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Bilaminar embryo

Initially, all the energy is from the zygote. But as the zygote needs more energy, it implants into the endometrium.
Implantation takes places on day 6. The only reason implantation can take place is because of tissue specialization.
Trophoblast -> placenta
Inner cell mass -> fetus
Providers of energy (Trophoblast focuses on the acquisition of energy from the mother)
1. Lungs -> provide oxygen
2. GI tract -> absorb nutrients and energy substrates
3. Liver -> stores and generates energy
Tissues that establish order (inner cell mass)
1. Endocrine system -> regulate biochemical processes
2. Bones, skin, connective tissue -> physical shape and structure
3. Brain and nervous system -> control and integrate function of the body

After implantation, the

trophoblast forms the chorion,
which grows finger like
projections called villi. These
chrionic villi grow into the
endometrium and become the
fetal component of the placenta.
The maternal component is called
the decidua basalis.
There is a thin layer of amnion that contains the amniotic fluid and a yolk sac that serves as the secondary source of energy
and non-specialized stem cells.
Week 2: 2 layered structure (epiblast and hypoblast)
Week 3: 3 layered structure (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm -> also called a gastrula)

Neurulation -> formation of the neural tube

Neural tube and neural crest are derived from the ectoderm, but it is the notochord and the mesoderm that make it happen.
Neural crest derivatives

Malleus, incus and stapes

Chromaffin cells
make up the
(Epi and NE)

Brain and spinal cord
Ependymal cells
Optic nerve
Pineal glands
Posterior pituitary

GI tract (esophagus to pectinate
Liver, gallbladder, pancreas
Parathyroid gland
Follicular cells of thyroid
Epithelium of bladder/urethra
Lower 2/3 of vagina
Most of the bladder and the urethra
are derived from the mesoderm along
with the rest of the urinary system
but bladder epithelium and urethra
epithelium are derived from

Surface ectoderm: ectodermal tissue that did not become

neurological because it did not get influenced by the notochord
Lenses of eye
Olfactory epithelium
Inner ear
Anterior pituitary
Oral epithelium
Salivary glands
Sweat glands
Mammary glands
Anal canal distal to the pectinate line.
Both extreme ends of the GI tract come of the ectoderm (oral
epithelium and the distal part of the anal canal)

Mesoderm: provides most of the connective tissues (support)

Bone, muscle, bone marrow, blood cells, heart, blood vessels,
Upper portion of the vagina
Kidneys, adrenal cortex
Dermis of skin

Teratogenesis -> embryology gone wrong

Weeks 3-8: organogenesis
Week 4: 4 limbs, 4 chambered heart
Week 8: fetal movement (eight gait)
Week 10: genitalia takes shape (ten -> penis)
These days are measured from the day of conception (developmental age)
Teratogenic drugs:

Fluoroquinolone -> cartilage damage

Methotrexate -> inhibits folate metabolism leading to neural tube defects/abortion
Statin -> CNS and limb abnormalities
Isotretinoin -> retinoic acid drug that can cause spontaneous abortions. Excess Vitamin A
can interfere with neural crest cell migration and HOMEOBOX gene expression
Heparin (anti-coagulant) is considered safe during pregnancy!

Category X Drugs:
Diethylstillbestrol (DES)

Procedures and conditions:

Ionizing radiation
Excessive Vitamin A -> interferes with neural crest cell migration
Maternal diabetes -> this doesn't include gestational diabetes.
Iodine deficiency -> baby can be born with congenital hypothyroidism, which is called
cretinism. In this case it's not eh iodine that is teratogenic, instead the iodine
deficiency that causes the problems.
Cocaine, tobacco -> interfere with blood circulation to the fetus and can cause growth
Fetal alcohol syndrome is the number one cause of intellectual disability in the
Holoprosencephaly -> hemispheres fail to separate along the mid line, leading to
facial anomalies

Homeobox (HOX) gene:
Blueprint of skeletal morphology
Code for transcription regulators
Mutation in Homeobox HOXD-13 -> synpolydactly
Retinoic acid (Vitamin A) alters HOX gene expression
Sonic Hedgehog Gene:
It is expressed at the buds of the limbs in the zone called the ZPA (Zone of Polarizing Activity)
Important in organizing the layout of the embryo in the anterior to posterior direction, setting up which pole is going to
become the head and which is going to become the tail.
Mutation can cause holoprosencephaly
WNT7 Gene:
Important for organizing the embryo along the dorsal-ventral axis (feet and nose pointing in the same direction)
FGF Gene
Fibroblast growth factor -> important for limb lengthening
Defect -> short limbs
Defect in FGFR3 -> achondroplasia (short limbs)
Rapid Fire Facts
Most common cause of neutral tube defects -> folate deficiency
Most common cause of congenital malformations in the US -> alcohol use during pregnancy
Most common cause of intellectual disability in the U.S. -> fetal alcohol syndrome

1. Nuclear localization signals
A. Amino acid sequences that are rich in lysine, arginine and proline (because these are positively charged, they bind
easily to the negatively charged DNA)
B. Essential component of the proteins bound for or residing in the nucleus
C. Nuclear pores recognize these signals and transport proteins into the nucleus via ATPase
2. Cell cycle
A. Hepatocytes and lymphocytes can go from Go to G1 phase and being the cell cycle if
B. Bone marrow stem cells are designed to divide very rapidly.
a. These cells never go into Go.
C. Phases
a. Go
b. G1:
c. S
d. G2:
e. M phase: mitosis
D. To control the cells division, there are check points that control transfer between
these phases
a. Very highly regulated process
b. Tumor suppressor proteins
1. Rb Gene: between G1 and S phase (Retinoblastoma and Osteosarcoma)
2. p53
3. Mutation in these genes result in unregulated growth.
c. Cyclins
1. Regulatory proteins that control cell cycle events
2. Activate CDKs
d. Cyclin-depending kinases (CDK)
1. Uses ATP to phosphorylase things (add phosphate to things)
2. Must be activated