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Ministerul Educaiei al Republicii Moldova

tiina
2015

CZU 004 (075.3)


80

Elaborat n baza curriculumului disciplinar n vigoare i aprobat prin Ordinul ministrului educaiei (nr. 399 din
25 mai 2015). Editat din mijloacele financiare ale Fondului special pentru manuale.
Comisia de evaluare: Gheorghe Chistrug, prof. colar, gr. did. superior, Liceul Teoretic Mihai Eminescu, Drochia; Elena Doronina, prof. colar, gr. did. superior, Liceul Teoretic Natalia Gheorghiu, Chiinu; Svetlana Rudoi,
prof. colar, gr. did. superior, Liceul Teoretic Mihai Eminescu, Chiinu
Recenzeni: Tatiana Baciu, dr. n psihologie, Universitatea Pedagogic de Stat Ion Creang; Alexei Colbneac,
prof. universitar, ef catedr Grafic, Academia de Muzic, Teatru i Arte Plastice, maestru n arte; Tatiana Cartaleanu, dr. n filologie, Universitatea Pedagogic de Stat Ion Creang

Acest manual este proprietatea Ministerului Educaiei al Republicii Moldova

Liceul ___________________________________________________________________________
Manualul nr. ______________________________________________________________________
Anul de
Numele de familie i prenumele elevului
folosire

Anul colar

Aspectul manualului
la primire
la restituire

1
2
3
4
5
Dirigintele controleaz dac numele elevului este scris corect.
Elevul nu trebuie s fac niciun fel de nsemnri n manual.
Aspectul manualului (la primire i la restituire) se va aprecia cu calificativele: nou, bun, satisfctor, nesatisfctor.
Traducere din limba romn: Irina Ciobanu
Redactor: Valentina Rbalchina
Corector: Tatiana Bolgar
Redactor tehnic: Nina Duduciuc
Machetare computerizat i coperta: Olga Ciuntu

ntreprinderea Editorial-Poligrafic tiina,


str. Academiei, nr. 3; MD-2028, Chiinu, Republica Moldova;
tel.: (+373 22) 73-96-16; fax: (+373 22) 73-96-27;
e-mail: prini@stiinta. asm.md; prini_stiinta@yahoo.com;
www.stiinta.asm.md
Toate drepturile asupra acestei ediii aparin ntreprinderii Editorial-Poligrafice tiina.
Editura se oblig s achite deintorilor de copyright, care nc nu au fost contactai, costurile de reproducere a imaginilor folosite n prezenta ediie.
Descrierea CIP a Camerei Naionale a Crii
,
: . 12 . / , , ; trad. din lb. rom:
Irina Ciobanu; Min. Educaiei al Rep. Moldova. Ch.: .E.P. tiina, 2015 (Tipogr. BALACRON SRL) 144 p.
ISBN 978-9975-67-999-2
004 (075.3)
Imprimare la Tipografia BALACRON SRL, str. Calea Ieilor, 10, MD-2069, Chiinu, Republica Moldova
Comanda nr. 646
Anatol Gremalschi, Sergiu Corlat, Andrei Braicov. 2010, 2015
Traducere: Irina Ciobanu. 2010
ISBN 978-9975-67-999-2
.E.P. tiina. 2010, 2015


I.
1.
1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.
2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.
3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.

4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
5.
5.1. . . 51
5.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
II.
6.
6.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
6.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
6.1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
6.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
7.
7.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
7.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
7.1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
7.1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
7.2. () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
7.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
7.2.2. Microsoft Office Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
7.2.3. Liceu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
8.
8.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
8.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
8.1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
8.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
8.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
8.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
8.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

8.3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
8.3.4. Lookup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
8.4. Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
8.4.1. Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
8.4.2. Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
9.
9.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
9.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
9.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
9.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
9.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
9.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
9.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
9.3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
9.3.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
9.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
9.4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
9.4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
9.4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
10.
10.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
10.1.1. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
10.1.2. Design View
( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
10.1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
10.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
10.2.1. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
10.2.2. Design View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
10.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
10.3. () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
10.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
10.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
10.3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
11. Web-
11.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
11.2. Web- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
11.3. Web- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
11.4. Web- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
12. HTML
12.1. HTML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
12.1.1. HTML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
12.1.2. HTML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
12.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
12.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
12.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
12.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
12.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139


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3. :

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k , m , x
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x0 (
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) t .
, x ( )
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:
.
x (
) t, , k, m x0.

. 1.3.

. 1.4.

,

:
program cn01;
var
t, x0,k,m,x: real;
begin
readln(x0,k,m,t);
x:=x0*cos(sqrt(k/m*t));
writeln(x=, x:0:6);
end.


n . ?
o . .

p , .

q , , 2,

x t
(t ). x0, k, m, t .
r -235 , 26 .
,
. , , k .
s rk = rk1 + 0,4k, rk
k . r0 = 1 (0 < < 1).
, rk rm m ,
. ,
.
.

1.3.
:
1: 100 3, 20 3 , 15 3/. 5 3/ .
, .
,
.

.


()
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8


0
15
30
45
60
75
90
105
120


0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40

20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

, . ,
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:
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(1),
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C. .

10

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, ,
,
, . , , .

2: n
, a1, (a1 > 0) q, (q < 1).

, ,
, .
an = q an1 n- (n 2).
, ,
Sn = a1 + a2 + + an1 + an.

program cn02;
var S,a,q : real;
n : integer;
begin
readln(a, q, n);
S:=a*(exp(n*ln(q))-1)/(q-1);
writeln(S=, S:0:6);
end.


program cn03;
var S,a,q : real;
i, n : integer;
begin
readln(a, q, n);
S:=0;
for i:=1 to n do
begin
S:=S+a;
a:=a*q;
end;
writeln(S=, S:0:6);
end.

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11

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8, 13, 21, ... . ?

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a1, (a1 > 0) r, (r > 0).

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t = 0 N0 = N.
t (t > 0)
:
Nt1 ;
Nt1 .

13

0. : N, C. t 0.
1.
a) : t t+1.
b) : N mod 2 = 0, N N div 2, N N+1.
2. : N < C, t.
. 1.

program cn04;
var N,C,t: integer;
begin
readln(N, C); t:=0;
while (N>=C) do begin
t:=t+1;
if N mod 2 = 1 then N:=N+1 else N:= N div 2;
end;
writeln(t);
end.

512 2
9
31999 16
15
331 330
2
332 330
1
25768 235
10
31999 2
18
31997 2
19
32
3


n .
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. , .

q :

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r ,
:
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b) , 100.
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.

14

a b : a b.

s 4 5.
t , 6.


I :

1. :
a) ;
b) .
2. :
a) ;
b) .
3.
:
a) ;
b) .
4.
:
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5.
:
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6. , ,
, ,
:
a) ;
b) .
II :

1. :
a) ;
b) ;
c) ;
d) .
2. :
a) ;
b) ;
c) ;
d) .
3. :
a)
;
b) ;
c) ;
d) .
III ab

0 < a, b < 10.

15

, :
;
;
;

.

2.1. .

a A,
a A.
a < A, a , a > A
. , 3,14
, 3,142 . 3,14 < < 3,142.
,

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, ,
.
a
Aa
( aA).
+
a A, a
. A

a
.
a:
,
, , .
: 0,04708 .
.
a(anan1an2a0) A k
aiai1aik+1, :
.

16

A = a + a.
a
.
, :
a
A a:
= |A a| .


. ,
20 6 , , , 20,5 6,2 .
, ,
, , .
(), (, , ).
A (A 0):

: 100 .
101 . A B 3000 .
2997 . .
:

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.


n . .

o . .
p . . , %
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q 230.
, 230,7 . ,
.
r , 100 , , 2 . , ?
s 20 . , 0,001. , ?

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, ,
. , ,
. :

17

a) ;
b) ;
c) ;
d) ;
e) .
. ,
. ,
2 (1.2. )


. , ,
, .
. , ,

. ,
.

(Greedy).
.
!
, ,
:
, S n
.
vi, i = 1...n
(: ,
ci, i = 1...n.
, ).
,
, [0,1]

f (x) = x2 + x + 1. ,
.
x ,
0,01. , z ,
, |z x| < 0,01.
.
,
, x
5, 7, 13, 20, 10
:
, , 4, 8, 15,
23, 5, 30
,
, 27 ( 3,
2, 1). (
/).

31 ( 2 4).

18

x + z + 1 3 |z x| < 0, 01,
|f(x) f(z)| 0, 03.
(z) (x) . ,

x,
, , .
. , . , , .
,
.
: {xn}
x,
> 0, 0, n(n) ,
n > n |x xn| < .
, xn x.

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, ()

().
, , ,


.
.
, ,
,
, .
,
.
A = {a1, a2, a3, , an} , . (, a1< a2 < a3 < < an.)

A.
,

A. .

!
, f (x): I R
,
m > 0,
, : |f (x) f (z)| m* |zx|,
x, z I.
, f(x)
, f(x) .
,
.

+

1/n 0.
n=1
1/n = 1
n=2
1/n = 0,5

n = 501
1/n = 0,001996
n = 502
1/n = 0,001992
n = 503
1/n = 0,001988

n = 999
1/n = 0,001001
n = 1000 1/n = 0,001000
n = 1001 1/n = 0,000999
...

:
.
:
a = 0,2334, b = 0,2331, c = 0,233
rd(rd(a+b)+c) =
= rd(rd(0,4665)+0,233) =
= rd(0,467+0,233) = 0,7;

rd(a+rd(b+c)) =
= rd(0,2334+rd(0,4661)) =
= rd(0,2334+0,466) =
= rd(0,6994) = 0,699.

19

, ,
:
xR, aiA, ai+1A x(ai, ai+1)

,
.


, , .
, 0,5 10n (
), n ( )
. ,
. ,
, , .


n . .
o ,
. .

p ?
q ?

r .
s ,
?
.
0,0001?
t , ,
?
u ? .
v , 1,00000001 0,999999999.
real. . .

20


1. A
:
a) = |A a|;
c) = |a| |A|;
b) = |A| |a|;
d) = a A.
2. 105,2 M.
105,25 M.
, .
?
3. :
a) 0,375;
d) 0,0022222;
b) 0,000672;
e) 0,010101.
c) 0,1233;
4. , :
a) ;
b) ;
c) ;
d) ;
e) , .
5. , , ,
, . a = 0,113, b = 0,162, c = 0,21 :
a) rd(rd(a+b)+c);
b) rd(a+rd(b+c)).
?


250 5 120, 40, 40, 100,
150 150, 60, 80, 120, 180.
, .
a) . (
/.)
b) .
c) ,
.
d) .

21


, :

;
f (x),
f (x) = 0;
,
;

, ;


, .

3.1.

( )
f (x) = 0 x,
f (x) = 0 .
,
. ,
. , ,
, ,
, ,
. , , .
!

f (x)
f(x) = 0,
(1)

, f(x) = 0 f (x) ,
.
a x b.
: 3x7 = 0.
, f(x)
, .
:
.

22

,
f () = 0 ,
f (x) f (x) = 0.

,
(1) () ,


!
, .
. f (x), , [a, b], :
1. , , (f (a) f(b) <
.
< 0), 2. , ,
, f () = 0. [a, b]
( f '(x), )
,
(

).
f (x) = 0
.
.
.
f(x) = 0 ,
f (x) = 0 :
1. a x1 x2 ... xn b f(x) = 0.
2. a = x0 b = xn+1, f (x0), f (x1), ..., f (xn+1).
[xi, xi+1], i = 0, ..., n, f (xi) f (xi+1) < 0
f (x)=0.
1: ex + x = 0:
f(x) = ex + 1; f(x) >0 xR.


.
2: x3 9x2 + 24x 19 = 0 [0, 8].
:
f (x) = x3 9x2 + 24x 19;
f(x) = 3x2 18x + 24.
f(x) = 0, x1 = 2, x2 = 4.
x
0
2
4
8

f (x)
19
1
3
109

f (x)

, 3 ,
[0, 2], [2, 4], [4, 8].
. f (x) = 0
f (x).
1, ,
.
1

MatCAD, Matematica, Derive .

23


, .
.
.
, f (x)
. ,
f (x), ,
.
:
. [0.2,
10] (. 3.1, ; 3.1, ).

3.1, a. f(x)
. A
x 0,2 10 0,2. B
f(x)

3.1, . f(x)
.

,
f(x) = 0, :
[3, 5] [5, 6]


n ?
o f (x) ,
f (x)=0? , ?

p :
a) x5 5x + 7 = 0;
b) x3 9x2 + 24x 13= 0.
q , f (x), [a, b], n
, :

[10, 10],

a)

[2, 2],
b)
r :

n = 100.

a)

e)

b)

f)

g)

c)
d)

24

n = 100;

3.2.
f (x), [a, b], f (a) f (b) < 0.
[a, b]
f (x) = 0.
(1)

.
f (x) = 0
. c
[a, b], f (c). f (c) = 0, c
.
[a, c] [c, b].
,
(. 3.2).
f (a) f (c) > 0, [a1, b1], a1
c, b1 b. a1 a, b1 c. [a1, b1]
, , (
!) ci .


[a0,b0], [a1, b1], [a2, b2], ..., [ai, bi], ... .

f (ai) f (bi) < 0, i = 0, 1, 2, ... .
(2)
.
[ai, bi], ,

. ,
,
:
. 3.2. , f(x)=0
.

, f (x) = 0:
1.
:
0. : i 0.
1.
.
2. , : f (c) = 0,
x = c. .
, f (a) f (c) > 0, a c; b b, a a; b c.
3. i i + 1. i = n,
. .
1.

25

2. 2 :
1.
.
2. f (c) = 0, x = c. .
, f (a) f (c) > 0, a c; b b, a a; b c.
.
3. |b a|< ,
1.
1: x4 + 2x3 x 1 = 0 [0, 1],
16 .
, ,
.
program cn05;
var a,b,c: real;
i,n:integer;
function f(x:real):real;
begin f:=sqr(sqr(x))+2*x*sqr(x)-x-1;end;
begin a:=0; b:=1; n:=16;
for i:=1 to n do
begin c:=(b+a)/2;
writeln(i=,i:3, x=,c:10:8, f(x)=,f(c):12:8);
if f(c)=0 then break3
else if f(c)*f(a)>0 then a:=c else b:=c;
end;
end.

i= 1 x=0.50000000 f(x)= -1.18750000


i= 2 x=0.75000000 f(x)= -0.58984375
...
i= 15 x=0.86679077 f(x)= 0.00018565
i= 16 x=0.86677551 f(x)= 0.00009238

2: 6cos(x) + 8sin(x) = 0 [2, 4]


= 0,00017.
program cn06;
var a,b,c,eps: real;
function f(x:real):real;
begin f:=6*cos(x)+8*sin(x);end;
begin a:=2; b:=4; eps:=0.00017;
repeat
c:=(b+a)/2;
writeln(x=,c:10:8, f(x)=,f(c):12:8);
if f(c)=0 then break
else if f(c)*f(a)>0 then a:=c else b:=c;
until abs(b-a)<eps;
end.
2

26

, .

x=3.00000000
x=2.50000000

x=2.49829102
x=2.49816895

f(x)= -4.81099492
f(x)= -0.01908454
f(x)= -0.00199471
f(x)= -0.00077401


n ?
. ? ?
, ,
.

.
o .
p :
[1, 0,5];
1. ex x2 = 0
[1, 2];
2. x3 x 1 = 0
[3, 2];
3. x3 + 3x2 3 = 0
[1, 2].
4. x5 x 2 =0
a) 10, 20, 40 ;
b) = 0,001; 0,0001; 0,00001;
c) ,
.
q ,
3, 4, 5, . 24, 10, 20, 30 .

3.3.
, , ,
, . ,
,
, ,
, 0x.
f (x), :
1. f (x) [a, b] f (a) f (c) < 0.
2. [a, b] f(x) 0; f(x) 0,
[a, b].

f (x) = 0 [a, b].
, (a, f (a)) (b, f (b)) 0x.
[a, b],
(. 3.3). :
f (e) f (e) > 0.
[a, b] : x0.
(e, f (e)) (x0, f (x0)) . x1,
0x. x1 .

27

, (e, f (e)) (x1, f (x1)).


x0,
x1, x2, ... xi, xi+1, ... xn ...,
f (x) = 0.
e x0 .
, ,
x1 (f (x1) = 0):
,

, xi1,
xi
:
(3)

. 3.3.

!

f :[a, b] R

[a, b].
c(a, b), , :
f(b) f(a) = (ba) f (c).

i = 1, 2, .
, x1,
x2, ... xi, xi+1, ... xn ..., (3), f (x) = 0.

, , ,
,
: . , .
f (x) (1), (2).
f (x) = 0 [a, b], M1 m1
f (x) ,
:

(4)

, ,
(3) , (4) .


f (x) ,
. n
.

28

(3). n ;
(4).
. f (x), : f (x) c
, (a, f (a)) (b, f (b)), 0x.
[a, b], : f (e) f (c) < 0.
A1.
:
1. e x0:
f (c) f (a) < 0, e a, x0 b, e b, x0 a; i 0.
2. xi+1
3. i + 1 = n, x xi. .
, i i+1 2.
A2. :
M1 m1, ,
,
f (x) M1 m1.
1. e x0:
f (c) f (a) < 0, e a, x0 b, e b, x0 a; i 0.
2. xi+1
3.

, x xi. .

, i i+1 2.
1: f(x) = ln(xsinx).
f (x) = 0 [0,5; 1,5] , 10 .
.
, .
program cn07;
var a,b,e,c,x: real;
n,i: integer;
function f(x:real):real;
begin f:=ln(x*sin(x));end;
begin a:=0.5; b:=1.5; n:=10;
{ e x0}

29

c:=a-(f(a))/(f(b)-f(a))*(b-a);
if f(c)*f(a)>0 then begin e:=b; x:=a; end
else begin e:=a; x:=b; end;
{ }
for i:=1 to n do
begin x:= x-(f(x))/(f(e)-f(x))*(e-x);
writeln(x:10:8, ,f(x):12:8);
end;
end.

i= 1 x=1.27995775 f(x)= 0.20392348


i= 2 x=1.18251377 f(x)= 0.09028687
...
i= 9 x=1.11427651 f(x)= 0.00016577
i= 10 x=1.11420523 f(x)= 0.00006678

2: f (x) = x4 3x2 + 7,5x 1.


f(x) = 0 [0,5; 0,5]
= 0,0001, . [0,5; 0,5] M1
m1 , , 10 5.
,
.
program cn08;
var
Msup,minf,a,b,e,x,xnou,xvechi,eps: real;
function f(x:real):real;
begin
f:=sqr(sqr(x))-3*sqr(x)+7.5*x-1;
end;
begin
a:=-0.5; b:=0.5; eps:=0.0001;
Msup:=10; minf:=5;
{ }
x:=a-(f(a))/(f(b)-f(a))*(b-a);
if f(x)*f(a)>0 then begin e:=b; xnou:=a; end
else begin e:=a; xnou:=b; end;
{ }
repeat
xvechi:=xnou;
xnou:= xvechi-(f(xvechi))/(f(e)-f(xvechi))*(e-xvechi);
writeln( x=,xnou:10:8, f(x)=,f(xnou):12:8);
until abs((Msup-minf)/minf*(xnou-xvechi))<eps;
end.

30

x=0.22500000
x=0.15970438
...
x=0.14130134
x=0.14127062

f(x)= 0.53818789
f(x)= 0.12191694
f(x)= 0.00026052
f(x)= 0.00005579


n . .
o f(x)?
p . f(x)?

q .
r 10, 20, 30 :
a) x3 0,2x2 + 0,2x 2,1 = 0
[1, 2];
b) 5x3 20x + 3 = 0
[0, 1];
c) ex x2 = 0
[1, 0].
s . :
5, 25 ;
a) tg(0,55x + 0,1) x2 = 0
3, 9, 27 .
b) x3 0,2x2 + 0,5x + 1,5 = 0
t , , 3, 4, 5,
. 24, 10, 20, 30 . 4, . 27.
.
u f (x) = x[sin(ln(x)) cos(ln(x))]. f (x) =0
[2, 3] = 0,0001, .

3.4.
f (x), :
1. f (x) [a, b] f (a) f (b) < 0.
2. [a, b] f (x) 0, f (x) 0,
[a, b].
f (x) = 0 x [a, b].
.
E0 (x0, y0) [a, b],
: f (x0) f (x0) > 0.
i 0x xi (. 3.4).
(i+1) Ei+1 (xi, f (xi))
xi+1. x0, x1, x2, ..., xi, xi+1, ...,
f (x) = 0.
f (x) = 0 ,
.
x1,
x2, x i, ,
,
:
(5)
y f(xi) = f(xi)(x xi).
(5)
f (x),
(xi, f(xi)). (xi+1,0). :
(6)

. 3.4.
x0, x1, x2, ..., xi, xi+1, ...

31

,
, , .
:
,
=

xi, xi+1 ;
M2 f (x) [a, b];
m1 f (x) [a, b].

(7)

,
. ,
.
(6).
, (7).
A1. :

f (x) f (x). f (x) , .
, .
1. x0:
f (c) f (a) < 0, x0 a x0 b; i 0.
2. xi+1
3. i+1 = n, x xi+1. .
i i+1, 2.
A2. :
M2 m1.
, , . ,
f (x) f (x).
1. x0:
f (c) f (a) < 0, x0 a x0 b; i 0.
2. xi+1
3.

, x xi+1. .

i i+1, 2.

32

13: f (x) = x3 2x2 + x 3.


f (x) = 0 [2; 15] 10 .
f (x):
,
.
program cn09;
var a, b, x, c : real;
i, n: integer;
function f(z:real):real;
begin f:=z*z*z-2*z*z+z-3; end;
function fd1(z:real):real;
begin fd1:=3*z*z-4*z+1; end;
begin
a:=2.1; b:=15; n:=10; i:=0;
c:=a-(f(a))/(f(b)-f(a))*(b-a);
if f(c)*f(a)<0 then x:=a else x:=b;
while i<n do
begin
i:=i+1;
x:=x-f(x)/fd1(x);
writeln(i=,i:2, x=,x:15:12, f=,f(x):15:12);
end;
end.

i= 1
i= 2
...
i= 9
i=10

x= 10.23214285700
x= 7.06207637180

f=869.11072454000
f=256.52261987000

x= 2.17455942470
x= 2.17455941030

f= 0.00000009329
f= 0.00000000001

2:

f(x)=0 [2,4;3]
=0,0001 . [2,4; 3]
M2 m1, , 2 0,03.
:
, M2, m1 ,
.
program cn10;
var a, b, xn, xv, M2, m1, e, c : real;
function f(z:real):real;
begin f:=cos(z)*cos(z)-z/4; end;

f (x)
1 2 (. 31).

33

function fd1(z:real):real;
begin fd1:=-sin(2*z)-1/4; end;
begin
a:=2.4; b:=3; M2:=2; m1:=0.03; e:=0.0001;
c:=a-(f(a))/(f(b)-f(a))*(b-a);
if f(c)*f(a)<0 then begin
xn:=a; xv:=b;
end
else begin xn:=b; xv:=a; end;
while M2*sqr(xn-xv)/(2*m1)>e do
begin
xv:=xn;
xn:=xv-f(xv)/fd1(xv);
writeln( x=,xn:15:12, f=,f(xn):15:12);
end;
end.

x= 2.47538619170 f= -0.00078052066
x= 2.47646766320 f= -0.00000027700
x= 2.47646804730 f= 0.00000000000


n .
o ?
p ,
, , .

q
. 2, 4, 6 . :

a)

[1,7; 1,58], [1,53; 1,4], [0,4; 0,52], [0,58; 0,8];

b)

[100; 150];

c)

[4,5; 4] [4; 4,5];

d)

[0,1; 0,5].

r 4 ,
= 0,00001
:
a) 2cos2(x) ex/2 = 0
[0,1; 0,74],
M2=4, m1 =0,5;

b) x5 4x + 9 = 0

[2; 1],

M2=150, m1 = 1.

f(x) = 0

[0,5; 0,7] = 0,00001, .


t ,
= 0,00001:
a) x5 80 x2 + 89 = 0;
b) ex x2 = 0.

34


I :

1. f (x) = 0 :
a) f (x) 0y;
b) f (x) 0x;
c) f (x) .
2. f (x) = 0 :
a) 0x, f (x) = 0;
b) 0x, f (x) = 0;
c) 0x,
f (x) = 0;
d) f (x).
3. , , :
a) ;
b) , ;
c) , ;
d) ,
.
4. xi f (x) = 0 :
a)

c)

b)

d)

5.
[a, b], , :
;
c)
;
a)
b)
;
d)
.
II , :

1.

[10; 15] ,

5, 10, 20 , , 5, 10, 20 .
.
2. x2 sin 5x = 0 [0,5; 0,6] , 2, 4, 6
: 0,001; 0,00001; 0,0000001.
: m1 = 1,2; M2 = 6,2.

35




, :
,
;
;

;
n- ;
n;
, .

4.1.
n:

(1)

,
. A : det(A).
.
.
n1 ai,j A n(n>1)
n1, A i j.
ai,j Ai,j, i , j ,
ai,j.

, A1,2 a1,2
1 2:

36

, 4- :

!
A 1, a1,1, .
: A = (7); det(A) = 7.
2,


a1,1a2,2 a1,2a2,1.
:

det(A) = 9.

3,

A1,j, j = 1, ..., 4
3-
.

(1).

n :

.
A1,j.
n1. ,
, .
, 1, 2 3,
. ,
:
A R.
CRD (A, R)

{ A R.}

A 1, (R = 1),
, :

(
).
,
3- :
det(A)=a1,1a2,2a3,3+a1,3a2,1a3,2+
+a1,2a2,3a3,1 a1,3a2,2a3,1
a2,1a1,2a3,3a1,1a2,3a3,2.
:

; det(A) = 10.

:
1. : 1,
,
.
2. k-
k k k1. , .

37


1. ( 0).
2. j 1 R:
a) M1,j A j- . ( M1,j R1. A1,j.)
b) D1,j M1,j CRD (M1,j, R1).
c) + (1)1+j D1, j.
3. CRD . .

:
const
type

nmax=10;
matrice=array[1..nmax,1..nmax] of real;

, , X mat.
nmax. M1,j, ,
minor mat. (1)1+j CRD (M1,j, R1)
j, ,
j .

:
function cdet(var x:matrice; t:integer) : real;
var
i, j, k: integer;
s : real;
minor : matrice;
begin
if t=1 then cdet:=x[1,1] { }
else begin
s:=0;
for k:=1 to t do
begin
{ 1 k ,
x[1,k]}
for i:=1 to t-1 do
for j:=1 to k-1 do
minor[i,j]:=x[i+1,j];
for i:=1 to t-1 do
for j:=k to t-1 do
minor[i,j]:=x[i+1,j+1];
{ }
if odd(k) then s:=s+x[1,k]*cdet(minor, t-1)
else s:=s-x[1,k]*cdet(minor, t-1);
end;
cdet:=s;
end;
end;

38

,
n, ,
, .
n n
n1. , n1
n2 . n (n1)
(n2) 3 2 1 = n! n2. , O(n2n!),
n.
, . ,
.
, .
, ,
j (j =1, ..., n1), i- (i = j+1, ..., n) j,
. , aj, j ,
j k (j < k) , ak,j 0.
,
. , , .
, .
.
.
:
function CID(x:matrice; r:integer): real;
var i,j,k:integer;
q:real;
begin {CID}
for i: =1 to r-1 do
begin
{ i} if x[i,i]=0
then { , }
begin
k:=i;
for j:=i+1 to r do
if x[j,i]<>0 then k:=j;
{ }
if k=i then begin CID:=0; exit; end
{ i, k }
else
for j:=1 to r do
begin
q:=x[i,j];
x[i,j]:=x[k,j];
x[k,j]:=-q;
end;
end;

39

{ i,
}
for j:=i+1 to r do
begin
q:=-x[j,i]/x[i,i];
for k:=i to r do x[j,k]:=x[j,k]+x[i,k]*q;
end;
end;
{ }
q:=1;
for i:=1 to r do q:=q*x[i,i];
CID:=q;
end;


n .
o 3- .
.

p n .

q n (n 10), -

cdet, .
.
r :

a)

c)

b)

f)

e)

d)

h)

g)
;

s 4 , - x
cdet -. , . .
t
n, n > 20, real. ? .

40

4.2.

1
n .
.
n n :

(1)

(1) :
Ax = b.
(2)
, A ,
A1. (2) A1, :
A1Ax = A1b,

(3)
x = A1b.

!
(1) , A
A .
, - .
(3) :

(4)

A
, , A (
), E.
A1:
AA1 = A1A = E.

(17041752) . . ( ,
) ( - ).

41

i , A i- .
(4) (1), ,
(1) .
.

(1), n n .
:
a) A (n n) ( ) .
b) b (
) .
c) x .
.
CRD (A, n) ,
.
1. = CRD(A, n) (A ).
0, 2; . .
2. i: 1
3.
a) (C) . C A.
b) , i- b.
c) i C, i- :
.
d) 4.
4. i<n, i i+1, 3;
x. .
.
-.
.

1: ,
:

:
.
: .

42

program cn11;
type matrice=array[1..3,1..3] of integer;
vec=array[1..3] of integer;
vs=array[1..3] of real;
var a
: matrice;
b
: vec;
sol
: vs;
p,n
: integer;
de
: real;
function cdet( x:matrice;t:integer):real;
var i,j,k,l: integer;
s
: real;
minor : matrice;
begin
if t=1 then cdet:=x[1,1]
else
begin
s:=0;
for k:=1 to t do
begin
for i:=1 to t-1 do
for j:=1 to k-1 do minor[i,j]:=x[i+1,j];
for i:=1 to t-1 do
for j:=k to t-1 do minor[i,j]:=x[i+1,j+1];
if odd(k) then s:=s+x[1,k]*cdet(minor, t-1)
else s:=s-x[1,k]*cdet(minor, t-1);
end;
cdet:=s;
end;
end;
function transforma(x:matrice;t,l:integer):real;
var i : integer;
begin
for i:=1 to t do x[i,l]:=b[i];
transforma:=cdet(x,t);
end;
begin
n:=3;
a[1,1]:= 3; a[1,2]:= 2; a[1,3]:= -1; b[1]:= 7;
a[2,1]:=-1; a[2,2]:= 1; a[2,3]:= 1; b[2]:= 4;
a[3,1]:= 1; a[3,2]:=-6; a[3,3]:= 2; b[3]:=-13;
de:=cdet(a,n);
if de<>0 then
begin
for p:=1 to n do sol[p]:= transforma(a,n,p)/de;
for p:=1 to n do writeln(x[,p,]=,sol[p]:0:3);
end
else writeln(Calcul imposibil);
end.

x[1]=1.000
x[2]=3.000
x[3]=2.000

43


n ? ?
o i .
p cn11 n n (n 10) , :
a) n, ;
b) ,
n . n
n+1 , , .
q 3 :

a)

b)

d)

c)

f)
e)

g)

44

4.3.

,
2. ,
(
).
(1) n n
(1a):

(1)

(1a)

:
x1 , ;
x2 , ;
...
xi
, (i+1)-;
...
xn1 n-
.
,
(1) :
(2) , xn, . ,
xi+1, xi+2 ... xn, i- (2) xi.
,
:
1 () (1) (2)
(1a);
2 () (2).
, ( ),
.
2

(17771855) . .
, ,
, , , , , .

45

(1) n n .
:
a) (n n+1)
;
b) x n - .
.
( 1)
1. i 1.
2.
a) aii = 0, i r(r > i), ari 0.
, 3.
b) j i+1 n (P):
I.

II. l 1 n+1 aj,l aj,l + k ai,l .


3. i < n, i i+1, 2; ,
4. { 4
.}
( 2)
4. i n 1 :

5. i 1 n xi. .
: n (n < 20) , :


.
:
IN.TXT
( ):

46

: .
:
. 0.
program cn12;
const nmax=10;
type
matrice=array[1..nmax,1..nmax] of real;
vect=array[1..nmax] of real;
var
a:matrice;
s :vect;
i,n:integer;
procedure citeste(var x:matrice; var t:integer);
var i, j: integer; f: text;
begin {citeste}
assign (f, in.txt); reset(f);
readln(f, t);
for i:=1 to t do
begin
for j:=1 to t do read(f,x[i,j]);
readln(f, x [i,t+1]);
end;
close(f);
end; {citeste}
procedure direct(var x:matrice;t:integer);
label linie_urmatoare;
var i,j,k,l:integer; r:real;
begin {direct}
for i:=1 to t-1 do
begin
if x[i,i]=0 then
begin
k:=i;
for j:=i+1 to n do if x[j,i]<>0 then k:=j;
if k=i then goto linie_urmatoare
else
for j:=1 to t+1 do
begin
r:=x[i,j]; x[i,j]:=x[k,j]; x[k,j]:=r;
end;
end;
for j:=i+1 to t do
begin
r:=-x[j,i]/x[i,i];
for k:=i to t+1 do x[j,k]:=x[j,k]+x[i,k]*r;
end;
linie_urmatoare: end;
end; {direct}
procedure invers (var q:vect);
var i,j: integer;
s: real;

47

begin
for i:=n downto 1 do
begin
s:=0;
for j:=i+1 to n do s:=s+a[i,j]*q[j];
if a [i,i]<>0 then q[i]:=(a[i,n+1] -s)/a[i,i] else q[i]:=0;
end;
end;
begin
citeste(a,n);
direct(a,n);
invers(s);
for i:=1 to n do writeln(x[,i,]=,s[i]:0:3);
end.

: :
x[1]=0.800
x[2]=2.300
x[3]=0.000
x[1]=9.000
x[2]=-3.000
x[3]=11.000
x[4]=1.000
x[5]=2.000

, 2
. x[3],
0.
0. ,
.

, .


n n n
.
o , n n .
p n (n 10) n
.
q n n . cn12.
r cn12 , ,
:

a)

b)

s cn12 , .

48


I :

1. , :
a) 1;
b) ;
c) , 3.
2. :
a) ;
b) .
3. 10 10, real,
:
a) 640 ;
d) 400 ;
b) 1 024 ;
e) 200 .
c) 600 ;
4. , :
a) 0;
c) ;
b) 0;
d) .
5. n n
, 1 ,
.
x1 -:
a)

c)

b)

d)

6. n n :
a) ;
c) ;
b) ;
d) .
7. , n
n , xi :
a) 1 i;
b) 1 i +1;
c) i n;
d) i+1 n.
8. , ai,i 0 (i = 1, ..., n).

49

xi - :

a)

c)

b)

d)

II , , .

,
Rspuns:, , , :
1. :
a)

b)

2. ( ):

a)

b)

3. ( ):

50


, :

();

();
,
.

5.1.


.
, , .
, .
(,
).
,

0x, x = a, x = b f (x) [a, b] (. 5.1).


.
, . (
)
.
f ,
[a, b].


[a, b]
a=x0<x1<<xn1<
<xn<=b. x0x1,
x1x2, xi xi+1, , xn1xn n
, [a, b].

. 5.1.

51

, (. 5.2).
h [xi, xi+1]
.
xi : xi = a + ih,
i = 0, , n.
xi xi+1,
.

[xi, xi+1] Si h f (zi) (. 5.3):


.
I

,

. 5.2. [a, b]
.
[xi, xi+1]

n ;
h ;
I .
, ,


. , , .

,
, .
,
f (x)
g, :
=
. 5.3.
, .
f (x)

52

M |f(x)| [a, b], I .



: -

. ,

, n ,
n :
.

,
, ,
n:
1. : a, b
n.
. , -

, n

2.
3. i 0 n1:
a)
.

. S 0.

b) :
.
c) : S S + Si.
4. S. .
1:
20, 40, 80 160 .
.
: ,
.
program cn13;
const r=4;
var S, a, b, h : real;
j,i,n:integer;
function f(x:real): real;
begin
f:=x*x*x*x/sqrt(1+x);
end;
begin
a:=1; b:=2; n:=10;
for j:=1 to r do
begin
S:=0; n:=n*2; h:=(b-a)/n;
for i:=0 to n-1 do

53

S:=S+ h*f(a + i*h + h/2);


writeln ( n=,n, I=,S:0:6);
end;
end.

n=20 I=3.788513
n=40 I=3.789629
n=80 I=3.789908
n=160 I=3.789977

2:

, -

. ,
:

, n .

a, b, .
: :
+ 1.
program1 cn14;
var S, a, b, e, h : real;
j,i,n:integer;
function f(x:real): real;
begin
f:=sin(cos (x*x))/2;end;
begin
a:=-pi/2; b:=pi/2; e:=0.0001;
n:=round(pi*(abs(b-a))/(8*e))+1;
S:=0;
h:=(b-a)/n;
for i:=0 to n-1 do
S:=S+ h*f(a + i*h + h/2);
writeln (n=,n, I=,S:0:6);
end.

n=12338 I=0.729729


n
.
o
?
p
.
1

54

Turbo Pascal
pi.
. : const pi=3.141.

q ,
200, 2000, 20000 . .
a)

c)

b)

d)

e)

f)

, , .
on-line : www.solvemymath.com/online_math_calculator/calculus/
defnite_integral.
r ,
, = 0,001; = 0,0001; = 0,00001.
M :
a)

b)

M = 9;

c)

M = 7;

d)

M = 5;

M = 36.


, .
s x = 2 x = 0,
f (x) = x3 5x + 3 cosx, f (x) = x3 x2.
:
a) 10000 ;
b) = 0,00001.

5.2.
, , , ,
. ,
(. 5.4) , Si = hf (xi),
:
,

, n ,
.
(. 5.5)
, Si = hf (xi+1),
:
,

, n ,
.

55

() :
,
. 5.4.

M |f(x)| [a, b], I



() .
, , ,
, ,
:
.

. 5.5.


( )2

1. :
a, b n.
: ,
, n

2.
. S 0.
3. i 0 n1:
a) xi a + ih.
b) :
.
c)
: S S + Si.
4. S. .
3:

( ) 10, 100, 1000 .


.

, .
2

56

3- . i
: 1 n.

program cn15;
const r=3;
var S, a, b, h : real;
j,i,n:integer;
function f(x:real): real;
begin
f:=sqr((x* sin(x)));end;
begin
a:=0; b:=pi; n:=1;
for j:=1 to r do
begin S:=0; n:=n*10;
h:=(b-a)/n;
for i:=0 to n-1 do
S:=S+ h*f(a + i*h);
writeln (n=,n, I=,S:0:6);
end;
end.

n=10 I=4.381796
n=100 I=4.382315
n=1000 I=4.382315

4:

( ) , = 0,001.
.
, .
: . M = 6:
.
program cn16;
var S, a, b, e, h, M : real;
j,i,n:integer;
function f(x:real): real;
begin f:=sin(x)* sin(2*x)* sin(3*x);end;
begin a:=0; b:=1; e:=0.001; M:=6;
n:=trunc(M*(b-a)*(b-a)/(2*e))+ 1;
S:=0; h:=(b-a)/n;
for i:=1 to n do
S:=S+ h*f(a + i*h);
writeln (n=,n, I=,S:0:6);
end.

n=3001 I=0.278729

57


n ?
o
?

p ? ?
q , ,
. (: 10, 100, 1000).

a)
d)

b)
;

e)

c)

f)

, , .
on-line : www.solvemymath.com/online_math_calculator/calculus/
defnite_integral.
r
, = 0,005; = 0,0005; = 0,00005. M :

a)

b)

c)


, .
s , ,
. :

a)

b)

5.3.

,
.
,

.
,
.
(. 5.6).

. 5.6.
[a, b]
.

(xi, f (xi)), (xi+1, f (xi+1))

58

, n
.

, xi

, ,
xi = a + ih, i = 0, , n.
(h).
i- ,
xi xi+1 f (x). , , f (xi) f (xi+1) (. 5.7).
, xi xi+1
.
, [a, b] :

. 5.7. ,
, ,
0x, x = xi ,
x = xi+1

(xi, f (xi)), (xi+1, f (xi+1))

, ,
, f (x)
.
[a, b] :
,
M f(x) [a, b], h .
, , ,

,

1. :
a, b n.
: ,
, n

2.

. S 0.

59

3. i 0 n1:
a) xi a+ih; xi+1 a + (i+1)h.
b) :

c)
: S S + Si.
4. S. .
1:

20, 40, 80 . .

, .
: n 2n.
program cn17;
const r=3;
var S, a, b, h : real;
j,i,n:integer;
function f(x:real): real;
begin
f:=1/(sqr(sqr(sin(x)))+sqr(sqr(cos(x))));end;
begin
a:=0; b:=2*pi; n:=10;
for j:=1 to r do
begin
S:=0; n:=n*2;
h:=(b-a)/n;
for i:=0 to n-1 do
S:=S+ h*(f(a + i*h)+f(a+(i+1)*h))/2;
writeln (n=,n, I=,S:0:11);
end;
end.

n=20 I=8.88312405500
n=40 I=8.88576626920
n=80 I=8.88576587630

2:

, = 0,001. .
, .
:

M = 42.

60

. -

program cn18;
var S, a, b, e, h, M : real;
j,i:integer;
n:longint;
function f(x:real): real;
begin
f:=3*x*x*x-7*x*x+2;end;
begin
a:=1; b:=3; e:=0.001; M:=42;
n:=trunc(sqrt(M*(b-a)*(b-a)*(b-a)/(12*e)))+ 1;
S:=0;
h:=(b-a)/n;
for i:=0 to n-1 do
S:=S+ h*(f(a + i*h)+ f(a + (i+1)*h))/2;
writeln (n=,n, I=,S:0:9);
end.

n=168 I=3.333852986


n , .
o ?
p .
q
? .

r 10, 20, 30
:
a)

c)

b)

d)

e)

f)

s , = 0,003; = 0,0003; = 0,00003.


M :

a)

b)

c)

61


I :

1. :
a) ;
c) .
b) ;
2.
:
a) ;
c) ;
b) ;
d) .
3. , , :
a) ;
c) ;
b) ;
d) .
4.

, n ,

. -


, , :


5.

, , M | f(x)|

[a, b]. ,
,
:
a)

b)

c)

II .

, Rspuns:,
, , , 6-
:
1000 1. :
.
2. ()3 :
.
3

62

5000


, :
, , ;
, ;
, ;
.

6.1.
6.1.1.
,
(, .), , .
,
()
() .
:
a) ;
b) ;
c) .
( ).
, . ,
.
.
, .
.
1: var c: integer c, ,
. integer
{32 768, 32 767, ..., 32 767}. c:= 8 ,
, 8.
2:
.

63

,
, .
,
.
.
3: record , () ,
. , ( )
( ) .
:
a) . .
, ( record) ,
.
b) .
. , .
c) .
, .
. ,
, .
d) . . , ,
.

6.1.2.
, ( ,
.). .
, ,
. , ,
, , , ., ,
, , , , .

, _,
. ,
. ,
_. ,
_. ,
. ,
, ,
. .

64

,
:

, .
,
(, ,
10- ,
, , , , ).
(, , ,
, , , ).

.
(),
, , .
,
. , , ,
: , , .


n . :
a) ;
b) ?

: , , ,
o
, , , false, .
p :
a) integer;
b) char;
c) lit_M, : type lit_M = A.. Z;
d) boolean?
q (, ,
):
a) ;
d) ;
b) ;
e) .
c) ;
r .
s
, ?
t ?

6.2.
,
,
.

65


,
, , , .

:
a) ( );
b) ;
c) .
,
.
( ) (hierarhical database)
, . ,
, , ( ), ,
( ) .
: - :
www

md

ro

ru

uk

com

org


ust

ase

usm

edu

weten


iti

moodle

cie

(network database)
, .

: :

66

..

..

..

(relational database) .
.
, , .
1970 .
, .
. ,
. . ,
, . 6.1
.

_

_
. 6.1

( ).
: .


n :
a) ;
b) ;
c) .
o , :
a) ;
b) ;
c) ;
d) .
p , :
a) ;
b) ;
c) .
q p :
a) ;
b) .
r
.

(23.08.1923, , 18.04.2003, , , )
. IBM,
. 1981 ,
.

67


, :
;
, ;
;
;
;
;

.

7.1.
7.1.1.

. , ,
, .

.
, , :
1. . ,
,
, .
.
.
2. . ():
, // , .
3. .
(). , ( , ) .
:
( ,
;
, ;
), (
), ( ) .
: ,
(), . .

68

7.1.2.
,
, ( ).
. , , , ().
: Liceu,
. Elevi :
Elevi
Cod_elev
e001
e002
e003

Nume_elev
Bacinschi
Belobrov
Brnc

Pren_elev Cod_clasa Data_elev Foto_elev Telefon Gen_elev


Sabina
c01
28.09.1993
Package 29-82-54
F
Andreea
c01
18.10.1993
Package 44-26-48
F
Carmen
c01
20.03.1993
Package 67-46-64
F

:
a) ; ,
, ;
b) (, ,
, , , .).
, Elevi Cod_elev, ,
Data_elev, .
Cod_elev Elevi .
, ,
. , ,
.
, .
(
).
, . , Elevi Cod_elev ,
Cod_clasa .
, , , .
:
a) --;
b) --;
c) --.
-- ( 1:1)
, .
,
. .
, Elevi Adrese_elevi -. Cod_elev
.

69

Adrese_Elevi
Cod_elev
e001
e002

Loc_elev
Chiinu
Stuceni

Strada_elev
Mihail Sadoveanu
Viei

Nr_casa_elev
40
9

Ap_elev
23

7.1.
-- ( 1: 1:M)

,
, ,
. 7.1
.
, ,
, .
, Clase -- Elevi,
, .
Clase
Cod_clasa
c01
c02
c03
c04

Anul_de_studii
10
10
10
10

Nume_clasa
A
B
C
D

Cod_profil
p1
p1
p2
p2

Cod_clasa Clase
Cod_clasa
Elevi.
7.2.
: --
.
. 7.2
-- (
: M:M)
. , Clase Discipline
--,
.
Discipline
Cod_disciplina
d01
d02
d03
d04

70

Nume_disciplina
Matematica
Informatica
Chimia
Fizica

Prof_dis_clasa
Cod_repart Cod_clasa
r001
c01
r002
c01
r003
c01
r004
c01

Cod_dis
d01
d02
d03
d05

Cod_prof
prof01
prof01
prof02
prof04

--
--.
-- .
, -- Clase Discipline
Prof_dis_clasa (. 7.3).

. 7.3

: Prof_dis_clasa ,
c01 ( 10- A ) d01 ( Matematica)
prof01 ( Profesori, . 74).

7.1.3.
,
, (,
, , ).
, ( 6.1 6).
. ,
, .
(,
), ( ,
).
.
, , , : Profesori, Discipline, Clase Prof_dis_clase.
, ,
Profesori.


n .
o ?
p .
q M:M 1:M?
r Elevi Liceu .
s :
a) _12 _, _, _ , _ ;
b) _, _, _,
_, ___;
c) _ _, __, _,
__;

71

d) _, __, _,
__.
t :
a) _;
c) ;
b) ;
d) ?
u , :
a) ;
c) ;
b) ;
d) .

7.2. ()
7.2.1.
,
, , , , ,
. :
a) , , ,
;
b) , ,
;
c) , , , ;
d) , ,
;
e) , , , , .;
f) ,
, ( ),
, ;
g) , ,
.
:
a) (Data Dictionary), ,
;
b) (Query Language),
. (
) SQL (Structured Query Language).
:
a)
b) , ()
, , ,
.
: Microsoft Office Access, Oracle,
FoxPro, Paradox, dBase, Microsoft SQL Server .

72

7.2.2. Microsoft Office Access


Microsoft Office Access ( Access) , Windows.
1993- . ,
. ,
Access , ,
, , .
Access :
, Access
Windows;
Microsoft Office Access ;
,
.mdb.
Access . File
New Blanc database
File New Database. File name . Save in ,
.
Access .
Access, , :
a) Access;
b) (File, Edit, View, Insert, Tools, Window, Help) Access;
c) Access;
d)
Access (Tables , Queries , Forms , Reports
, Pages , Macros , Modules ,
Visual Basic for Applications).
,
Objects ;
e) (Open, Design, New).
Access .
Liceu,
.

7.2.3. Liceu
Liceu 8 (. 7.4).
8 . ,
18.
1. Profiluri
Cod_profil
p1
p2

2. Discipline
Nume_profil
Real
Umanist

Cod_dis
d01
d02

Nume_disciplina
Matematica
Informatica

73

.7.4

3. Profesori
Cod_ Nume_ Pren_ Data_prof Foto_ Salariu CV_prof Casatorit Gen_ Telefon Diriginte
prof
prof prof
prof
prof
prof01 Albu
Ion
01.03.1968 Package 3500 Grad...
Yes
M 64-41-72 CO2
prof02 Moraru Vasile 11.05.1973 Package 3000 S-a ns...
No
M 29-10-16

4. Adrese_prof
Cod_prof
prof01
prof02

Loc_prof
Cricova
Chiinu

Strada_prof
Vinului
Grenoble

Nr_casa_prof
89
81

Ap_prof
77

5. Clase
Cod_clasa
c01
c02

Anul_de_studii
10
10

Nume_clasa
A
B

Cod_profil
p1
p1

6. Elevi
Cod_elev Nume_elev Pren_elev Cod_clasa Data_elev Foto_elev Telefon Gen_elev
e001 Bacinschi
Sabina
c01
28.09.1998 Package 29-82-54
F
e002 Belobrov
Andreea
c01
18.10.1998 Package 44-26-48
F

7. Adrese_elevi
Cod_elev
e001
e002

74

Loc_elev
Chiinu
Stuceni

Strada_elev
Mihail Sadoveanu
Viei

Nr_casa_elev
40
9

Ap_elev
23

8. Prof_dis_clasa
Cod_repart
r001
r002

Cod_clasa
c01
c01

Cod_dis
d01
d02

Cod_prof
prof01
prof01

: www.bd.ust.md.


n .
o .
p Access?
q Access Access.
r Liceu, :
a) , Sabina Bacinschi;
b) , 10- A ;
c) , Ion Albu;
d) 10- A .


1. :
a) 'Informatica';
d) V byte;
b) 'E';
e) Pi;
c) false;
f ) 32109?
2. , :
.

3. , ,
12- .
4. :
a) 12- _, , , _, ;
b) Web- _, _, _,
_;
c) _, _, _, _.
5. :
a) _ _;
b) ;
c) ;
d) ;
e) _T .
6. a) , .
b) ?

75

, :
;
;
;
;
, , ;
;
;
;
;
.

8.1.
, Access .
: , , .
, .

8.1.1.
,
: , , .
:
1. Tables Objects
( ).
:
Create table in Design view ( );
Create table by using wizard ( -);
Create table by entering data ( ).
.
: New Design view.
2. Table Table1 (. 8.1).
:
a) ;
b) , (Field Properties).
:

76

Field Name (
);
Data Type ( ,
);
Description ( ).
,

,
.

,
. , !, [,
],
(,
).

64
.
,
Access, :

Text
Memo
Number
Date/time
Currency
AutoNumber
Yes/No
OLE Object
Hiperlink

. 8.1


- . 255
. 64 K



1, 2, 3, ...,

Yes No

Web-

( )
.
.
3. .
( ),
Primary Key (
Access). , 8.1,

Cod_prof .
, Access
.
AutoNumber. ,
( ID ).

77

4. , Save File.
SaveAs, .
: 8.1. Elevi Liceu,
.

8.1.2.
,
, , .
(. 8.1).
1. Field Size
Text Number.
Text 0 255, ,
, . 50.
Number Byte, Integer, Long integer
( ), Single, Double, Replication ID, Decimal.
2. Format .
, OLE Object.
Text Memo
:

@
&
<
>

.
.
.
.
.

: @@-@@-@@> abcdef AB-CD-EF.


Number Currency General number,
Currency, Euro, Fixed, Standard, Percent Scientific.
Date/Time General Date, Long Date, Medium Date, Short
Date, Long Time, Medium Time, Short Time. ,
, [00, 29] 2000
2029, [30, 99] 19301999.
: Long Date 28.11.89 28 1989.
Yes/No Yes/No, On/Off, True/False.
, , 1 0.
3. Input Mask ( ), .
:

78

0
9

( + ). .
( + ) . .
( + ) (
). .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
(, ,
, ..).
Regional Settings ( Control Panel
Windows).
- .
- .
.
, \ (, \M
M).

#
L
?
A
a
&
C
.,:;-/
<
>
!
\

"
" ( ).
Password .

:
1. >L<L0\S 4- , , , , S.
2. (+373 22) XX-XX-XX
"(+373 22)" 00\-00\-00.
Input Mask Wizard ( Input Mask),

10 .
4. Caption , , , .
, Access .
5. Default Value . .
6. Validation Rule . ,
Access VBA (Visual Basic
for Applications). , >= 100
100.
7. Validation Text , , ,
Validation Rule.

79

8. Required Yes No. Yes


.
, (
), Is Not Null ( ).
9. Allow Zero Length Yes
No. Text Memo. Yes
0, , Required
Yes.
10. Indexed ( Yes (Duplicates Ok))
( Yes (No Duplicates)) .
, No.
Yes (No Duplicates) (. 8.1)
.
11. New Values AutoNumber.
Increment Access 1 . New Values
Random, .


n Profesori Liceu .
o , Access?
p , ? Web-?
- ?

q , , ?

r , ,
. ?

s , Liceu ?

t :
a) 01.01.01;

b) 30.12.30;

c) 17.12.89;

d) 15.04.28?

u Access, .
, , ,
(, , CD .) (, 5 10).
v Access, .
, ( , , ,
, .), , (,
, ..).
w , :
a) [10..99];
b) ;
c) , .
,
. , 8 .

8.2.
, : 1 : 1, 1 : M, M : M.
Access
Relationships.

80

.
1 : M Clase Elevi Liceu.
1.
Tools
Relationships. Relationships.
2.

Relationships Show Table. Show Table (. 8.2),
Elevi Clase, Add. Relationships (. 8.3).
3. .
Cod_clasa Elevi, , ,
Cod_clasa Clase. Edit Relationships, 1 : M (Relationship Type: One-To-Many).
(. 8.4):
a) (Enforce Referential Integrity);
b) (Cascade Update Related Fields);
c) (Cascade Delete Related Records).
,

. , Cod_clasa Elevi
, Clase.
,
V

. 8.2

. 8.3

. 8.4

81

V . ,
Clase c01 10- A c001, c01
Cod_clasa Elevi c001.
, X
,
X. , Clase (
c12, 12- D ), Elevi
12- D .


n Access .
o ?
p :
a) ;
b) - (, , );
c) (, , , , );
d) ;
e) ( ).
Liceu.
, Discipline.
q Cascade Update Related Fields?
r Cascade Delete Related Records?

8.3.
8.3.1.
, Datasheet View,

.
Datasheet View ( , . 8.5) Design View
( ) View

Access.

. 8.5

, (),
.
.

82


.
, .
, .
( ,
).


, , , :
( ):
;
, ;

, ;
, ;
;
.
,
. , Clipboard
Backspace Delete.
Esc ,
.
,
( ) ,
Yes Required.
, (,
), (,
). , (),
(),
().
,
:
( New Record
Insert Access);
( Delete Record
Edit Access);
;
( Copy Paste );
( Copy Paste
Edit Access).
:
1.
.

83

2.
Access.
3. .
4.
.
5. , .

8.3.2.
Access ,
. ,
, ,
.
.
, :
a) ;
b) ;
c) ;
d) ;
e) .
.
, , ,
, ,
.
() , ,
(, ) Records Sort Sort Ascending (
Records Sort Sort Descending).
. ,
,
, .

.
, , Hide Columns
Format. ,
Unhide Columns Format. Unhide
Columns, .
, ,
, ( Records Filter
Advansed Filter/Sort) ( Filter Apply Filter/Sort).
Records Remove Filter/Sort.
:
1. . , Save
Save Edit.
2. .

84

8.3.3.
,
.
! .
,
,
. -, ,
Access .

,
.
.
Design View,
:
a) ;
b) ;
c) ;
d) ;
e) ;
f) .
.

8.3.4. Lookup
Lookup . ,
.
, ,
Lookup.
Cod_clasa Elevi.
1. Elevi . Lookup Wizard
Cod_clasa.
2. Lookup Wizard. ,
,
. ,
.
3. Clase, Cod_clasa,
An_de_studii Nume_clasa. .
4. .


n ?
o ?
p Liceu. Adresa_Web Adrese_elevi.
10 .

85

q Elevi :
a) 5 ;
b) ;
c) .
r Profesori :
a) : , , , ,
;
b) Salariu, CV_prof Foto_prof;
c) .
s Liceu.
t .
u Liceu .

8.4. Access
Validation Rule, ,
, , Access.
,
, .
Access ,
, .

.
Access .
, , , , . , [ ].
, .
, .
,
, .
: [Elevi].[Nume_elev], [Profesori].[Salariu], [Cod_elev].

8.4.1. Access
6 Access.
(+, -, *, /, \, Mod, ^)
.
: 15 \ 6 2, 15 Mod 6 3, 15 = 6 2 + 3.

True False. Access , : <, <=, =, >=, >, <>.
Access
: And, Or, Not, Xor.

86

= ,
.
+ .
.
. , , True ( 1), False ( 0).

Is

Like

In
Between

Null ( ) ,
.
, Like
. .
(? , # ,
, ) .
[ ].
!, ,
, !.
.
;.

.

:
1. [Elevi].[Telefon] Is Null True ,
Telefon Elevi, , .
2. Like "Bov" , B ov. , "Belousov" Like "Bov"
True.
3. Like "[CK]#?" 3- : C
K, , .
4. Like "[5adg]" , 5
a, d, e, f, g.
5. Like "[!ae]" , a e.
6. "Duminica" In ("Luni"; "Marti"; "Miercuri"; "Joi"; "Vineri")
False, 4 In (2; 4; 7; 8) True.
7. Between 2 And 10 >=2 And <=10.
: Validation Rule
,
. , In ("Luni"; "Marti"; "Miercuri"; "Joi";
"Vineri")
: Luni, Marti, Miercuri, Joi, Vineri.

8.4.2. Access
. Access
100 : ,
, .
:

87

Date()
DateAdd(T; N; D)
DateDiff(T; D1; D2)
Time()
Now()
Year(D)
Month(D)
Day(D)
WeekDay(D)
Hour(D)



, D N ( N ) T,
T yyyy, q, m, ww, d, h, , ,
: , , , , ,
D1 D2, T


, 4 , D
, D
, D
, D (1 , 2 ..)
( 0 23),
D

Asc(C)
Chr(N)
InStr(S1; S2)
Mid(S; N1; N2)
LCase(S)
UCase(S)
Len(S)
LTrim(S)
RTrim(S)
Trim(S)
Left(S; N)
Right(S; N)
Str(X)
Val(S)


ANSI C
, ANSI N
, S2 S1
S N2, N1. N2
, S,
N11
, S

, S

S
, S ,

, S ,

, S ,

, N S
, N S
, X,

, S (
)

Abs(X)
Atn(X)

88


X
( ) X

Avg(C)
Count(C)
Max(C)
Cos(X)
Exp(X)
Int(X)
Log(X)
Rnd()
Sgn(X)
Sin(X)
Sqr(X)
Tan(X)

C
C
C
X
eX
X
X
0 1
0 X , 1 X
X
X
X

:
1. (
[ ]).
2. ,
" ".
:
1. DateAdd("d";50; Date()) , 50
.
2. Weekday("27.09.1993") 2, 28 1993
. ( .)
3. InStr("Informatica"; "forma") 3.
4. LCase("INFORMATICA") "informatica".
5. LTrim("forma") "forma".
6. Sgn( 20) 1.


n Access ?
o Liceu Nr_ore_saptamina
Prof_dis_clasa,
.
p :
a) Mid("Propoziie"; 3);
f ) 5 In ("4"; "5"; "6"; "7"; "8");
b) Mid("Calculator"; 1; 3);
g) Val("25") 25;
c) Int(Rnd()*50);
h) "R" Like "[TR]*";
d) Month("15.11.1990");
i) "R" + Str(Date())?
e) Left("Tractor"; 5);
q , :
a) Profesori;
b) , 5 ;
c) ;
d) 1 2000;
e) 5 2005 5 2005.
r Gen_prof Profesori , M F.

89


1. : .
) ;
) .
2. , :
a) .....................
.
b) ................................ .................., Access
,
.
3. , >L0L 0L09.
4. , , :
a) 3 , , ;
b) , , 4- , , 6- , .
5. :
) (Enforce Referential Integrity);
b) (Cascade Update Related Fields);
c) (Cascade Delete Related Records)
,

?
6. Lista :

Nume
Popa
...

Prenume
Ion
...

Data naterii
12.08.1979
...

Raionul
Briceni
...

Profesia
profesor
...

Genul
M
...

, , : Raionul, Data naterii, Prenume, Nume.


7. , :
a) , T
R.
b) , ,
C, D, E, T, .
c) , , 15 40.
8. :
a) DateAdd("ww";1; "01.09.2010");
b) Year("01.09.30");
c) "PAR" Like "[A-D] "?
9. Adrese_email ,
, @.

90

, :
;
( -)
;
;
;
,
;
;
.

9.1.

. ,
, ,
. ,
. ,
1 000 000 ! 1,5 . ,
1,5 !
. , ,
Liceu, Elevi, Clase, Prof_dis_
clasa Discipline. !
,
Dan Moraru.

.
, ,
,
/ .
,
, / .

, , ,
, .

91

, , . Max
Salariu, Profesori,
Salariu Max ( ).
:
, ;
;
(, , );
;
, .
, :
a) ;
b) ;
c) ;
d) ;
e) ;
f) .
,
.
. , , 10 1992,
10- B .

, . , Elevi Liceu
12- ( ) .

. , 50%
Salariu Profesori .

. , . .
, ,
. , ,
Liceu, .
. ,
, ,
:
Anul_de_studii
10
10
11
12
...

92

Nume_clasa
A
D
A
D
...

Biologia
2
1
3
1
...

Chimia
3
1
2
1
...

...
...
...
...
...
...

, ,
, ,
(, ).
, a) d),
. a) d) .
.
.
:
1. Queries Objects.
:
Create query in Design view ( );
Create query by using wizard ( ).
.
: 1 New Design View.
2. Show Table (. 9.1).
, , ,
Add.
(. 9.2).

. 9.1

. 9.2

3. .
. QBE,

. , ,
, .

. , ,
, ,
Datasheet View.

QBE (Query by Example) ,


, ,
. QBE .
QBE,
.

93

4. , QBE, (
Field Table) , ,
:
a) ( Sort),
: Ascending ( ) Descending ( );
b) ( Show);
c) , (
Criteria or).
5. , , ,
, Datasheet View View Access.

6. ( Save File).
: 9.2
10- B , C. 9.3
.

. 9.3


n ?
o .
p .
q ?
r :
a) ;
b) Liceu;
c) 11- ;
d) , ;
e) , 10- .
s Liceu :
a) ;
d) ;
b) ;
e) ;
c) ;
f ) .

9.2.
, Access
, , . , ,
.
, , , .

94

9.2.1.

. ,
, ,
Criteria . , Like
Access, ,
. , Criteria
, .
: Ion,
Criteria Pren_elev ( Elevi) "Ion".
Access,
, ,
, .
, QBE
, AND / OR. :
a) ,
OR: Criteria,
, ;
b) Criteria AND.
:
1. , , "Ion" (
or) "Vasile", , Ion
Vasile. Criteria Nume_elev "B",
, Ion,
"B" Vasile.
2. 9.4 11- B , .
3. 9.5 1011 . , Criteria 10 OR11.
4. 9.6
2500 3000 ,
.

. 9.4
. 9.5

95

9.2.2.
, , . ,
QBE. , ,
, 10- B , , 11- B,
Criteria Anul_de_studii.
, ,
Criteria , .
, [ ], Criteria Access .
, , , (
, ), , , .
, , ,
, , .
Text. ,
Query Parameters. Query Parameters,
.
: 9.7
, : Anul_de_studii,
Nume_clasa, ( Number) Nr_ore_saptamina.
, , , , .
, 9.7,
,
(10, 11 12), (A, B, C D) , ,
.

. 9.6

96

. 9.7


n ?
o ?
p ?
q Liceu. , :
a) ;
b) ;
c) , 12 1970;
d) , ;
e) , ;
f ) , ;
g) , 50 ;
h) , ;
i) , 022 48.
j) , (Chiinu);
k) , A E;
l) , (Filosofia);
m) , (Matematica) 5 .
r Liceu. , :
a) , , ;
b) , , ;
c) , (Loc_prof ), ;
e) , , .
s 5 Liceu.
t Liceu 5 .

9.3.
, ,
.
.
! ( ) .

9.3.1.
.
( ).
,
, .
, 10- .
1. (. 9.8).
2. Query Make-Table Query... Make Table,
(, Clasele_10) ,
.
.
3. , OK, .

97

. 9.8

. 9.9

4. Clasele_10 .
. , Yes.

9.3.2.
. ,
Liceu, ,
12- .
1. Clase Elevi --
(Cascade Delete Related Records),
Clase, Anul_de_
studii 12. , Elevi
Clase.
2. , . Query
Delete Query. QBE Show Sort
Delete. Criteria Anul_de_studii 12 (. 9.9).
3. . .
! , ,
,
.

9.3.3.

,

. ,
50% Salariu Profesori.
1. ,
Salariu.
2. Query Update Query.
QBE Sort Show
Update To. [Salariu]*1,5
Update To Salariu (. 9.10).
3. .
.

98

. 9.10

! .
. ,
, 50% 125%.

9.3.4.

. , , Elevi1, , .
Elevi, . :
1. , , .
2. Query Append Query. Make Table. Table Name Elevi1.
3. , .


n ?
o :
a) ;
c) ;
b) ; d) .
p Liceu. :
a) T1 ;
b) T2 , ;
c) T3 ;
d) T4 ;
e) T5 , (Chiinu).
q Liceu. :
a) T1 , ;
b) T2 11- ;
c) T3 ;
d) T4 , ;
e) T5 , (Cricova).
r Liceu. , :
a) 500 ;
b) 300 , ;
c) 25% , 01.01.1960.
s Liceu. , :
a) T1 , ;
b) T2 , ;
c) T3 , ,
(Chiinu);
d) T4 , ;
e) T5 10- , (Chiinu).

9.4.
9.4.1.
,
,
.

99

, , Elevi Virsta.
Data_elev. , Liceu.
Elevi.
1. Elevi.
QBE Nume_elev, Pren_elev, ,
, Virsta: DateDiff(yyyy;[Data_elev];Date()).
, Virsta , DateDiff(T; D1; D2),
, T, D1 D2 (.
Access). , :
T yyyy, ;
D1 [Data_elev], ;
D2 Date(), .
2. . Virsta . .

9.4.2.
,
, .
, Liceu.
1. Clase Elevi,
Anul_de_studii, Nume_clasa Cod_elev.
2. Totals ( ) . QBE
Total (. 9.11). :
, , GroupBy
( );
Count (
Cod_elev).
3. . 9.12.

. 9.11

100

. 9.12

:
1. Total (, )
: Sum, Max, Min, Avg, First .
2.
. , Cod_elev
>25,
, 25.

9.4.3.
, ( ). ,
. :
a)
;
b)
;
c)
;
d) .
, , Liceu.
1. Clase, Discipline Prof_dis_clasa,
Anul_de_studii, Nume_clasa, Nume_disciplina Nr_ore_saptamina.
2. Query Crosstab Query. QBE
Total Crosstab (. 9.13).
3. Total Crosstab 9.13. ,
Anul_de_studii Nume_clasa
, Nume_disciplina
, Nr_ore_saptamina
(. 9.14).

. 9.13

. 9.14

101


n :
a) ;
b) ;
c) ?
o :
a) ;
b) ;
c) .
p Liceu. :
a) , ;
b) ;
c) real umanist;
d) ;
e) (Loc_elev);
f ) , ;
g) , ;
h) ;
i) ;
j) , .
q Liceu. :
a) ; b) ;
c) .


1. Liceu. , :
a) , A;
b) , ;
c) , , .
2. Liceu. , :
a) Elevi Adresa_Web,
@liceu.md. , Web-
Ion Popa PopaIon@liceu.md;
b) Test , :
10- A, a 11- B, 12- C ( Web-, a));
c) Test 10- B 11-C;
d) Web- Test, liceu.md
elev.md;
e) Test
10- A ;
f ) 40%
40 .
3. Liceu. , :
a) real
umanist;
b) .
4. ,

. 9.15
Liceu ( . 9.15).

102

10


, :
;
-;
, ,
;
;
;
-;
;
.

10.1.
Access, ,
, , .

. ,
, Datasheet View.
,
, (,
), ( ),
.
.

10.1.1. -
, Elevi Liceu.
1. Forms Objects.
:
Create form in Design view ( );
Create form by using wizard ( -).
.
: 1 New Form wizard.
2. Form Wizard (. 10.1). Table/Queries
Table: Elevi. Available Fields
Elevi.

103

. 10.1

. 10.2

3. , , . ,
.

Selected Fields.
, .

, Next.
4. Form Wizard
(. 10.2). Columnar ( ).
5.
(. 10.3).
6. (Formular_Elevi).
Modify the Forms design (. 10.4), Finish,

. 10.3

. 10.4

. 10.5

104

.
.
7. (. 10.5).
. ,
,
, , .
,
.
,
New

Record Insert.
:
1. ( ).
2. .
3. ,
Yes
Required. , .

10.1.2.
Design View ( )
Design View ,
.
(. 10.6).
.

, , .
y Detail
. .
y Form Header Form Footer ,
Form Header/Footer View.

. 10.6

105

, . , , ,
, , , .
y Page Header ( ) Page Footer ( ) , Page Header/
Footer View.
y Page Header , Page Footer
.
:
.
Form Design Form Design Toolbox.
y Form Design ,
, .
y Toolbox .
:
Select Objects ,
( ) .
Control Wizard ( ) -
.
Label ,
(
).
Text Box , .
Option Group ,
, . .
Toggle Button
.
Option Button (), ( ). , .
Check Box .
Combo Box , ,
.
List Box , .
Command Button ,
.
Image , OLE.
Unbound Object OLE (,
Microsoft Draw), OLE
.

106

Bound Object OLE


OLE (, ).
Page Breack .
Tab Control , . .
Subform/Subreport .
Line ,
( ).
Rectangle , .
More Controls .
y ,
:
a) ;
b) ;
c) .


,
.
. 10.7
( )
, ( ,
, ). , ,
(. 10.7). Datasheet View ,
10.7 , (. 10.5), .
.

, Drag & Drop . ,
. .
, Field List
View. ToolBox
Text Box ,
Unbound .
, , ,
, .
, Access , .
(,
Memo), . . Properties ,
Vertical Scroll Bars Format ( , . 10.9).

107

, .

Text Box, Unbound ( =),
.
, 10.8,
, .

, ,
. 10.8
.
.
y :
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, (. 10.9).

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(): Format, Data, Event,
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Format , (, , .).
Data ,
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Event (
), .
Other . Windows.
y ( )
Print File.
Print
, ,
Preview
Preview File.

10.1.3.
, .
- . ,
, Control Wizard

Toolbox.

108

Clase,
10.10,
Liceu.
,
, , .
1. Clase Design.
Control Wizard,
. 10.10
, Subform/Subreport
Toolbox , ,
. SubForm Wizard, Elevi.
2. Elevi,
(Cod_clasa) .
3. SubfForm Wizard (Lista_
elevi). Form View, ,
.
: Lista_elevi
.


n ?
o ?
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q ?
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10.2.
. ,
, , . , :
a) ;

109

b) , ;
c) ( Datasheet View).
, -
.

10.2.1. -
1. Reports Objects. New
Report Wizard.
2. Report Wizard (. 10.11). Tables/
Queries Clase, Elevi Virsta (. 9.4.1),
Available Fields Anul_de_studii, Nume_clasa ( Clase),
Nume_elev, Pren_elev ( Elevi) Virsta ( Virsta).
3. Report Wizard , (. 10.12).
4. Report Wizard , (. 10.13).
Summary Options , ,
: , , .
Avg (. 10.14).

110

. 10.11

. 10.12

. 10.13

. 10.14

Summary Only,
.
5. Report Wizard
, , , . 10.15
.

. 10.15

.
Print
:
.

10.2.2. Design View


Design View Design
View . , : Report Header, Page
Header, Detail, Page Footer Report Foter.
. , 10.16 ,
, . ,
5 Anul_de_studii Header, Nume_clasa Header,
Anul_de_studii Footer Nume_clasa Footer.
.

. 10.16

111

10.2.3.
, ,
.

. .
: , Liceu, Nr_elevi_clasa,
9.4.2.
1. Reports Objects.
New. New Report, Chart Wizard
Nr_elevi_clasa . Ok.
2. Chart Wizard, Anul_de_studii,
Nume_clasa CountOfCod_elev.
3. Chart Wizard : Column Chart ( ).
4. Chart Wizard (. 10.17)
(Anul_de_studii), (CountOfCod_elev) (Nume_clasa).
5. Chart Wizard ,
. 10.18.

. 10.18
. 10.17


n ?
o ?
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q Liceu. , :
a) ;
b) ;
c) .
r Liceu. , :
a) ;
b) ;
c) ;
d) , .
s Liceu. ,
.

112

10.3. ()
,
.
. ,
.

10.3.1.
, , ,
, ,
.
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( ), ;
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.
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2. Tools Database Utilities Compact and Repair Database.
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.
Save.

10.3.2.
Access .

.
, .
,
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10.3.3.
,
( ) .

113


. ,
. , , .
, :
;
;
.

, .
:
1. , Access.
2. File Open. , , Open
Exclusive Open.
3. Tools Security Set Database Password.
Set Database Password, .
:
1.
. , , .
2. ,
Security Tools.

,
10.19 Club
sportiv ( Platit ).
1. .
2. , Cod_client, Cod_abonament Luna
Evidenta.
3. , :
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b) , 5 ;
c) ;
d) , ;

. 10.19

114

e) ;
f ) ;
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j) , .
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5. .


1. :
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8. , .


1. :
a)
.
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.
c) .
2.
?
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4. Test,
,
Liceu.
5. Liceu,
.
6. , , 5.

115

11

WEB-
, :
Web-;
Web-;
Web- .

11.1.
10- .
, , ,
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,
WWW
(World Wide Web ).
Web-, (). Web- URL (Uniform Resurse
Locator), ,
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Web- :
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).
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.
Web- Web-.

11.2. Web-
Web- HTML
, , ,
HTML. HTML
, , . HTML HTML ( HTM,

116


). HTML
(. 11.1).

. 11.1. HTML ()
()

Web- ,
HTML, HTML.
PHP Web-, , PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor). PHP
: PHP
Web-, HTML, -, .
PHP
.
ASP Web-,
Active Server Page. PHP , ,
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SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics)
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Web- (. 11.2).

. 11.2. Web- ()
()

XML (eXntensible Meta Language) , HTML,


, .

117

11.3. Web-
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118

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119

11.4. Web-

: , ,
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.
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. 11.4. Web-

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,
Web- main

120


Web-: Web Page, Filtered ( Web-).
,
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. 11.6

, , ,
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n Web-? Web- ?
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a) HTML;
c) PHP;
b) ASP;
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121

12

HTML
, :
Web- HTML;
Web- HTML;
HTML;
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HTML.

12.1. HTML
12.1.1. HTML
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( HTML
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ASCII, , .
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() - (. Sir imothy John (Tim) Berners-Lee; . 8 1955 .)


, (WWW)
(W3C), , Web-.

122

12.1.2. HTML
HTML , , :
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE>

</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>


</BODY>
</HTML>

, <TITLE> </TITLE>,
.
<BODY> </BODY> HTML,
.
<BODY>:

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, , , ,
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;
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: HTML, ,
Web- aqua #FF2233.
<HTML>
<Head> <Title> </Title> </Head>
<Body leftmargin=140 topmargin=200 bgcolor=aqua text=#FF2233>
! .html
</Body>
</HTML>


n HTML.
o HTML?
p HTML?
q HTML?
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123

s ?
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u <TITLE> </TITLE> ?
v <BODY> </BODY>? <BODY>.
w Web- .
110 105
.
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HTML?
<HTML>
<Head> .html? <Title> </Title> </Head>
<Body>
.html?
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Web-,
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12.2.
HTML 6 , <Hn>
</Hn>, n 1 6.
. (1) , , 6 .
align = ''tip'', tip center,
left, right .
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(Enter) , .
<P>, <BR>, <PRE>, <DIV> <CENTER>.
a) , ,
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b) <BR> .
c) , <PRE>, </PRE>,
, , .
d) <DIV>, </DIV>. <DIV>
align nowrap (
). <DIV>...</DIV>
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, .
e) , <CENTER> </CENTER>, .
, <NOBR> </NOBR>,
. ,
, .

124


. , <HR>, , : align (
); size ( ); width (
); color (
); noshade ( - ).
<FONT> </FONT>.
: face (
, , : arial, serif, cursive,
monospace, fantasy .); color ( ); size (
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), 1, 2, ... (
)); weight ( ,
100, 200, ..., 900).
1 (. 12.1):
<HTML>
<Head>
<Title> </Title>
<H1 align=center> </H1>
</Head>
<Body leftmargin=20 topmargin=20 bgcolor=lightgreen text=blue>
<HR size=5 width=70% color=black>
<Font color=purple>
<H2> :</H2>
<H3>
<Pre>

</Pre>
</H3>
</Font>
</Body>
</HTML>

.
:
a) , ;
b) , .
.
:
<B>, </B> (bold );
<I>, </I> (italic );
<U>, </U> ;

125

<TT>, </TT> , ;
<BIG>, </BIG> , ;
<SMALL>, </SMALL> , ;
<SUB>, </SUB> ;
<SUP>, </SUP> ;
<S>, </S> , .

.
2 (. 12.2):
<HTML>
<Head>
<Title> 2 </Title>
<H2 align=center> HTML</H2>
</Head>
<Body>
<H3> :</H3>
<Pre>

<B> </B>
<I> </I>
<U> </U>
<TT> , </TT>
<big> </big>
<small> </small>
Y = X<sup>2</sup>
M = (m<sub>1</sub>, m<sub>2</sub>)
<s> </s>
<B><I> </I></B>
</Pre>
</Body>
</HTML>

. 12.1

126

. 12.2

, Web-.
:
<EM>, </EM> (, );
<STRONG>, </STRONG> (, );
<KBD>, </KBD> (, );
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HTML &-
(escape-). &- , ;.

&#258 &#259 &Acirc &acirc &Icirc &icirc &#350 &#351 &#354 &#355

&-
:

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>

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(. 12.3):
<HTML>
<Head><Title> 3 </Title><Body>
<H4>
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</H4>
</Body>
</HTML>

. 12.3

127


n ?
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c) | a + b| < |a| + |b|, a b.
HTML Web-,
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a)

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b)

Web-, .
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3. 5, 50% .
.

128

12.3.
html
. :
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item ).
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type , .
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:
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1 (. 12.5):
<HTML>
<Head> <Title> </Title> </Head>
<Body>
<H4> </H4>
<UL>
<LI>

129

<LI>
<LI>
<LI>
</UL>
<H4> </H4>
<UL TYPE=square>
<LI>
<LI> Web-
<LI>
<LI>
</UL>
</Body>
</HTML>

2 (. 12.6):
<HTML>
<Head> <Title> </Title> </Head>
<Body>
<H4> , X </H4>
<OL>
<LI>
<LI>
<LI>
</OL>
<H4> , XII </H4>
<OL TYPE=A>
<LI>
<LI>
<LI>
</OL>
</Body>
</HTML>

. 12.5

130

. 12.6

3 (. 12.7):
<HTML>
<Head> <Title> </Title> </Head>
<Body>
<H4> </H4>
<DL>
<DT> <DD> - ,

<DT> <DD> - ,

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</Body>
</HTML>

. 12.7


n ?
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131

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. 12.8

12.4.
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a) , , ,
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132

b) , ,
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c) , , ,
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1 (. 12.9):
exemplul4.html,
:
exemplul1.html (
);
exemplul2.html (
EXEMPLE );
exemplul3.html (
MAPA, , );

: http://www.ust.md.
<HTML>
<Head> <Title> </Title> </Head>
<Body>
<H4> <a href = exemplul1.html> 1 </a>
<p> <a href = EXEMPLE/exemplul2.html> 2 </a> </p>
<p> <a href = ../exemplul3.html> 3 </a> </p>
<p> <a href = http://www.ust.md>
</a> </p>
</H4>
</Body>

</HTML>

d)
. URL , ,
#.
:

. 12.9

. 12.10

. 12.11

133

<A name = > </A>,


, .
e) URL ,
, , #.
, URL capitolul2 exemplul1.html
: exemplul1.html#capitolul2.
2 (. 12.10):
<HTML>
<Head> <Title> </Title> </Head>
<Body>
<H2>
<a name=></a>
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<a href=#> </a>
</H2>
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</HTML>

f) , (, ), :
<A href = mailto: e-mail>.
g) ,
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:
<A href=URL> </A>,
URL , .
: <A> title, ,
. title
.
3 (. 12.11):
<HTML>
<Head> <Title> </Title>
<H2> 3</H2>
</Head>
<Body>
<a href=mailto: delta_mi@mail.md> Delta </a>
<p><a href=exemplul6.doc title=
exemplul6.doc > exemplul6.doc </p> </a>
</Body>
</HTML>

134

exemplul6.doc, , 12.12,
exemplul6.doc, Microsoft Word.

. 12.12


n Web- ?
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w , URL #.
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LICEE, , ,
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1. URL :
a) exemplul1.html exemplul3.html;
b) exemplul2.html exemplul1.html;
c) exemplul4.html exemplul2.html;
d) exemplul3.html exemplul2.html?
Web-, .
,
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135

. URL
:
a) f1.html f4.html;
b) f2.html f3.html;
c) f4.html f2.html;
d) f4.html f3.html?
.
HTML ,
URL:
a) Mapa4\fisier4.html;
b) Mapa1\Mapa2\Mapa4\fisier4.html;
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12.5.
,
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GIF (Grafics Interchange Format) .gif;
JPEG (Join Photographic Expert Group) .jpeg sau .jpg;
BMP (BitMap) .bmp.
<IMG>, SRC,
URL :
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URL ,
(. 12.4).
SRC <IMG> :
ALIGN, .
: top (
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),
middle (
, ), left (
), right (
);
ALT,
( ,
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(.. ) ;
WIDTH HEIGHT, ,
;

136

BORDER, ,
( ) ;
HSPACE VSPACE, , ,
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1 (. 12.13):
<HTML>
<Head>
<Title> 1. </Title>
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. 12.13

. 12.14

137

<HTML>
<head> <Title>Imagini</Title> </head>
<Body>
<A HREF=Desene/desen1.jpg><img src=Desene/desen1.jpg
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<A HREF=Desene/desen2.jpg><img src=Desene/desen2.jpg
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<A HREF=Desene/desen3.jpg><img src=Desene/desen3.jpg
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width=
width=
width=
width=5


n - Web-?
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p HTML
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q -?
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s Web-, - 5 x 5 .
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15 x 15 .
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5, , .
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v Web-, .
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12.15 a, b ( ):

a)

138

. 12.15

b)

12.6.
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:
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<TABLE>
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. <TABLE> :
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left, right, center;
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( 2);
CELLPADDING,
( 1);
WIDTH HEIGHT, (
( ) 101, % (,
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:
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( );
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( );
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), ;
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Color <Font>).
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<TD>
<TH>.
</TD>

139

, , ,
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&nbsp; <br>.
(. 12.16):
<HTML>
<Head> <Title> 1. </Title> </Head>
<Body>
<Table border=2 width=90% height=80% align=center bgcolor=lightcyan>
<Caption align=left><Font color=Red Size=6> </font>
</Caption>
<Tr><Th Colspan=2><Th><Th><Th><Th> </Tr>
<Tr align=center><Td>1<Td> <Td><Td>
<Td><Td> </Tr>
<Tr align=center><Td>2<Td> <Td><Td>
<Td> <Td> </Tr>
<Tr align=center><Td>3<Td> <Td><Td>
<Td><Td> </Tr>
</Table>
</Body>
</HTML>

. 12.16


n ?
o <TABLE> .
p <CAPTION> ?
q ?
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140

u Web-, :
a)

A
B

C
D

E
F

B
D

C
E

D
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b)

c)

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e)

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f)

A
B

C
D
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E
B
E
H

E
F
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g)

v HTML, Web- (. 12.17 a, b) (


):

a)

. 12.17

b)

141

w Web- HTML?
a) <HTML>
<Head><Title>Ce afisam?</Title> </Head>
<Body>
<Table align=center border=2 width=100>
<Tr align=center>
<Td colspan=2>B</Td><Td rowspan=2>D</Td>
</Tr>
<Tr align=center>
<Td>C</Td><Td>A</Td>
</Tr>
</Table>
</Body>
</HTML>
b) <HTML>
<Head><Title>Ce afisam?</Title> </Head>
<Body>
<Table align=center width=100 border=2>
<Tr align=center>
<Td rowspan=2>B</Td><Td>C</Td><Td>A</Td>
</Tr>
<Tr align=center>
<Td colspan=2>D</Td>
</Tr>
</Table>
</body>
</HTML>

HTML, :
.

2010

2012
4 532
3 835

1 483
683

2014
6 743
7 482
238

, :

142


1. :
a) ;
b) ;
c) ;
d) ;
e) ;
f ) ;
g) ;
h) ;
i) ;
j) ;
k) ;
l) ;
m) ;
n) ;
o) ;
p) .
2. HTML , Web . .
.
.
3. :
a) Web-
;
) Web- .

143


1. :
a) , <HEAD> </HEAD> HTML,
,
.
b) .
c) ,
<P>, <BR>, <HR>.
d) , <DIV> </DIV>, .
2. : <B>, </B>, <DFN>, </DFN>,
<VAR>, </VAR>, <BIG>, </BIG>, <EM>, </EM>, <SUB>, </SUB>.
3. HTML, , ,
:

a)
b)
c)
d)

1.
2.
3.

o
o
o
4. f1.html A, f2.html B. URL
f1.html f2.html, :
a) A B ;
b) A B;
c) B A;
d) A C, B?
5. HTML:

<A HREF=../TEST/d1.jpg><img src=d2.jpg width=50 height=50></A>.


6. HTML, , ,
:

A
E
H

144

B
I

C
F

D
G
J