marshalled a very comlist of objectionsraised against Christianity
the secret
these were
in that period. Chief among
character of Christian
and illegal
if not shameful
of Christians;the
gatherings;the social inferiority
ings;
of Christian teachcrudity and lack of originality
the impossibility
of the deity of Jesus Christ;
the demoniacal
originof biblical theophanies; and
of declaring the equality of men
the fooUshness
before a God impiouslyclaimed to be loving.
Shailer
Mathews
of
CELTIC
The Celts form one
RELIGION."
the great branches
of the Indo-European peoples.
by classical Greek writers
They are firstmentioned
who
describe them
as
inhabiting central Europe.
A portion of them moved
south, enteringnorthern
Italyand threateningRome itself390 B.C.; another
later date, moved
at a much
southeastward,
group,
The greater
and settled in Galatia in Asia Minor.
body of them, however, went westward, settling
in Gaul
(France) and the British Isles,probably
early in the firstmillennium before Christ. It was
and British Celts that Julius Caesar
with Galhc
fought in his northern campaigns, and his notes
references to these peoples.
first extended
are
our
Celtic languages are today spoken in Brittany (in
France),and in parts of Wales, Ireland and Scotland.
barbarous
that
of other
1. Religion. Like
theism.
peoples,the religionof the Celts was a pagan polyGallic images which have been preserved
show that they venerated animals, or animal-gods,
such as the boar, stag, bear, as is natural among
a
hunting people. Other images indicate veneration
that the
of trees and vegetation,and it is assumed
was
early important.
worship of nature's fertility
the
Celtic temples were
sacred groves, and among
"corn-mothers" and "corndeities honored
were
maidens"
associated with the productivity of the
fields. Other important deities were
merce
gods of comand roads, of war, of poetry and eloquence,
A notable cult was
and of the world of the dead.
fires
that of the sky or sun-god, worshipped with baleand other rites in which fire was
employed.
With
the insular Celts the sea-godwas
naturally
belief that the
common
a
important, and it was
beneath the sea or
dead were
conveyed to caverns
Belief in life after
to islands beyond the waters.
and the
death was
strong in Celtic religion,
very
in myth
honored
spiritsof ancestral heroes were
of Celtic mythology are found
and rite. Remains
nected
chieflyin the British Isles,where the stories conwith King Arthur and King Lear indicate
divine
or
ancient Celtic divinities,
that these were
is true of the Irish saga heroes,
heroes.
The same
Finn, or Fionn, and Cuchulainn.
tic
The most
famous feature of Cel2. Druidism.
the
Druids
The
were
rehgion is Druidism.
priestsof the Celtic peoples of antiquity,and they
are
supposed to have been divided into a number of
that of the bards,
of which was
orders or ranks, one

to Greek

"

"

or

poets.

They

were

regarded not only as priests,

but also as sorfcerersand healers,and as teachers of


the traditional religion. "To worship the gods, to
do no
evil,to exercise courage," are the maxims
which
they emphasized according to Diogenes

Cemetery

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

Laertius, while other classical writers ascribe to


them
teachingsas to the motions of the stars,form
of the elements
of the earth,and transformation
Their
crude science.
rites,however, included
a
and hence Druidism
cruel forms of human
sacrifice,
In
unlawful
made
by the Roman
was
emperors.
Ireland it was
early replaced by Christianity.
H. B. Alexander
A place for the burial of the
CEMETERY."
dead, so called by the early Christians from the
Greek
word
meaning a sleeping-place.Originally
they were
separate from churches, as in the case
catacombs
of the
(q.v.). Churchyards (q.v.),
later came
to be used tillthe unsanitary conditions
due to overcrowding them
led to the settingapart
of park-likeenclosures for the purpose,
the practise
coimtries.
teries
Cemein European and American
now
have been used by oriental peoples,such as
the Chinese and Turks, since ancient times.
"

Monks
who
live a community
CENOBITES."
life under
with anchorites
a
or
rule, in contrast
hermits who withdrew
from the world.
See Mon-

AND

ETHICS

76

of the three foundations


mentioned
above.
any
When
personal experience is the source, we have
assurance
the source
(q.v.). In Christianity
of
has usuallybeen reUance on the word of
certainty
inspired Scripture. The critical historical study
of sacred literature,
however, has modified this
basis of certainty,
and more
attention is now
being
given to experimental and rational grounds for
belief. See Assurance; Doubt.
Gerald
Birney
Smith
CHAIR
OF
ST. PETER."
The Papal office in
the R.C. church, so designated because
Peter is
traditionally
regarded as the founder.
CHAITYA.
A
monument
erected
the
over
relics of a saint by the Jains and Buddhists.
It
also to mean
shrine or relic depository
came
any
and is used in a specialsense
to refer to the temples
of these two religious
groups.
"

CHAKRAVARTIN."

designate

The

Hindu

world-conquering ruler

term
or

used to
universal

monarch.

CHALCEDON,

container for burning incense


also called thurible.
religiousceremonials,
CENSER.

"

in

COUNCIL
OF."
The
Fourth
held in 451 for the purpose of
drawing up dogma regarding the person of Christ.
It was
attended
by six hundred
Bishops, mostly
from
the Greek
Church.
The
decision
of the
Council was
to the effect that in Jesus Christ there
two
were
natures, unmingled, but so united in the
Jesus Christ,that neither nature
one
was
person,
affected.
See Creed.
Ecumenical

Council

CENSORSHIP.
Official examination
and regulation
of manuscripts, books
and plays intended
for publication or
production. Censorship of
edict
religiousbooks harks back to Constantine's
regarding the works of Arius, After the invention
of the printingpress, the Catholic church exercised
CHALDEANS.
See Assyria
strict regulationof literature. Benedict XIV.
and
more
Babylonia,
Religion
created the congregationof the Index in 1753 whose
of.
duty is the censorshipof books for the guidance of
CHALDEAN
CHRISTIANS."
all Catholics.
and of
See Nestorians.
matter
Censorship of news
correspondence sent by mail or telegraph is an
CHALICE.
(1) A goblet-shaped cup, used in
important aspect of the State's direction of military
the observance
of the Lord's Supper. (2) Sometimes
operations.
used metaphoricallyof the contents of the cup.
CENSURE.
astical
-Disapprovalexpressed by ecclesiTHOMAS
CHALMERS,
authorityin the form of a publicreprimand,
(1780-1847)."Scottish
with or without
added
an
Presbyterianpreacherand theologian.He instituted
penalty.
ambitious
an
system of education and poor-relief
in Glasgow which met with marked
CERBERUS."
In Hellenic legend,the dog which
success; was an
acted as sentinel at the entrance
influential professor of moral
to the realm
of
philosophy in St.
Andrews
and Edinburgh; a leader in the movement
the dead in the underworld,frustrating
all attempts
for ecclesiastical freedom
and the first moderator
at escape, while permitting all to enter.
of the Free Church
of Scotland
their withdrawal
on
from
CEREMONY."
the established church.
He
See Cult;
CEREMONIAL,
was
a
Ceremonies.
well. Of the more
scholar in economics
than
as
Rites, Rituals and
tion
thirtyvolumes from his pen, the chief is his refutaCERES.
The- grain-goddessof the old Roman
of Hume's
tutes
objectionsto miracles. His InstiCalvinistic.
religion. She is never
a
clearlyanthropomorphic
of Theology were
strictly
figurebut rather the spiritof the growing crops.
CHANCE.
An unassignablecause
of an event;
CERINTHIANS."
the cause
CERINTHUS,
an
Cerinthus,
being unknown, the fortuitous element
itself chance
is frequentlytreated as if it were
earlyJewish Christian Gnostic,lived in Asia Minor
a
toward the close of the 1st. century a.d.
Tradition
real cause.
In Greek
mythology, chance (Tyche)
makes
him an Egyptian Jew who had studied under
was
a goddess. See Tychism.
Philo of Alexandria
before coming in contact
with
CHANCEL.
That
in a church
Christianity. See Gnosticism.
beyond
space
the nave
and transepts reserved for the officiating
CERTAINTY.
An
attitude of unquestioning
table. In Roman
minister,choir,and communion
affirmation of a propositionor idea,making possible churches the word "sanctuary" has largelydisplaced
decisive action.
the word "chancel."
In non-conformist
churches,
the chancel refers to a space railed off in front of the
Certaintymay rest (1)on personalexperienceor
when
is
investigation,
as
an
eye-witness sure concerning
pulpit.
what
he saw;
self-evident or
(2) on
axiomatic propositions,
the postulatesof matheAPOSTOLIC"
matics
The Roman
curia
as
CHANCERY,
of logic; (3) on
the testimony of men
or
(q.v.).
believed to have reUable information,as the conclusions
of an expert.
CHANGELING."
child substituted
for or
A
in folk-lore,
Religiously,
certaintyis urged because it makes
put in the place of another; especially
It may
to have
possible decisive consecration.
rest on
been substituted by the
a child believed
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

77

OF

DICTIONARY

RELIGION

less cultured peoples weaklings or


fairies. Among
infants
imbecile
were
regarded as non-human
Scottish
children substituted for beautiful children.
impossible
people believed such substitutions were
after christening. The origin of the belief lies in
the notion that infants are especiallyliable to the
and fairy-folk.
attacks of demons

on

which

are

ascribed

classic
taries
commen-

to Confucius.

WILLIAM
ELLERY
(1780-1842).
CHANNING,
American
preacher and author, ordained to the
ministry of the Federal St. CongregationalChurch,
He developed strong anti-Calvinistic
Boston, 1803.
and anti-Trinitarian beliefs,
and became
the leader
He
also wrote
of the Unitarian
and
movement.
labored in behalf of the anti-slavery
movement.
See Unitarianism.

"

A song
or melody in church
music,
unmetrical
such as the Psalms,
verses
those comprised of both recitative and rhythm.
or
See Music.
CHANT.

adapted

"

to

CHANUKKA."

See Hantjkka.

CHAOS.
(1) A condition of utter disorder and
lawlessness in contrast
to the conception of order
and design expressed by the word
"cosmos."
See
Cosmogony.
(2) In Greek
mythology the oldest
of the gods,progenitorof Nox and Erebus.
"

CHAPEL.
As distinguishedfrom a church, a
small
to
building devoted
rehgious purposes;
a place of worship not
belonging to an established
church; a small buildingused for worship attached
to or a part of a church
other building. The
or
word has also a number
of derived uses.
"

confirmation

"

CHAPLET.
(1) A head dress, originally
a
garland or wreath.
(2) One third of a rosary, i.e.,
55 beads, used by R.CathoUcs
in counting prayers.
"

See

Rosary.

CHAPTER."
of
the
conventional
(1) One
divisions of a book of the Bible.
(2) A group of
church.
clergyattached to a cathedral or collegiate
(3) A local branch of a societyor fraternity.
CHAPTER-HOUSE."

chapter (q.v.)assembles

The

place in which

to conduct

the

business.

CHARACTER."
The sum
of fundamental traits
which
individual
from
another.
distinguish one
In a moral sense
the settled tastes and purposes
of
which determine
his behavior.
a person
The formation of a rightcharacter is the primary
aim of moral
and religiouseducation.
This end
is attained when
certain habitual preferencesare so
well established that a person's response
to any
stimulus will be directed by them.
This involves
inner conviction as
a cultivation of taste so that an
to the right of certain ideals is present. A good
character is attained when fidelity
to good ideals is
involves
to be depended upon.
Since such fidelity
allegianceto a spiritual
ligious
imperative,it is akin to refaith and is reinforced by religious
experience,
Gerald
Birney
Smith
INDELIBLE."
An ineradicable
CHARACTER,
mark or trait declared by Catholic theologians
to be

Charity and Almsgiving

and

CHARISMATA.

sacraments

of

baptism,

ordination.
"

Superhuman

powers

regarded by the early Christians as


believer by the Holy Spirit.
In most
religionssupernatural powers

were

which

given

held
are
Primitive
persons.
religionsnoticeably recognize the possession of
superhuman powers on the part of medicine-men
and the like. In the Hebrew
religionsuch powers
ascribed to the Spirit of Yahweh.
Such
were
varied from abilityto manufacture
vessels
powers
to the giftof prophecy. Primitive Christians were
the first to hold that the Holy Spiritcame
upon
all members
of the messianic kingdom.
According to Paul (I Cor. 12:18; Rom. 12:5-6;
included
those
of
Eph. 4:11) these charismata
of tongues, the power
to
tongues, the interpretation
work
miracles, and also administration.
They
formed the basis of the organizationin the establishment
of the division of labor in the early church,
since each
office presupposed a charism
(as of
teaching,prophecy, evangelism). Not
apostleship,
all Christians had the same
charism,although more
than
individual.
to
Paul
one
might come
an
of no
moral
value
taught that charismata were
without love,which he also described as a "fruit"
of the Spirit.
It is impossible to understand
exactly the
psychology of the charismata,or to know justwhen
the
Christians.
they ceased to appear
among
Miraculous
attributed to the Christians
powers were
for several centuries after the death
of Christ.
Similar
of
(especiallyof heahng and
powers
claimed
"tongues") have been sporadically
even
into modern
days. See Irving, Edward; Faith
Shailer
Mathews
Healing; Tongues.
be

conferred

on

certain

CHARITY
AND
ALMSGIVING
(CHRISTIAN).
The relief of the poor by giftsor organizedaid.
The
underlying motive to social relief is the
spirit of goodwill. Almsgiving is theoretically
but the expressionof the spiritof charity,but the
with the motive.
act has been confused
the early
Generosity was
conspicuous among
Christians. The gospel of Jesus was
based on the
spiritof goodwill,and the apostle Paul frequently
exhorted to charity. The administration
of charity
compelled organizationin the church at Jerusalem.
New
Testament
teaching emphasized the spiritof
charity as the essential element, but almsgiving
and
was
early recognized as meritorious
very
became
Christian
of
highly approved. Much
charitybecame vitiated by the selfish motives that
the
lay back of it,but we must not underestimate
kindly sympathy that found expression through
the gift. The Catholic church taught the obligation
of charity,and encouraged right motives.
Gifts
the altars of the church, and
were
poured upon
the
The
the
administrators.
bishops became
of wealth that was
amount
given away through and
to the church was
enormous.
Unfortunately the Middle Ages brought Uttle
conception of the importance of estimating the
effects of almsgivingupon the recipients.The donor
with the benefits
almost exclusivelyconcerned
was
accruing to himself. He paid his doles to
the poor, or built shrines and churches that he might
victims
of his
The
gain favor with Heaven.
unimportant. The result
generositywere relatively
swarmed
around the
that thousands
of paupers
was
doors of the monasteries,or infested the citylanes,
The sanction
of subsistence.
begging for the means
of
of the church seemed
to be given to this method
friars set an
the mendicant
when
gettinga living,
example in this respect,but the friars themselves
"

CHAPLAIN.
A minister
whose
office is the
conduct of specialreligious
services for some
age,
personthe state, the army,
the navy, a publicinstitution
etc.
or
a fraternal society,

ETHICS

imprinted on the soul by the

to

Chinese
BOOK
OF."
A
CHANGES,
dating from the 12th. century B.C., the

AND

Charity and

Almsgiving

DICTIONARY

OF

AND

RELIGION

to charity in their social


noble expression
a
gave
the poor and miserable.
service among
The church used poor funds for the aid of the
Later more
of this
parish poor in their homes.
and pubUc
aid was
given in monasteries,hospitals,
institutions. The Reformation
deprived the church
of its property, and the support of the
of much
the public officials. The
thrown
on
indigent was
town
guildshad aided their members in cases of want
the raunicipaUtiesthemselves
or
sickness; now
Private
provisionfor the poor.
began to make
contributions had made
possiblethe maintenance
for a few in poverty, but the poor
of small homes
laws of England provided poorhouses in all the
taken care
of
parishes. At first the inmates were
without their own
labor,but after a century of such
found better to set the people
experiments it was
to work.
In America
provided by towns
poorhouses were
the number
of local dependcounties as soon
ents
or
as
of in families.
became
too largeto be taken care
In these public institutions children and adults,
drunkards
and
imbeciles and
cripples
epileptics,
herded together,and commonly placed under
were
who worked the
of a contractor
the irresponsible
care
benefit. By degrees it came
inmates for his own
advisable to separate the different classes of
to seem
estabUshed
dependents. State institutions were
of the insane and the feeble-minded.
for the care
The aged and children were
placed in homes where
they could be taken care of properly. Defectives
sorted out, and given rational
and deUnquentswere
and
The
19th. century brought new
treatment.
wiser conceptions of charity, and
attempts of
made to systematize
the methods
various kinds were
in vogue in different places,and to co-ordinate pubUc
and privatecharity.
Current interest in charityas a subjectof study
for its
and the best means
centers about its causes
that
It is well understood
prevention and cure.
almsgiving, though bringing satisfaction to the
and should be
giver,is a hindrance to self-reliance,
resorted to in individual cases
only as a temporary
expedient. On the other hand without the large
giftsof philanthropyit would be impossible to
charitable agencies that
the numerous
on
carry
tianity.
the modern
illustrate so beautifully
spiritof Chris-

in use for social uplift.


methods
A great many
are
Some
of these, like housing plans, friendlyclubs,
and social settlements are above the Une of charity,
but they flow from
the same
spiritof goodwill.
Children's aid societies are agencies that with one
hand are preventingindigency and crime, and with
the other are
Ufting victims out of their misery.
careful
Relief agencies find it necessary
to make
investigationsto determine where relief shall be
given,whether in the home or at a publicinstitution,
of aid and the
the form and amount
to decide on
length of time for which it shall be given. It is an
accepted principlethat temporary relief should be
the need, and
then that
large enough to cover
by
steps shall be taken to make relief unnecessary
finding occupations for the individual or some
member
of the needy family. Relief in the home
the feelingsof these who must
receive help,
spares
and it is a generalprinciplethat the home shall not
be broken up if it can
be prevented, but it is often
preferablethat the public authorities should take
of the members
charge of the case, and at least some
of the family be transferred to public institutions.
Co-operation between private and publicagencies
is indispensable.
charities as
It is possible to classifymodern

ETHICS

78

agencies that give aid in the homes, that provide


and medicines,and that plan various means
nurses
of prevention to check the growth of dependency.
As in the days of primitiveChristianity,
ecclesiastical
charity stillexpresses the spiritof Christ,but
the applicationof its ministrydepends increasingly
the teaching of social science.
See Charity
on
Organizations.
CHARITY
Institutional
asylums, and

Henry

K. Rowe

AND

ALMSGIVING
(ETHNIC)."
charity (hospitals, orphanages,
the like)is and has been peculiarto

except as imitated under other systems


Christianity
gions
religionin modern times. Under primitiverelithe only form of almsgiving common
and
considered obhgatory isthe hospitality
characteristic
of

that considered
due to clan or
of many
races
or
from home.
It is not to
totemic members
away
be forgottenthroughout, however, that "the milk
kindness"
has always been a factor of
of human
greateror lesser influence in life.
exists for the
For
Egypt decisive evidence
exercise of almsgiving as a religiousduty in the
uttered
by the soul in
"Negative Confession"
to go
the judgment hall: "I have allowed no man
tomb
inscriptionscarry the
hungry." Numerous
"I gave bread to the hungry and clothes
sentiment:
to the naked."
(Cf. Budge, Osiris and the Egyptian

Resurrection,chap, x.)
Respecting Babylonia data are deficient.
teachers stress benevolence as a
Chinese religious
qualityof the "perfectman," and obhgatory on all.
Mencius
and
Confucius
and
emphasize wisdom
in exercising this quality, the
discrimination
existence of which
they both teach and assume.
The former describes the Chinese phrase "charity
another":
the latter puts it
of heart" by "love one
the four virtues and makes
first among
courtesy a
part of the gift. Later teachers differ greatly
respectingthe applicationof benevolent principles.
II. 53, 414; Tao Teh King,
(Cf. Chinese Classics,
Christie,Thirty Years
XIII; Li Ki, XXXVIII;
in the Manchu
Ti, chaps.
Capital,passim; Mo

XIV,

XV.)

be
worlds it would
In the Greek and Roman
base for benevolence.
difficultto establish a religious
took
the form
of public
benevolences
Private
buildingsand entertainments,often included largess
frequently)of goods and money.
(undiscriminating
But
Rehgion was often an affair of city or state.
possessionof wealth entailed the duty of generosity.
and guildsdisregardedthe
even
corporations
Still,
sick, disabled, widows, and orphans. Claudius
of sick slaves or forcingthem
forbade abandonment
This is indicative in a sinister
out
to starve.
People of Ancient
(Cf. Abbott, Common
way.
Rome, pp. 179 ff.)
the
Zoroastrianism places Benevolence
among
( Yasna, XXXIII,
four "energizing immortals"
"Good
Visparad, XV, 1 implies rehef
Mind").
of the poor: "Place the needy with those without
need."
Parsis boast the absence of beggars in their
community, and their charityto others is a proverb.
set apart for
The last ten days of the year are
deeds of charity,religiousbanquets, ceremonials
for the dead (cf.Vistasp Yast [XXIV], V, 36).
Indian religions(Brahmanism, Hinduisrn,
The
Buddhism, Jainism) favor the ascetic or monastic
fifeof absolute poverty and consequent dependence
alms for bare subsistence.
of the "religious"
on
The sacred laws prescribe
almsgiving,especiallyto
A constantly present
the ascetic and to monks.
motive
is acquisitionof "merit"
by the donors.
The result here and elsewhere under like conditions
and above the ascetics
is a plethoraof beggars over
and monks
(cf.,e.g., Pratt, India and Its Faiths,

including asylums, homes, hospitals,


institutional,
most
of which are cared for by
and reformatories,
such as the voluntary
pubUc authority;or private,
p. 41).

79

DICTIONARY

OP

RELIGION

of the five pillars


In Islam almsgiving is one
the
the
faith, prescribed principallyunder
terms
ness"
zakat,"cleansing,"and sadagah,"righteousgious
which
indicate the reliterms
sufficiently
view of believers and founder of its relation
It is,therefore,
to donors.
a prime duty, is coupled
its wherewithal
the
with
drawn
from
prayer,
of
donor's superfluityyet involving the bestowal
something prized (cf.I Cor. 13:3), and is for the
benefit of relatives,
orphans,the poor, and travellers.
(Quran, 2:40, 211, 216 f., 263; 23:4; 24:27;
of

"

30:38; 64:17; 73:20; 98:4, etc.)


Geo. W. Gilmore
OF."
(1) The designation
benevolent
orders in the
of
mediaeval
in
period. (2) A lay order, founded
1540 in Grenada
by John Ciudad (John of God), a
Portuguese, which is especiallydevoted to care of
exist about
the sick. There
120 houses.
now
BROTHERS
R.C.
various

CHARITY,

AND

ETHICS

Charms

and

Amulets

it is becoming increasingly
necessary that they be
well trained.
For this purpose
trainingschools of
philanthropy have been organized in several cities.
Workers
trained
thus
visit frequently
the
among
houses of the poor, give them friendlycounsel and
and
expert assistance in meeting their difficulties,
ences
bring back their experiencesto the weekly conferof the society. On that occasion specific
cases
discussed on the basis of the facts elicited,
are
and
The success
of organizedcharity
plans are formed.
depends mainly on the abihty of its friendlyvisitors.
They are unpaid workers, but in most cases
they
faithful to
their self-imposed obligations.
are
They are sometimes criticised as case-hardened,but
their sympathy as often needs restraint for the
good of those whom
they are trying to help.
An important part of the task performed by the
charityorganizationsocietyis the keeping of accurate
records of charity cases.
The
society is in
with the various charitable agencies
close contact
in the city, and it keeps the records of its own
visitors. By means
of a card catalogue at the
central office,
and frequently
a period of years
kept over
revised,it is possiblefor the society to
keep well informed and to furnish information to
other agencies that may
be greatlyneeded
as
a
basis for wise action.
In addition to these services the societyis often
able to aid and advise public officials and committees,
to influence the community
to provide
social reforms
and
neighborhood improvements,
such as playgrounds, and to supply information
to
philanthropistswho wish to give help where it is
needed.
most
Henry
K. Rows

CHARITY
ORGANIZATION."
1. History."
Indiscriminate
charity tends to pauperism. Its
antidote is charity organization. Among
the first
this was
Reverend
Thomas
Chalmers
to see
of
giving,
Glasgow. In his parish he was able to check almsand by friendlyvisitation of charityworkers
to help the needy help themselves.
zation
Charityorganisince then has been based on that principle.
A charity organization
societyis not an agency of
direct relief. It often co-ordinates such agenciesin
a whole
city,but its own
object is to prevent and
cure
poverty. It gives aid only in an emergency.
The
experiments of Chalmers, supplemented by
the investigations
of Edward
Denison
in London,
resulted in the organizationof the CharityOrganization
in 1869.
This societywas
SISTERS
OF."
The designation
Society of London
of
CHARITY,
unable to unite all the agencies of the metropolis, several R.C. female associations which
undertake
it Loped to do, but it has performed a valuable
as
the care
of the poor and the sick; e.g., The Sisters
service itself,
and has been an
impetus to similar of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, organized in
1617 and operative in Europe and America; and
organizationsin England and the United States.
American
The Sisters of Charity of St. Charles dating from
societies,
mostly after the London
into existence in the seventies in the
model, came
1626, and found in Europe.
centers
of population in the East.
The first to be
CHARLEMAGNE
organizedthoroughly on the London
of
plan was that
(742-814)." Sole monarch
of Buffalo in 1877.
In the fortyyears that followed
the Franks in 771 Charlemagne extended
Prankish
similar societies were
formed in the leadingcities of
in Italy,Spain,Bavaria,Saxony and, Dec. 25,
power
the country, usuallyunder the name
of the Charity
800, was crowned by the Pope in Rome as Emperor
Organization Society or the Associated Charities.
("the central event of the Middle Ages," Bryce).
of such organiCo-operationwas a cardinal principle
zation, This renewal of the idea of the old empire made
and it soon
him head
of Western
produced a National Conference
Europe both in state and
of Charities and Corrections that became
church affairs,
with something of the
a forum
an
emperor
for discussion.
character
of supreme
Charity organizationrests on the
pontiff. He developed an
following four principles:Pecuniary aid should
efficient administrative
system which united all in
be given only in an emergency,
after thorough
or
ing,
personalallegianceto him, fostered arts and learnreveals
need.
investigationof conditions
of
opened schools and planned even
a system
grave
should take the place of
Friendly encouragement
His largeideal gave an impress
popular education.
world though his work for civilizaalmsgiving in an effort to get an individual or
to the mediaeval
tion
tween
family to achieve self-support.Co-operation belapsed through the weakness of his successors.
relief agenciesis essential to prevent duplication
of effort and oversight. Discussion of problems
CHARLES
V.
of Spain,
(1500-1558)."
and
elected emperor
public education to appreciate the value of
of the Holy Roman
Empire, 1519. He
instruments in
had to deal with the problems caused by the Protestant
charityorganizationare necessary
the effective alleviation of poverty.
Reformation,as well as with the ambitions of
of organization the kingdoms of Prance and of England. His first
2. Organization. The
method
and work may
be summarized
briefly. The membership
the promulgation
was
important act as emperor
of the society consists of those who
of the Edict of Worms, declaringLuther an outlaw.
tribute
conto its maintenance.
The members
elect a
His reignwas
marked
by a constant strugglebetween
board
of directors,
who
Protestants and Catholics ending in the Religious
guide the administrative
of this board
Peace
of Augsburg, 1555, whereby equal rights
policy. An executive committee
keeps in close touch with the superintendent and
were
granted Lutheran and R.C. princes. In 1556
district heads.
There is a central office,
with district he abdicated
and entered a monastery.
centers in the large cities. Sometimes
the district
has its own
center
A charm may
be
CHARMS
AMULETS."
AND
organization,but it is
highly desirable that all sections should be closely defined as a small portable object worn
the
on
co-ordinated
with the main
office of the city orfor magico-religious
ganization.
person, or otherwise preserved,
Since the success
of charity organiderived from the Latin carmen
The name,
reasons.
zation
depends on the efficiencyof its workers, (asong),is also often appliedto incantations,
spells,

king

"

Charms and Amulets


and

passwords.

DICTIONARY

verbal

Such

OF

charms

must

RELIGION
be

whereas
material charms
effective,
continuously effective without any action on

uttered
are

to

be

the part of the wearer.


Material
1. Classification
charms,
of charms.
used specifically
to bring good fortune or to transmit
desirable quahties,are called taHsmans, a word
is a material charm,
of Arabic origin. An amulet
whose purpose
is to protect the wearer
against real
ness,
or
imagined dangers witchcraft,evil eye, sick"

"

etc.
accidents,
Occasionally,
disease,
however,
will be employed for both these
the same
charm
purposes.

As

rule

the

for good luck,the


secretly

talisman
will be worn
amulet
openly to avert

AND

ETHICS

80

artificialcharms
is usually an
important function
of the professional
magician.
6. Diffusionof charms.
The
of charms
is
use
Wherever
the belief in
practicallyworld-wide.
is especially
witchcraft,evil eye, and demonism
pronounced, there will usually be a corresponding
development of prophylacticand protectivecharms.
Man
seldom
nourishes
a
superstition without
effective antidote for it.
devisingsome
HuTTON
Webster
CHARTERHOUSE."
(1) A monastery of the
Carthusian order; (2) a school, chapel and almshouse
in London, Eng., founded
in 1611 in a suppressed
Carthusian
monastery and in 1872 removed
"

evil.
to Godalming, Surrey.
2. Kinds
Talismans and amulets
of charms.
have been of many
different kinds and formed
of
CHARTISTS."
A
19th. century
CHARTISM,
different substances.
Miss Freire-Marreco
movement
in Great Britain to extend the poUtical
ates
enumerthe followingclasses of objects,both natural
power of the working classes.
and
used:
Bad
"stones
harvests
and
as
artificial,
commonly
very
depression,following hard
those of a curious shape or naturally upon
the enactment
of the Reform
Bill of 1832,
(especially
caused
the masses,
perforatea),stone implements (celtsand arrowheads);
great disappointment among
curious vegetable growths, roots, leaves, who in 1838 drew up a program
called the "People's
Charter." It had six points manhood
seeds,nuts; horns,teeth,claws,and other parts of
suffrage,
animals and insects,
hair and teeth, equal electoral districts,
shells,human
vote
by ballot,annual
of
the dead; medicinal substances;subrehcs
stances parliaments, abolition of property, quahfications
believed to have been extracted from the
for membership in the House
of Commons, and
sick in magical cures; iron,gold,
As coercive
silver,
rock-crystal,payment of parliamentarymembers.
it was
alum, salt,coral; red, blue, and white things; measures
prepared to abstain from the use
of excisableproducts,
the bank, and
to cause
rings; representations of
runs
strings,threads, and
on
and animal forms, phallic
human
strikes. Petitions were
emblems, representations to organize nation-wide
of eyes,
hands, horns, and crescents; sent to Parliament. Riots developed. A demonstration
written
in London
beads, imported ornaments;
charms,
planned on a largescale (1848)
quotationsfrom sacred writings,inscribed objects, proved a disappointment and the beginning of
and ornaments;
medals, coins; obsolete weapons
ing
waning enthusiasm, which was hastened by revivrelics and mementos
of holy persons
and places,
Bills of 1867 and 1885,
prosperity,the Reform
and dedicated things."
and the Ballot Act of 1872.
Peter
portionsof offerings,
G. Mode
-In some
3. Choice of charms.
the erronecases
ous
association
of ideas, so
CHARVAKAS."
characteristic of
See Lokayatas.
primitive-mindedpeople, provides a sufficient
the
for
choice of charms.
CHASIDIM.
explanation
(1) A body of piousJews who
Thus, the
color of certain stones suggests flesh,
hence garnets
joinedwith the Hasmoneans
(q.v.). (2) A pietistic
and cornelians may
be carried as amulets
against reaction against Talmudic
legalism,emphasizing
skin diseases.
This logical
Polish Jews of
fallacyunderlies magical
religiousecstasy, originatingamong
other objects
the 18th, century and now
restricted to Southern
practices (see Magic), But many
because they are supto be used as charms
Russia.
come
posed
to contain magico-spiritual
(seeMana).
power
Such power
be ascribed to them
because of
CHASTITY."
The state of refraining
from se"ual
may
their mysterious properties. The fact that amber,
relations so as to secure
moral purity.
or
religious
when
The power
of sexual passion has led to various
rubbed, attracts light objects probably led
to the notion that to look through amber
beads
attitudes.
At one
extreme
it is positively
religious
uted
strengthensthe sight,and the specialvirtue attribworshiped (seePhallicism) ; at the other extreme it
to iron was
has been rigorouslysuppressed as the root of evil
perhaps often based on observation
of its magnetic qualities.Power
be ascribed
(see Concupiscence; Asceticism). In primitive
may
of their rarityor unusual
to other objectson account
to
thinking sexual activityis frequentlybeheved
have an occult influence on processes
of nature
shape, e.g., perforated stones and double walnuts
or
almonds.
sacred or
Again, association with some
is
or
significant
enterprises. Chastityin such cases
powerful being or thing may give rise to charms.
required,e.g., of a warrior before combat, or of a
For
tribe during planting season,
of a candidate
example, the detachable parts of certain
or
before
It has
animals, e.g., tusks of wild boars, lower jaw-bone
religious ceremonies.
commonly
of the tortoise,tufts of eagle-feather,
been demanded
of religiousofficials who
used
be
must
are
to gain their qualities.The lore of rehcs in Chrisclean in order to secure
the favor of the
tendom
spiritually
is similarly
celibate
explained(seeReli cs) Finally, gods. Vestal virgins and
priests are
examples. Asceticism
any objectsupposed to be inhabited by a spirit
may
lays especial stress on
and it is included in the vows
of monks
and
properly be described as a charm; hence it is often
chastity,
between charms and so-called
difficultto distinguish
nuns.
fetishes (see Fetishism),
of chastityis
While the religious
interpretation
When
the
4. Artificialcharms.
and
a development of the idea of tabu,moral
supply of
largely
is limited,recourse
natural charms
will be had to
social considerations have also had great influence.
artificialsubstitutes.
Of these, some
models
has proved to be the type of sexual
are
Monogamy
of objects,
such as the crosses
and
best fitted to develop loyalty,unselfish
or representations
relationship
in European countries.
figuresof the saints worn
love, care for children and other virtues essential
Others are objects containing some
But monogamy
is meaningless
to social welfare.
magical name
such as Jewish amulets
married
or
inscription,
containing unless chastity is expected on the part of all unthe Pentateuch
the Psalms
natural
from
and
The
or
verses
jealousy of men
persons.
in the interests of
Mohammedan
amulets composed of texts from the
has exalted chastityin women
true
that exclusive personal relationshipwhich
Koran,
Among primitive peoples the making of
"

"

"

"

"

,"?!

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

have claimed
in
freedom
not countenanced
standard"
the existing "double
women.
the emancipation of women
of morality. With
and the growing desire for consistencyin ethical
theory,there is an increasingpressure for a stricter
of
terrible scourge
The
code of morals for men.
due almost entirely
to illicitsexual
venereal disease,
is an additional argument for chastity.
relations,
Gerald
Smith
Birney
MARTIN
(1522-1586)."German
CHEMNITZ,
tion
theologianand reformer,prominent in the formulaof Concord.
He
and acceptance of the Formula
in the Adiaphorist controversy (q.v.),
participated
and in polemics againstCrypto-Calvinism, Roman
and
the
Jesuits.
Catholicism
Doctrinally he
stood midway between Luther and Melanchthon.

love demands.
for

themselves
Hence

Unfortunately, men
a

The
CHEMOSH."
ites. See Moabites.

national

deityof

the Moab-

CHERUBIM."
An
order of spirits
CHERUB,
attendant
the Divine presence.
The cherub is
on
survival of ancient Hebrew
mythology, derived
a
the Assyrianwinged bulls,
from the same
source
as
of Phoenician
the griffins
art, and the Egyptian
cherubim
Sphinx. In the Old Testament
appear
bearers of Yahweh's
throne
as
(Ps. 18:10: Ezek.
1:5 ff., 10:1
ff.)as guardians of His holiness
in both capacities
(Gen. 3 :24; I Kings 6 :23 ff.),
or
37 :7 ff.). In Apocryphal literature
(Exod. 25 : 18 ff.,
they form part of the ten "troops of angels" who
mount
guard on the throne of God's glory,"singing
in the boundless
lightwith small and tender
songs
voices"
(Enoch 71:7; 2 Enoch
20:1^). The
four "Uving creatures" of Rev. 4:6 ff. are a blend
and seraphim (q.v.).
of cherubim
R. Gordon
Alex.
See Summum
GOOD."
CHIEF
Bonum.
A group
of books written
CHILAN
BALAM.
scribes of the Maya
Indians
of
the native
America
embodying records of the ancient times
previous to the coming of the Spaniards as well as
The characters
"primitiveastrologyand medicine.
the invention
in which the books are written were
of tlie Spanish monks.
"

by

The
RELIGION
OF."
ence
experiof social relations with the superhuman and
conduct
of boys and
the consequent effects upon
See also Religious
girlsunder twelve years of age.
Education.
hood.
ChildNature
I. Theories
as
to
the
op
(1) The doctrine oj natural depravityshuts
childhood
from
out
possibihty of genuine
any
religionuntil the miracle of regenerationhas taken
the church has often been
place. In consequence,
children a
in young
at great pains to stimulate
consciousness of sin and a willingness
to be saved in
would
be
the hope that the required conversion
secured.
ReUef
obtained
from this difficulty
was
whereby
by the doctrine of baptismal regeneration,
it was
held that the nature of the child was
changed,
could be
thus the process
of religiouseducation
effective.
nature of
religious
(2) The doctrine of the positive
the child has come
to be very generallyheld,partly
children
the theological
are
on
ground that all men
of God
and partly on
the theory that there is a
ndtural instinct for rehgion in man.
According to
this view, it is the task of religious
education
to
develop in childhood a certain religiousquality
which is supposed to be alreadypresent at birth and
which requiresappropriateculture.
Looked
(3) The theoryof instinctive behaviour.
with the tendencies
at biologically,
a child is born

CHILDHOOD,

"

"

AND

ETHICS

Child-Marriage

that have been developed tliroughthe long


of racial fife. He is non-moral
and his acts
purely instinctive. The social group
are, firstof all,
the conditions of fife
to which he belongsdetermines
in which these instincts operate, developing some,
and
modifying others. MoraUty
religion are
social developments, restingon a complex play of
of the
instinct,
representinggradual achievements
be said to have a moral or
The child cannot
race.
He has the common
human
nature
reUgiousnature.
less
which in the process of livingacquiresmore
or
the highermoral and reUgioushabits of the group.
II. iVlORALITY AND
RELIGION
SoCIAL HaBITS.
AS
ences
(1)Social suggestionis one of the strongest influgeneity
to which
we
are
subject. Hence the homoof nations,of communities, of specialgroups
It is almost inevitable that we do what
of fanulies.
for
The
child is a candidate
others do.
young
human
experienceand the natural way to achieve
experienceis by followingthe paths that others set.
called imitation but it is very
This is sometimes
much
than conscious copying. It yieldsthe
more
satisfaction of abilityto do the things that others
Doubtless prayer, various acts of worship,and
do.
in religious
exercises have their
generalparticipation
beginningsin this way.
of the permitted and the non(2) A sense
permittedis an extension of social suggestionas the
child feels the approval or disapproval
of his elders
certain types of conduct.
A very significant
upon
basis of religious
experienceis found in the child's
appreciation of God's approval and disapproval,
imder wise leadership,
hand in
the one
on
resulting,
genuine, if simple contrition,confession,and the
of forgiveness,
sense
and, on the other hand, in joy
in conscious well doing.
(3) An emotional prejudicefor the ways of one's
gious
result in very valuable moral and reliown
group
may
achievements.
be desirous
Thus a child may
of maintaining cleanlinessand modesty, of speaking
ness,
the truth,of performing acts of sympathetic kindof helping God in his good work in the world,
folk do that sort of thing.
largelybecause his own
Stage
Religion.
III. The
Personal
op
to be clear
(1) The danger of precocity. It seems
that earlyadolescence is the time when the habitual
reUgion of childhood becomes
personal. There is
of life
to the way
an
experienceof commitment
which
has hitherto been followed as a matter
of
This should not be called conversion
but
course.
should be recognizedas a stage of religious
progress
childhood.
But
followingupon a genuine religious
the experienceshould by no means
be superinduced
through social pressure and the creation of highly
emotional situations.
(2) The elements of childhood religionare to be
found
and
in the glad conformity to the moral
religious
practicesof the elders and of the church
society;in a joy in the good world where God is and
where so much
kindness is to be experienced and
exercised; in the happy and earnest assumption
of the tasks that belong to the child as a co-operating
Ideas of
member
in God's great family on earth.
with
God, of duty, of social living,corresponding
these experiences,
will be a natural part of childhood
G. Soares
Theodore
religion.
to act

range

"

"

"

The practiceof uniting


CHILD-MARRIAGE."
in formal marriage children under fifteen years of
age, usuallythe marriage of a girlunder fifteen with
older man.
an
to exist
As a custom
child-marriageis known
the
primitive peoples, notably among
among
It is especially
Australians
Melanesians.
and
thought of as a
prevalentin India,and is ordinarily
than one-half of the total
Hindu
More
custom.
female populationof British India are married before
^

Chiliasm

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

while they are mere


fifteen years of age, somet;|mes
in India
infants.
Child-marriage is least common
the Dra vidian and other native tribes which
among
uninfluenced
have remained
relatively
by the caste
In the western
provincesthe
system of the Hindus.
girlremains at home with her parents until sexual
maturity is reached; but in Bengal girlscommence
their married life at the age of nine years.
In 1891
ineffectual attempt
the British government made
an
to check child-marriage
by prescribingthat the age
of legalmarriage should be not less than twelve
The
practice,however, continues and is
years.
supported by all the Hindu castes.
A. Ellwood
Charles
CHILIASM.
See Millenabianism.

ETHICS

AND

of the Bible

was

82

completed by Morrison
published in 1818. These

lation

"

and

and

Milne

was

much
labor spent in the distribution
saw
of tracts and booklets by Gutzlaff,Medhurst
and
others as far north as Manchuria.
The beginning
made
of medical work was
by Dr. Peter Parker at
Canton
At the time of the first Opium
in 1835.
War
in 1842, however, Christianityhad nowhere
soil. Although about fifty
taken root in Chinese
had
been
missionaries
sent from
England and
could
be
America, only five or six converts

earlyyears

numbered.

By the Treaty of Nanking (1842),the ports of


Foochow, Ningpo and Shanghai
opened to foreign trade and residence,and

Canton, Amoy,
were

concluded
and
America
two
years later France
I. Nestorian
treatiesgivingthe right to erect houses of worship
and
of these cities was
in the ports. Each
speedily
Roman
The
history of
Itinerant evangelization
missions in China
covers
occupied by mission boards.
a
period of 1,300 years.
carried on from these centers, but hostility
was
Discardingunconfirmed traditions of earlier evangelization,
The number
of
continued.
and petty persecution
it is now
generallyconceded that Nestorian
to nineteen,
mission boards increased from seven
missionaries reached
China
in 635 a.d., and were
with about 169 missionaries on the ground, but at
Their
favorably received by the reigningemperor.
of converts
the end of fifty
influence was
at its heightin the 9th. century, when
years the total number
hundred.
above one
not much
hostile imperialedict compelled 3000 Christian
was
a
2. The middle period the period of expansion
teachers
to
to
return
private life. Apparently
recovered from this reverse, although as
began in 1860,at the close of the war with the British
they never
thrown
additional cities were
Seven
and French.
found in
as
30,000 Nestorian Christians were
many
and for the first time the
to foreignresidence,
China by the Franciscans as late as the middle of the
open
out
14th. century.
rightwas conceded to travel with passports throughthe eighteen provinces.Both
foreignersand
A brief but interesting
period of missionary
natives were
also protectedin the "quiet profession
begun in
activityunder the Mongol Dynasty was
tian
and teaching" of the doctrines of the ChrisCorvino and the Franciscans,
1292 by John of Monte
of Peking who even
sent an
under the Great Khan
religion,although the provinces of Shansi
not opened till 1876, and the four
and Shensi were
embassy to the Pope. But in 1368 the Mongol
Dynasty was
overthrown, and, in the anarchy most westerly provincestill a year later. Hunan
In 1860, over
the last to be occupied,in 1897.
appeared.
diswas
that followed,the last traces of Christianity
missionaries were
hundred
waitingin Shanghai
one
for the opening of these new
hundred
doors, and Tientsin
Two
years later a permanent lodgment
societies.
entered
and Peking were
by numerous
effected in the country by the Jesuits,under
was
lished,
and
speedilyestabMedical and educational work was
the famous
Ricci (1583). Franciscans
Matteo
work grew rapidly after 1868.
and woman's
Dominicans
1,600
followed, and by 1664 over
in five provinces.
had
churches
been established
Throughout all this period,however, although
the common
In 1724 the Emperor Yung Cheng issued an edict
people were well disposed,the steady
of both officials
oppositionif not the open hostility
strictlyforbiddingany further propagation of the
diminution.
almost without
and literati continued
tained
and for 130 years the church was only mainreligion,
The most extravagant propaganda of misrepresentaSince the
tion
secretly by heroic endurance.
carried on against the Christian religion.
was
rapid
treaty of 1860 Catholic missions have made
The culminating outbreak of this antagonism to all
Their statistics for 1916 {Les Missions
progress.
the Boxer Uprising,brought this
de Chine et da Japon, 1917) give a total of 1,800,000
foreigninfluences,
Christians distributed over
all the eighteenprovinces
periodof slow but steadyexpansionto an end in 1900.
had been accomplished from 1860-1900
much
and Mongolia; a full half milhon
of these are
in
How
statistics lor
1898.
the province of Chihli.
Eleven
societies are
is indicated by the mission
now
to 80,000,
hundred Christians had grown
Of these the Lazarists have the largest The one
at work.
and the nineteen societies to fifty-three.Twentynumber
of adherents,the Jesuits coming second.
male and female, were
II. Protestant
Missions.
1. The earlyperiod. five hundred
missionaries,
of
be said to reach
the field,aided
The
by twice the number
period of beginnings may
upon
1766 day-schools and
from the coming of the first Protestant missionary, native helpers. There were
of
institutions
in 1807, till the opening of the whole
105
higher learning. Foreign
empire to
numbered
190.
the Rev. Robert
missionary work in 1862. When
physicians
since the Boxer Uprising
3. The modern
peri,od,
Morrison, under
appointment by the London
in 1900, has been
significantand fruitful. The
in September, 1807, the
Mission, reached Canton
classes has
resistance of the educated
stubborn
Chinese
chances
of Christianizing the
seemed
broken
indeed.
Neither
residence
work
in
remote
down, and an attitude of receptiveness
nor
of friendUness
toward
western
Chinese
teaching,and even
permitted, and after a year
territorywas
has largelyreplaced the
toward
the missionaries,
he was
of
driven
to the Portuguese settlement
old dislike. The
sionaries
of the work
of the earliest misMacao.
Most
change has been due to several
the disillusionment
chief causes
followingon the
of necessity carried on
at various
was
decree in 1905 aboUshBoxer Rebellion,the imperial
ports in the Malayan Archipelagowhere colonies
of Chinese were
to be found.
Singapore,Malacca,
ing the old system of education, the promise in
throw
1908 of constitutional government, and the overoccupied
Bangkok were
Java, Penang and even
The new
in 1911.
repubhc
of the Manchus
from time to time, and some
was
made,
progress
Missionary
and
was
widely supportedby Christians.
especiallyalong educational
literary lines.
aid in flood and famine work, in the national Red
An
Anglo-Chinese College was
opened by Dr.
and at the time of the pneumonic
about
in 1818, where
Morrison
in Malacca
fifty Cross associations,
sion.
students finished their education; a half million
plague,had produced a deep and favorable impresAs the firstexalted impulses of the revolution
volumes
also issued in Chinese. The transwere
TO."
MISSIONS
Missions.
Catholic

CHINA,

"

"

"

""

"

"

83

began

DICTIONARY

OP

and bribery and dishonesty


fail,
began

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

China, Religions of

and the earth.

Yang is subdivided into an innumerable


of good spiritscalled shen; Yin,
new
into numerous
evil spiritscalled kwei.
republicanconditions,thoughtfulmen
Man's
began
to see that fresh moral impulse was
finer qualities
needed for new
from his shen; his passionsand
come
times.
coarser
qualitiesfrom his kwei. The air of earth
of these and other causes,
As a consequence
and
is supposed to swarm
with evil spirits
was
innumerable.
Such
opportunitiesfor wider influence on the part of the
religionas the Chinese had
church have sprung
side. Old separabefore the 6th. century b.c. consisted in the endeavor
up on every
tions
and divisions,
both national and denominato propitiatethese spirits. At
tional,
the basis of the
have everywhere been breakingdown, and
Chinese conception of life lies the Tao, or the
union efforts,
in educational and medical
order of the universe.
the orderly
especially
It embraces
The
revolution of the seasons.
tional
undenominalines,multiply year by year.
Closelyconnected with
work of the Y.M.C.A., especially
this is a righthuman
the
order,Jin Tao, or the "Tao of
among
large government schools,has been of great value, Man."_ There was
for man
to cona
duct
proper way
and
its staff has increased five-fold within ten
himself.
Indeed
the smooth
working of the
Central boards
for united
action are
order of nature, the Tien Tao, depended upon
how
years.
a
feature of this modern
order was
followed
correct
human
out
periodthat promise to be of
by men.
the widest helpfulness. The
so-called "Continuathis had
led to the
tion
By the time of Confucius
Committee"
of the federated churches in the
fucius,
or^nizationof a definite state religion.ConChina
while animated
Edinburgh Conference, the new
Medical
by a high ethical purpose
in no
the
the
Board, the Christian Educational Association,
reformer. He reverenced
was
sense
a
China
Medical
order of nature
Missionary Association are all full
as
expressedin the Chinese empire
of promise for the future.
and religion. Even its burdensome
Practicallyall bodies
customs, such
working in China now
of an
recognizethe primary need
as the three years' mourning for the death
Chinese
of training
ship
the
youth for the efficient leaderemperor, which suspended all business and even
of a modern
church.
of marriages,were
Already there are the
consummation
regarded by him
beginnings of the "Chinese Christian Church"
as
expressions of proper
feeling. He
necessary
which
is wholly independent and
endeavored
unconnected
in Chinese
domestic and
to secure
denominational
with any
organization. The posipoliticallife the observance of the proper forms,
tion
of the Christian community has been much
proved the fostering
imof proper
and the preservation
feeling,
by the granting of full religioustoleration, of ethical standards.
Through the influence of the
in a law of May, 1916,providingthat "the people of
the forms of Chinese life
Confucianists,
therefore,
the Republic of China shall have libertyto honor
have been crystallized.The Tao of Man
has been
Confucius, and libertyof religiousworship, which
thought to be expressed entirelyin the Classics.
shall be unrestricted,
These have been studied to the neglectof all unrewith
except in accordance
lated
law." This seemingly brings to an end the effort
literature,
they have been made the basis of
of Confucianism
state religionand to
make
to
Chinese education, of examinations
for the civil
a
and their teachingshave been dogmatically
tianity. service,
perpetuate the old discriminations.against Chrisimposed by the government upon the nation. This
statistics for 1916
The
result has been reached by gradual steps.
(China Mission
Yearbe
3. Historical development. About
as
follows:
hundred
briefly summarized
hook) _may
a
Chih HwangOrganized congregations,3,880; communicants,
y;earsafter Mencius the Tsin emperor,
to destroy the literati and all their
ti,endeavored
268,652; adherents, 526,108; Sunday school
scholars,165,282; contributions,
$644,401 (Mex.); books; and Confucianism and its classics came
near
missionaries,5,338; Chinese
workers, 20,460; to extermination along with the rest. The Tsin
ordained
The num330.
bers
djrnastysoon gave place,however, to the Han, under
pastors,764; hospitals,
of the foreignworkers are divided among
which the teachingsof Confucius were
the
revived and
leadingchurches as follows: China Inland Mission, revered. During both the earlier and later Han
976; Presbyterian,943; Methodist,754; Anglican, periods(206 b.c. to 220 a.d.)Confucius was held in
In 1 a.d. he was
canonized
"Duke
as
621; Baptist, 534; Lutheran, 385; Congrega- high honor.
Henry
284.
Kingman
tionalist,
Ni, the all complete and illustrious." In the first
part of the Han period,however, the commentaries
OF."
I. Confucianism
Confucius were written by men
who were
to a
CHINA, RELIGIONS
upon
takes its name
from Confucius
and
(q.v.). It is a sysgreater or less degree under Taoist influence,
tem
of morals engrafted upon
the nature
rupted
religion who, in the judgment of later generations,corwhich had existed in China from times primeval.
the teachings of the master.
In the reign
of Wang
the
1. The sacred books of Confucianism are
books,said to be
Mang (6-23 a.d.)some
the Shu King, or "Book
of History," more
five Classics,
ancient,were
presented to the government.
the Shi King, or "Book
of Poetry," the / King or
These
differed from the corrupted commentaries.
and application
"Book
of Changes" (explanations
The books presentedwere
to
said to have been dug up.
of divination of eightenigmaticdiagrams),
mentaries
They were called "Ancient Literature"; the compurposes
Ch' un
Ts'iu or "Spring and Autumn
it
Literature."
"Modem
In 57 a.d.
Annals," and
the Li Ki or "Book
of Rites."
All of these except
ordained
that sacrifices should be offered to
was
the last were
Confucianism
Confucius. In 165 a.d.
compiled by Confucius. To the
was
finally
five Classics four books
and became
are
from Taoism
a
added, though these
disentangled
separate
character.
of a less authoritative
are
They are
system.
the Lun
Yu or "Analects"
fucius
Confucianists were
much opposed to Buddhism,
(memorabilia of Conto strike
of
whose monastic
orders seemed to them
compiled by his pupils),the "Works
Mencius"
at the bases of Chinese life. Confucianism
the Ta Hsiao or "Great Learning,"
glorified
(q.v.),
and the Chung Yung or "Doctrine
of the Mean."
that life and fostered all those institutions which
These
had been developed during the nation's longstruggle
were
compiled or written by disciples
or
followers of Confucius.
for existence.
In spiteof the growth of Buddhism
2. Fundamental
and the frequent extension to it of imperialfavor,
ceive
conception. ^The Chinese conthe universe to have originatedby generation the estimate of Confucius rose higher and higher as
stA^led "the
from two
he was
souls or breaths called Yang and
Yin,
time
passed. In 492 a.d.
Yang represents light,warmth, productivity,life, venerable Ni, the accomplishedSage.'' In 609 a.d.
and the heavens; and
be
directed that a temple to him should
Yin, darkness,cold,death, it was
to

manifest

themselves

in their old forms

under

to

the

number

"

"

China, Religions of

DICTIONARY

RELIGION

OF

erected at every seat of learning. In 659 he was


styled "K'ung, the ancient Teacher, the perfect
Yuan
Sage." The emperor
Tsung (713-766 a.d.)
him
the title "Accomplished and
Sagacious
gave
King." Cheng Tsung (1068-1086 a.d.) advanced
him to the title of "Emperor."
Chu
Hsi
(1130-1200 a.d.) introduced a new
of the Confucian
departure into the interpretation
classics. He refused to interpretone
in one
way
_

and

another

in another.
His influence
a sober interpretation
of the Classical
been
books. His works have never
translated into a European languageand are little
known
in the West, but his influence seems, on the
whole, to have tended toward
agnosticism. In
1907 the late Empress Dowager raised Confucius
with
to the first grade of worship, ranking him
Shang-ti,the Supreme Spirit.
4. Pantheon,templesand ritiuil. The divinities
of the Chinese
Confucianism
which
state religion,
has made
fall into three classes.
a part of itself,
(1) There are those worshiped by the Emperor
the spiritsof Heaven
and
Earth, the Imperial
Ancestors,and the gods of the ground,and of millet
On the night of the winter solstice the
or
com.
Emperor (or President)offers the most important
sacrifice to Heaven
in a temple to the south of
solstice,
Peking,and on the night of the summer
to the Earth in a temple to the north of that city.
On both occasions he sacrifices also to his ancestors.
Sacrifices are offered to corn
gods and gods of the
ground, in the spring and autumn, in a park to the
southwest
of the Tartar cityeither by the President
his deputy. (2) Gods of the middle
class are
or
the sun, and various famous
who are believed
men
such
to
have introduced civilization,
as
Sheng
Nung, the divine husbandman, and Sien-ts'an,
the firstbreeder of silk worms.
In this class of gods
rulers of the past are worshiped; also Confucius,
many
than
togetherwith his ancestors, and more
In this class
seventy exponents of his doctrine.
find also the planet Jupiter,deities of clouds,
we
mountains
rain,wind, and thunder,the ten principal
of the empire,five ranges of hills,
etc.
(3) A third
class of deities is worshiped by Mandarins.
This
includes the physiciansof olden time, a star in the
Great
Bear
which is regarded as the patron of
Classical studies,the Prince
of the north pole,
the god of fire,
gods of walls and moats, the god of the
eastern mountains
(inShantung), gods of water and
of storehouses,
and many
rain,of porcelainkilns,
others.
In the time of Confucius the worship of the
passage
was

way

accordinglyon the side of

"

"

restricted to reverencing
people was
their ancestors, but they have not been content with
this. All over
China in villages
and other localities
they now have temples for the worship of mountains,
streams, rocks, and patron divinities of all sorts.
Images of these gods exist by tens of thousands.
The altars consist of two or more
tables,on which
are
placed wax
candles,flower- vases, and pots in
which sticks of incense are placed to burn.
These
is no
offeringsexpress
homage. There
atoning
sacrifice. The sacrifices are propiatoryrather than
common

expiatory.
5. Principles. (1) Foremost

the principles
among
is reverence
for
reverence
the
the Shen, or
Soul of the
for the chief deities menreverence
universe,i.e.,
tioned
above,and for ancestors who were believed to
be possessedof a shen kindred to that of the universe;
and institutions
reverence, too, for all the good customs
which had
in China's
past.
grown
up
(2) According to Confucianism the five Classics
contain and reveal all the binding principles
of the
Tao of man.
All that conflicts with these is to be
uprooted and discarded. Confucianism, when
"

of Confucianism
manifestations
of

"

AND

ETHICS

S4

applied,is accordinglydogmatic and


consistently
intolerant.
(3) Sin is recognized,but its punishment
from
is expected in this life. Reformation
but is believed to be within
wrong-doingis required,
one's own
(4) Confucius was a formalist.
power.
of self-control was
admirable.
His power
He inculcated
code of honor and exhibited urbanityand
a rigid
courtesy. In these respects he became an example to
his followers. Confucianism
has,accordingly,as one
of its principal
elaborate system
an
expressions,
of etiquette and
politeness. (5) Confucianism
embraces
also a high degree of ethical teaching.
Confucius advocated
kindness,rectitude,decorum,
wisdom, and sincerity. He does not employ the
word "lie,"but he lays great stress upon
sincerity.
His motive of conduct
of the
was
a negative form
Golden
Rule:
which I do not wish others to
"That
others."
put upon
me, I also wish not to put upon
He did not, however, believe in forgivingenemies,
but advocated
He
blood revenge.
thought that
heaven with
should not live under the same
a man
the murderer
of his father.
(6) Confucianism
noble.
It
nature
essentially
as
regards human
has inculcated loyaltyand has upheld a high ethical
standard,and has thus been of untold benefit to the
China of the past. In spiteof its noble standards,
to lack the ethical power
to
however, it seems
the China which
must
create
be, if that land is
stillto have a mission in the world.
rupted
The
overthrow
of the Empire in 1912 interfor a time the state religionabout
which
entwined
had
Confucianism
itself,but in 1915
President
of the Chinese
Yuan
Shi Kai, then
the
made
Confucianism
more
Republic, once
religionof the state.
II. Taoism
is a system of Chinese
thought and
hundred
practicewhich, after existingseven
years
as a philosophy,
developed,about eighteenhundred
from
years ago, into a religion. It takes its name
the Chinese word
Tao, "path," "road," "way."
Early Chinamen
spoke of l^ien Tao, "the Way
of Heaven,"
contrasting it with Jen Tao, "the
The former was
bright,holy,right;
Way of Man."
Then
the latter,dark, perverse.
omitting T'ien
they employed Tao alone to denote the summum
which
eludes the transis a word
lator.
bonum.
Tao
It seems
the
or
at times to be "Nature"
"Way the Universe goes." Tao was reverenced by
all the early Chinese, and forms the basis of both
Confucianism
(q.v.)and Taoism.
The founder of Taoism
as
a distinct system was
and who
born about
600 b.c,
Lao-tze, who was
He is beUeved
hved to be about 80 years old.
to
be the author of the Tao Teh Ching, the oldest of
He lived in the
the sacred books of the Taoists.
cated
midst of increasingwealth and luxury, and advoand the simple life. To
to nature
return
a
the inexpressibleInfinite,
the
seemed
him
Tao
exalted spirit. To
come
greater than the most
to attain all virtue.
into harmony with the Tao was
This harmony was, he believed,to be attained
by quietism, living according to nature, selfcally
radiLao-tze differed
effacement,and meditation.
from his younger
contemporary, Confucius.
Confucius
taught a system of strict etiquette;he
Lao-tze
would
would
all life into a mould.
run
free from convention; to him the perfect
set man
His famous
the primevalman.
saying:
man
was
"The
Way (Tao) which can be walked is not the
enduringand unchanging Way {Tao); the name
ging
is not the enduring and unchanthat can be named
Name," expresses his transcendentahsm.
For two hundred
years the teachingsof Lao-tze
undefined
life a somewhat
exerted upon
Chinese
influence.
At least a few under this influence had
sought through asceticism to return to primitive
holiness.
In the 4th. century b.c,
Chuang-tze,
_

85

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

abilitygreater than that of Lao-tze


a literary
and reinforced the philosophy
himself,advocated
He
held the punctilious
of the great founder.
Confucianists up to ridicule and sought to commend
the teachings of Lao-tze.
Chuang-tze possessed
of pure
philosophicthought than
greater power
Mith

other Chinese

writer.
relative.

AND

ETHICS

China, Religions of

rivalry to

Buddhism, which reverences


Buddha
under three aspects as past, present, and future.
San tsingis the god of contemplation. Yu Hwang
Shang-ti,"the preciousimperialgod," is worshiped
He controls
as the ruler of the physicaluniverse.
human
their
can
affairs; to him men
express
hopes and griefs. Magicians and alchemists have
added other deities. The earth is said to consist
of five constituent parts, metal, wood, water, fire,
and earth,which are respectively
representedin the
heavens by Venus, Jupiter,Mercury, Mars, Saturn.
These planets,which are regarded as the sublimated
of these earthlythings,are regardedas gods.
essences
Other stars are deified. The Great Bear comes
in
for a good degreeof worship,one
part of it being
thought to be the palace of a goddess, Tow-mu,
another part of the god Kwei-sing. The god of
thunder, the spiritof the sea, the mother of lightning,
the king of the sea, the lord of the tide,and
other spirits
able
are
worshiped. Spiritsinnumermany
which
preside over
possiblecallingare
every
also invoked.
In spiteof the fact that wealth and
ers,
honor are discountenanced
by the great Taoist writno
god is more
eagerlyworshiped than Tasi-shin,
the god of riches. In short,Taoism
has absorbed
into itself any
the
popular spiritor god whom

He held that all human


The
fundamental
most
distinctions of our
in the
thought crumble away
He thus sums
hght of nature.
up the whole duty of
man
: "Resolve
your mental energy into abstraction,
into inaction.
Allow yourself
your physicalenergy
fall in with the natural order of phenomena,
to
without
of self." The
admitting the element
logicaldeduction from this teaching was that all
would come
does nothing,an attitude
right,if man
that did not appeal to great numbers
of practical
Chinamen.
Chuahg-tze'sinfluence did, however,
attract
a
followingand by the next century the
efforts of the Taoists to live in accord with Nature
had led them to dabble in various doubtful arts in
the hope of discovering Nature's
hidden
secrets.
In particular,
Taoists had come
to believe that an
island in the Yellow
Sea produced a plant from
which the elixir of life could be made
elixir
an
which
would
immortality. The
great
procure
Tsin emperor, Shih Hwang-ti (221-209 B.C.),desiring
peopledesire to worship.
this elixir,
In the principal
Taoist temples are numerous.
patronized the Taoists,and, when
he persecutedthe Confucianists and destroyed their
hall of the temple stands an altar and a shrine.
In
the shrine is a venerable figurewith a long beard,
books, the Taoists were
spared. For the same
the Han emperor
Wu-ti (140-87 b.c.) was
with
folded
reflect the
features
reason
an
hands, whose
ardent supporter of the Taoists.
Under
the influence
calm of contemplation. Canton
in 1900 contained
of such
ideals the teachings of the great
in these
ten such temples. The
priestswho serve
thinkers,Lao-tze and Chuang-tze, while nominally
temples practiseexorcism, tell fortunes,and practise
revered, fell into the background. They were
chronomancy, i.e.,they tell what days and
understood
times
favorable
for
and
unfavorable
are
by few. The Taoists became
or
largely
any
of magicians.
monasteries
Taoist
a group
undertaking. While
every
Taoists and Confucianists were
survive to the
few of them
were
once
not, however,
numerous,
of the priestsnow
clearly
separated from one another until the 2nd.
present. Most
mingle freely
the efforts of
Under
the later Hans
in the common
lifeof their fellows.
century a.d.
the Confucianists
All this organizationof Taoism
is the result of
to purify the teachings of their
Master
from Taoist corruptions,combined
with a
native Chinese opposition to Buddhism, a foreign
growing self-consciousness of their own, as well as
religion. It has, however, never
appropriated the
imitation
of the recently introduced
Buddhistic hopes of a future life. Faithful to native
Buddhism,
with an organizationChinese
helped Taoism to become a real religion
tendencies, its arts and teachings are
confined to matters
the present life.
It possesseda pantheon,
which concern
wholly its own.
doctrines of sanctity,
it was
fostered
For
centuries
Taoists
have
secret
a system of ethics which
said would
lead to sanctity,and votaries,saints, societies. Sometimes
they have existed for the
of contemplation or for the cultivation of
hermits,teachers,and pupils. In 165 a.d, Chang
purpose
Sometimes
they
Tao-ling or Chang Ling, a man
regarded as a saint
mystic arts, such as exorcism.
times
Someand described as a miracle-worker,a distillerof the
have been organized for political
purposes.
been
ehxir of life,
those formed
have
for other reasons
an
exorcist,and a god-man, claimed
that Lao-tze had appearedto him and commissioned
diverted
to
agitation
politicalagitation. Such
him to become
ingly
usually has taken the form of opposition to the
patriarchof the Taoists. He accordingly,
assumed
this position,and his descendants
dynasty of the time. These societies have, accordhold it to the present day.
frequentlybeen prohibitedand broken up by
In rivalry
the government.
with Buddhism, Taoism soon
One of the latest of the societies
developed
and
the Boxers, which the late Empress Dowager,
a monastic
was
order,a system of temples,sacrifices,
hundred
Tsi Thsi, encouraged as a means
of ridding China
a
priesthood. In the last seventeen
of
vicissitudes.
of foreigners,
it has
thus precipitatingthe massacre
experienced various
years
the year 1900.
Under
the Ch'i dynasty (479-502) temples and
under
Buddhism
III. Chinese
Buddhism.
monasteries
constructed for them
(q.v.)had
were
the
Chin
had a historyof five hundred
dynasty
imperial patronage. Under
years in India before
The
first authentic
(5.56-580A.D.) their establishments were
destroyed its introduction into China.
reached
record that a knowledge of Buddhism
along witJi those of the Buddhists,while under the
China comes
from the reign of Wu-ti of the Han
was
great Tang dynasty (618-907 a.d.) Taoism
favored to such a degree that it is regarded by
dynasty (140-87 B.C.). During his reign the
Chinese penetrated to Tibet and the Caspian, and
the state religionof the Tangs. It was
some
as
also favored
by the Sung emperors
(906-1127), one of Wu-ti's generals,Chang-k'ien,reportedto the
but persecuted by the Kin dynasty (1127-1235). emperor
that he had heard that in India they
Their magic arts commended
them to the Mongols
Feu-to
(Buddha).
worshiped a divine person,
in Pamir
a
that under the Yuan
Another
so
dynasty (1260-1368) they
general, Hu Kui-ping, saw
adored.
who was
the last two
dynasties golden image of the same
again flourished. Under
person,
imperialfavor has varied with different sovereigns. Possibly missionaries also followed in the wake of
At the head
of the Taoist
the Chinese
pantheon stands
armies, for in 6 B.C. an ambassador
Lao-tze,who is worshiped under the titleSan tsing, of the Massagatae with the aid of a Chinese scholar
"The
three Pure
book into Chinese.
Ones"
title given him
in
translated a Buddhistic
a
any

perceptions are

"

"

"

China,Religions of

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

official introduction
of Buddhism
into
The
China
dates,however, from the reign of Ming-ti,
The faith thus introduced
what is
58-86 A.D.
was
known
Buddhism.
It was
in many
as
Mahayama
nally
respects quite different from the simple faith origithat which
as well as from
taught by Gautama
is still perpetuated among
the southern Buddhists.
stillthat existence is an
Its fundamental
tenets were
to successive
evil, that individuals are doomed
reincarnations
until they become
sufficiently
fect
perto attain Nirvana
by losingtheir individuality
in Tag^thata, the substantial
hypostasis of the
universe,and that the way to attain this perfection
the Noble, Eight-Fold, Middle
But
Path.
was
to this simple faith many
thingshad been added.
The
lously
Buddha, it was
believed,had been miracuconceived
and
miraculously born without
As an infant he had
causing pain to his mother.
behaved
in a most miraculous way.
Daevas (theold
gods) had rejoicedat his birth; they had attended
him throughoutlife. Into the system of belief there
had
been
introduced
a
goddess, Abolokitesvara,
in China as Kwan-yin, and a divine being,
known
Amitabha, called by the Chinese Amita, or Mi-to.
belief in Boddhisattvas
The
was
already a part
and
faith in heaven
of it,as was
hell as places
different incarnations.
of temf"orary sojourn between

AND

ETHICS

86

strong protest against the whole


has been often quoted.
undertook
to
At different times Chinese emperors
check the spread of Buddhism
of perseby means
cution.
these for a time were
While
vigorously
pushed, in the end the religion
proved too strong to
be repressed.
Hindu
The
conception of the transmigrationof
souls has never
taken deep root in China.
Chinese
the other hand, have easily
on
gods and spirits,
been transformed into Buddhas
or
Boddhisattvas,
and the phrase "all the Buddhas"
has become
in
northern
Buddhism
almost
an
equivalent to "all
the spirits"
"all the gods." In addition to these,
or
Buddhism
two deities of northern
have won
a very
largeplace in the Chinese form of the faith. They
Amita
are
Kwin-yin and Mi-to (i.e.,
or
Amitabha).
Kwan-yin is the "goddess of mercy," who is believed
to descend
regularlyto hell to release spiritsbound
She is worshiped now
there.
by a ritual which
resembles a Christian liturgy. Indeed it
strikingly
is believed to have been borrowed
from Christianity.
It appears
to have reached China at the time of the
Tang dynasty in the 7th. century with Nestorianism,
and to have been adapted in the time of the Mings
in the 15th. century.
The other deity,Mi-to or Amitabha, is a kind
of Saviour
Buddha.
Originallyonly a form of
Buddha, he has become in the minds of the people
practicallya god. He is believed to control the
tsingtu, or "Pure Land," a Paradise supposed to
be situated in the West, to gain which assures
petual
perbliss. Gradually there has grown
the
up
doctrine that faith in Mi-to
combined
with the
will insure entrance
of his name
into this
repetition
Paradise.
Admission
Land"
tutes
constito that "Pure
salvation.
result of this doctrine
As
a
Chinese
Buddhists
will sit for hours repeating the
word
is supposed to contain
the
Mi-to, which
elixirof life,
which
and to contain the magic power
delivers from the circle of transmigration. It thus
happens that in China a religionof faith and of
of the name
of a Saviour has been
ritual repetitions
substituted
for the strenuous
ethical endeavor
which
constituted
taught by Gautama
primitive
Buddhism.
Chinese
have nothing to
who
While
there are
do with Buddhism, it may
truthfullybe said that
Buddhism
has penetrated the whole
of Chinese
life. There is no clearly marked
line of distinction
between
and those of the
the devotees of Buddhism
The
other religionsof China.
great majority of
the people are on friendlyterms with all three.
In
be
a
therefore,all China's millions may
sense,
Buddhism
counted as Buddhists.
has contributed
to Chinese thought an eschatologyand a conception
it calls its devotees to attain heaven
of the hereafter,
and escape hell by frequentinvocations of Buddhas
and
Boddhisattvas, together with fastings and
the leadingof a moral
and it encourages
pilgrimages,
the whole
and altruistic life. It has had on
an
elevatinginfluence on Chinese life.
George
A. Barton
The system of knighthood in the
CHIVALRY."
of feudalism
(10th.-14th.century) in which
age
aid
knightly honor was pledged to protect women,
the weak, and act magnanimously toward
a
quished
vanfoe. Chivalry was
recognized by the
ture
church from the time of the Crusades,the investielaborate church
of the knight including an
Han

Yu, wrote

procedure,which

This form of Buddhism


had developed in northand northwestern
India among
Scythians and
other tribes who
of
had come
into India by way
Parthian
enced
empire, and had been profoundlyinfluby ideas originallyforeignto it.
The progress of Buddhism
in China was
at first
slow.
While
it does not demand
that all who
it does hold that
accept it shall live a celibate life,
such a life is the most
perfect,and organizesmany
monasteries
and
nunneries.
withdrawal
of
The
people from active married life was
contrary to
Chinese ideals,
in which the duty of being economically
tain
productiveand of begettingchildren to maindue to ancestors
had
perpetuallythe reverence
for centuries been deeplyingrainedinto the national
consciousness.
Both
Confucianism
and
Taoism
and legal
(q.v.)were
ments
impediopposed to Buddhism
from
were
employed to prevent Chinese
than
two
turies
cenbecoming
monks.^ For more
after the introduction of Buddhism
the
orders were
monastic
kept alive by the influx of
After the beginning of the later
foreign monks.
Tsin dynasty in 265 a.d.
the opposing influences
weakened, and in 335 a.d. an imperialdecree permitted
the Chinese
orders.
to enter
the monastic
established
monasteries
in northern
were
Many
nine-tenths of the people had in a
China and soon
become
Buddhists.
ism,
sense
Buddhism, Confucianand Taoism
not mutually exclusive syswere
tems,
and the majority of the Chinese
have from
themselves
that time counted
members
of all
as
three faiths,so as to gain whatever
benefits each
can
bring. As neither Confucianism nor Taoism
held out a hope of a future life.
Buddhism
supplied
at this point a real lack.
Although the imperial
favor wavered, one
favoringConfucianism
emperor
at the expense
of Buddhism, another Taoism, and
another veering again to Buddhism, and although
the same
emperor would at times veer from one faith
to another, Buddhist
monks
multiplied rapidly
and
began to make
pilgrimages to India. In
.526 A.D.
cessor
Buddhidharma, the twenty-eighth sucof Gautama, and the first of the Buddhist
ceremony.
from
India to China, arrived
patriarchsto come
and from that time China became
the seat of the
of the self by which a
CHOICE."
That power
Buddhistic patriarchate. In 819 a.d. Hsien Tsung,
of action,
selection is made
from alternative courses
of the Tang dynasty, sent commissioners
tive
to escort a
things,or ends, and involvinga comparison of relaChoice
the selection
values.
is ethical when
to the capital. Great
supposed bone of the Buddha
reverence
was
paid to the relic. A Confucianist, involves a moral evaluation of the alternatives.
em

87

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Christian Science

services
CHOIR.
In most well-ordered religious
of the ancient world the people responded to the
trained
priestsin the chanting of litanies,
or
a
choir
(chorus) of singers followed a leader or
alternatelychanted psalms. The early Christian
Church
continued
modified synagogue
service of
a
psalm chanting. After the 4th. century, especially
in monasteries,we hear of choirs (schola cantarum),
who
occupied a prominent place in church, which
place is also called choir (from chorus or corona
or
chancel),the chorus forming a circle about the
altar,separated from the people by a railing.
J. N. Reagan
CHRISM.
(1)An unguent made of oUve oil and
balm
used as an
anointing substance in the Or.
and R.C. churches at baptism,confirmation,
ordination
and consecration services.
Consecration of the
chrism is performed by a bishop on Maundy
day.
Thursused for the
(2) A designation sometimes
olive oil employed in the administration
of extreme

the Congo in Africa,the West Indies,and in three


countries in South
America.
The
latest mission
260 foreignmissionaries,
reportsshow some
many
of whom
are
lay workers, engaged throughout
this mission field,
with a native communicant
body
of about
The
7,000, and 450 native workers.
Alliance puts unusual emphasis upon
conventions,
and local,regular,and occasional
national,district,
the means
of promoting its evangehstic and
as
missionaryinterests. Leaders in the Alliance have
been
not
especiallyprominent in the modern
interdenominational and rehgious movement.
James
L. Barton
CHRISTIAN
CATHOLIC
CHURCH
IN ZION.
A rehgious body organized in 1896 by John
Alexander
Dowie, laying stress on faith-healing,
abstinence from pork and tobacco, and cultivating
life. The
a
sect
strong religiouscommunity
is
located at Zion City, 111.

unction.

CHRISTIAN
CONNECTION."
A
of
group
Christians organizedby James O'Kelly (1735-1826)
in North Carolina with tenets similar to those of the
Disciplesof Christ (q.v.).

"

"

CHRISMON.
first two
appears

on

A
formed
of the
monogram
letters of the Greek
word, Christos. It
the tombs of some
of the earlyChristians.

CHRIST.

"

"

See Jesus

CHRISTIAN
PEOPLES'
SOCIETY
Societies.

Christ; Messiah.

CHRISTADELPHIANS."
A
founded
in
sect
1848 by John
Thomas, the tenets of which are
millenarianism,conditional immortality,anti-trinitarianism,and churches with neither organization
nor

ministry. Membership

(1919),2,922.

CHRISTENDOM."
That
part of the world
which Christianity is the dominant
reUgion.

"

in

CHRISTENING."

The
of Christian
ceremony
the ceremony
when an infant is
baptism, specifically
baptized and named.
CHRISTIAN.
Ideallya person possessedof the
moral and religious
character of Jesus Christ. In
ordinary usage, however, the term is used to denote
more
even
a professedfollower of Christ or
loosely
who
is associated with a Christian group
one
or
Mohammedan.
not a Jew, pagan
or
nation; i.e.,
CHRISTIAN
AND
MISSIONARY
ALLIANCE.
A religiousmovement
which
has as its founder
and
president Albert B. Simpson. In 1879 the
International Missionary Alliance and the Christian
Alliance were
separatelyincorporated. Later these
two societies united in the Christian and Missionary
headauarters
in the
Alliance.
The
national
are
44th Street,New
tabernacle at 8th Avenue
ana
the Hudson,
York, and at Nyack Heights upon
where is established the Nyack MissionaryInstitute,
the educational
of the Alliance and
the
center
of its leaders.
It mainofficial residence of many
tains
and orphanYork City various homes
in New
ages
and
also a training college. Membership,

9,625 (1919).
Doctrinal
rehgious doctrines
position. The
especially
prominent in the Alliance and upon which
it puts constant
emphasis are Gospel Evangelism,
Personal
Heahng, Baptism by
Holiness, Divine
Immersion, the Second Coming of Christ,and the
and persons
Extension
of Christianityto all races
with
the purpose
of offeringsalvation to every
nation and individual in this generation.
In 1887 at a convention
at
Foreign missions.
Old Orchard, Maine, the AlUance
announced
its
foreign mission policy. Since that date missions
have been begun in Palestine,three provinces in
India, six provincesin China, on the border of Tibet,
Aunam, Japan, PhilippineIslands,the Soudan, and
"

"

OF."

YOUNG

See Young

Peoples'

CHRISTIAN
SOCIETY
FOR
KNOWLEDGE,
PROMOTING."
A
the
society operated by
Church
of England to publishand distribute Bibles,
Christian literature and tracts.
It dates from 1698,
and has been a great missionary agency
in publishing
books in various languages.
CHRISTIAN
REFORM
CHURCH."
A body
consistingof secessions from the Dutch Reformed
Church
1882.
Its
(q. v.) in 1822, 1857 and
strongestschools are in western Michigan.
CHRISTIAN

"

"

ENDEAVOR,

SCIENCE."

scientific system

of

metaphysical or spiritual
healing,discovered by
Mary Baker Eddy in the year 1866. Christian

Science is so called because of its exact and scientific


nature.
It implies a correct
and
demonstrable
knowledge of God; a systematizedand formulated
knowledge of the divine Principleof being, which
be apphed spiritually,
since God
is infinite
must
Spirit. It is Christian because it explains and
unfolds the teachings of Jesus, whose
knowledge
and apprehension of God
have been scientifically
must
correct, hence the teachings of Jesus are at
Christian and scientific.
once
I. Discoverer
Founder.
and
Mary Baker
of Christian
Eddy, the Discoverer and Founder
Science,a gentlewoman of culture and refinement,
born at Bow, near
was
Concord, New Hampshire,
in 1821.
She was
of English and Scotch descent.
Her ancestry was
marked
by sturdy devotion to
Protestant
libertyand deep rehgious tendencies.
Her mother
was
especiallydevout and spiritually
minded.
relatives were
Her immediate
prosperous
people of local prominence. She received a liberal
favorite
Her
tutors.
education, mainly under
studies were
natural philosophy,logic and moral
She was
science.
instructed in Hebrew, Latin,and
Greek
by her brother, a graduate of Dartmouth
made
an
honorary
College. In 1903 she was
tion.
Revolumember
of the Daughters of the American
ethical and moral
She was
a fluent writer on
subjectsand for a time earned her liveUhood through
and other
contributions to newspapers
her literary
"

periodicals.
As a child Mrs. Eddy took an unusual interest
in religious
subjectsand at the age of twelve she
in
recovered
illness by turning to God
from
an

Christian

Science

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

At an
admitted
church
to
early age she was
membership in the Congregational Church
tarian). church
(Trini-

AND

ETHICS

88

voluntary religiousassociation. The


and is known
The
organized was
as
Her parents had been members
of Christ,Scientist,
of that
in Boston, Massachusetts,
it is more
or
as
nection
body for about fortyyears and she retained her confrequently called,The
Church.
therewith
until the first Christian Science
Mother
The headquarters of this church
church
founded.
established in Boston, where they continue at
As
was
she
were
a
woman
young
further developed and
afterward
the present time.
maintained
The organizationof the church
an
intense interest in religious
and metaphysical subjects, and formation
of its By-Laws were
directlyunder
the supervision of Mrs.
causation.
and
includingmental and spiritual
Eddy;
today the
Church
In February 1866 she sustained an injurywhich
Manual, as given by her, is the accepted
and duly recognized constitution and law of The
was
pronounced fatal by her physician. In her
Mother
Church.
extremity she turned to God, called for her Bible
and opening it at the ninth chapter of Matthew,
IV. The
Tenets
Christian
op
the
Science
she read the account
Church.
of Jesus' healing of the man
The reUgioustenets of Christian Science,
sick of the palsy. The
clear realization of the
as formulated
by Mrs. Eddy, are as follows:
1. As adherents
of Truth, we
take the inspired
healingpower of the Christ came to her at that time
Word of the Bible as our sufficient guide to eternal
with such illumination
and
conviction
that she
Life.
arose, dressed herself and walked into the adjoining
2. We acknowledgeand adore one
and
having disappeared.
room, every trace of her injury
supreme
infinite God.
After this experience she retired from society for
We
acknowledge His Son, one
about three years, during which
Christ; the Holy Ghost or divine Comforter; and
period she read
littlebut the Bible and finally
in God's image and likeness.
man
a complete revelation
of the Science of the teachings of Christ Jesus
3. We
acknowledge God's forgivenessof sin in
the destruction of sin and the spiritual
unfolded to her and she began to teach and practice
understanding
prayer.

as

thus
First Church

"

this Science for herself and others.


II. Textbook.
The
Christian Science textbook,
Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures,
written by Mary Baker Eddy during the years
was
immediately followingher discovery. It was first
publishedin 1875 and was revised by the author at
various times until 1910 when
the latest change
This book contains the complete statemade.
ment
was
of Christian Science,definingits Principleand
rules,with the elucidation thereof. The prayerful
study of this book has not only healed thousands
of its readers, but it has enabled
them
to heal
others and so made
it possiblefor them
to fulfill
the command
of Christ Jesus to "heal the sick."
Health
Science and
with
Key to the Scriptures
acknowledges only one God and that the All-good.
It shows Christ Jesus to be the Way-shower, who
be followed in every
must
act of Ufe if one
is to
merit the name
of Christian. It awakens
each
student
of its pages
to the awful and deceptive
of sin and of all evil. From
nature
to cover
cover
it stands for God and His laws; and all those who
love this book are turned to a more
appreciative,
consecrated,and intelligent
study of the Bible. It
contains
eighteen chapters, with the following
and Eucharist;
headings: I. Prayer; II. Atonement
III. Marriage; IV.
Christian Science
versus
Spiritualism;V. Animal
Magnetism Unmasked;
VI. Science,Theology, Medicine; VII. Physiology;
VIII. Footsteps of Truth; IX. Creation;X. Science
of Being; XI. Some
Objections Answered;
Science Practice; XIII. Teaching
XII. Christian
Christian Science;XIV. Recapitulation;
XV. Genesis;
XVI.
The
Apocalypse; XVII.
Glossary;
XVIII.
Fruitage.
The
complete list of the published writings of
Mary Baker Eddy is as follows: Science and Health
vnth Key to the Scriptures;
The People'sIdea of
God
spection
(1886); Christian Healing (1886); Retroand Introspection(1891); Unity of Good
(1891); Rudimental Divine Science (1891); No and
Fes (1891); Church Manual
(1895); Miscellaneous
Writings(1883-1896); Christ and Christmas (1897);
Christian Science versus
Pantheism
(1898); Pulpit
and Press (1895); Messages to The Mother
Church
(1900, 1901, 1902); Poems
(1910); The First
Church of Christ,Scientist,
and Miscellany (1913).
These works may
be found at all Christian Science
and at most
Public Libraries.
Reading Rooms
III. Church
first ChrisThe
Organization.
tian Science church was
founded
by Mrs. Eddy in
1879 and was
given a charter by the Commonwealth
In 1892 she reorganizedher
of Massachusetts.
"

"

that casts out evil as unreal.


But the belief in
sin is punished so long as the belieflasts.
the
as
_4.We acknowledge Jesus' atonement
evidence of divine,efficacious Love, unfoldingman's
unity with God through Christ Jesus the Wayis saved
shower; and we acknowledge that man
through Christ,through Truth, Life,and Love as
demonstrated by the Galilean Prophet in healing
the sick and overcoming sin and death.
5. We acknowledgethat the crucifixion of Jesus
and his resurrection served to upliftfaith to understand
eternal Life,even
the allness of Soul,Spirit,
and the nothingness of matter.
6. And we solemnly promise to watch, and pray
for that Mind
also in Christ
to be in us which
was
Jesus; to do unto others as we would have them
do unto us; and to be merciful,just,and pure.
Mary Baker Eddy
The
Mother
Church
has, at
_V. Branches.
this date, 1920, upwards
of eighteen hundred
branch
churches
societies. These
and
branches
have their own
democratic
forms of government,
Church
subject to such By-Laws of The Mother
churches
as
are
applicable thereto. These
are
formed
by loyal Christian Scientists in their own
and conform
to the requirements of the
locaHties,
laws of the states in which
they are organized.
The formingof a branch church in its own
locality
does not constitute it a branch
of The
Mother
Church.
After churches are formed
in accordance
with the state laws and the directions given in the
Church
Mother
Manual, they must be recognized
by The Mother Church before they become branches
thereof.
The
affairs of The
Mother
Church
are
administered
by its Board of Directors, which
according to the laws of Massachusetts is a body
of holding property,
corporate, for the purpose
"

receivinggrants, bequests,etc.
VI. Church
conducted

The
Sunday services
and
Second
Reader,
Such services consist
usuallya man
of Scripturalreading, prayer, and the singing of
hymns, followed by the reading of the Lessonis
Lesson-Sermon
Sermon
The
by the Readers.
composed of Christian
prepared by a Committee
and
it consists of selections from the
Scientists,
from the Christian
Bible,with correlative passages
Science textbook, Science and Health with Key to
issued
are
the Scriptures. These Lesson-Sermons
Science
Publishing
Christian
quarterly by The
of service is followed
form
same
Society. The
used in all Christian
Lesson-Sermon
and the same
Science churches throughout the world.
are

Services.
First
a
and a woman.
"

by

DICTIONARY

89

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Christian Science

The
midweek
of Education
services consist of testimonial
of The
or
Mother
by the Board
form
to
classes and
Church, authorizing them
meetings held each Wednesday evening. At these
take pupilsin Christian Science.
relative
of
meetings there is reading from the Bible and corOnly one class,
from the textbook,also prayer and
not more
than thirtypupils,is taught yearlyby
passages
monies
each teacher.
singingof hymns, followed by the giving of testiof the congregationof healing
f) Practitioners. There
by members
are
upwards of six
thousand
of Christian Science in this
from sickness and sin.
practitioners
and other countries,who
in connection
devote their entire time
Sunday Schools are conducted
Church
with The Mother
and all branch churches, to the healingof disease and sin. They are usually
those who
have taken instruction from authorized
where pupilsare received up to twenty years of age
teachers and are qualified
to do the healing work.
and instructed in the simplermeanings of the truth
concerning Christian Science.
They are authorized to make a charge for their
services equal to that of reputable physicians
service is observed
Communion
in the branch
in
churches semi-annually,but no communion
their respective localities. A
service
classifieddirectory
Church.
of Christian Science teachers, practitionersand
Mother
is held in The
Bread
and wine
not used, the only outward
are
being nurses is published in The Christian Science Journal.
ceremony
Christian
Science
the kneelingof the congregationin self-examination,
g) The
Publishing Society,
with God
and prayer.
silent communion
We read
operating under a deed of trust granted by Mrs.
"Our
under
the provisionsof the
in Science and Health:
eth
bread, 'which ComEddy and conducted
from heaven,' is Truth.
down
Our cup is the
By-Laws, publishes the current literature of The
wine
Our
the inspirationof Love, the
Mother
The followingare the periodicals
Church.
cross.
drank
which it issues: (1) The Christian Science Journal,
and
commended
to
draught our Master
his followers." "It is the livingChrist,the practical a monthly pubUcation ; (2) Christian Science Sentinel,
Jesus 'the resurrection and
Herold der Christian
a weekly publication; (3) Der
Truth, which makes
follow him in deed.
in German; (4) Le
the life'to all who
Science,a monthly publication,
Obeying
Heraut de Christian Science,a monthly publication,
his precious
precepts, followinghis demonstration
in French; (5) The Christian Science Monitor, a
shall
at last we
far as we apprehend it,
so
with
ing
him, in a full understand(6) The Christian Science Quarterly,
dailynewspaper;
rest, sit down
for use
in
of the divine Principlewhich
containing the Lesson-Sermons
triumphs over
Christian Science churches and societies and issued
death"
(pp.35, 31).
"

"

"

"

....

Mother
Officers
The
Church
The
of
tian
follows: The Pastor Emeritus; The Chrisof Directors; President; First
Science Board
Reader; Clerk; and Treasurer.
Reader; Second
nance
The Christian Science Board of Directors,in consowith a By-Law of the Church Manual, is a selfperpetuatingbody, which elects the other officers
annually,with the exceptionof the Readers, who are
elected by the Directors for a term of three years.
Mother
Church
The financialsupportof The
from its Publishing
Society,as the result of
comes
of the
to the pubUcations
sales of and subscriptions
Church; also from a per capita tax of one dollar
tions
and from voluntary contribu($1.00) per annum,
from its membership.
(A By-Law prohibits
the numbering of the membership for publication,
of Christian
statistics regardingthe number
so that no
VII.

are

as

Scientists are available.)


^The By-Laws proActivities.
VIII. Church
vide
for:
a) A Board of Education,under whose direction
to become
pupils are instructed and authorized
number
The
of
Science.
of Christian
teachers
class
Normal
teachers prepared is limited to one
in three years.
of thirtypupilstaught once
"

numbering
of Lectureship,now
b) A Board
twenty-three members, who deliver free lectures
under
the
Science
the subject of Christian
on
Church
and of the branch
auspicesof The Mother
These lectures
throughout the world.
organizations
of correctingmisapprehensions
are for the purpose
in regard to Christian Science and for presenting
of its fundamental teachings.
some
quarters
Committee
on
Publication,with headc) A
in Boston, has
representativesin all
and
large cities where Christian Science is known
is to
practiced. The duty of these committees
impositionson the
correct,in a Christian manner,
public,in regard to Christian Science,which may
in the dailypress or in circulated literature of
appear
any

sort.

tian
authorized Chrisbe read or purchased,
literature may
are
to the generalpublic and are maintained
open
by all Christian Science churches.
e) Teachers of Christian Science are those who
have been granted certificates
either by Mrs. Eddy

d) Free Reading Rooms, where


Science

quarterly.
Christian Science Benevolent
tion
Associainstituted and is maintained
by Christian
Scientists under the generaldirection of The Mother
Church.
Its property is situated in Brookline,.
at
Massachusetts, and
present consists of an
administration
buildingand two dormitories. It
accommodate
hundred
and forty
about one
can
now
guests. The object of this institution is to receive
Christian
the sick and injured among
Scientists,
who come
for restoration to health and for recuperation;
and
also for the instruction
training of
in the proper
(who are Christian Scientists)
nurses
of the sick.
care
Terms.
IX. Important
Following is a list
of some
of the important terms used in the exposition
of Christian Science.
Animal
magnetism as understood in Christian
action of erroneous
Science represents the mesmeric
belief. Christian Science is the very antipode of
mesmerism, hypnotism, mental suggestion,or any
Animal
of the allied occult or esoteric influences.
and represents
for all evil,
magnetism isthe synonym
beliefs and false concepts of humanity,
the erroneous
individuallyand collectively."Animal magnetism
is the voluntary
or
involuntary action of error in
all its forms; it is the human
antipode of divine

h) The
was

"

Science."
(Scienceand Health,p. 484.)
tian
Atonem"nt.
Atonement
as understood in ChrisScience is defined by Mrs. Eddy in Science and
is the exemphficaHealth as follows: "Atonement
cation of man's unity with God, whereby man
It
Love.
reflects divine Truth, Life, and
to reconcile man
therefore Christ's purpose
was
and Truth
are
God
Love
to God, not
to man.
with God's image and likeness. Man
not at war
exceed divine Love, and so atone for himself.
cannot
to error, for
reconcile Truth
Christ cannot
Even
irreconcilable. Jesus aided
Truth
and
are
error
"

in

truer
a
to God
by giving man
reconcilingman
ings,
of Love, the divine Principleof Jesus' teach-

sense

redeems
of Love
man
and this truer sense
from the law of matter, sin and death,by the law
(pp. 18-19).
of Spirit,"the law of divine Love"
in
Baptism. There is no baptismal ceremony
sidered
Baptism is conScience Church.
the Christian
by Christian Scientiststo be the spiritual
"

Christiad

Science

OF

DICTIONARY

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

90

mind"
Paul's "carnal
and
crates
"fleshlymind," that
experience of each individual,in which he conseof thought and
which seems
to be but which has no real or substantial
himself,through purification
existence.
deed, to God's service and makes daily progress in
It is defined in Science
his journey heavenward.
Prayer. Christian Science teaches its adherents
Rule and, in so doing, to obey
to obey the Golden
and Health as follows: "Our baptism is a purification
mergence the laws of God and of the land.
Christian Scien"Purification by Spirit;subtists
from all error."
endeavor
to live in accordance
with the injuncin Spirit." "The
baptism of Spirit,
tion
of Paul to "pray without
ceasing" and they
washing the body of all the impuritiesof flesh,
know
that they have prayed arightin proportion as
God
and are
in heart see
that the pure
signifies
their prayers
answered.
The first chapter in
Life and its demonstration"
are
approaching spiritual
Science and
Health is devoted
to the subject of
(pp.35, 581, 241).
Christ. Brieflystated,as taught in Christian
prayer and is preceded by the words of Christ Jesus
in Mark
and Matt.
The
"The
divine manifestation
11:23-24
6:8.
chapter
Science,Christ means,
follows:
"The
that reforms
the
of God, which comes
as
to the flesh to destroyincarnate
opens
prayer
sinner
and
the
sick
is
absolute
God's spiritual,
eternal
heals
faith that all
"Christ expresses
error."
an
with Messiah,
The name
is synonymous
nature.
a spiritual
thingsare possibleto God
understanding
unselfed love."
which is taught,illustrated, of Him, an
and alludes to the spiritualitj^
Later, on the same
in the life of which
and
demonstrated
"Thoughts unspoken
page, are found these words:
embodiment."
to the divine Mind.
Desire is
Christ
Jesus
the
was
(Science are not unknown
from trusting God
and no loss can
with the
occur
and Health,pp. 583, 333.) "In accordance
prayer;
with our
be moulded
and
Christian Science textbooks, the Bible, and Science
desires,that they may
exalted before they take form
in words
and
in
Health with
and
Key to the Scriptures,^and in
deeds."
accord with all of Mrs. Eddy's teachings,members
(Scienceand Health,p. 1.)
shall neither entertain a belief nor
of this Church
(For further meanings of ethical and religious
in Christian
used
Science
terms
consult
the
that
than one
as
Christ,even
signifya belief in more
Christ whereof the Scripture beareth
testimony." writingsof Mary Baker Eddy, with Concordances,
in Christian Science Reading Rooms
and in public
(ChurchManual, p. 42.)
in
Christian
understood
Error.
Error
libraries.)
as
In Miscellaneous
Writings (p. 21) Mrs. Eddy
Science is a belief in that which is untrue, or the
"As
the
advance
in spirituality,
state of consciousness
of one
holding to such belief; writes:
ages
Christian Science will be seen
to depart from
the
that which appears
to be but is not; a departure
in no wise
from that which
is true.
"Error is a supposition trend of other Christian denominations
that pleasureand pain,that intelligence,
substance, except by increase of spirituality."
The
Christian Science
Board
Directors
existent in matter.
op
Error is neither Mind
are
life,
"

"

"

"

"

"

nor

faculties. Error is the contradiction


of Mind's
Error is a belief without understanding.
of Truth.
It is
Error is unreal because
untrue.
which
is not."
to be and
seemeth
(Science

one

CHRISTIAN
SOCIALISM."
The effort to combine
the fundamental
aims of Socialism with the
that
reUgious and .ethical convictions of Christianity.
It was
inevitable that so powerful a spiritual
and Health,p. 472.)
Socialism
modern
would
movement
God.
as
react
The teaching of Christian Science always
on
absolute and invariable premise
Christianityand produce individuals and movements
starts from the one
these
of
of the omnipresence, omnipotence, omniscience
supporting or
opposing it. But
reactions have varied widely.
the one
and it renounces
all that
and only GOD,
Where
the conservative
is contrary thereto
European Churches,
as
evil, powerless, untrue.
Catholic or
the religious
God
is defined in Science and
Health (p. 587), as
Protestant, dominate
follows: "The
the all-knowing,allsituation.Socialism has been anti-clerical and in
great I AM;
and
the Churches
have
all-wise,all-lovingand eternal; the main anti-religious,
seeing,all-acting,
opposed it as godless,destructive,and immoral.
Principle; Mind;
Soul; Spirit: Life; Truth;
Their
from
to protect the masses
concern
was
Love; all substance; intelligence.
Socialist influences.
But no
tian
one
can
successfully
Healing. The great difference between ChrisSociaUsm
the working classes without
Science and other religions
is that Christian
oppose
among
for
Scientists rely entirelyupon
assentingto most of its criticism of the capitalistic
spiritualmeans
social order
and
outbidding its practical
healingthe sick and sorrowing,as well as the sinful.
sincere religious
but is divinely organizing efforts. Strong and
This
healing is not miraculous
such as the Catholic Bishop Ketteler
appears personalities,
natural.
Disease, being a mental
concept, disand
court
the Protestant
with the introduction
of spiritualtruth
chaplain Stoecker in
de Mun
and Marc
and its activities in the thought of the individual, Germany, and Count
Sagnier in
the competitive selfishness of
and this is the result of the teaching and practice France, condemned
of Christ and demanded
of our
Master as taught in the Scriptures.
a
capitalismin the name
Powerful
antisolidaristic social order.
Christian Science teaches that heaven
Heaven.
more
of workingmen, and
is not a localityand is not limited to experiences socialistorganizations
even
thus created under religious
On
the contrary, Christian
political
beyond the grave.
partieswere
and
radical
combined
Science accepts the teaching of Jesus, that "the
leadership.They have
medieval
and
with
conservative
modern
aims
kingdom of God is within you." The definition of
interests and ideals. Socialists regard this kind of
heaven,in /Scienceand Health (p.587) is: "Harmony;
"Christian Socialism" with hostility,
the reign of Spirit;government
ple;
believingthat
by divine Princiits main aim is to protect the church rather than
spirituahty;bUss; the atmosphere of Soul."
Hell is defined in Science and Health (p.588),as:
to free the people.
"Mortal
In Great
Britain, Switzerland, America, and
belief; error; lust; remorse;
hatred;
French
Socialism,
Protestants, Christian
sin; sickness;death; sufferingand self- among
revenge;
effects of sin; being frankly democratic, does not seek to hinder
destruction; self-imposed agony;
"
but to propagate its ideas
of Sociahsm
that which 'worketh abomination
the progress
or maketh
a lie.'
victions
within
Mortal
the Church.
mind.
A
used
term
Sharing the essential conby Christian
of Christianityand
Socialism,Christian
"the flesh opposed to Spirit,
Scientists to mean
mediators
act as
the human
mind
Socialists can
and evil in contradistinction
to
interpretersand
The early "Christian SociaUst"
the two.
the divine Mind, or Truth and good" (Scienceand
between
of F. D.
formed in 1848 under the leadership
114). It is regarded as equivalentto
Health,
group,
"

"

"

"

p.

91

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

Maurice, Charles Kingsley and J. M. Ludlow, is


Since 1880 the "Guild of St. Matthew"
well known.
Social Union"
in the Church
and the "Christian
of
of England, and nearly all the wider movements
in
have proved that Christianity
the Free Churches
Great Britain has been deeply affected by Christian
have had no organized
Socialism.
In America
we
of equal popular strength, but
the
movements
religious
spread of diluted Socialist ideas among
of the most
fruitful religious
leaders has been one
influences of the last forty years.
The phrase "Christian SociaUsm"
was
formerly
used in a loose way
to designateany
radical social
selves
sympathies. To-day those who apply it to themindicate that they accept at least the substance
of the Socialist platform. But
Christian
echo of orthodox Socialism.
Socialism is not a mere
Its Christian spirit
ness.
creates a distinctive consciousof Socialism.
It is a pecuhar genus
The
Christian sense
of the sanctityof lifeand personality
and of the essential equalityof men
re-enforces the
SociaUst condemnation
of the present social order.
The religiousbelief in the fatherhood of God, in
the fraternal solidarity
of men, and in the ultimate
social redemption of the race through Christ lends
to the Socialist ideals.
reUgiousqualities
the followingpoints it is in conscious
At
antagonism against tendencies prevailingwithin
the Socialist movement:
(1) It sets a positive
religiousfaith against the materialistic philosophy
SociaUsm
which
has inherited from its European
beginnings. (2) It believes in the value and social
of the churches.
possibiUties
(3) It lays stress on
factor in the salvation
as
a
religiousregeneration
of society. (4) It accepts "economic
determinism"
but asserts the
as
a chief factor in social evolution,
forces.
of spiritual
realityand independent power
(5)It recognizesthe influence of social environment,
of the individual.
but stillasserts the moral responsibility
(6) It stands for the sanctityof the family
and the radical Christian attitude on the question
Walter
Rauschenbusch
of mtoxicants.
An association
UNION."
CHRISTIAN
SOCIAL
of Christian Socialists organized in England in 1889
Scott
under the leadershipof Bishop Gore, Canon
the
Holland, and others, aiming to: (1) secure
authority of Christian law in social matters; (2)
study the applicationof Christian ideals to current
social and economic
problems; (3) hold up Jesus
and the master
of social wrong,
Christ as the enemy
of love and righteousness.
CHRISTIAN

UNION"

See Union, CmjRCH.

CHURCHES
UNION
CHRISTIAN
rately
(more accuOF CHRIST
CHURCHES
INDEPENDENT
tional
interdenominaAn
CHRISTIAN
IN
UNION)."
body organized in the U.S. in 1863 primarily
the
or
to protest against the preaching of politics
ship
emphasizing of doctrinal differences. Member-

13,692 (1919).
The
CHURCH
YEAR."
CHRISTIAN
YEAR
or
celebrations to be observed in
calendar of religious
the Christian church.
Catholic and Anglican churches
In the Roman
the year begins with the first Sunday in Advent,
which
is so dated as to give four Advent
Sundays
calendar
festivals are
before
Christmas.
Other
Epiphany, Easter,Ascension Day, and Whitsunday,
the various Sundays being numbered
according to
of these Sundays.
their distance l"efore or after one
is the
The
CHRISTIANITY."
religionwhich
outgrowth of the life and work of Jesus Christ and
centers

about his personaUty.

AND

ETHICS

Christianityas
teachings and

Christianity

religion is

institutions. It

than

more

is

its

reUgious-

historical movement
from
which
teachings and
institutions have
emerged in group
life,i.e.,the
churches.
As a religion
it illustrates the structural
laws which
condition
all religiousdevelopment
generally. It did not begin as a completed system
of doctrines,or a thoroughlystandardized
body of
practices,but in a group
confessingfaith in its
Founder.
What
it is has been developed from what
it was, and this process
is stiU in progress.
Not
Buddhism
shows a largervarietyof form than
even
does Christianity,the religionwhich
has become
the dominant religion
in Europe, the two Americas,
and
Australasia,and is markedly extending its
influence in both Asia and Africa.
I. History.
pendent
inde1. Historical Origins. Christianity
as
an
religionhad its rise in the group of Jews
who
in the second
quarter of the Christian era
that is,as
as
accepted Jesus of Nazareth
Christj^
the one
God had empowered by His resident
whom
spiritto become the savior of His people and the
estabhsher of His kingdom (see Jesus
Christ).
This definition illustrates how
thoroughlyJewish
the movement
in its original
was
stages. So far
know
to be found among
as
we
only Jews were
the immediate
followers of Jesus.
They accepted
him
fulfiU their national
the one
who
would
as
reUgioushopes. After his death they preached
his resurrection
abandoning the
and, without
worship of the temple or the customs of pious Jews
of their day, awaited
his return
from heaven
for
the establishment
of the messianic kingdom.
In the
meantime
to live according to the
they undertook
Thus this early
teachingwhich he had given them.
of the hopes and
perpetuated not only many
group
practicesof their Jewish contemporaries and their
Hebrew
progenitors,
but,unconsciously, also elements
of earlier Semitic religions
which had been absorbed
(seeKingdom
of God;
Messiah).
by the Hebrews
Yet it would be a mistake to thmk
of primitive
Christianityas a form of religioussyncretism.
Various similaritieswhich
have been pointedout
between
the early Christian
hopes and those of
other nations are not independent elements appropriated
and
combined
in a system.
They are
rather the fruitageof the complex religiouslife
from
which
the Jewish
life of the 1st.
religious
The
not
century sprang.
early Christians were
conscious of any form of syncretism. It is doubtful
whether
they even knew the historical pedigree
of their most
characteristic hope. The significant
fact is not
the conceptions which
they used to
the value of Jesus,but rather that in the
express
midst of a definite historical situation they recognized
Jesus as more
than a prophet, as the divinely
That
endued
Savior.
current
they should use
inevitable.
conceptions in such an evaluation was
The precisecontent
of their messianic conception,
ity,
while not without great influence in later Christianin many
turned out to be less significant
particulars
than the fact that through it the early
Christians made
Jesus central in their reUgiousUfe.
This simple Jewish evaluation of Jesus as Christ
almost
was
immediately supplemented by other
reUgiousconceptionswhich came not from Hebrew
of those who
but from
life. The
Greek
group
acceptedJesus as Christ soon became propagandists
non-Jewish
people. Of these propagandists
among
know
little or nothing, except of Paul and his
we
associates.
immediate
Western
Christianity is
to
largelythe outgrowth of his activity. Thanks
his preaching,the cities on the northern coast of the
contained groups of Christians
Mediterranean
soon
Jewish and
who
not predominantly Jewish.
were
had
Gentile Christians believed that Jesus who
"

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Christianity

DICTIONARY

OF

been put to death, and

had gone to heaven


would
of the world and saviour
of those who acknowledged him as their Lord.
For
modern
the early Greek, as for some
Christians,
literalness carried no intellectual difficulties. But
time passed and Jesus did not return, confidence
as
fulfillment of the hope weakened,
in the immediate
marked
and the tendency became
to expect the
parousia in a general way and to center attention
of men
the rescue
from the power
of death.
upon
Thus by the end of the 1st. century these Christian
churches seem
to have lost to a very conor
siderable
groups
the expectationsof an
imminent
extent
and
have
to
given themselves to a practical
return,
and philosophical
explanationof that faith and hope
which the gospelof the risen Christ,the Son of God,
soon

return

as

AND

RELIGION

ETHICS

Christians. These
synods attempted to
correctly in current
philosophical and
of their inherited
religiousterms the significance
of

blies

conqueror

92

express

faith.

efforts gave rise to endless controversy


the theologiansof the two great
cities of Antioch
and Alexandria, but resulted in
ecumenical, i.e.,catholic dogma concerning God
and Christ.
has been
(5) Catholic Christianity
commonly
considered a process of Hellenizing
the earher beliefs.
It might with equal justicebe described
the
as
result of the Christianizing
of Hellenism.
The
however
inevitable as men
described,was
process,
possessed of the civilizationof Greece and Rome
undertook
co-ordinate
their faith with
to
their
culture.
seek to modify
They did not consciously
their inherited faith but rather to seek effective
provided.
of the original
How
far this group
born of ecoformulas of those who
movement
interpretation
was
nomic
is not easy to state with
accepted Jesus as the Christ and expected him to
protest and purposes
That Christians were
return
to do his Messianic
work.
ready to share their
Theological
accuracy.
clear from the
development, which began in the middle of the
possessionswith each other seems
with
of Acts
the
of
2nd.
account
defense
century
originalconfessions
(2:44,45; 4:34, 35), but such
of faith, preserved intact and
without
serious
was
charity rather than economic
munism.
comgenerosity
There is no evidence that the primitive modification the ancient formulas
which we
know
firstin the old Roman
Christians ever
attempted or taught the reorganizasymbol, the main ancestor of
tion
the Apostles'Creed (q.v.).
of the economic
life. Their sense
of the imminence
of the return of the Messiah
made
economic
(6) The growing regard for the mystery religions
laid new
which
emphasis upon the simple practices
superfluous.
programs
characterized
the original group
The expansion of the
of Christians,
2. Influence
of Hellenism.
into an independent and wellChristian movement
namely, the bath, or the baptism, and the common
memorial
meal.
rounded
the result of its expansion
religionwas
By the second or third generation
these two rites had begun to acquire a significance
non-Jewish
peoples. Its further development
among
of their own
as
an
was
expressionof regenerationand of
largelyset by the Greek culture in
very
which practically
all of its new
members
had been
immortality due to the impartationof the divine
nature.
As
the Christian
reared.
needs led to the revaluation
Their religious
religiondeveloped a
beheved
its members
their restless philoof their acquired faith. With
class,
were
increasingly
sophicalpriestly
and with the current
ments
beUef, to have the sole power of administeringthese sacratemperament
in such way
their blessingsto
to assure
born of the mystery religions,
that salvation was
to
as
the recipient. Conditions
in the
for participating
be accomplished by the impact of the divine essence
Lord's Supper were
also developed,and the lifeof the
the human
it was
inevitable that
upon
essence,
centered around the two sacshould
seek doctrinal preHellenistic Christians
raments.
increasingly
cision church was
So important did baptism appear that from
and guard it against all forms of interpretation
the 2nd. century onward it seems
istered
to have been adminwith what were
not in accordance
regarded as
but by pouring -and
not only by immersion
the beliefs of the originalor apostolicChristians.
and its recipients
not only adults
were
sprinkling,
ception
Beginning with the rise of the Stoic-Platonic conwho
could make
of the Word
personal professionof faith but
(Logos) as an equivalent in
adult spoke. Gradually
also infants for whom
in Jewish thought, the
some
Hellenism for the Messiah
of sacraments
increased until seven
the number
were
new
religionrapidlyacclimated itself to the nonentered.
Jewish world into which it had successfully
recognized. The precisedate at which this development
reached is not to be fixed. See Sacraments.
was
the 2nd. century to the 5th. the movement
From
of characteristics which
began to developa number
from
the start
has
been
a
(7) Christianity
to survive the destruction of the nations and
were
of moral ideals,
it sprang.
The
portant religion
imcivilization from
which
most
although these ideals have
of these characteristics are:
generally been those recognized by the existing
(churches), social order. There is no clear indication that the
development of groups
(1) The
the Roman
to transform
of
less affiliated,
early church undertook
or
possessed of a sense
more
Empire as such, but its recognitionof the worth
catholicityor universalityas distinct from the
tutions
of personalityindirectlyaffected such social instiunder the control of cosmobeliefs of groups more
of criminals,and
cism;
as
slavery, treatment
logicaland theosophical influences (see Gnostimarriage. The church,however, was not interested
Docetism; and Heresy) from which sprang
ciently
in developing a public opinion or patriotismsuffinovel
interpretationsof the original Christian
ern
See Catholic.
faith in Jesus as the Son of God.
strong to withstand the assaults of the northHeresies were
the occasion of theology which
peoples,and the moral idealism of the church
was
suffered in the general collapse of the empire
before being systematic.
apologetic
and militarydecadence.
born of economic
literature. The
ment
Old Testa(2) Authoritative
the religion
3. Christianity
of European civilizo/from the earliest days regarded as divinely
was
tion. At the start this new
only a
religionwas
developed a collection of
inspired,but there soon
member
of the large group
of oriental
humble
other writingsclaiming Apostolic authorship and
cults seeking recognitionin the Roman
Empire.
which put them on a par
an
inspiration
so possessing
decided
It had, however, very
advantages over
See Canon
with the Old Testament.
(Biblical)
Jewish
them all. Like the
the
religionit was theistic,
(3) The rise of the Bishop who was at once
acceptance
champion and expounder of the generallyaccepted bu.tit was not ethnic and did not demand
cult. It promised salvation by the
of the Hebrew
and therefore true Christian doctrine,and the head
union of the divine and the human, but was
opposed
also regardedas
He was
of his Christian group.
of polytheism. It taught strongly
to all forms
character.
priestly
possessing
immortality and the resurrection of the dead, but
(4) The development of authoritative doctrines
of
to accomplishthis in the way
did not undertake
successive synodsor other assem(seeII
"

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below),by

These

between
especially

93

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

the mysteries. It was


universal but did not, like
philosophy, make morality the exclusive property

Christianity

church was
furthered by the Romanization
of the
Christian
movement.
Centralization in church
affairs grew steadily. The Bishop of Rome
of the intellectuals. It had its vision of a better
already
and Stoicism it was
of the Apostle Peter,from
world, but unUke Platonism
regarded as the successor
anchored
to a definite historical person,
and was
other
causes
(forgedDonation of Constantine,
many
thus prevented from becoming a mere
Pseudo-Isidorean
economic
and political
system of
Decretals,
thought. It taught the forgivenessof God, but
needs,alliance of the Franks with papacy, persistent
unlike all religionsof its time did not undertake
conviction
that the Roman
Empire continued)
to placate the Deity by sacrifices,
inherited such
since He had
imperial power
survived
as
the
revealed
Himself
Saviour.
If to these charcalamities of the period between
acteristics
as
Romulus
Augustus
there be added
admitted
and Charlemagne.
zeal for
Thereafter for several centuries
an
effort was
made
to
an
converts, philanthropy, morality, and a certain
unify and Christianize
degree of economic
democracy, together with a
Europe under the Holy Roman
Empire (q.v.),in
popular reputationfor the abihty to work miracles, which Emperor and Pope both were
to represent
it will not be difficult to see how
Jesus
Christ
in
Lord.
as
Christianity
the Roman
had
the
elements
evitably (2) The effect of the social changes which ga/e
inwhich
Empire
made
towards
leadershipin the religious rise to the civiHzation of the Middle Ages is also
field.
in the development of the religion. The creaseen
tive
This leadership
social mind
of Europe from the 9th. to the
was
gained,however, only after
12th. century was
severe
feudal.
The
struggle. The rise of the worship of the
break-up of the
Roman
state organization established
into
brought the new
movement
emperor
by Rome, together
direct conflict with the state.
with the incursion of armed foreigners
For nearly three
who held their
hundred
this conflict continued
with intermittent land in militarytenure, and especially
the attempt
years
but increasingly
and extensive perseto build social solidarity
the basis of reciprocal
on
grave
cution.
By the 4th. century, however, so far had it
obligations between
in the
classes,all reappear
that the Christians
spread that Constantino
lifeof the time.
saw
The most significant
tration
illusreligious
constituted a group
with political
of such influence isto be seen
not to be
in the significapower
tion
tianity,
ignored,and with his triumph over his rivals Chrisgiven the death of Christ by Anselm
(q.v.).
The
feudal system
already a licensed religion,
became, though
also, however, involved the
not strictly
of the state,the
church
in a long struggle to decide who
speaking the sole religion
should
From
invest the bishop with his office and the land which
religion of the emperor.
Constantine's
time, the developmentof the church was materially constituted the episcopalestate under the current
affected by politics.
politicaltheory as to the Holy Roman
Empire.
This situation,commonly
Both Pope and emperor
could claim to possess that
regarded as the conquest
of the Roman
The
Empire by Christianity,
was
right.
struggle ended with compromise contained
in the Concordat
of Christianity.
quite as truly a Romanization
of Worms
ing
(1122) accordThe
institutional life of the Empire gave
to which
the bishop received his investiture
great
impetus to the development of church organization. for his temporaUties from the emperor
and for his
The
Bishop became
a
municipal figure if not an
spiritualbenefice from the Pope.
official. It was
natural, therefore,that political
(3) Primitive eschatology was transformed into
methods
and organizationshould be appropriated
of future rewards in heaven,
a well-rounded system
This process
future punishments in hell,and future penitential
continued
by the church.
for centuries,
and after the disintegration
of the Roman
time the concleansingin purgatory. At the same
ception
of salvation
Roman
Empire resulted in a transcendentahzed
modified
to meet
this
was
Catholic
Church.
It
Empire called the Roman
readjusted eschatology,and morality was
ingly
increasthat
this
made
is,however, noteworthy
ecclesiastical interest.
an
shaping power of
the imperial
social mind was
not clearlyfelt in the
due to
(4) Penitential systems, in largemeasure
half of the empire where social affairs had
the influence of Irish ecclesiastics,
eastern
had an effect in
become
ful
life. Penance
largelystatic. Even before the feardeveloping the church
became
very
destruction wrought by the Arabian
invasion, systematized,and the ascetic qualityof the reUgion
the organizationof the Eastern
became
church was
never
thoroughlyfixed in a desire to save the soul
as
systematized as that of the West, and had proFrom
this attitude
gressed by the mortification of the body.
but slightlybeyond the results gained by
of mind, reinforced as it was
by the fear of hell,
the process
of Hellenization.
The lack of political there sprang
vast
a
development of monasticism.
and social development furnished no
Monastic
stimulus for
estabUshments appeared over
the entire
the East to make
tionally. western
instituor
not only the
theologically
Europe, where they became
progress
The break between
home
the two halves of the
of those who sought salvation by retiring
from
empire was
worldly lives and pleasures,but also the centers of
complete by the 9th. century and ran
along the line of cleavage between the eastern and
culture,and increasinglyof learning.
western
history. Thereafter CathoHc
(5) Early in the Middle Ages the sacraments
Christianity
existed in two
increased in number, the originaltwo, baptism
were
great branches, the Eastern being
littleaffected by the progress
of the modern
and
world
Lord's Supper, being supplemented by the
and the Western
or Roman
sacraments
of marriage, confirmation,ordination,
being a distinct element
in that
addition
these
In
main
to
and extreme
became
unction.
The mass
progress.
penance,
branches
the Armenian, Coptic, Nestorian,
were
increasinglyregarded as a true sacrifice performed
and Maronite
churches.
at the altar.
To partake of the bread and the
4. The effect
wine was
to partake of the real body and blood of
of the fallof the Roman
Empire.
This was
in (1)pessimism as to human
seen
Jesus into which the substance of the elements had
nature,
See
expressed by Augustine in his teaching as to sin; been transformed
in the miracle of the mass.
(2) the fixingof secondaryelements on the religion, Transubstantiation.
Furthermore, during the
for
Middle
between
e.g., asceticism,worship of images, reverence
Ages the line of demarcation
the clergy and the laity was
martyrs, hagiology,the worship of the VirginMary;
sharply drawn,
very
with the body
(3)the growth of power on the part of the bishops, and the church identified increasingly
of the clergy.
especiallythe Bishop of Rome, because of the
stimulated
collapseof other social control.
increasingly
(6) The intellectual life,
5. The
Roman
Catholic Church
of the Middle
by scholasticism and the foundation of universities,
the classical
Ages. (1) The development of an imperialistic was primarilyconcerned in assimilating
_

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DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

This intellectualheritagein so far as it survived.


ism was
subject to the control of the church and
of church beliefs.
completed the systematization
6. The rise of nationalistic Christianity.The
transformation of Europe through the economic
development which began with the rise of cities in
the 12th. century, togetherwith the collapseof the

AND

ETHICS

94

From
each of the
great a variety of ways.
dominant
social minds which have shaped Western
civihzation have
not
only characteristic
sprung
needs, but also a geneticsuccession of doctrines.
The originof these doctrines liesin the revelation
contained
in the Bible, supplemented in Roman
Catholicism
by tradition and the decisions of the
church
feudal system, resulted in the rise of nationalities
councils (now of the Pope, speaking ex
of the term.
in the modern
with monarchs
sense
cathedra)and interpretedby the Fathers.
in the western
world
transformation
This
was
Orthodoxy as an inherited and continuously
accompanied by wide-spread restlessness at the
expanded system is to be traced back to the faith
control of the Roman
and beliefs of the earliest Christian groups.
Church, which had for centuries
Other
but also a
been not only the ecclesiastical,
have been induced
tianity,
reUgious movements
by Chrisof this new
and others evolved by way
of opposition
pohtical institution. In consequence
to the growing mass
social experience,the Christians of the lands which
of authoritative group
beliefs;
broke from
had not become
but their influence,
far as it has been extended
thoroughly Romanized
so
civilization had been
those of the territorywhose
nonbeyond the immediate
membership of some
pendent orthodox
built up on the Roman
has been chieflyfelt through their
plan, and organized indegroup,
Bible was
The
modification of those fundamental
state churches.
beliefs which the
by them
taken as the sole basis of authority. This movehas perpetuated.
ment,
generichistory of the movement
which was
not a break with Catholic theology,
These may
be brieflystated as follows:
1. The Bible. ^To all bodies of Christians
the
except in so far as it affected the ideas of the church,
Under the
Bible
is of prunary
is commonly known
it
as the Reformation.
importance. Through
the wisdom
as Luther,
of revelation as distinguished
comes
guidance of such profoundlyreUgiousmen
formers,from that of nature.
All creeds and confessions of
Zwingli,Calvin, and the English and Scottish Rechurches carried forward a conthese new
faith claim to be the expositionof its contents.
The
ception
of reUgion which freed northern Christians
Bible has been treated in a great variety of ways
Church
the Roman
and emfrom dependence upon
to the rationalism
phasized
ranging from practicalbibliolatry
the immediacy of the soul's relation with
of the early19th. century. See Bible ; Inspiration.
and justification
2. Theism.
God
Because of its loyaltyto the Bible,
by faith alone. Secondary
form
of Christianity has
to play so largea role
Christianitywhich had come
no
consciously been
in Mediaeval
Christianitywas largelyabandoned.
pantheisticor polytheistic.It has always opposed
7. Modern
developments. Thus Christianityas
anything approaching a mechanistic or impersonal
the rehgion of Western
view of the universe.
This theistic view was
torically
hisEurope in the 16th. century
passed into a new
phase and began that process of
grounded in the Hebrew
religionand
has given rise to the
social differentiation which
under the influence of the Graeco-Roman
mind was
order.
At
modern
present the
religiousworld
developed into the generalconceptionof trinitarianbe roughly classified into
Christian movement
is that the one
of which
divine
ism, the essence
may
Catholic
hold to the one
of those who
substance
exists in three personae:
the groups
Father, Son,
church
and Holy Spirit;that is to say, Christianity
teaches
(in turn broken into three general groups
lics)
God
of the Roman, the Greek, and the Anglican Cathothat one
into actual personal relations
comes
of so-called Protestant
and the group
with nature
and man.
sects
It should be added
that
individuals but is a term
does not mean
a
happy one)
(although the term is by no means
personae
derived from the Roman
holding to the
including those Christians who
courts, in which the same
individual might appear
in various personae,
that
Lordship of Jesus and endeavoring to embody the
fundamental
conceptions of older Christianity, is characters; e.g., in one law suit he might be a
into self-determining father and
in another
See Trinity;
have segregated themselves
case
son.
Creed.
Many of these groups are the survivals of
groups.
founded
in the 16th. century.
the state churches
3. Jesus, the Christ,the Son of God, the Lord,
the Saviour.
All these terms
have essentially
the
This period of disunion was
duringthe
very marked
17th. and 18th. centuries,and reached its climax in
same
content, although springing from different
social conceptions and national hopes. The comthe 19th. century.
tion
Recently there has set in a reacmon
in them
and
element
all was
from excessive group-individualism,
expressed in the
away
of Chalcedon
decrees of the Council
there are strong tendencies toward co-operationand
(451 a.d.)
federation of the more
which
significantdenominations.
recognizesin the historic individual,Jesus
consubstantial
with God
See Church; Federation
op
Churches; Church
Christ, a divine nature
the Father
and
human
consubstantial
There
is also a very widespread nonnature
Union.
a
ecclesiastical Christianitythat finds expressionin
with us, joined without
confusion in one
person.
relation of the two
Catholic
individuals.
The
exact
natures
Content.
able to state in a dogma.
II. Chief Doctrinal
was
Christianitynever
This Christologyhas been successivelyattacked
Doctrinally Christianityis the most complete
Those opposed to it have, however,
of all the world's reUgions. It has shown
itself
and defended.
adaptable not only to the Semitic civilization from
generallyrecognized the uniqueness of Jesus as a
which it sprang
and the classical in which it was
divine example and saviour.
The defense of the
oped
doctrine has largely consisted in the restatement
first developed, but also to the more
highly develindustrial civiUzation
assumed
of western
from some
philosophicalpositionof the
Europe.
It is at the present time making decided
tology;
gains elements of the historic Christology.See "Christhe
Socinianism; Arianism; Unitarianism.
peoples of Asia, and has thus become
among
4. The
church.
most
widely diffused and influential of all religious
Christianity hke aU genuine
of history. This extraordinarydevelophas had its social group, the church.
The
movements
religions
ment
has been due not only to the efficiency
in its
largestvariations in the content of the Christian
doctrine are to be found in the field of ecclesiology.
organization resultingfrom its appropriation of
the experienceof a virilecivilization and its adoption
On the one hand are those who hold that the Christian
of the agencies most
effective in successive stages
community is the sole channel of grace which
of political
such salvation is
mental
makes
salvation possible,and
development, but also to the fundalimited to membership in the true church.
On the
teachingswhich characterize the movement
other hand are those who hold that a church is a
and which are capableof being institutionalized in
so

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DICTIONARY

voluntary grouping of those who have experienced


regeneration. All groups, however, unite in holding
that the church exists not only for the maintenance
but also for the
of worship and religious
instruction,
of the sacraments,
observance
the two universally
recognizedbeing those of baptism and the Lord's
See Church.
5. Sin and the need of divine salvation. Since his
day, the doctrine of sin as organized by Augustine
has been the point of departure of the entire doctrine
of salvation.
According to this doctrine based
that of Paul, the race was created perfectwith
upon
the abihty to choose the good as well as the evil.
By Adam's
fall,this originalnature, while not
corrupted that evil impulses
so
destroyed, was
enslaved the will,so that until the nature
has been
regeneratedby the Holy Spiritthe will is incapable
of choosing the good, although free so to do.
The
emphasis of this doctrine has naturallyled to the
insistence upon
good works following
regeneration.
these demands
In many
standardized
cases
were
which
has sometimes
into penitentialdiscipline,
served to restrain moral development along social
lines.
6. The Atonement, the death of Christ as a factor
in the revelation of the divine forgiveness.Christianity
sets forth God as loyalto both love and law.
The ethical problem of how
he could forgivethe
sinner and yet maintain
his moral order did not
bulk in theologicalthinking until the time
of
Anselm (q.v.).Since that day the freedom of God to
love has been repeatedlyset forth as made
possible
by the satisfaction which Jesus by his hfe and death
rendered to God 'sdignity
or his punitive
justice or the
sovereigntyof law. There is,however, no catholic
doctrine of the atonement
comparable with that of
of the death
the Trinity. The religious
significance
of Christ has been set forth in various ways
(e.g.,
vindication
of law, substitutionary
punishment,
of sin,
representativerepentance, condemnation
moral influence). The persistent
value of all such
theories has been
the exposition of the ethical
character of God's love.
The idea of the death of
Christ as a sacrifice,
in which his value was
expressed
both
in New Testament
times,has been perpetuated
in church teaching and by the Roman
Catholics in
the sacrifice of the Mass (qv.). See Atonement.
7. Morality. The historyof Christian moraUty
shows the development which is to be seen in the
At the start it was
hardly
religionas a whole.
of
than that of current Judaism.
In the course
more
time,however, the church itselfbegan the development
intended to
of its own
which
customs
were
set forth the new
of the lifewhich was born
mores
of the divine spirit. The church has been a laboratory
of social progress, and the moral ideals of the
Christian groups
of
have always been in advance
societyat large,although seldom so far in advance
of a contemporary
as to questionthe presuppositions
social order.
Thus in New
times there
Testament
into the moral
was
no
justiceof slavery,
query
which had always been a part of the social order.
the less always insisted
But Christianityhas none
the maintenance
of moral standards so far as
upon
of its recentlydeveloped
organized,and in consequence
interest in the teaching of Jesus has moved along
very decidedlyidealistic lines in the applicationof
the principlesof Jesus to the social order.
8. Missionary zeal. The conviction that they
have had the only authoritative revelation of God
and the only assured way
of salvation has always
spurred Christians to an extension of their faith.
than a
This missionary zeal is something more
The Christian church
desire for proselj^ting.
mere
has regarded itself as possessedof a knowledge of
under sacred obligation
which it was
the way of salvation,
to share with t