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Part 1: define the following:

Operational Amplifier: is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a

differential input and, usually, a single-ended output.
H-Bridge Motor Controller: is designed to drive a motor clockwise and anticlockwise.
To reverse a motor, the supply must be reversed and this is what the H-Bridge does.
An H-Bridge can be made with SWITCHES, RELAYS, TRANSISTORS or MOSFETS.
Hall Effect Sensor: is a transducer that varies its output voltage in response to a
magnetic field.
Passive Infrared Sensor: is an electronic sensor that measures infrared (IR) light
radiating from objects in its field of view. They are most often used in PIR-based
motion detectors.
IR Distance Sensor: For measuring the distance to an object there are optical
sensors using triangulation measuring method.
555 Timer: is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse
generation, and oscillator applications.
Voltage Regulators: is designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level.
Voltage Trigger: The minimum voltage needed to turn on a thyristor
Opto-Isolator: is a semiconductor device that uses a short optical transmission path
to transfer an electrical signal between circuits or elements of a circuit, while
keeping them electrically isolated from each other.
Photo-Transistor: is a light-sensitive transistor. A common type of phototransistor,
called a photobipolar transistor, is in essence a bipolar transistor encased in a
transparent case so that light can reach the basecollector junction.