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Lucrări practice la T.

Lupaşcu,
I. Catereniuc,
D. Batâr,

Anatomia Omului L. Globa,


T. Hacina

Ghid pentru autoinstruire

I. Aparatul locomotor Chişinău, 2009


CZU: 611 (075.8)

Aprobat de Consiliul Metodic Central al USMF „Nicolae Testemiţanu”,


proces-verbal nr. 4 din 17.06.2008

Autorii:
Teodor Lupaşcu, dr.,conferenţiar universitar, catedra Anatomia omului
Ilia Catereniuc, dr. hab., profesor universitar, catedra Anatomia omului
Dumitru Batâr, dr.,conferenţiar universitar, catedra Anatomia omului
Lilian Globa, asistent universitar, catedra Anatomia omului
Tamara Hacina, dr.,conferenţiar universitar, catedra Anatomia omului

Recenzenţi:
Emilian Onea, dr.,conferenţiar universitar, catedra Histologie, Citologie şi Embriologie
Ion Podubnâi, dr., profesor universitar, catedra Anatomie topografică şi Chirurgie operatorie


Lucrarea nr. 1

Tema: Elementele de orientare ale corpului uman. Vârsta omului, sH[XO úL
SDUWLFXODULWăĠLOH OXL LQGLYiduale. Metodele de studiere a anatomiei. Anatomia
SHYLX7HUPLQRORJLDDQDWRPLFă.

&RQĠLQXWXOWHPHL

a. Elementele de orientare ale corpului RPHQHVF SăUĠLOH GH FRUS úL VHJPHQWHOH ORU, repere
RVRDVH FDUWLODJLQRDVH PXVFXODUH FXWDQDWH 1RĠLXQL JHQHUDOH GHVSUH UHJLRQDOL]DUHD SăUĠLORU
GHFRUS3R]LĠLDDQDWRPLFă. Planuri, axe, linii.
b. Limbajul anatomic. Termeni anatomici de ordin general úi de ordin special. Nomenclatura
anatomică.
c. Nomenclatura miúcărilor segmentelor de corp.
d. 0HWRGHGHVWXGLHUHDDQDWRPLHLLQFOXVLYDDQDWRPLHLSHYLX VHQ]RULDOHGLUHFWHúLVHQ]RULDOH
PHGLDWHVDXFOLQLFHúLSDUDFOLQLFH 
e. 1RĠLXQL GH YkUVWă FDOHQGDULVWLFă úL ELRORJLFă VDX PHGLFDOă  VH[ úL SDUWLFXODULWăĠLOH
individuale ale omului. Indicii morfologici ai vârstei biologice.

Scopul: Familiarizarea cu elementele de orientare ale corpului omenesc, limbajul


DQDWRPLF QRPHQFODWXUD PLúFăULORU VHJPHQWHORU GH FRUS úL SXQerea la curent cu
PHWRGHOHWUDGLĠLRQDOHGHH[SORUDUHDQDWRPLFăúLSHYLXúLQRĠLXQLOHGHYkUVWăVH[
SDUWLFXODULWăĠL individuale ale corpului omului.

0RWLYDĠLD: &XQRúWLQĠHOH SULYLQG HOHPHQWHOH GH RULHQWDUH DOH FRUSXOXL XPDQ OLPEDMXO
anatomic, metodele GH H[SORUDUH DQDWRPLFă úL SDUWLFXODULWăĠLOH LQGLYLGXDOH GH
YkUVWă úL GH VH[ VXQW QHFHVDUH QX QXPDL SHQWUX SULFHSHUHD úL VWXGLHUHD WHPHORU
XOWHULRDUHGDUúLSHQWUXDFWLYDUHDvQGLYHUVHGRPHQLLDOHPHGLFLQLLSUDFWLFH

5HDOL]DUHDOXFUăULL:

1. 6HOHFWDĠL GLQ chestionar (Anexa 1) subiectele, referitoare la tema nU  VWXGLDĠL-OH GXSă
sursele bibliografice, indicate la finele prezentei culegeriQRWDĠLWH]HOHPDLLPSRUWDQWH

2. RHSUH]HQWDĠLJUDILFVWUXFWXUD ORJLFăDFRPSRQHQWHORUtemei.

3. (ODERUDĠLFODVLILFDrea elementelor de orientare ale corpului omenesc.

3 
4. $GQRWDĠLLPDJLQHDGLQILJLQGLFDĠL SR]LĠLLOH SăUĠLOor de corp, marcate prin linii.

Fig.1
______________________________________________________________

5. 'HILQLĠLSR]LĠLDDQDWRPLFă

6. 3HLPDJLQHDGLQILJLQGLFDĠLSăUĠLOHúLVHJPHQWHOHGHFRUS

Fig.2


4
7. Pe imaginea din fig.3 LQGLFDĠLSODQXULOHúLGLUHFĠLLOHPDUFDWHFXVăJHĠLIRUPXODĠLGHILQLĠLL

Fig.3
___________________________________________________
8. ,QGLFDĠLPLúFăULOHUHSUH]HQWDWHSULQXUPăWRDUHDserie de imagini (fig. 4).

5
Fig. 4
9. ([SOLFDĠL WHUPHQLL VXSHULRU-inferior, median, medial-lateral, proximal-distal, intern-extern,
superficial-profund, radial-ulnar, fibular-tibial, volar-dorsal, anterior-SRVWHULRU LQGLFDĠL
sinonimele lor.


6
10. (ODERUDĠLUHIHUDWHVXFFLQWHSULYLQG: a) limbajul anatomic; b) metodele de studiere a anatomiei
pe viu; c) QRĠLXQLGHVSUHYkUVWă

11. 6HOHFWDĠL testele (Anexa 2) referitoare la tema nr.1 úLUH]ROYDĠL-OHQRWDĠLUH]XOWDWHOH

12. )RUPXODĠLFRQFOX]LLSULYLQGLQIRUPDĠLLOHREĠLQXWHúLUROXOORUvQVWXGLXOXOWHULRUDODQDWRPLHL

13. ÎQWUHEăULDSăUXWHvQUH]XOWDWXOUHDOL]ăULLOXFUăULLnr.1.

14. ,QIRUPDĠLLVXSOLPHQWDUH SULYLQGFHOHVWXGLDWHREĠLQXWHvQXUPDGLVFXĠLLORUDVXSUDWHPHL

&RQWUROXOUHDOL]ăULLOXFUăULL (aprecieri, sugestii, recomandDĠLL

6HPQăWXUDSURIHVRUXOXL


7
Lucrarea nr. 2

Tema: 6FKHOHWXOWUXQFKLXOXL&RORDQDYHUWHEUDOăVWUXFWXUDJHQHUDOăDYHUWHEUHORU

&RQĠLQXWXOWHPHL
a. 1RĠLXQLJHQHUDOHGHVSUHDSDUDWXOORFRPRWRU
b. 2VWHRORJLHJHQHUDOă– scheletul dur, componentele lui.
c. Clasificarea oaselor.
d. Structura oaselor.
e. 2VXOFDRUJDQúLIXQFĠLLOHOXL
f. 'H]YROWDUHDRDVHORUúLDQRPDOLLOHGHGH]YROWDUHDVLVWHPXOXLRVRV
g. ,QIOXHQĠDGLIHULWRUIDFWRULDVXSUDGH]YROWăULLúLPRGLILFăULLSRVWQDWDOHDRDVHORU
h. &RPSRQHQWHOHVFKHOHWXOXLWUXQFKLXOXLFRORDQDYHUWHEUDOă
i. Structura geQHUDOăDYHUWHEUHORU

Scopul: )RUPDUHD FRPSHWHQĠHORU SULFHSHULORU úL D GHSULQGHULORU vQ GRPHQLXO RVWHRORJLHL


JHQHUDOHúLDDQDWRPLHLYHUWHEUHORU

0RWLYDĠLD: ,QIRUPDĠLLOH FH ĠLQ GH PRUIRORJLD VLVWHPXOXL RVRV GH VWUXFWXUD YHUWHEUHORU VXQW
necesare SHQWUX VWXGLHUHD XOWHULRDUă D SLHVHORU RVRDVH vQ JHQHUH úL D FRORDQHL
YHUWHEUDOH vQ VSHFLDO SUHFXP úL D DUWLFXODĠLLORU HL úL D PXúFKLORU FDUH R
LQIOXHQĠHD]ă&XQRúWLQĠHOHREĠLQXWHYRUILLPSRUWDQWHvQWUDXPDWRORJLHQHXURORJLH
LPDJLVWLFăHWF

RealizareDOXFUăULL:

1. Din chestionar (Anexa 1  VHOHFWDĠL VXELHFWHOH WHRUHWLFH UHIHULWRDUH OD WHPD QU  VWXGLDĠL-le,
QRWDĠLWH]HOHPDLLPSRUWDQWH

2. 5HSUH]HQWDĠLJUDILFVWUXFWXUDORJLFăDFRPSRQHQWHORUWHPHL

3. 'HILQLĠL QRĠLXQHD GH VFKHOHW HQXPHUDĠL FRPSRQHQWHOH VFKHOHWXOXL D[LDO úL D VFKHOHWXOXL
complementar.

 8
4. 5HSURGXFHĠL GLQ Ä&XOHJHUHD GH VFKHPH´ VFKHPD FODVLILFăULL RDVHORU VDX HODERUDĠL R VFKHPă
proprie.

5. (QXPHUDĠLúLGHILQLĠLWLSXULOHGHĠHVXWRVRV

6. 5HSURGXFHĠL GLQ „Culegerea de scheme” sau alte surse schema structurii osteonului,
adnotând-o.

7. 5HSURGXFHĠLGLQÄ&XOHJHUHDGHVFKHPH´VDXGLQDOWHVXUVHVFKHPDVWUXFWXULLXQXLRVWXEXODU
lung, adnotând-o.

9

8. 'XSă Ä&XOHJHUHD GH VFKHPH´ UHSURGXFHĠL VFKHPD SRUĠLXQLORU XQXL RV WXEXODU OXQJ LQGLFDĠL
segmentele lui.

9. (ODERUDĠLGHILQLĠLDSHULRVWXOXLúLHQXPHUDĠLVWUDWXULOHOXL

10. (QXPHUDĠLWLSXULOHGHPăGXYăRVRDVăLQGLFkQGUROXOHLvQRUJDQLVP

11. Din chestionar (Anexa 1) selectaĠLVXELHFWHOHUHIHULWRDUHODWHPDQUDOHJHĠLGLQFRPSOHWXO


GHSLHVHRVRDVHSUHSDUDWHOHSHFDUHWUHEXLHVăOHGHPRQVWUDĠLúLVWXGLDĠL-OHFXDWHQĠLH

12. 3H VFKHOHW VDX PXODMXO UHVSHFWLY VWXGLDĠL VHJPHQWHOH FRORDQHL YHUWHEUDOH YHUWHEUHOH
DGHYăUDWHIDOVHúLFHOHGHWUDQ]LĠLHLQGLFDĠL-le pe imaginile din fig. 1

Fig.1

10

13. 0DUFDĠLYHUWHEUHOHGLQFRORDQDYHUWHEUDOăUHSUH]HQWDWăSHLPDJLQHDGLQILJ

Fig.2

14. (ODERUDĠLRFODVLILFDUHDFDUDFWHUHORUPRUIRORJLFHDOHYHUWHEUHORUDGHYăUDWH

15. AOHJHĠL GLQ FRPSOHWXO GH SLHVH RVRDVH YHUWHEUHOH WLS DUDQMDĠL-OH vQ SR]LĠLD ORU DQDWRPLFă úL
VWXGLDĠLFXDWHQĠLHVWUXFWXUDORU'HPRQVWUDĠLHOHPHQWHOHGHVFULSWLYHDOHYHUWHEUHORU

11

16. 6FULHĠLLQGLFDĠLLOHUHVSHFWLYHSHLPDJLQLOHGLQILJ

Fig.3
17. 3HLPDJLQHDGLQILJQRWDĠLSăUĠLOHFRPSRQHQWHDOHXQHLYHUWHEUH GLQVWkQJDILJXULL úLUROXO
ORUIXQFĠLRQDO GLQGUHDSWD

Fig.4

18. (ODERUDĠLUHIHUDWHVXFFLQWHSULYLQGD RVXOFDRUJDQúLIXQFĠLLOHOXL; b) dezvoltarea oaselor; c)


DQRPDOLLOHGHGH]YROWDUHDVLVWHPXOXLRVRVG LQIOXHQĠDGLIHULWRUIDFWRULDVXSUDGH]YROWăULLúL
PRGLILFăULLSRVWQDWDOHDRDVHORU

19. 6HOHFWDĠLWHVWHOH $QH[D UHIHULWRDUHODWHPDQUúLUH]ROYDĠL-OHQRWDĠLUH]XOWDWHOH

20. FoUPXODĠLFRQFOX]LLSULYLQGLQIRUPDĠLLOHREĠLQXWHúLUROXOORUvQVWXGLXOXOWHULRUDODQDWRPLHLúL
disciplinelor clinice.

21. ÌQWUHEăULDSăUXWHvQUH]XOWDWXOUHDOL]ăULLOXFUăULLQU

22. ,QIRUPDĠLLVXSOLPHQWDUHSULYLQGFHOHVWXGLDWHREĠLQXWHvQXUPDGLVFXĠLLORUDVXSUDWHPHL

&RQWUROXOUHDOL]ăULLOXFUăULL DSUHFLHULVXJHVWLLUHFRPDQGDĠLL
6HPQăWXUDSURIHVRUXOXL
10 12
Lucrarea nr. 3

Tema: 3DUWLFXODULWăĠLOH PRUIRORJLFHDOHYHUWHEUHORUGLQGLYHUVHVHJPHQWHDOHFRORDQHL


YHUWHEUDOH&RORDQDYHUWHEUDOăvQDQVDPEOXSDUWLFXODULWăĠLGHYkUVWăúLGHVH[
Explorarea pe viu a vertebrelor.

&RQĠLQXWXOWHPHL

a. 3DUWLFXODULWăĠLOHUHJLRQDOHDOHYHUWHEUHORUFHUYLFDOH
b. 3DUWLFXODULWăĠLOHVWUXFWXUDOHJHQHUDOHúLLQGLYLGXDOHDOHYHUWHEUHORUWRUDFLFH
c. Vertebrele lombare – paUWLFXODULWăĠLOHORUPRUIRORJLFHJHQHUDOH
d. 6DFUXOúLFRFFLVXO– FDUDFWHULVWLFăPRUIRORJLFăúLUROIXQFĠLRQDO
e. &RORDQD YHUWHEUDOă vQ DQVDPEOX – segmente, curburi, canalul rahidian, orificiile
LQWHUYHUWHEUDOHúLUROXOORU
f. 'H]YROWDUHDYHUWHEUHORUúLDQRPDOLLOe lor de dezvoltare.
g. ([SORUDUHDSHYLXDYHUWHEUHORUúLLPSRUWDQĠDHLDSOLFDWLYă

6FRSXOúLFDUDFWHULVWLFDPRWLYDĠLRQDOăDOXFUăULL:
)RUPDUHD GHSULQGHULORU SULYLQG VHOHFWDUHD YHUWHEUHORU DGHYăUDWH úL IDOVH VLWXDUHD
ORUvQSR]LĠLDDQDWRPLFăúLVWDELOLUHDORFDOL]ăULLORUvQFDGUXOFRORDQHLYHUWHEUDOHvQ
DQVDPEOXLGHQWLILFDUHDHOHPHQWHORUORUGHVFULSWLYHúLGHPRQVWUDUHDúLGHQXPLUHD
ORU FRUHFWă LGHQWLILFDUHD YHUWHEUHORU SH YLX SUHFXP úL D FRPSHWHQĠHORU FH ĠLQ GH
GH]YROWDUHD DFHVWRU RDVH úL GHSLVWDUHD DQRPDOLLORU ORU 7RWRGDWă ILHFDUH VWXGHQW
WUHEXLHVăVHvQYHĠHDGHPRQVWUDSUH]HQWDVDXDH[SXQHvQVFULVPDWHULDOXOVWXGLDW
,QIRUPDĠLLOH UHIHULWRDUH OD PRUIRORJLD YHUWHEUHORU úL D FRORDQHL YHUWHEUDOH vQ
ansamblu sunt importante pentru studierea anatomiei topografice, chirurgiei,
traumatologiei, neurologiei, radiologiei etc.

5HDOL]DUHDOXFUăULL:

1. Din chestionar (Anexa 1  VHOHFWDĠL VXELHFWHOH WHRUHWLFH UHIHULWRDUH OD WHPD QU  VWXGLDĠL-le,
QRWDĠLWH]HOHPDLLPSRUWDQWH

2. 5HSUH]HQWDĠLJUDILFVWUXFWXUD ORJLFăDWHPHL

3. 6HOHFWDĠL GLQ FRPSOHWXO GH SLHVH RVRDVH YHUWHEUHOH GLQ GLYHUVH VHJPHQWH DOH FRORDQHL
YHUWHEUDOHVLWXDĠL-OHvQSR]LĠLHDQDWRPLFăVWXGLDĠLVWUXFWXUDORU

4. (QXPHUDĠLFDUDFWHUHOHPRUIRORJLFHJHQHUDOHUHJLRQDOHúLVSHFLDOHDOHYHUWHEUHlor cervicale.

13 11
5. $GQRWDĠLILJGHQXPLĠLWRDWHHOHPHQWHOHGHVFULSWLYHLQGLFDWHSULQOLQLLQRWDĠL-OHSHILJXUă

Fig.1

6. $GQRWDĠLILJQRWDĠLHOHPHQWHOHGHVFULSWLYHDle piesei osoase, reprezentate în imagine.

Fig.2

7. $GQRWDĠLILJLQGLFDĠLúLGHQXPLĠLHOHPHQWHOHGHVFULSWLYHDOHYHUWHEUHLGLQLPDJLQH

Fig.3

8. (QXPHUDĠL FDUDFWHUHOH GLVWLQFWLYH DOH YHUWHEUHL FHUYLFDOH VI úL GHVFULHĠL LPSRUWDQĠD ORU
DSOLFDWLYă

14
12
9. ,GHQWLILFDĠL YHUWHEUD UHSUH]HQWDWă vQ ILJ DGQRWDĠL LPDJLQHD úL LQGLFDĠL FDUDFWHUHOH
distinctive.
Fig.4

10. ([SOLFDĠLQRĠLXQHDGHFRPSOH[XQFR-transverso-DUWLFXODUúLLQGLFDĠLUROXOOXLIXQFĠLRQDO

11. $GQRWDĠLILJLQGLFDĠLúLGHQXPLĠLHOHPHQWHOHGHVFULSWLYHDOHYHUWHEUHORUGLQLPDJine.

Fig.5

12. (QXPHUDĠLFDUDFWHUHOHGLVWLQFWLYHDOHYHUWHEUHORUWRUDFLFH

13. (QXPHUDĠLYHUWHEUHOHWRUDFLFHGHWUDQ]LĠLHúLGHVFULHĠLFDUDFWHUHOHORUGLVWLQFWLYH

15
13
14. $GQRWDĠLILJQRWDĠLSHLPDJLQHGHQXPLUHDIRUPDĠLXQLORUPDUFDWHSrin linii.

Fig.6

15. (QXPHUDĠLFDUDFWHUHOHGLVWLQFWLYHDOHYHUWHEUHORUORPEDUH

16. $GQRWDĠLILJ3HLPDJLQLOHGLQHDQRWDĠLGHQXPLULOHHOHPHQWHORUGHVFULSWLYHPDUFDWHSULQ
linii.

14 16
Fig.7

17. 3H ILJ  LQGLFDĠL FXUEXULOH FRORDQHL YHUWHEUDOH QRWDĠL YkUVWD úL VXFFHVLXQHD DSDULĠLHL ORU
,QGLFDĠLRULILFLLOHLQWHUYHUWHEUDOH

Orificii intervertebrale

Fig.8

17 15
18. 5HSURGXFHĠL GLQ Ä&XOHJHUHD GH VFKHPH´ GLQ PDQXDO VDX DOWH VXUVH VFKHPD FHQWULORr de
RVLILFDUHDXQHLYHUWHEUHGHWLSWRUDFLFDGQRWDĠL-RúLLQGLFDĠLFHQWULL

19. 'HQXPLĠLDQRPDOLLOHYHUWHEUHORUUHSUH]HQWDWHvQLPDJLQLOHGLQILJ

Fig.9
20. (QXPHUDĠL DQRPDOLLOH YHUWHEUHORU H[LVWHQWH vQ FRPSRQHQĠD FRPSOHWXOXL GH SLHVH RVRDVH úL
cele demonstrate în muzeul de osteologie sau pe calculator

18
16
21. &HUHSUH]LQWăDQRPDOLD.LPLUOHWúLvQFHFRQVWăLPSRUWDQĠDHLFOLQLFă"

22. (QXPHUDĠLPHWRGHOHGHH[SORUDUHSHYLXDYHUWHEUHORU

23. 'HQXPLĠLOLQLLOHRUizontale, trasate pe imaginea din fig. 10 A úLQRWDĠLYHUWHEUHOHFDUHSRWIL


LGHQWLILFDWH SH YLX FX DMXWRUXO ORU &RPSDUDĠL ILJ  A cu fig. 10 B SH FDUH QRWDĠL
IRUPDĠLXQLOHSDOSDELOHSHYLX

A B
Fig.10

24. (QXPHUDĠL SăUĠLOH FRPSRQHQWH DOH YHUWHEUHORU GLQ ILHFDUH VHJPHQW DO FRORDQHL YHUWHEUDOH
palpabile pe viu.

19
17
25. 6WXGLDĠLúLGHVFULHĠLUDGLRJUDPHOHGLYHUVHORUVHJPHQWHDOHFRORDQHLYHUWHEUDOH

26. (ODERUDĠLUHIHUDWHVXFFLQWHla temele:


x Dezvoltarea vertebrelor.
x Anomaliile de dezvoltare a vertebrelor.

27. 6HOHFWDĠLWHVWHOH $QH[D UHIHULWRDUHODWHPDQUUH]ROYDĠL-OHúLQRWDĠLUH]XOWDWHOH

28. )RUPXODĠLFRQFOX]LLSULYLQGPDWHULDOHOHVWXGLDWHúLLPSRUWDQĠDORUDSOLFDWLYă

29. &RQWURODĠLGDFăVXQWHĠLSUHJăWLWvQGHDMXQVSHQWUXDSUH]HQWDDH[SXQHvQVFULVúLDGHPRQVWUD
pe preparate cele studiate.

30. ÌQWUHEăULDSăUXWHSHSDUFXUVXOUHDOL]ăULLOXFUăULLQU

31. ,QIRUPDĠLLVXSOLPHQWDUHSULYLQGWHPDQUREĠLQXWHvQXUPDGLVFXĠLLORUGHPRQVWUDĠLLORU

&RQWUROXOUHDOL]ăULLOXFUăULL DSUHFLHULVXJHVWLLUHFRPDQGDĠLL
6HPQăWXUDSURIHVRUXOXL

20
18
Lucrarea nr. 4

Tema: 2DVHOH FXWLHL WRUDFLFH 7RUDFHOH vQ DQVDPEOX SDUWLFXODULWăĠLOH OXL GH YkUVWă úL
de sex. TipXULOH FRQVWLWXĠLRQDOH úL YDULDQWHOH GH IRUPă DOH WRUDFHOXL 2DVHOH
centurii scapulare. Explorarea pe viu a toracelui.

&RQĠLQXWXOWHPHL

a. 7LSXULOHFRQVWLWXĠLRQDOHúLLPSRUWDQĠDORUDSOLFDWLYă
b. 'HILQLĠLDWRUDFHOXLFRPSRQHQWHOHFXWLHLWRUDFLFH.
c. Sternul – deILQLĠLHSR]LĠLHvQFRUSSRUĠLXQLVWUXFWXUă
d. Coastele – GHILQLĠLH SR]LĠLH FODVLILFDUH, VWUXFWXUă 3DUWLFXODULWăĠLOH PRUIRORJLFH VSHFLDOH DOH
FRDVWHORU,,,;,úL;,,
e. 'H]YROWDUHDúLDQRPDOLLOHGHGH]YROWDUHDFRDVWHORUúLDVWHUQXOXL
f. Toracele în ansDPEOX SDUWLFXODULWăĠLOH GH YkUVWă úL GH VH[ UROXO OXL IXQFĠLRQDO 9DULDQWHOH
QRUPDOHúLSDWRORJLFHDIRUPHLWRUDFHOXL
g. 6FDSXODúLFODYLFXOD– SR]LĠLHDQDWRPLFăVWUXFWXUăUROIXQFĠLRQDO
h. Explorarea toracelui pe viu.
i. Repere osoase ale toracelui.

Scopul: )RUPDUHD FRPSHWHQĠHORU SULYLQG VWUXFWXUD úL GH]YROWDUHD RDVHORU WRUDFHOXL úL D
FHQWXULL VFDSXODUH úL D GHSULQGHULORU YL]kQG LGHQWLILFDUHD ORU SH VFKHOHW úL SH YLX
SUHFXP úL D SULFHSHULL GH D GHPRQVWUD SUH]HQWD VDX GH D H[SXQH vQ VFULV
elementele lor descriptive.

0RWLYDĠLD: ,QIRUPDĠLLOHREĠLQXWHvQUH]XOWDWXOVWXGLXOXLDVXSUDSUH]HQWHLWHPHYRUILQHFHVDUH
OD VWXGLHUHD DOWRU FDSLWROH DOH DQDWRPLHL GDU úL SHQWUX RULHQWDUHD SH WRUDFH
GHWHUPLQDUHDWRSRJUDILHLRUJDQHORUGLQFDYLWDWHDWRUDFLFăH[SORUDUHDORUSHYLXúL
sunt importante în cardiologie, pulmonologie, hepatologie, chirurgie,
WUDXPDWRORJLHLPDJLVWLFăHWF

5HDOL]DUHDOXFUăULL:

1. Din chestionar (Anexa 1 VHOHFWDĠLVXELHFWHOHWHRUHWLFHUHIHULWRDUHODWHPDQUVWXGLDĠL-le cu


DWHQĠLHQRWDĠi tezele mai importante.

2. 5HSUH]HQWDĠLJUDILFVWUXFWXUDORJLFăDFRPSRQHQWHORUWHPHL

3. 'HILQLĠLWRUDFHOHúLFXWLDWRUDFLFăHQXPHUDĠLHOHPHQWHOHFRQVWLWXWLYHDOHDFHVWHLD

21
19
4. 6HOHFWDĠLGLQFKHVWLRQDU &RQWUROXOFXQRúWLQĠHORUSUDFWLFH VXELHFWHle, referitoare la tema nr. 4,
DOHJHĠL GLQ FRPSOHWXO GH SLHVH RVRDVH SUHSDUDWHOH FDUH WUHEXLH VWXGLDWH úL GHPRQVWUDWH
VWXGLDĠL-OHvQSR]LĠLDORUDQDWRPLFăúLFHUFHWDĠL-OHFXDWHQĠLHGXSăFHLGHQWLILFDĠL-le pe schelet.

5. $GQRWDĠLILJVFULHĠLSHLPDJLQH GHQXPLULOHIRUPDĠLXQLORULQGLFDWHSULQOLQLL

Fig. 1

6. (QXPHUDĠL HOHPHQWHOH GHVFULSWLYH DOH VWHUQXOXL SDOSDELOH SH YLX úL PHQĠLRQDĠL FXP SRW IL
identificate.

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fiecare grup.

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Fig. 2

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din ele.

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Fig.10

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6HPQăWXUDSURIHVRrului
28
26
Lucrarea nr. 5

Tema: Scheletul membrului superior liber. Explorarea pe viu a oaselor membrului


superior.

&RQĠLQXWXOWHPHL
a. Segmentele scheletului membrului superior.
b. Humerusul – SR]LĠLDDQDWRPLFăSRUĠLXQLVWUXFWXUă
c. 2DVHOHDQWHEUDĠXOXL– SR]LĠLHDQDWRPLFăSRUĠLXQLVWUXFWXUăORFDOL]DUH
d. Scheletul mâinii - VHJPHQWHSR]LĠLHDQDWRPLFăVWUXFWXUăORFDOL]DUH
e. Dezvoltarea oaselor membrului superior, anomalii de dezvoltare.
f. 3DUWLFXODULWăĠLOHGHYkUVWăúLGHVH[DOHRDVHORUPHPEUXOXLVXSHULRU
g. PartiFXODULWăĠLOHPRUIRIXQFĠLRQDOHDOHVFKHOHWXOXLPHPEUXOXLVXSHULRU
h. Explorarea pe viu a oaselor membrului superior.

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Fig. 1

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Fig. 2

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Fig. 3

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33
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completul de oase, schelet sau în muzeul anatomic.

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Fig. 6
18. ,QGLFDĠLORFDOL]DUHDSHYLXDUHSHUHORURVoase ale membrului superior.

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„membre toracice”, „membre pelviene”.

34
32
20. (ODERUDĠLUHIHUDWHVXFFLQWHODWHPHOH
x Dezvoltarea oaselor membrului superior, anomalii de dezvoltare.
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studiate.

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35
33
Lucrarea nr. 6

Tema: Oasele centurii pelviene. Femurul.

&RQĠLQXWXOWHPHL

a. Segmentele scheletului membrului inferior.


b. Coxalul – SR]LĠLHDQDWRPLFăFRPSRQHQWHVWUXFWXUă
c. Femurul – SR]LĠLHDQDWRPLFăSRUĠLXQLVWUXFWXUă
d. 'H]YROWDUHDRDVHORUFHQWXULLSHOYLHQHúLDIHPXUXOXLúLDQRPDOLLOHORUGHGH]YROWare.
e. %D]LQXORVRVvQDQVDPEOXSDUWLFXODULWăĠLOHGHYkUVWăúLGHVH[DOHRDVHORUED]LQXOXL
f. ([SORUDUHDSHYLXDRDVHORUED]LQXOXLúLDIHPXUXOXL
g. 5HSHUHOHRVRDVHDOHED]LQXOXLúLIHPXUXOXLLPSRUWDQĠDORUDSOLFDWLYă

Scopul: 'HDIRUPDODVWXGHQĠLFRPSHWHQĠHFXSULYLUHODVWUXFWXUDGH]YROWDUHDDQRPDOLLOH
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36
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4. $GQRWDĠLILJFRPSOHWDĠLLPDJLQHDFXGHQXPLULOe respective.

Fig.1

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Fig. 3

39
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pacientului.

Fig. 4

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femurului

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40
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Fig. 5

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Fig.6

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41
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de a le expune oral sau în scris.

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42
40
Lucrarea nr. 7

Tema: 2DVHOHJDPEHLúLDOHSLFLRUXOXL.

&RQĠLQXWXOWHPHL

a. 7LELDúLILEXOD– SR]LĠLHDQDWRPLFăORFDOL]DUHVWUXFWXUă
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c. Dezvoltarea oaselor JDPEHLúLSLFLRUXOXLDQRPDOLLOHGHGH]YROWDUH
d. 3DUWLFXODULWăĠLOHGHYkUVWăúLGHVH[DOHRDVHORUJDPEHLúLSLFLRUXOXL
e. 6FKHOHWXOSLFLRUXOXLvQDQVDPEOX SXQFWHOHGHVSULMLQEROĠLOHDUFXULOH 
f. ([SORUDUHDSHYLXDRDVHORUJDPEHLúLSLFLRUXOXL
g. Reperele osRDVHDOHJDPEHLúLSLFLRUXOXLLPSRUWDQĠDORUDSOLFDWLYă
h. 3DUWLFXODULWăĠLOHPRUIRIXQFĠLRQDOHDOHVFKHOHWXOXLPHPEUXOXLLQIHULRU

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lor constitutive.

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43
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Fig.1

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Fig. 2
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A B

Fig. 5

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Fig. 7

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Fig.8

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Fig.9

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Fig. 10

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48
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21. 5H]ROYDĠLWHVWHOH UHIHULWRDUHODWHPăQRWDĠLUH]XOWDWHOH

22. Care ar fi concluziile privind materialele studiate?

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24. &KHVWLXQLOHUăPDVHQHFODUH

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6HPQăWXUDSURIHVRUXOXL

49
47
Lucrarea nr. 8

Tema: Craniul – JHQHUDOLWăĠL FRPSRQHQWHOH úL FRPSDUWLPHQWHOH OXL 2DVHOH FUDQLXOXL


cerebral – frontalul, occLSLWDOXOúLSDULHWDOXO– VWUXFWXUăH[SORUDUHSHYLX

&RQĠLQXWXOWHPHL

a. 'HILQLUHDFUDQLXOXLúLUROXOOXLIXQFĠLRQDO
b. 3DUWLFXODULWăĠLOHVWUXFWXUDOHDOHRDVHORUFUDQLXOXL
c. 2DVHOHFDUHLQWUăvQFRPSRQHQĠDFUDQLXOXLúLFRPSDUWLPHQWHOHOXL
d. Osul frontal – DúH]DUHSR]LĠLHDQDWRPLFăSăUĠLFRPSRQHQWHVWUXFWXUăUROIXQFĠLRQDO
e. Occipitalul – ORFDOL]DUHSR]LĠLHDQDWRPLFăFRPSRQHQWHVWUXFWXUăUROIXQFĠLRQDO
f. Parietalul – VLWXDĠLHSR]LĠLHDQDWRPLFăVWUXFWXUăUROIXQFĠLRQDO
g. Centrii de osificare a frontalulXLRFFLSLWDOXOXLSDULHWDOXOXLWHUPHQLLDSDULĠLHLúLFRQWRSLULLORU
h. Anomalii de dezvoltare a frontalului, occipitalului , parietalului.
i. Explorarea pe viu a frontalului, occipitalului, parietalului.

Scopul: ÌQVXúLUHD FXQRúWLQĠHORU GHVSUH SDUWLFXODULWăĠLOH VWUXFWXUDOH DOH RDVHORU FUDQLXOXL


SăUĠLOHFRPSRQHQWHúLH[SORUDUHDSHYLXDIURQWDOXOXLRFFLSLWDOXOXLSDULHWDOXOXLúL
D GHSULQGHULORU GH D OH LGHQWLILFD OD VFKHOHW úL SH YLX GH D OH VLWXD vQ SR]LĠLH
DQDWRPLFăDGHVFULHúLGHPRQVWUDVWUXFWXUDOor.

0RWLYDĠLD: 3ULFHSHULOHREĠLQXWHvQXUPDVWXGLHULLDFWXDOHLWHPHVXQWQHFHVDUHSHQWUXvQVXúLUHD
XOWHULRDUăvQGRPHQLXODQDWRPLHLWUDXPDWRORJLHLQHXURORJLHLLPDJLVWLFLLHWF

5HDOL]DUHDOXFUăULL:

1. 6WXGLDĠLFXDWHQĠLHFRPSRQHQWHOHWHPHLFRQIUXQWkQGX-le cu subiectele din chestionar (Anexa


1 IDFHĠLQRWLĠH

2. (ODERUDĠLúLFRQVWUXLĠLJUDILFVWUXFWXUDORJLFăDWXWXURUFRPSRQHQWHORUWHPHL

50
48
3. 'HILQLĠLFUDQLXO1RWDĠLSHLPDJLQHDGLQILJGHQXPLULOHRDVHORUFDUHFRPSXQFUDQLXO

Fig.1

4. $GQRWDĠLILJLQGLFDĠLSHLPagine craniul cerebral, craniul YLVFHUDOEROWDúLED]DFUDQLXOXL

Fig. 2

51
49
5. &HUHSUH]LQWăLPDJLQLOHGLQILJ"$GQRWDĠLILJXUDLQGLFDĠLGHQXPLULOHLPDJLQLORU
A B

Fig. 3

6. *ăVLĠLvQFRPSOHWXOGHRDVHIURQWDOXORFFLSLWDOXOúLSDULHWDOXODUDQMDĠLILHFDUHGLQDFHVWHSLHVH
vQ SR]LĠLH DQDWRPLFă DSUHFLDĠL ORFDOL]DUHD ORU vQ FUDQLX úL SH YLX VWXGLDĠL-le structura,
LGHQWLILFDĠL HOHPHQWHOH ORU GHVFULSWLYH vQ FRQIRUPLWDWH FX FKHVWLRQDUXO (Anexa 1  QRWDĠL
GHQXPLUHDRDVHORUFUDQLXOXLFXFDUHDXUDSRUWXULúLSRUĠLXQLOHORUFRQVWLWXWLYH
7. $GQRWDĠLILJLQGLFDĠLHOHPHQWHOHGHVFULSWLYHúLGHQXPLUHDORU

A B

52
50
C

Fig. 4

8. ([SOLFDĠLFHUHSUH]LQWăILJ"

Fig. 5

9. 5HSURGXFHĠL GLQ Ä&XOHJHUHD GH VFKHPH´ VFKHPD FHQWULORU GH RVLILFDUH D IURQWDOXOXL QRWDĠL
WHUPHQLLDSDULĠLHLúLFRQWRSLULORU

53
51
10. $GQRWDĠLILJLQGLFDĠLHOHPHQWHOHGHVFULSWLYHúLGenumirile lor.

A B

Fig. 6

11. &HUHSUH]LQWăILJ"&RPSOHWDĠLLQGLFDĠLLOH
Fig. 7

12. 5HSURGXFHĠLGLQÄ&XOHJHUHDGHVFKHPH´VFKHPD FHQWULORUGHRVLILFDUHDRFFLSLWDOXOXLQRWDĠL


WHUPHQLLDSDULĠLHLúLFRQWRSLULlor

54
52
13. 'HVFULHĠLSLHVDRVRDVăGLQILJVFULHĠLSHLPDJLQHWHUPHQLLUHVSHFWLYL
A B

Fig.8

14. ,QGLFDĠLDQRPDOLLOHGHGH]YROWDUHDIURQWDOXOXLRFFLSLWDOXOXLúLSDULHWDOXOXLUHSUH]HQWDWHSULQ
imaginile din fig. 9.
A B C

D E

55
53
F G

Fig.9

15. (QXPHUDĠL HOHPHQWHOH GHVFULSWLYH DOH IURQWDOXOXL RFFLSLWDOXOXL úL SDULHWDOXOXL SDOSDELOH SH
YLXLQGLFDĠLUHJLXQLOHvQFDUHSRWILSDOSDWH

16. (ODERUDĠLXQUHIHUDWVXFFLQWODWHPDÄ3DUWLFXODULWăĠLOHVWUXFWXUDOHDOHRaselor craniului”.

17. 6HOHFWDĠLWHVWHOH $QH[D UHIHULWRDUHODWHPDGDWăUH]ROYDĠL-OHúLQRWDĠLUH]XOWDWHOH

18. )RUPXODĠLFRQFOX]LLUHIHULWRDUHODWHPDVWXGLDWăLQGLFDĠLLPSRUWDQĠDDSOLFDWLYăDIRUPDĠLXQLORU
cercetate.

19. &RQWURODĠL-YăSULFHSHULOHSULYLQGGHPRQVWUDUHDúLUHODWDUHDFHORUVWXGLDWH

20. ÌQWUHEăULUHIHULWRDUHODWHPă

21. ,QIRUPDĠLLVXSOLPHQWDUHREĠLQXWHvQXUPDFRQWUROXOXLGHFăWUHSURIHVRUVDXDGLVFXĠLLORUDVXSUD
temei.

&RQWUROXOUHDOL]ăULLOXFUăULL DSUHFLHULVXJHVWLLUHFRPDQGDĠLL
6HPQăWXUDSURIHVRUXOXL
56
54
Lucrarea nr. 9

Tema: Oasele craniului cerebral – VIHQRLGXOúLHWPRLGXO– VWUXFWXUăH[SORUDUHSHYLX

&RQĠLQXWXOWHPHL

a. Osul sfenoid – DúH]DUHSăUĠLFRQVWLWXWLYHSR]LĠLHDQDWRPLFăVWUXFWXUăUROIXQFĠLRQDO


b. Etmoidul – ORFDOL]DUH vQ FUDQLX SăUĠL FRPSRQHQWH SR]LĠLH DQDWRPLFă VWUXFWXUă UROXO OXL vQ
craniu.
c. Sinusurile paranazale – frontal, sfenoid, etmoid – ORFDOL]DUHFRPXQLFăULUROIXQFĠLRQDO
d. &HQWULLGHRVLILFDUHDVIHQRLGXOXLúLHWPRLGXOXLWHUPHQLLDSDULĠLHLúLFRntopirii lor.
e. $QRPDOLLGHGH]YROWDUHDRVXOXLVIHQRLGúLDRVXOXLHWPRLG
f. ([SORUDUHDSHYLXDVIHQRLGXOXLúLHWPRLGXOXL

Scopul: )RUPDUHD FRPSHWHQĠHORU SULYLQG ORFDOL]DUHD vQ FUDQLX SR]LĠLD DQDWRPLFă SăUĠLOH
FRPSRQHQWH UROXO IXQFĠLRQDO DO VIHQRLGXOXL úL HWPRLGXOXL úL D DELOLWăĠLORU GH D OH
LGHQWLILFDDúH]DvQSR]LĠLHDQDWRPLFăGHVFULHúLGHPRQVWUDVWUXFWXUDúLH[SORUDUHD
lor pe viu.

0RWLYDĠLD: &XQRúWLQĠHOH UHIHULWRDUH OD WHPD GDWă YRU IL XWLOH vQ VWXGLXO XOWHULRU DO DQDWRPLHL
traumatologiei, neurologiei, otorinolaringologiei, imagisticii.

5HDOL]DUHDOXFUăULL:

1. 6HOHFWDĠL GLQ FKHVWLRQDU Anexa 1  VXELHFWHOH UHIHULWRDUH OD WHPă FRQIUXQWDĠL-le cu


FRPSRQHQWHOHWHPHLVWXGLDĠL-OHHIHFWXDĠLQRWLĠH

2. ÌQWRFPLĠLúLSUH]HQWDĠLJUDILFVWUXFWXUDORJLFăa componentelor temei.

3. )RUPXODĠLGHILQLĠLDVLQXVXULORUSDUDQD]DOH

4. 3HFUDQLXOvQDQVDPEOXFRPSOH[HGHRDVHDOHDFHVWXLDVDXRDVHVHSDUDWHVWXGLDĠLORFDOL]DUHD
SR]LĠLDDQDWRPLFăSăUĠLOHFRPSRQHQWHVWUXFWXUDVIHQRLGXOXLúLHWPRLGului. În conformitate cu
chestionarul (Anexa1 LGHQWLILFDĠLHOHPHQWHOHORUGHVFULSWLYHLQFOXVLYFHOHH[SORUDELOHSHYLX.
57
55
5. (QXPHUDĠLSăUĠLOHFRPSRQHQWHDOHVIHQRLGXOXLúLRDVHOHFXFDUHHOFRQWDFWHD]ă

6. $GQRWDĠLILJQRWDĠLSHLPDJLQLGHQXPLULOHIRUPDĠLXQLORUPDUFDWHSULQOLQLL

Fig.1

D
58
56
7. (QXPHUDĠLSăUĠLOHFRPSRQHQWHDOHHWPRLGXOXLúLRDVHOHFXFDUHDUHUDSRUWXUL

8. $GQRWDĠLILJVFULHĠLSHLPDJLQLGHQXPLUHDVWUXFWXULORULQGLFDWHSULQOLQLL
A B

C D

Fig. 2

59
57
9. (QXPHUDĠLFRPXQLFăULOHVLQXVXULORUIURQWDOVIHQRLGHWPRLGúLLQGLFDĠLWHUPHQLLDSDULĠLHLORU.

10. $GQRWDĠLILJLQGLFDĠLSHVFKHPDGDWăORFDOL]DUHDVLQXVXULORUIURQWDOVIHQRLGHWPRLG

Fig. 3

11. IdenWLILFDĠLSHUDGLRJUDPDFUDQLXOXLORFDOL]DUHDVLQXVXULORUSDUDQD]DOHGHVFULHĠL-le.

12. ,QGLFDĠLUROXOIXQFĠLRQDOúLLPSRUWDQĠDDSOLFDWLYăDVLQXVXULORUSDUDQD]DOH.

13. 5HSURGXFHĠL GLQ Ä&XOHJHUHD GH VFKHPH´ VFKHPD FHQWULORU GH RVLILFDUH D RVXOXL Vfenoid,
LQGLFDĠLWHUPHQLLDSDULĠLHLúLFRQWRSLULLORU

60
58
14. (QXPHUDĠL PHWRGHOH GH H[SORUDUH SH YLX D VIHQRLGXOXL úL HWPRLGXOXL QRWDĠL HOHPHQWHOH ORU
descriptive, palpabile pe viu.

15. (ODERUDĠLXQPLFUHIHUDWODWHPDÄ$QRPDOLLGHGH]YROWDUHDRDVHORUVIHQRLGúLHWPRLG´

16. 6HOHFWDĠLWHVWHOH Anexa 2 UHIHULWRDUHODWHPăUH]ROYDĠL-OHQRWDĠLUH]XOWDWHOH

17. )RUPXODĠLFRQFOX]LLFXSULYLUHODPDWHULDOHOHVWXGLDWHúLLPSRUWDQĠDORUDSOLFDWLYă

18. &RQWURODĠL-YăDELOLWDWHDGH DGHPRQVWUDúLUHODWDFHOHVWXGLDWH

19. ÌQWUHEăULUHIHULWRDUHODWHPă

20. ,QIRUPDĠLLVXSOLPHQWDUHFXSULYLUHODWHPDGDWă

&RQWUROXOUHDOL]ăULLOXFUăULL DSUHFLHULVXJHVWLLUHFRPDQGDĠLL

6HPQăWXUDSURIHVRUXOXL

61
59
Lucrarea nr. 10

Tema: Osul temporal – VWUXFWXUăúLH[SORUDUHSHYLX

&RQĠLQXWXOWHPHL

a. /RFDOL]DUHDvQFUDQLXSR]LĠLDDQDWRPLFăúLUROXOIXQFĠLRQDODORVXOXLWHPSRUDO
b. 3RUĠLXQLOHFRQVWLWXWLYHDOHWHPSRUDOXOXLSR]LĠLDORUvQFDGUXORVXOXL
c. Solzul – DúH]DUHIHĠHPDUJLQLVWUXFWXUă
d. 3RUĠLXQHDSHWURPDVWRLGLDQă– VWkQFD SLUDPLGD úLDSRIL]DPDVWRLGLDQă– ORFDOL]DUHVWUXFWXUă
WLSXULOHDSRIL]HLPDVWRLGLHQHWHUPHQLLDSDULĠLHLFHOXOHORUPDVWRLGLHQH
e. 3RUĠLXQHDWLPSDQLFă– DúH]DUHVWUXFWXUă
f. &DYLWăĠLOHúLFDQDOHOHRVXOXLWHPSRUal.
g. Explorarea pe viu a temporalului.

Scopul: ,QRFXODUHD FXQRúWLQĠHORU GHVSUH ORFDOL]DUHD SăUĠLOH FRPSRQHQWH úL VWUXFWXUD


WHPSRUDOXOXLSUHFXPúLIRUPDUHDGHSULQGHULORUGHDLGHQWLILFDRVXOúLSăUĠLOHFDUH
vODOFăWXLHVFúLDOVLWXDvQSR]LĠLHDQDWRPLFăDGHVFULHúLGHPRQVWUDHOHPHQWHOHOXL
VWUXFWXUDOHúLDOHH[SORUDSHYLX

0RWLYDĠLD: 3ULFHSHUHD PRUIRORJLHL WHPSRUDOXOXL HVWH LQGLVSHQVDELOă VWXGLHULL DQDWRPLHL


RUJDQXOXL YHVWLEXORFKRKOHDU ILLQG WRWRGDWă H[WUHP GH LPSRUWDQWă SHQWUX
traumatologie, neuURORJLH LPDJLVWLFă úL vQ VSHFLDO SHQWUX RWRULQRODULQJRORJLH
(tratamentul chirurgical al otitelor, mastoiditelor etc.).

5HDOL]DUHDOXFUăULL:

1. Din chestionar (Anexa 1  VHOHFWDĠL VXELHFWHOH FDUH VH UHIHUă OD PRUIRORJLD WHPSRUDOXOXL
FRPSDUDĠL-le cu subtemHOHGHPDLVXVVWXGLDĠL-OHIDFHĠLQRWLĠH

2. (ODERUDĠLúLUHGDĠLJUDILFVWUXFWXUDORJLFăDVXEWHPHORU

3. )RUPXODĠLRGHILQLĠLHDWHPSRUDOXOXLLQGLFDĠLUROXOOXLIXQFĠLRQDO

4. 3H SLHVH RVRDVH VHSDUDWH úL FUDQLXO vQ DQVDPEOX VWXGLDĠL ORFDOL]DUHD SR]LĠLD DQDWRPLFă
SRUĠLXQLOH úL VWUXFWXUD WHPSRUDOXOXL ,GHQWLILFDĠL HOHPHQWHOH GHVFULSWLYH vQ FRQIRUPLWDWH FX
chestionarul (Anexa 1).

62
60
5. $GQRWDĠLILJQRWDĠLSHLPDJLQHRDVHOHFXFDUHWHPSRUDOXODUHUDSRUWXUL

Fig.1

6. $GQRWDĠLILJVFULHĠLGHQXPLULOHSRUĠLXQLORUFRPSRQHQWHDOHWHPSRUDOXOXL

Fig. 2

63
61
7. $GQRWDĠLILJVFULHĠLSHLPDJLQHGHQXPLULOHVWUXFWXULORULQGLFDWHSULQOLQLLúLFLIUH

Fig. 3

C D

64
62
8. $GQRWDĠLILJVFULHĠLODWHUDOGHLPDJLQHGHQXPLULOHIRUPDĠLXQLORUPDUFDWHSULQOLQLL

Fig. 4

9. (QXPHUDĠLWLSXULOHVWUXFWXUDOHDOHDSRIL]HLPDVWRLGLHQH.

10. 1RWDĠLWHUPHQLLDSDULĠLHLFHOXOHORUPDVWRLGLHQH

11. (QXPHUDĠL PHWRGHOH GH H[SORUDUH SH YLX D WHPSRUDOXOXL QRWDĠL HOHPHQWHOH OXL VWUXFWXUDOH
palpabile pe viu.

65
63
12. 'HVFULHĠLDQRPDOLLOHGHGH]YROWDUHDOHRVXOXLWHPSRUDO

13. 6HOHFWDĠLWHVWHOH $QH[D UHIHULWRDUHODWHPăUH]ROYDĠL-OHQRWDĠLUH]XOWDWHOH

14. )RUPXODĠLFRQFOX]LLFXSULYLUHODWHPDVWXGLDWăúLLPSRUWDQĠDHLDSOLFDWLYă

15. &RQWURODĠL-YăJUDGXOGHSUHJăWLUHSHQWUXDGHPRQVWUDúLSUH]HQWDPDWHULDOXOVWXGLDW

16. ÌQWUHEăULUHIHULWRDUHODWHPă

17. ,QIRUPDĠLLVXSOLPHQWDUHFXSULYLUHODWHPDGDWă

&RQWUROXOUHDOL]ăULLOXFUăULL DSUHFLHULVXJHVWLLUHFRPDQGDĠLL

6HPQăWXUDSURIHVRUXOXL

66
64
Lucrarea nr. 11

Tema: Oasele craniului facial – VWUXFWXUăúLH[SORUDUHSHYLX

&RQĠLQXWXOWHPHL

a. Craniul facial (viscerocraniul) – componente, rROIXQFĠLRQDO


b. Maxila – ORFDOL]DUHSR]LĠLHDQDWRPLFăSăUĠLFRQVWLWXWLYHVWUXFWXUă
c. Osul palatin – DúH]DUHSR]LĠLHDQDWRPLFăSăUĠLFRPSRQHQWHVWUXFWXUă
d. Mandibula – ORFDOL]DUHvQFUDQLXSR]LĠLHDQDWRPLFăSăUĠLOHDOFăWXLWRDUHVWUXFWXUăGH]YROWDUH
e. Oasele mici ale craniului facial – zigomatic, nazal, lacrimal, cornetul nazal inferior, vomerul,
hioidul – ORFDOL]DUHFRQIRUPDĠLHH[WHUQăVWUXFWXUă
f. Sinusul maxilar – ORFDOL]DUHUROIXQFĠLRQDOúLDSOLFDWLY
g. Explorarea pe viu a oaselor craniului facial.

Scopul: )RUPDUHD FRPSHWHQĠHORU SULYLQG ORFDOL]DUHD FRPSRQHQĠD SR]LĠLD DQDWRPLFă


VWUXFWXUD RDVHORU YLVFHURFUDQLXOXL úL D GHSULQGHULORU GH D OH GHVFULH GHPRQVWUD úL
explora pe viu..
0RWLYDĠLD: ,QIRUPDĠLLOH úL DELOLWăĠLOH REĠLQXWH vQ UH]XOWDWXO UHDOL]ăULL SUH]HQWHL OXFUăUL VXQW
LPSRUWDQWH SHQWUX FKLUXUJLD PD[LORIDFLDOă VWRPDWRORJLH WUDXPDWRORJLH 25/
RIWDOPRORJLHLPDJLVWLFăHWF

5HDOL]DUHDOXFUăULL:

1. &RQVXOWDĠL FKHVWLRQDUXO Anexa 1  VHOHFWDĠL VXELHFWHOH UHIHULWRDUH OD WHPă FRPSDUDĠL-le cu


suEWHPHOHGHPDLVXVFRPSOHWDĠL-OHVWXGLDĠL-OHFXDWHQĠLHQRWDĠLHOHPHQWHOHPDLLPSRUWDQWH

2. &RQVWUXLĠLJUDILFVWUXFWXULORJLFHSHQWUXILHFDUHVXEWHPă

3. (QXPHUDĠLRDVHOHFUDQLXOXLIDFLDOLQGLFDĠLUROXOOXLIXQFĠLRQDO

4. Pe piese osoasH VHSDUDWH FRPSOH[H GH RDVH DOH FUDQLXOXL IDFLDO úL SH FUDQLXO vQ DQVDPEOX
VWXGLDĠL SR]LĠLD DQDWRPLFă ORFDOL]DUHD úL VWUXFWXUD ILHFăUXL RV vQ SDUWH ,GHQWLILFDĠL SH
preparate toate elementele descriptive, enumerate în chestionar (Anexa 1).

67
65
5. 'HVFULHĠL ORFDOL]DUHD SR]LĠLD DQDWRPLFă úL UDSRUWXULOH PD[LOHL HQXPHUDĠL SăUĠLOH HL
componente.

6. $GQRWDĠLILJVFULHĠLSHLPDJLQLGHQXPLULOHVWUXFWXULORUPDUFDWHSULQOLQLL
A B

Fig.1

68
66
7. (QXPHUDĠLDQRPDOLLOHGHGH]YROWDUHDPD[LOHL'HVFULHĠLLPDJLQLOHGLQILJ
A B C

Fig. 2

8. (QXPHUDĠLSăUĠLOHFRPSRQHQWHDOHRVXOXLSDODWLQ

9. $GQRWDĠLILJQRWDĠLGHQXPLULOHHOHPHQWHORULQGLFDWHSULQOLQLL

Fig. 3

69
67
10. (QXPHUDĠL SăUĠLOH FRPSRQHQWH DOH PDQGLEXOHL 'HVFULHĠL ORFDOL]DUHD HL SR]LĠLD DQDWRPLFă
raporturile cu alte oase ale craniului.

11. $GQRWDĠLILJVFULHĠLGHQXPLULOHHOHPHQWHORUHYLGHQĠLDWHGLQLPDJLQL.
A B

Fig. 4

12. 5HSURGXFHĠLGLQÄ&XOHJHUHDGHVFKHPH´VFKHPDFHQWULORUGHRVLILFDUHDPDQGLEXOHL.

70
68
13. &RPSDUDĠL LPDJLQLOH GLQ ILJ  QRWDĠL SDUWLFXODULWăĠLOH VWUXFWXUDOH DOH PDQGLEXOHL vQ GLYHUVH
pHULRDGHGHYkUVWă
Fig. 5
n-n

3 ani

6 ani

Adult

Edentat

14. 'HVFULHĠL RDVHOH SUH]HQWDWH SULQ LPDJLQLOH GLQ ILJ QRWDĠL GHQXPLULOH HOHPHQWHORU ORU
descriptive.
A B

C D E

Fig.6
71
69
15. $GQRWDĠLILJLQGLFDĠLORFDOL]DUHDúLSăUĠLOHFRPSRQHQWe ale piesei osoase din imagine.
Fig.7

16. ,QGLFDĠLWHUPHQLLDSDULĠLHLVLQXVXOXLPD[LODUPRGLILFăULOHOXLvQGLYHUVHSHULRDGHGHYkUVWăúL
LPSRUWDQĠDOXLDSOLFDWLYă

17. 1XPLĠL PHWRGHOH GH H[SORUDUH SH YLX D RDVHORU FUDQLXOXL IDFLDO LQGLFDĠL elementele lor
descriptive palpabile pe viu.

18. 6HOHFWDĠLWHVWHOH $QH[D)UHIHULWRDUHODWHPăUH]ROYDĠL-OHQRWDĠLUH]XOWDWHOH

19. )RUPXODĠLFRQFOX]LLFXSULYLUHODWHPDVWXGLDWăúLLPSRUWDQĠDHLDSOLFDWLYă

20. &RQWURODĠL-YăDELOLWDWHDGHDGHPRQVWUDúLSUH]HQWDPDWHULDOXOVWXGLDW

21. ÌQWUHEăULUHIHULWRDUHODWHPă

22. ,QIRUPDĠLLVXSOLPHQWDUHFXSULYLUHODWHPDGDWă

&RQWUROXOUHDOL]ăULLOXFUăULL DSUHFLHULVXJHVWLLUHFRPDQGDĠLL
6HPQăWXUDSURIHVRUXOXL

72
70
Lucrarea nr. 12

Tema: Craniul în ansamblu.

&RQĠLQXWXOWHPHL

a. &UDQLXOFHUHEUDOúLFUDQLXOIDFLDO– GHILQLĠLLUROIXQFĠLRQDOGHOLPLWăUL
b. Bolta craniului – GHILQLĠLH SURLHFĠLD OLQLHL OLPLWURIH GLQWUH HD úL ED]D FUDQLXOXL RDVHOH
FRPSRQHQWHIHĠHVXWXULUHOLHI
c. Baza craniului – defiQLĠLHRDVHOHFRPSRQHQWHHQGRED]DúLH[RED]DIRVHHWDMHUHOLHI
d. Orbita – ORFDOL]DUHSHUHĠLUHOLHIFRPXQLFăUL
e. &DYLWDWHDQD]DOă– ORFDOL]DUHSHUHĠLFRPSDUWLPHQWHFRPXQLFăUL
f. )RVHOHWHPSRUDOăLQIUDWHPSRUDOăSWHULJRSDODWLQă– SHUHĠLFRPXQLFăUL

Scopul: )DPLOLDUL]DUHD FX WRSRJUDILD FUDQLXOXL vQ DQVDPEOX úL FX FHD D FRPSDUWLPHQWHORU
OXL vQ VSHFLDO úL IRUPDUHD GHSULQGHULORU SULYLQG GHVFULHUHD úL GHPRQVWUDUHD
elementelor structurale care le compun.

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IDFHHDSDUWHFDUHVXQWSDUWLFXODULWăĠLOHHLVWUXFWXUDOHVSHFLILFH.

5. 1XPLĠL IRUPDĠLXQLOH FX PHQLUHD GH D VSRUL JUDGXO GH FRQJUXHQĠă D IHĠHORU DUWLFXODUH GLQ
DUWLFXODĠLDJHQXQFKLXOXL.

6. $GQRWDĠLLPDJLQLOHGLQILJVFULHĠLOHJHQGDLQGLFDĠLUDSRUWXULOHFDSVXOHLDUWLFXODUHPDLDOHV
DOHPHPEUDQHLHLVLQRYLDOHFXIRUPDĠLXQLOHLQWUDDUWLFXOare.
A B C

Fig.1

116
114
7. 3UH]HQWDĠLRFODVLILFDUHDOLJDPHQWHORUDUWLFXODĠLHLJHQXQFKLXOXLHQXPHUDĠL-OHDGQRWDĠLILJ
VFULHĠLOHJHQGD
A B

C D

Fig. 2

8. (QXPHUDĠLIDFWRULLDPRUWL]DWRULGLQDUWLFXODĠLDJHQXQFKLXOXL.

117
115
9. 'HVFULHĠL501-JUDPHOHDUWLFXODĠLHLJHQXQFKLXOXLGLQILJVFULHĠLOHJHQGD
A B

Fig. 3

10. (QXPHUDĠLPLúFăULOHFDUHDXORFvQDUWLFXODĠLDJHQXQFKLXOXLLQGLFDĠLDPSOLWXGLQHDORU

11. 1XPLĠLMRQFĠLXQLOHRDVHORUJDPEHLLQGLFDĠLODFDUHJUXSXULGHOHJăWXULDUSXWHDILFDWDORJDWH
DGQRWDĠLILJVFULHĠLSHLPDJLQHGHQXPLULOHIRUPDĠLXQLORUPDUFDWHSULQOLQLL

Fig. 4

118
116
12. (QXPHUDĠL RDVHOH úL IHĠHOH ORU DUWLFXODUH FDUH SDUWLFLSă OD IRUPDUHD DUWLFXODĠLHL WDORFUXUDOH
LQGLFDĠLGLQFHJUXSuri de diartroze face ea parte.

13. 1XPLĠLSDUWLFXODULWăĠLOHVWUXFWXUDOHDOHFDSVXOHLDUWLFXODĠLHLWDORFUXUDOH.

14. $GQRWDĠLILJLQGLFDĠLSHLPDJLQLOLJDPHQWHOHDUWLFXODĠLHLWDORFUXUDOH
A B C

Fig. 5

15. (QXPHUDĠLPLúFăULOHFDUHDXORFvQDUWLFXODĠLDWDORFUXUDOăLQGLFDĠLDPSOLWXGLQHDORU

16. (QXPHUDĠL DUWLFXODĠLLOH SLFLRUXOXL LQGLFDĠL RDVHOH úL IHĠHOH DUWLFXODUH FDUH OH IRUPHD]ă
PLúFăULOHvQHOHúLJUXSXULOHGHGLDUWUR]HODFDUHDSDUĠLQ

119
117
17. $GQRWDĠLLPDJLQLOHGLQILJVFULHĠLOHJHQGD
A B C

Fig. 6

18. ([SOLFDĠLFXPVHIRUPHD]ăVLQXVXOWDUVDOLQGLFDĠLOLJDPHQWXOFDUHvORFXSăúLUROXOOXL

19. ([SOLFDĠLFHUHSUH]LQWăDUWLFXODĠLDOXL&KRSDUWúLDUWLFXODĠLDOXL/LVIUDQFLQGLFDĠLOLJDPHQWHOH
ORUÄFKHLH´úLLPSRUWDQĠDORUDSOLFDWLYă

20. ([SOLFDĠLQRĠLXQHDGHFRPSOH[VROLGDUDOSLFLRUXOXL.

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118
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A B

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22. Din setul de radiograPHVHOHFWDĠL-OHSHFHOHDOHDUWLFXODĠLLORUPHPEUXOXLLQIHULRUVWXGLDĠL-OHúL


GHVFULHĠL-le.

23. (ODERUDĠLUHIHUDWHVFXUWHFXWHPDÄ3LFLRUXOvQDQVDPEOX´úLÄ([SORUDUHDSHYLXDDUWLFXODĠLLORU
membrului inferior”.

24. 6HOHFWDĠLWHVWHOH $QH[D) referitoare la tHPDQUUH]ROYDĠL-OHúLQRWDĠLUH]XOWDWHOH.

25. &RQWURODĠLGDFăVXQWHĠLSUHJăWLWSHQWUXDH[SXQHúLGHPRQVWUDFHOHVWXGLDWH

26. )RUPXODĠLFRQFOX]LLFXSULYLUHODVXELHFWHOHVWXGLDWHúLLPSRUWDQĠDORUDSOLFDWLYă

27. 6XELHFWHQHFODUHúLvQWUHEăULla tema nr. 20.

28. ,QIRUPDĠLLVXSOLPHQWDUHODWHPă

&RQWUROXOUHDOL]ăULLOXFUăULL DSUHFLHULVXJHVWLLUHFRPDQGDĠLL
6HPQăWXUDSURIHVRUXOXL
121
119
Lucrarea nr. 21

Tema: 0LRORJLH JHQHUDOă 0XúFKLL úL IDVFLLOH WRUDFHOXL – VWUXFWXUă WRSRJUDILH úL
explorare pe viu. Diafragma.

&RQĠLQXWXOWHPHL
a. 0XúFKLL FRQIRUPDĠLHH[WHUQăPRGGHIL[DUHUDSRUWXULDQRPDOLL PXúFKLXOFDRUJDQ ILEUH
PXVFXODUH ĠHVXW FRQMXQFWLY WHQGRDQH YDVH úL QHUYL  PXúFKLXO vQ UHSDXV úL vQ DFĠLXQH
SURSULHWăĠLIL]LFHFDOLWăĠLFDUDFWHULVWLFHFRQWUDFĠLHLPXVFXODUHVLVWHPXOGHSkUJKLLWLSXULOHGH
DFWLYLWDWHPXVFXODUăIRUĠDJUDYLWDĠLRQDOăSXQFWHOHIL[úLPRELOúLLQYHUVDUHDORUDFWHPRWRULL 
b. 3ULQFLSLLOHFODVLILFăULLPXúFKLORU GXSăJHQH]ă, topografie, IXQFĠLH, IRUPă, orientarea fibrelor
PXVFXODUHDVSHFWXOKLVWRORJLFvQUDSRUWFXDUWLFXODĠLLOH 
c. (OHPHQWHOH DX[LOLDUH DOH PXúFKLORU IDVFLL UHWLQDFXOH WHFL úL EXUVH VLQRYLDOH WURKOHH
musculare).
d. 0HWRGH GH H[SORUDUH D PXúFKLORU LQFOXVLY DQDWRPLD ORU SH YLX LPSRUWDQĠD FXQRDúWHrii
DQDWRPLHLIXQFĠLRQDOHDPXúFKLORUSHQWUXvQĠHOHJHUHDELRPHFDQLFLLDSDUDWXOXLORFRPRWRUúLD
PRGLILFăULORU HL vQ SDWRORJLD RVWHR-musculo-DUWLFXODUă UROXO DSOLFDWLY DO IRUPDĠLXQLORU
GHOLPLWDWHGHPXúFKL FDQDOHORURULILFLLORUúăQĠXOHĠHORUHWF
e. ClasifLFDUHDPXúFKLORUWRUDFHOXLUDSRUWXULOHORUFXIRLĠHOHIDVFLLORUSHFWRUDOH
f. 'LDIUDJPD SRUĠLXQL RULILFLL ORFXUL VODEH SDUWLFXODULWăĠL GH VWUXFWXUă DOH SRUĠLXQLL ORPEDUH 
UROIXQFĠLRQDO
g. 7RSRJUDILDUHSHUHOHPXVFXODUHúLRVRDVHDOHWRUDFHOXL
h. DemonstrarHD IRUPDĠLXQLORU DQDWRPLFH UHIHULWRDUH OD WHPă SH FDGDYUX SUHSDUDWH VHSDUDWH
mulaje.

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SDUWLFXODULWăĠLOHORULQGLYLGXDOHGHYkUVWăúLGHVH[FXPHWRGHOHGHH[SORrare ale
VLVWHPXOXLPXVFXODU'HDvQYăĠDVWXGHQĠLLVăQXPHDVFăFRUHFWúLVăGHPRQVWUH]H
PXúFKLLSHFWRUDOLRULJLQHDúLLQVHUĠLDORUIDVFLLOHWRUDFHOXLGLDIUDJPDFXORFXULOH
HLVODEHGHDFRQúWLHQWL]DIXQFĠLDDFHVWRUD

0RWLYDĠLD: ,QIRUPDĠLD SULYLQG PLRORJLD JHQHUDOă H QHFHVDUă SHQWUX FRQúWLHQWL]DUHD WXWXURU


DFWLYLWăĠLORU PRWRULL SHQWUX vQĠHOHJHUHD úL VWXGLHUHD WHPHORU XOWHULRDUH
&XQRDúWHUHD VWUXFWXULL PXúFKLORU úL D WRSRJUDILHL ORU D PHWRGHORU GH H[SORUDUH D
aparatului muscular sunt importante pentrX DQDWRPLD WRSRJUDILFă úL FKLUXUJLD
operatorie, traumatologie, chirurgie, reabilitologie etc.

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importante.

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a. PXúFKLXOFDRUJDQ
b. FODVLILFDUHDPXúFKLORU
c. HOHPHQWHOHDX[LOLDUHDOHPXúFKLORU
d. PXúFKLLúLIDVFLLOHWRUDFHOXL

122
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3. $GQRWDĠL LPDJLQLOH GLQ ILJ  LQGLFDĠL WLSXULOH GH PXúFKL FRQIRUP RULHQWăULL ILEUHORU ORU
musculare).
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Fig.1.____________________________

1 9
2 10
3 11
4 12
5 13
6 14
7 15
8 16
4. 'HILQLĠL QRĠLXQLOH PXúFKLXO FD RUJDQ VHFĠLXQH WUDQVYHUVDOă DQDWRPLFă úL IL]LRORJLFă D
PXúFKLORUVFKHOHWPRDOHPLRQ.

5. ([SOLFDĠLQRĠLXQLOHGHpunctum fixum úLpunctum mobile.

123
121
6. &HOHWUHLSURSULHWăĠLHVHQĠLDOHDOHĠHVXWXOXLPXVFXODUVXQW
a.
b.
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7. &RPSOHWDĠLWDEHOXO
&ODVLILFDUHDPXúFKLORU
I II III IV V VI VII
'XSăJHQH]ă 'XSăWRSRJUDILH 'XSăIXQFĠLH 'XSăIRUPă 'XSăRULHQWDUHD În raport cu Sub aspect
fibrelor DUWLFXODĠLLOH histologic
musculare

8. 6WXGLDĠLSHFDGDYUXPXODMHSODQúHDWODVHVWUXFWXUDúLWRSRJUDILDIRUPDĠLXQLORUSUHYă]XWHGH
WHPDGDWăGHSULQGHĠL-YăVăOHLGHQWLILFDĠLúLVăOHGHPRQVWUDĠL

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DPXúFKLLWRUDFHOXLFDUHĠLQGHPHPEUXOVXSHULRU ILJ 
I II

1 2

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7 3

8 4

2 5
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Fig.2
124
122
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B C

1
2

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Fig. 3

125
123
FSRUĠLXQLOHRULILFLLOHúLORFXULOHVODEHale diafragmei (fig. 4).

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Fig. 5

126
124
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toracelui.

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a.
b.
c.
A B C

Fig. 7

127
125
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13. (QXPHUDĠLYDULDQWHOHúLDQRPDOLLOHGHGH]YROWDUHDPXúFKLORUWRUDFHOXLúLDGLDIUDJPHL GXSă


cadavru, preparate din muzeul catedrei, filme, alte surse).

14. (ODERUDĠL referate succinte la temele:


x GH]YROWDUHDPXúFKLORU
x DQDWRPLDSHYLXDPXúFKLORU
x UHSHUHPXVFXODUHúLRVRDVHDOHWRUDFHOXL

15. 6HOHFWDĠLWHVWHOH $QH[D) UHIHULWRDUHODWHPDQUUH]ROYDĠL-OHúLQRWDĠLUH]XOWDWHOH

16. ([SULPDĠL-YăUHIHULWRUODLPSRUWDQĠDDSOLFDWLYăDLQIRUPDĠLHLREĠLQXWH

17. &RQWURODĠL-YăDELOLWDWHDGHDH[SXQHRUDOVDXvQVFULVLQIRUPDĠLLOHREĠLQXWHúLGHDGHPRQVWUD
IRUPDĠLXQLOHVWXGLDWH

18. 6XELHFWHQHFODUHúLvQWUHEăULDSăUXWHvQUH]XOWDWXOUHDOL]ăULLOXFUăULLQU

19. ,QIRUPDĠLLVXSOLPHQWDUHREĠLQXWHvQXUPDGLVFXĠLHLDVXSUDWHPHL

&RQWUROXOUHDOL]ăULLOXFUăULL DSUHFLHULVXJHVWLLUHFRPDQGDĠLL
6HPQăWXUDSURIHVRUXOXL

128
126
Lucrarea nr. 22

Tema: 0XúFKLL úL IDVFLLOH FHQWXULL VFDSXODUH úL DL EUDĠXOXL – VWUXFWXUă WRSRJUDILH úL
explorare pe viu.

&RQĠLQXWXOWHPHL
a. &ODVLILFDUHDPXúFKLORUFHQWXULLVFDSXODUHúLDLEUDĠXOXL
b. 2ULJLQHDLQVHUĠLDúLIXQFĠLDPXúFKLORUFHQWXULLVFDSXODUHúLDLEUDĠXOXL
c. 5DSRUWXOPXúFKLORUFHQWXULLVFDSXODUHúLDLEUDĠXOXLFXIDVFLLOHUHJLXnii.
d. 7RSRJUDILDUHSHUHOHPXVFXODUHúLRVRDVHDOHUHJLXQLLXPăUXOXLúLEUDĠXOXL
e. 0XúFKLLDQWUHQDĠLvQGLQDPLFDXPăUXOXLúLEUDĠXOXL

Scopul: )RUPDUHDFRPSHWHQĠHORUúLGHSULQGHULORUSULYLQGQRPHQFODWXUDPXúFKLORUFHQWXULL
VFDSXODUH úL DL EUDĠXOXL SH JUXSXUL FRQIRUP IXQFĠLLORU ORU  LGHQWLILFDUHD úL
GHPRQVWUDUHDORUSHFDGDYUXúLSHYLXLQGLFkQGX-OHRULJLQHDLQVHUĠLDúLIXQFĠLD

0RWLYDĠLD: 'DWHOHFDUHĠLQGHVWUXFWXUDúLWRSRJUDILDPXúFKLORUFHQWXULLVFDSXODUHúLDLEUDĠXOXL
vor fi utile pentru studierea diferitor discipline clinice, în special a traumatologiei
OX[DĠLL vQ DUWLFXODĠLD XPăUXOXL DUWLFXODĠLLOH DFURPLRFODYLFXODUă úL
VWHUQRFODYLFXODUă IUDFWXUL DOH KXPHUXVXOXL FODYLFXOHL HWF  QHXURORJLHL
chirurgiei.

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1. SelectDĠLGLQFKHVWLRQDU $QH[D VXELHFWHOHWHRUHWLFHúLSUDFWLFHUHIHULWRDUHODWHPDQU


DQDOL]DĠL-OHúLVWXGLDĠL-le în corespundere cu sursele bibliografice indicate utilizând cadavrul,
PXODMHSODQúHDWODVHQRWDĠLWH]HOHPDLLPSRUWDQWH.

2. 5HSUH]HQWDĠL JUDILFVWUXFWXUDORJLFăDFRPSRQHQWHORUWHPHL

129
127
3. $GQRWDĠLLPDJLQLOHGLQILJUHIHULWRDUHODPXúFKLLFHQWXULLVFDSXODUHVFULHĠLOHJHQGD
A B C
1

1
2

2
1

3
3
4
2

6
7
5
3 4

Fig.1.

4. ,QGLFDĠLGHQXPLULOHPXúFKLORUEUDĠXOXLúLDIRUPDĠLXQLORUQRtate cu cifre (fig.2).


A B

1
1

2 3
3
4

5 2
6 7

8
6

7
4

Fig.2.

130
128
5. 3HLPDJLQLOHGLQILJQRWDĠLPXúFKLLRULJLQHDúLLQVHUĠLDFăURUDFRUHVSXQGH]RQHORULQGLFDWH

B
C D

E F
Fig.3

131
129
6. (QXPăUDĠLPXúFKLLFDUHUHDOL]HD]ăPLúFăULOHUHVSHFWLYHvQDUWLFXODĠLDXPărului:
a. URWDĠLDH[WHUQăúLLQWHUQăDEUDĠXOXL ILJ 
A B
Fig. 4

EDQWHIOH[LDúLUHWURIOH[LDEUDĠXOXL ILJ .
Fig. 5
A B

7. ([SOLFDĠLWHUPHQLL aQWHIOH[LHúLUHWURIOH[LH.

8. 1RWDĠLGHULYDWHOHIDVFLHLEUDĠXOXLvQVHFĠLXQHWUDQVYHUVDOă ILJ 

2
3
7 9
4
8

5 6
10

Fig. 6

9. 7HVWDUHDFăURUPXúFKLDLFHQWXULLVFDSXODUHúLDLEUDĠXOXLHGHPRQVWUDWăGHLPDJLQLOHGLQILJ
7?

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
132
130
A B C

D E

Fig. 7
10. (QXPHUDĠLUHSHUHOHPXVFXODUHúLRVRDVHDOHXPăUXOXLúLEUDĠXOXL

11. (ODERUDĠLXQUHIHrat succint la tema: )DVFLLOHFHQWXULLVFDSXODUHúLEUDĠXOXL.

12. 6HOHFWDĠLWHVWHOH $QH[D) UHIHULWRDUHODWHPDQUUH]ROYDĠL-OHúLQRWDĠLUH]XOWDWHOH

13. (IHFWXDĠLRDXWRHYDOXDUHDFRPSHWHQĠHORUúLGHSULQGHULORUGREkQGLWH

14. )RUPXODĠLFRQFOX]LLSULYLQGLQIRUPDĠLDREĠLQXWăvQFRQWH[WXOLPSRUWDQĠHLHLDSOLFDWLYH

15. ÌQWUHEăULDSăUXWHvQUH]XOWDWXOUHDOL]ăULOXFUăULLQU

16. ,QIRUPDĠLLVXSOLPHQWDUHSULYLQGFHOHVWXGLDWHREĠLQXWHvQXUPDGLVFXĠLLORUDVXSUDWHPHL

&RQWUROXOUHDOL]ăULLOXFUăULL DSUHFLHULVXJHVWLLUHFRPDQGDĠLL

6HPQăWXUDSURIHVRUXOXL

133
131
Lucrarea nr. 23

Tema: 0XúFKLLúLIDVFLLOHDQWHEUDĠXOXL– VWUXFWXUăWRSRJUDILHúLH[SORUDUHSHYLX

&RQĠLQXWXOWHPHL

a. &ODVLILFDUHDPXúFKLORUDQWHEUDĠXOXL
b. 2ULJLQHDLQVHUĠLDúLIXQFĠLDPXúFKLORUDQWHEUDĠXOXL
c. )DVFLLOHDQWHEUDĠXOXLUDSRUWXOORUFXPXúFKLLUHJLXQLL
d. 5HSHUHPXVFXODUHúLRVRDVHDOHDQWHEUDĠXOXL
e. 0XúFKLLDQWUHQDĠLvQGLQDPLFDDQWHEUDĠXOXLúLPkLQLL

Scopul: ÌQVXúLUHD GH FăWUH VWXGHQĠL D GHQXPLULORU LGHQWLILFăULL úL GHPRQVWUăULL PXúFKLORU
DQWHEUDĠXOXL SH JUXSXUL  úL VWUDWXUL D RULJLQLL LQVHUĠLHL úL IXQFĠLHL ORU OD FDGDYUX
VFKHOHW úL SH YLX SUHFXP úL IRUPDUHD GHSULQGHULL GH D GHVFULH úL GH D DUJXPHQWD
VWUXFWXUDúLIXQFĠLDIRUPDĠLXQLORUVWXGLDWH

0RWLYDĠLD: &XQRDúWHUHDDQDWRPLHLPXúFKLORUDQWHEUDĠXOXLHQHFHVDUăSHQWUXVWXGLHUHDYDVHORU
VDQJYLQHúLDQHUYLORUSUHFXPúLDXQRUGLVFLSOLQHFOLQLFHFDDQDWRPLDWRSRJUDILFă
FKLUXUJLD WUDXPDWRORJLD OX[DĠLL vQ DUWLFXODĠLLOH FRWXOXL úL UDGLRFDUSLDQă IUDFWXUL
ale oaselor antebUDĠXOXL QHXURORJLDUHDELOLWRORJLD

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DQDOL]DĠL-OH úL VWXGLDĠL-le în corespundere cu sursele literare indicate folosind cadavrul,
mulajeSODQúHDWODVHHWFHIHFWXDĠLQRWLĠH

2. 5HSUH]HQWDĠLJUDILFVWUXFWXUDORJLFăDFRPSRQHQWHORUWHPHL

134
132
3. $GQRWDĠLILJVFULHĠLOHJHQGD
A B C

Fig.1.

4. $GQRWDĠLILJVFULHĠLOHJHQGD
A B C

Fig.2.

135
133
5. $GQRWDĠL ILJ  LQGLFDĠL PXúFKLL RULJLQHD úL LQVHUĠLD FăURUD FRUHVSXQGH SRUĠLXQLORU GH RDVH
HYLGHQĠLDWHvQLPDJLQLOHUHVSHFWLYH
A B
Fig.2.

6. ,QGLFDĠLPXúFKLLDQWHEUDĠXOXLFDUHUHDOL]HD]ăPLúFăULOH reprezentate prin imaginile din fig. 4.


A B C D E F

H
Fig. 4

7. ([SOLFDĠLWHUPHQLLSURQDĠLH úLVXSLQDĠLH.

136
134
8. EnuPHUDĠLIDVFLLOHDQWHEUDĠXOXLúLGHULYDWHOHORU.

9. ,QGLFDĠLUHSHUHOHRVRDVHúLPXVFXODUHDOHPHPEUXOXLVXSHULRU ILJ .

Fig. 5

10. 7HVWDUHDFăURUPXúFKLDLDQWHEUDĠXOXLHUHSUH]HQWDWăSULQLPDJLQea din fig. 6 ?

Fig.6

11. (ODERUDĠLUHIHUDWVXFFLQWODWHPD)DVFLLOHDQWHEUDĠXOXL.

12. 6HOHFWDĠLWHVWHOH $QH[D) UHIHULWRDUHODWHPDQUUH]ROYDĠL-OHúLQRWDĠLUH]XOWDWHOH

13. &RQWURODĠL vQ FH PăVXUă FRPSHWHQĠHOH úL GHSULQGHULOH REĠLQXWH FRUHVSXQG RELHFWLYHORU
propuse.

14. )RUPXODĠLFRQFOX]LLSULYLQGLQIRUPDĠLDREĠLQXWăvQFRQWH[WXOLPSRUWDQĠHLHLDSOLFDWLYe.

15. ÌQWUHEăULDSăUXWHvQUH]XOWDWXOUHDOL]ăULOXFUăULLQU

16. ,QIRUPDĠLLVXSOLPHQWDUHSULYLQGFHOHVWXGLDWHREĠLQXWHvQXUPDGLVFXĠLLORUDVXSUDWHPHL

&RQWUROXOUHDOL]ăULLOXFUăULL DSUHFLHULVXJHVWLLUHFRPDQGDĠLL
6HPQăWXUDSURIHVRUXOXL

137
135
Lucrarea nr. 24

Tema: 0XúFKLL úL IDVFLLOH PkLQLL – VWUXFWXUă WRSRJUDILH úL H[SORUDUH SH YLX
Topografia membrului superior.

&RQĠLQXWXOWHPHL

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b. PDUWLFXODULWăĠLOHVWUXFWXUDOHDOHIDVFLLORUPkLQLL
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A B

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4. (QXPHUDĠLPXúFKLLJkWXOXLFXRULJLQHVDXLQVHUĠLHSHRVXOKLRLG

5. ([SOLFDĠLQRĠLXQHDGHÄEXFKHWDQDWRPLF´VDXÄEXFKHWXOOXL5LRODQ´.

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A B

Fig. 2

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7. (QXPHUDĠLPLúFăULOHFDSXOXLLQGLFDĠLPXúFKLLJkWXOXLFDUHSDUWLFLSăODUHDOL]DUHDORU.

8. 7HVWDUHDFăURUPXúFKLDLJkWXOXLHUHSUH]HQWDWăSULQLPDJLQLOHGLQILJ"
A B
Fig. 3

9. &RPSOHWDĠLWDEHOXO.
N/o Denumirea muúFKLXOXL Originea ,QVHUĠLD )XQFĠLD
1. m. sternocleidomastoidian

2. m. digastric

3. m. omohioid

4. m. scalen anterior

10. 6HOHFWDĠLWHVWHOH $QH[D) UHIHULWRDUHODWHPDQUUH]ROYDĠL-OHúLQRWDĠLUH]XOWDWHOH

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14. ,QIRUPDĠLLVXSOLPHQWDUHODWHPă.

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165
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Lucrarea nr. 29

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&RQĠLQXWXOWHPHL

a. Fasciile gâtului – FODVLILFDUH GXSă 31$ úL GXSă ȼ. ɇ. ɒɟɜɤɭɧɟɧɤɨ  SDUWLFXODULWăĠL


WRSRJUDILFHLPSRUWDQĠăDSOLFDWLYă
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SUDFWLFă
c. $QDWRPLDSHYLXDJkWXOXLUHSHUHRVRDVHúLPXVFXODUH
d. 5DSRUWXULOH PXúFKLORU JkWXOXL FX IRLĠHOH IDVFLDOH YLVFHUHOH FHUYLFDOH úL SDFKHWXO
neurovascular al regiunii.

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DSOLFDWLYă SUHFXP úL IRUPDUHD FRPSHWHQĠHORU úL GHSULQGHULORU SUDFWLFH SULYLQG
orientarea în elementele topografice ale regiunii.
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VHJPHQWXOXL FHUYLFDO DO WUXQFKLXOXL HVWH LPSRUWDQWă SHQWUX VWXGLHUHD YDVHORU
VDQJYLQH úL D QHUYLORU GLQ UHJLXQH SUHFXP úL SHQWUX FRQúWLHQWL]DUHD XQRU
GLVFLSOLQH FOLQLFH DQDWRPLHL WRSRJUDILFH úL FKLUXUJLHL RSHUDWRULL WUDXPDWRORJLHL
microchirurgiei, ORL, neurologiei etc.).

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temăDQDOL]DĠL-OH úL VWXGLDĠL-OH vQ FRUHVSXQGHUH FX VXUVHOH ELEOLRJUDILFH úL PDWHULDOHOH
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tezele mai importante.

2. 5HSUH]HQWDĠLJUDILFVWUXFWXUDORJLFăDVXEWHPHORU
x Fasciile gâtului.
x Topografia gâtului.

3. $GQRWDĠLLPDJLQLOHGLQILJUHIHULWRDUHODIDVFLLOHJkWXOXL
A B

Fig. 1
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4. $GQRWDĠL ILJ  LQGLFDĠL PXúFKLL úL IRUPDĠLXQLOH WRSRJUDILFH DOH JkWXOXL SH LPDJLQH
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Fig.2

5. ,QGLFDĠL IRUPDĠLXQLOH FDUH GHOLPLWHD]ă WULJRQXO DUWHUHL YHUWHEUDOH :DOGH\HU  H[SOLFDĠL


LPSRUWDQĠDOXLDSOLFDWLYă

6. 3HLPDJLQHDGLQILJLQGLFDĠLIDVFLLOHúLPXúFKLLJkWXOXLVSDĠLLOHLQWHUIDVFLDOH.

Fig. 3

167
165
7. &RQWLQXDĠLIUD]HOHUHIHULWRDUHODVSDĠLLOHLQWHUPXVFXODUHúLFHOXORDGLSRDVHLQWHUIDVFLDOHGLQ
regiunea gâtului:
a. spatium interaponeuroticum suprasternale e localizat între

b. spatium previscerale e delimitat de

c. spatium retroviscerale e localizat între

d. spatium prevertebraleORFDOL]DWvQWUHH[RED]DFUDQLXOXLúL7K3, e delimitat

anterior de
posterior de
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posterior
úLLQIHULRU
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j. fossa retromandibularis HORFDOL]DWă


úLFRQĠLQH

8. ([SOLFDĠLWHUPHQLLSDFKHWQHXURYDVFXODUDOJkWXOXLVSDĠLX interfascial.

9. (ODERUDĠLUHIHUDWHVXFFLQWHODWHPHOH
x Topografia gâtului
x Fasciile gâtului

10. 6HOHFWDĠLWHVWHOH $QH[D UHIHULWRDUHODWHPDQUUH]ROYDĠL-OHúLQRWDĠLUH]XOWDWHOH

11. &RQWURODĠLvQFHPăVXUăVXQWHĠLSUHJăWLWSHQWUXDGHPRQVWUDúL relata cele studiate.

12. ([SULPDĠL-YăUHIHULWRUODLPSRUWDQĠDDSOLFDWLYăDLQIRUPDĠLHLREĠLQXWH

13. 6XELHFWHQHFODUHúLvQWUHEăULDSăUXWHvQUH]XOWDWXOUHDOL]ăULLOXFUăULLQU

14. ,QIRUPDĠLLVXSOLPHQWDUHODWHPă

&RQWUROXOUHDOL]ăULLOXFUăULL DSUHFLHULVXJHVWLLUHFRPDQGDĠLL
6HPQăWXUDSURIHVRUXOXL

168
166
Lucrarea nr. 30

Tema: 0XúFKLLúLIDVFLLOHFDSXOXL– VWUXFWXUăWRSRJUDILHIXQFĠLLúLH[SORUDUHSHYLX.

&RQĠLQXWXOWHPHL

a. 0XúFKLL PLPLFL – FODVLILFDUH SDUWLFXODULWăĠL GH VWUXFWXUă RULHQWDUHD IDVFLFXlelor musculare,


RULJLQHLQVHUĠLHIXQFĠLL
b. 0XúFKLLPDVWLFDWRUL– RULJLQHLQVHUĠLHIXQFĠLL
c. )DVFLLOHH[WUHPLWăĠLLFHIDOLFHSDUWLFXODULWăĠLGHVWUXFWXUăVSDĠLLOHLQWHUIDVFLDOH
d. ([SORUDUHDSHYLXDPXúFKLORUFDSXOXL

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LGHQWLILFDúLGHPRQVWUDPXúFKLLPLPLFLúLDSULFHSHULLGHDDUJXPHQWDRULJLQHDúL
SDUWLFXODULWăĠLOH ORU GH LQVHUĠLH SUHFXP úL PHWRGHOH GH H[SORUDUH SH YLX DOH
acestora.
0RWLYDĠLD: &XQRúWLQĠHOH SULYLQG PRUIRORJLD PXúFKLORU FDSXOXL úL D IDVFLLORU H[WUHPLWăĠLL
FHIDOLFHVXQWQHFHVDUHSHQWUXVWXGLHUHDYDVHORUVDQJYLQHúLDQHUYLORUUHJLXQLLúLD
unor discipline clinice (anatomiei topografice, chirurgiei maxilofaciale,
traumatologiei, neurologiei, chirurgiei plastice, reabilitologiei etc.).

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1. 6HOHFWDĠL GLQ FKHVWLRQDU Anexa 1  VXELHFWHOH WHRUHWLFH úL SUDFWLFH UHIHULWRDUH OD
WHPăDQDOL]DĠL-OH úL VWXGLDĠL-le în corespundere cu sursele bibliografice, utilizând cadavrul,
preparate de muzeuILOPHYLGHRSODQúHPXODMHDWODVHQRWDĠLWH]HOHPDLLPSRUWDQWH

2. 5HSUH]HQWDĠLJUDILFVWUXFWXUDORJLFăDVXEWHPHORU
x 0XúFKLLFDSXOXL.
x Fasciile capului.

3. $GQRWDĠLLPDJLQLOHGLQILJUHIHULWRDUHODPXúFKLLPLPLFL
A B

Fig. 1

169
167
4. $GQRWDĠLLPDJLQLOHGLQILJUHIHULWRDUHODPXúFKLLPDVWLFDWRUL
A B

C D

Fig. 2

170
168
5. ,QGLFDĠLPXúFKLLFDUHUHDOL]HD]ăPLúFăULOHSUH]HQWDWHSULQLPDJLQLOHGLQILJ
A B C D

E F G H I

Fig. 3

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.

6. &RQWLQXDĠLIUD]HOHUHIHULWRDUHODIDVFLLOHFDSXOXL
a. fascia capitis superficialisvQDVSHFWGHSHULPLVLXPDFRSHUăPDMRULWDWHDPXúFKLORU
_____________________________________________________________________________;
b. fascia capitis propria include:
x fascia temporalisFDUHVHGLYLGHvQGRXăIRLĠHBBBBBBBBBB_________________________
_______________________________________________________________________;
x fascia masseterica FDUHDFRSHUăBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB___________________;
x fascia parotideaFDUHIRUPHD]ăFDSVXOăSHQWUXBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB___________________;
x fascia bucopharyngeaFDUHDFRSHUăBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB__________________
_________________________________________________________________________.

7. )LQLVDĠLIUD]HOHFDUHĠLQGH VSDĠLLOHFHOXORDGLSRDVHLQWHUIDVFLDOHúLLQWHUPXVFXODUHDOHFDSXOXL
a. spatium interaponeuroticum temporale e localizat între ______________________________
____________________________________________________________________________;
b. spatium subaponeuroticum temporale e delimitat de ________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________;
c. spatium intermuscularis temporopterygoideum VHDIOăvQWUHBBBBBBBBBBB_______________
____________________________________________________________________________;
d. spatium intermuscularis interpterygoideum HPăUJLQLWGHBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB_____________
____________________________________________________________________________;
e. corpus adiposum buccae e localizat între _________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________.

171
169
8. 3HLPDJLQLOHGLQILJLQGLFDĠLUHSHUHOHPXVFXODUHúLRVRDVHDOHH[WUHPLWăĠLLFHIDOLFH.

A B
Fig. 4

9. 3HLPDJLQLOHGLQILJQRWDĠLPXúFKLLRULJLQHDúLLQVHUĠLDFăURUDFRUHVSXQGH]RQHORULQGLFDWH

A B
Fig. 5

10. (ODERUDĠLXQUHIHUDWVXFFLQWODWHPDÄ7HVWDUHDPXúFKLORUPLPLFLúLPDVWLFDWRUL´

172
170
11. 6HOHFWDĠLWHVWHOH $QH[D refeULWRDUHODWHPDQUUH]ROYDĠL-OHúLQRWDĠLUH]XOWDWHOH

12. &RQWURODĠLGDFăVXQWHĠLSUHJăWLWSHQWUXDGHPRQVWUDúLUHODWDFHOHVWXGLDWH

13. ([SULPDĠL-YăUHIHULWRUODLPSRUWDQĠDDSOLFDWLYăDLQIRUPDĠLHLREĠLQXWH

14. 6XELHFWHQHFODUHúLvQWUHEăULDSăUXWHvQUH]XOWDWXOUHDOL]ăULLOXFUăULLQU

15. ,QIRUPDĠLLVXSOLPHQWDUHODWHPă.

&RQWUROXOUHDOL]ăULLOXFUăULL DSUHFLHULVXJHVWLLUHFRPDQGDĠLL
6HPQăWXUDSURIHVRUXOXL

173
171
Lucrarea nr. 31

Tema: 0XúFKLLIDVFLLOHúLWRSRJUDILDVSDWHOXL([SORUDUHD SHYLXDPXúFKLORUVSDWHOXL


Forma spatelui.
&RQĠLQXWXOWHPHL
a. 0XúFKLLVSDWHOXL– FODVLILFDUHRULJLQHLQVHUĠLHIRUPDúLIXQFĠLDORU
b. Fasciile spatelui – SDUWLFXODULWăĠLGHVWUXFWXUă
c. Topografia spatelui .
d. Anatomia pe viu a regiuni dorsale a trunchiului.

Scopul: )RUPDUHD FRPSHWHQĠHORU SULYLQG QRPHQFODWXUD PXúFKLORU VSDWHOXL ORFDOL]DUHD úL


IXQFĠLLOH ORU SUHFXP úL D GHSULQGHULORU GH D-i identifica, indicându-OH RULJLQHD úL
LQVHUĠLD
0RWLYDĠLD: 'DWHOH FDUH ĠLQ GH DQDWRPLD úL WRSRJUDILD PXúFKLORU úL fasciilor spatelui, locurile
slabe din peretele abdominal posterior, vor fi utile pentru studierea anatomiei
topografice a regiunii, chirurgiei, traumatologiei, neurologiei, kinetoterapiei etc.

5HDOL]DUHDOXFUăULL:
1. 6HOHFWDĠL GLQ FKHVWLRQDU Anexa 1) subLHFWHOH WHRUHWLFH úL SUDFWLFH UHIHULWRDUH OD
WHPăDQDOL]DĠL-OH úL VWXGLDĠL-le în corespundere cu sursele bibliografice, folosindu-Yă GH
FDGDYUXO GLVHFDW PXODMH SUHSDUDWH GH PX]HX ILOPH YLGHR SODQúH DWODVH QRWDĠL WH]HOH PDL
importante.

2. 5HSUH]HQWDĠLJUDILFVWUXFWXUDORJLFăDFRPSRQHQWHORUWHPHLFDUHĠLQGH
x 0XúFKLLVSDWHOXL.
x Fasciile spatelui.
x Topografia spatelui.

3. $GQRWDĠLLPDJLQLOHGLQILJVFULHĠLOHJHQGD
A B

174
172
C D E

Fig. 1

4. &HVHvQĠHOHJHSULQQRĠLXQLOHGHWULXQJKLúLWHWUDJRQORPEDUL"

5. &RQWLQXDĠLIUD]HOHUHIHULWRDUHODIDVFLLOHVSDWHOXL
x fascia dorsi superficialis HSODVDWăBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB________________________;
x fascia dorsi propria DFRSHUăBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB____________________________________
úLHIRUPDWăGLQ
x lamina superficialis fasciae dorsi propriae QXPLWăúLBBBB__________________________),
FDUHDFRSHUăBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB_____________________________
x _________________________________________________________________________;
x lamina profunda fasciae dorsi propriaFDUHDFRSHUăPXúFKLXOBBBBB__________________
____________________________________________________________________________.

175
173
6. ,QGLFDĠLSHLPDJLQHDGLQILJUHSHUHOHPXVFXODUHúLRVRDVHDOHVSDWHOXL

Fig. 2

7. 7HVWDUHDFăURUPXúFKLDLVSDWHOXLHUHSUH]HQWDWăSULQLPDJLQLOHGLQILJ?
A B

C D

Fig. 3
176
174
8. (QXPHUDĠLúLH[SOLFDĠLYDULDQWHOHGHIRUPăDVSDWHOXL

9. (ODERUDĠLUHIHUDWHVXFFLQWHODWHPHOH
x Fasciile spatelui.
x Topografia spatelui.
x ([SORUDUHDSHYLXDPXúFKLORUVSDWHOXL.

10. 6HOHFWDĠLWHVWHOH $QH[D UHIHULWRDUHODWHPDQUUH]ROYDĠL-OHúLQRWDĠLUH]XOWDWHOH

11. 9HULILFDĠLFRPSHWHQĠHOHúLGHSULQGHULOHIRUPDWHvQUH]XOWDWXOVWXGLHULLWHPei.

12. ([SULPDĠL-YăUHIHULWRUODLPSRUWDQĠDDSOLFDWLYăDLQIRUPDĠLHLREĠLQXWH

13. 6XELHFWHQHFODUHúLvQWUHEăULDSăUXWHSHSDUFXUVXOUHDOL]ăULLOXFUăULLQU

14. ,QIRUPDĠLLVXSOLPHQWDUHODWHPă.

&RQWUROXOUHDOL]ăULLOXFUăULL DSUHFLHULVXJHVWLLUHFRPDQGDĠLL
6HPQăWXUDSURIHVRUXOXL

177
175
Anexa I
CHESTIONAR PRIVIND APARATUL LOCOMOTOR
&RQWUROXOFXQRúWLQĠHORUSUDFWLFH
,'LQRVWHRORJLHUHVSRQGHQĠLLYRUGHPRQVWUD

1. Exemple de oase tubulare.


2. Exemple de oase plate.
3. Exemple de oase spongioase.
4. Exemple de oase pneumatice.
5. Exemple de oase sesamoide.
6. Exemple de oase monoepifizare.
7. 3RUĠLXQLOHRDVHORUWXEXODUHOXQJL
8. 3ăUĠLOHFRPSRQHQWHDOHYHUWHEUHORU
9. 9HUWHEUHOHFHUYLFDOH,úL,,
10. 9HUWHEUHOHFHUYLFDOH9,úL9,,
11. 9HUWHEUHOHWRUDFLFH,;;,úL;,,
12. Vertebrele lombare.
13. 3R]LĠLDDQDWRPLFăDYHUWHEUHORU
14. 3R]LĠLDDQDWRPLFăDVDFUXOXL
15. Curburile coloanei vertebrale.
16. )RUPDĠLXQLOHRVRDVHGLQUHJLXQHDFRORDQHLYHUWHEUDOHSDOSDELOHSHYLX
17. 3R]LĠLDDQDWRPLFăDFRDVWHORU
18. &RDVWHOH,,,;,úL;,,
19. 3R]LĠLDDQDWRPLFăDVWHUQXOXL
20. Unghiul sternal (Louis).
21. Arcul costal.
22. Unghiul infrasternal.
23. Unghiul costoxifoidian.
24. Reperele osoase ale toracelui.
25. Oasele membrului toracic.
26. 3R]LĠLDDQDWRPLFăDRDVHORUFHQWXULLVFDSXODUH
27. Elementele descriptive ale scapulei.
28. Elementele descriptive ale claviculei.
29. &RPSRQHQWHOHVFDSXOHLúL claviculei, palpabile pe viu.
30. Radiograme ale oaselor centurii scapulare.
31. 3R]LĠLDDQDWRPLFăDKXPHUXVXOXL
32. Elementele descriptive ale humerusului.
33. Elementele humerusului, palpabile pe viu.
34. Radiograme ale humerusului.
35. 2DVHOHDQWHEUDĠXOXL
36. 3R]LĠLDDQDWRPLFăDRDVHORUDQWHEUDĠXOXL
37. (OHPHQWHOHRDVHORUDQWHEUDĠXOXLSDOSDELOHSHYLX
38. 5DGLRJUDPHDOHRDVHORUDQWHEUDĠXOXL
39. Oasele mâinii.
40. Oasele carpiene.
41. Oasele metacarpiene.
42. Elementele scheletului mâinii, palpabile pe viu.
43. Oasele membrului pelvin.
44. Oasele pelvisului.
45. 3R]LĠLDDQDWRPLFăDFR[DOXOXL
178

176
46. 3RUĠLXQLOHFR[DOXOXL
47. Elemente descriptive ale coxalului.
48. 3R]LĠLDDQDWRPLFăDSHOYLVXOXL
49. Pelvisul mare.
50. Pelvisul mic.
51. Promontoriul.
52. /LQLDWHUPLQDOă
53. $SHUWXUDVXSHULRDUăDSHOYLVXOXL
54. $SHUWXUDLQIHULRDUăDSHOYLVXOXL
55. Punctele pelviometrice, palpabile pe viu.
56. Dimensiunile pelvisului.
57. 3R]LĠLDDQDWRPLFăDIHPXUXOXL
58. Elementele descriptive ale femurului.
59. Elementele femurului, palpabile pe viu.
60. Radiograme ale femurului.
61. Oasele gambei.
62. 3R]LĠLDDQDWRPLFăDRDVHORUJDPEHL
63. Elementele oaselor gambei, palpabile pe viu.
64. Elementele descriptive ale tibiei.
65. Radiograme ale oaselor gambei.
66. Oasele piciorului.
67. Oasele tarsiene.
68. 3R]LĠLDDQDWRPLFăDFDOFDQHXOXL
69. Oasele metatarsiene.
70. Elementele scheletului piciorului, palpabile pe viu.
71. %ROĠLOHSLciorului.
72. Oasele craniului cerebral.
73. Elementele oaselor craniului cerebral, palpabile pe viu.
74. Oasele craniului facial.
75. Elementele craniului facial, palpabile pe viu.
76. 3RUĠLXQLOHRVXOXLIURQWDO
77. 3RUĠLXQLOHRVXOXLHWPRLG
78. 3RUĠLXQLOHRVXOXLVIHQRLG
79. 3RUĠLXQLOH osului occipital.
80. 3RUĠLXQLOHRVXOXLWHPSRUDO
81. 3RUĠLXQLOHPD[LOHL
82. 3RUĠLXQLOHRVXOXLSDODWLQ
83. 3RUĠLXQLOHPDQGLEXOHL
84. /LQLDOLPLWURIăGLQWUHEROWDúLED]DFUDQLXOXL
85. Localizarea fontanelelor la nou-QăVFXW
86. Fosele (etajele) endobazei craniului.
87. Elementele deVFULSWLYHGLQIRVDDQWHULRDUăDFUDQLXOXL
88. Elementele descriptive din fosa medie a craniului.
89. (OHPHQWHOHGHVFULSWLYHGLQIRVDSRVWHULRDUăDFUDQLXOXL
90. %D]DH[WHUQăDFUDQLXOXL
91. Fosele craniului facial.
92. &RPXQLFăULOHIRVHLSWHULJRSDODWLQH
93. 3HUHĠLLRUELWHLúL RDVHOHFDUHvLIRUPHD]ă
94. &RPXQLFăULOHRUELWHL
95. 3HUHĠLLFDYLWăĠLLQD]DOHúLRDVHOHFDUHvLIRUPHD]ă
179
177
96. 6LQXVXULOHSDUDQD]DOHFRPXQLFăULOHORU
97. &RPXQLFăULOHFDYLWăĠLLFUDQLXOXL
98. Punctele craniometrice.

II. 'LQIRUPDĠLXQLOHVWXGLDWHvQFDGUXODUWURVLQGHVPRORJLHLVWXGHQĠLLYRUGHPRQVWUD
1. Exemple de sinfibroze (sindesmoze).
2. Exemple de sincondroze.
3. Exemple de sinostoze.
4. Exemple de hemiartroze.
5. ([HPSOHGHDUWLFXODĠLLXQLD[LDOH
6. $UWLFXODĠLLWURKRLGH JLQJOLP 
7. $UWLFXODĠLLWURKOHDUH FLOLQGULFH 
8. $UWLFXODĠLLHOLFRLGale (cohleare, în melc).
9. ([HPSOHGHDUWLFXODĠLLELD[LDOH
10. $UWLFXODĠLLFRQGLODUH
11. $UWLFXODĠLLHOLSVRLGDOH
12. $UWLFXODĠLLVHODUH vQúD 
13. ([HPSOHGHDUWLFXODĠLLSOXULD[LDOH
14. $UWLFXODĠLLVIHURLGDOH
15. $UWLFXODĠLLFRWLOLFH
16. $UWLFXODĠLLSODQH
17. Exemple de amfiartroze.
18. ([HPSOHGHDUWLFXODĠLLVLPSOH
19. ([HPSOHGHDUWLFXODĠLLFRPSXVH
20. ([HPSOHGHDUWLFXODĠLLFRPSOH[H
21. ([HPSOHGHDUWLFXODĠLLFRPELQDWH
22. $UWLFXODĠLLOHFRORDQHLYHUWHEUDOH
23. Discurile intervertebrale.
24. Ligamentele coloanei vertebrale.
25. /LJDPHQWHOHDUWLFXODĠLLORUFoloanei vertebrale cu craniul.
26. Radiograme ale coloanei vertebrale.
27. Suturile craniului.
28. $UWLFXODĠLDWHPSRURPDQGLEXODUă
29. Radiograme ale craniului.
30. $UWLFXODĠLLOHFRDVWHORUFXYHUWHEUHOH
31. $UWLFXODĠLLOHFRDVWHORUFXVWHUQXO
32. 5DGLRJUDPHDOHRDVHORUúLDUWLFXODĠLilor toracelui.
33. $UWLFXODĠLDVWHUQRFODYLFXODUă
34. $UWLFXODĠLDDFURPLRFODYLFXODUă
35. Ligamentele proprii ale scapulei.
36. )HĠHOHDUWLFXODUHDOHDUWLFXODĠLHLVFDSXORKXPHUDOH
37. Labrul glenoidal.
38. 7HQGRQXOFDSXOXLOXQJDOELFHSVXOXLúLWHDFDOXLVLQRYLDOă
39. 0LúFăULOHvQDUWLFXODĠLDVFDSXORKXPHUDOă
40. 5DGLRJUDPHDOHDUWLFXODĠLHLVFDSXORKXPHUDOH
41. )HĠHOHDUWLFXODUHDOHDUWLFXODĠLHLFRWXOXL
42. /LJDPHQWHOHDUWLFXODĠLHLFRWXOXL
43. )XQFĠLLOHDUWLFXODĠLHLFRWXOXL
44. 5DGLRJUDPHDOHDUWLFXODĠLHLFRWXOXL
45. $UWLFXODĠLLOHRDVHORUDQWHEUDĠXOXL
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46. )HĠHOHDUWLFXODUHDOHDUWLFXODĠLLORURDVHORUDQWHEUDĠXOXL
47. )HĠHOHDUWLFXODUHDOHDUWLFXODĠLHLUDGLRFDUSLHQH
48. /LJDPHQWHOHDUWLFXODĠLHLUDGLRFDUSLHQH
49. /LJDPHQWHOHDUWLFXODĠLLORUPkLQLL
50. 5DGLRJUDPHDOHDUWLFXODĠLHLUDGLRFDUSLHQHúLDOHDUWLFXODĠLLORUPkLQLL
51. $UWLFXODĠLLOHSHOYLVXOXL
52. Ligamentele pelvisului.
53. Orificiile sciatice.
54. 2ULILFLXOGHOLPLWDWGHúDQĠXOREWXUDWRUúLPHPEUDQDRPRQLPă
55. 5DGLRJUDPHDOHRDVHORUúLDUWLFXODĠLLORUSHOYLVXOXL
56. )HĠHOHDUWLFXODUHDOHDUWLFXODĠLHLFR[RIHPXUDOH
57. Labrul acetabular.
58. LLJDPHQWHOHDUWLFXODĠLHLFR[RIHPXUDOH
59. )XQFĠLLOHDUWLFXODĠLHLFR[RIHPXUDOH
60. 5DGLRJUDPHDOHDUWLFXODĠLHLFR[RIHPXUDOH
61. 3R]LĠLDDQDWRPLFăDDUWLFXODĠLHLJHQXQFKLXOXL
62. )HĠHOHDUWLFXODUHDOHDUWLFXODĠLHLJHQXQFKLXOXL
63. (OHPHQWHOHDX[LOLDUHDOHDUWLFXODĠLHLJHQXQchiului.
64. )XQFĠLLOHDUWLFXODĠLHLJHQXQFKLXOXL
65. 5DGLRJUDPHDOHDUWLFXODĠLHLJHQXQFKLXOXL
66. $UWLFXODĠLLOHRDVHORUJDPEHL
67. )HĠHOHDUWLFXODUHDOHDUWLFXODĠLHLWDORFUXUDOH
68. /LJDPHQWHOHDUWLFXODĠLHLWDORFUXUDOH
69. )XQFĠLLOHDUWLFXODĠLHLWDORFUXUDOH
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71. $UWLFXODĠLDPHGLRWDUVLDQă &KRSDUW 
72. Ligamentul - FKHLHDODUWLFXODĠLHLOXLChopart.
73. $UWLFXODĠLLOHWDUVRPHWDWDUVLHQH /LVIUDQF 
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76. (OHPHQWHOHDUWLFXODĠLLORUPHPEUXOXLVXSHULRUSDOSDELOHSHYLX
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4. Triunghiul lombar (Petit).
5. 6SDĠLXO SDWUXODWHUXO ORPEDU *U\QIHOG-Lesgaft).
6. Fasciile spatelui.
7. (OHPHQWHOHPXVFXODUHGLQUHJLXQHDVSDWHOXLFDUHSRWILVXSXVHLQVSHFĠLHLVDXSDOSDĠLHLSHYLX
8. 0XúFKLLWRUDFHOXL
9. Diafragma.
10. 3RUĠiunile diafragmei.
11. Fasciile toracelui.
12. 0XúFKLLWRUDFHOXLH[SORUDELOLSHYLX
13. 0XúFKLLDEGRPHQXOXL
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181
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17. ,QWHUVHFĠLXQLOHWHQGLQRDVHDOHPUHFWXVDEGRPLQLV
18. Fasciile abdomenului.
19. Canalul inghinal.
20. 3HUHĠLLúLRULILFLLOHFDQDOXOXLLQJKLQDO
21. 0XúFKLLúLIRUPDĠLXQLOHWRSRJUDILFHDOHDEGRPHQXOXLH[SORUDELOHSHYLX
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24. 0XúFKLLEUDĠXOXL
25. Capetele bicepsului brahial.
26. Aponeuroza bicepsului brahial.
27. *UXSHOHGHPXúFKLDLDQWHEUDĠXOXL
28. 0XúFKLLDQWHULRULDLDQWHEUDĠXOXL
29. 0XúFKLLSRVWHULRULDLDQWHEUDĠXOXL
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36. 2ULILFLLOHWULODWHUúLSDWUXODWHU
37. 7ULXQJKLXULOHSHUHWHOXLDQWHULRUDOFDYLWăĠLLD[LODUH
38. Canalul humeromuscular.
39. ùDQĠXULOHELFLSLWDle.
40. )RVDFXELWDOă
41. Canalul supinator.
42. ùDQĠXULOHGHSHIDĠDDQWHULRDUăDDQWHEUDĠXOXL
43. Spatiul celular Parona (Pirogov).
44. &DQDOXOFDUSDO&DQDOHOHUDGLDOúLXOQDUDOFDUSXOXL
45. $SRQHXUR]DSDOPDUă
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50. 0XúFKLLúLHOHPHQWHOHWRSRJUDILFHGLQUHJLXQHDDQWHEUDĠXOXLH[SORUDELOHSHYLX
51. 0XúFKLLúLHOHPHQWHOHWRSRJUDILFHGLQUHJLXQHDPkLQLLH[SORUDELOHSHYLX
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53. 0XúFKLLGLQUHJLXQHDIHVLHUă
54. *UXSHOHGHPXúFKLDLFRDpsei.
55. 0XúFKLLDQWHULRULDLFRDSVHL
56. Capetele m. quadriceps femoris.
57. 0XúFKLLPHGLDOLDLFRDSVHL
58. 0XúFKLLSRVWHULRULDLFRDSVHL
59. 0XúFKLLDQWHULRULDLJDPEHL
60. 0XúFKLLODWHUDOLDLJDPEHL
61. 0XúFKLLSRVWHULRULDLJDPEHL
62. 0XúFKLLFDUHHIHFWXHD]ăIOH[LDJDPEei.
63. 0XúFKLLGRUVDOLDLSLFLRUXOXL
65. 0XúFKLLSODQWDULDLSLFLRUXOXL
66. 0XúFKLLFDUHVXVĠLQEROĠLOHSLFLRUXOXL
67. Orificiile supra- úLLQIUDSLULIRUP
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68. /DFXQHOHPXVFXODUăúLYDVFXODUă
69. Triunghiul femural (Scarpa).
70. Inelul femural.
71. 3HUHĠLLúLRULILFLLOHFDQDOXOXLIHmural.
72. )RVDRYDOă KLDWXOVDIHQ 
73. Canalul obturator.
74. Canalul adductor (Hunter).
75. Canalul cruropopliteu (Gruber).
76. Fosa poplitee.
77. Canalul cruropopliteu.
78. Canalele musculofibulare.
79. ùDQĠXULOHSODQWDUH
80. )DVFLDODWăDFRDSVHL
81. Tractul iliotibial.
82. Fasciile gambei úLDOHSLFLRUXOXLúLGHULYDWHOHORU
83. Canalul lui Pirogov.
84. $SRQHXUR]DSODQWDUă
85. &DQDOHOHRVWHRILEURDVHúLWHFLOHVLQRYLDOHGLQUHJLXQHDJOH]QHLúLDSLFLRUXOXL
86. Repere musculare la nivelul fesei.
87. 0XúFKLLDQWHULRULDLFRDSVHLH[SORUDELOLSHYLX
88. 0XúFKLLSRVteriori ai coapsei, palpabili pe viu.
89. Fosa poplitee pe viu.
90. )RUPDĠLXQLOHPXVFXODUHH[SORUDELOHSHYLXODQLYHOXOJDPEHL
91. (OHPHQWHOHPXVFXODUHúLWRSRJUDILFHGLQUHJLXQHDDUWLFXODĠLHLWDORFUXUDOH JkWXOSLFLRUXOXL úLD
piciorului, palpabile pe viu.
92. GrupelHGHPXúFKLDLJkWXOXL
93. 0XúFKLLvQVHUDĠLSHRVXOKLRLG
94. 0XúFKLLSURIXQ]LDLJkWXOXL
95. 0XúFKLLVFDOHQL
96. Triunghiurile gâtului.
97. Triungiul arterei linguale (Pirogov).
98. 0XúFKLLúLIRUPDĠLXQLOHWRSRJUDILFHGLQUHJLXQHDJkWXOXLH[SORUDELOHSHYLX
99. 0XúFKLLPLPLFL DLIHĠHL
100.0XúFKLLPDVWLFDWRUL
101..Repere musculare din regiunea capului, explorabile pe viu.
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2. (YROXĠLDLVWRULFăDDQDWRPLHL2ULJLQHDFXQRúWLQĠHORUDQDWRPLFH$QDWRPLDvQDQWLFKitate.
3. Anatomia în evul mediu.
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9. ,QWHJULWDWHDRUJDQLVPXOXL2UJDQLVPXOXPDQúLPHGLXODPELDQW
10. (WDSHOHSULQFLSDOHGHRQWRJHQH]ăDRUJDQLVPXOXLXPDQ&UHúWHUHDúLGH]YROWDUHDOXLvQSHULRDGD
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183
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13. $VSHFWHSRQGHUDOHGHVWDWXUăúLVXSUDIDĠăDFRUSXOXLRPHQHVF
14. 3URSRUĠLLOHFRUSXOXL1RĠLXQLGHVSUHPRGXO3XQFWHOHDQWURSRPHWULFHSrincipale.
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8. Humerusul – SR]LĠLHDQDWRPLFăVWUXFWXUăIXQFĠLL
9. 2DVHOHDQWHEUDĠXOXL– SR]LĠLHDQDWRPLFăVWUXFWXUăIXQFĠLL
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11. Coxalul – SR]LĠLHDQDWRPLFăVWUXFWXUăIXQFĠLL
12. Femurul – SR]LĠLHDQDWRPLFăVWUXFWXUăIXQFĠLL
184
182
13. Oasele gambei – SR]LĠLHDQDWRPLFăVWUXFWXUăIXQFĠLL
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15. Craniul – FRPSRQHQWH FRPSDUWLPHQWH URO IXQFĠLRQDO $SOLFDELOLWDWHD LQIRUPDĠLLORU GHVSUH
structura craniului.
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31. Topografia endobazei craniului, rolul orificiilor úLFDQDOHORUGHSHHD
32. Orbita – SR]LĠLHSHUHĠLFRPXQLFăULúLUROXOORU
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9. Unirile oaselor aQWHEUDĠXOXL- VWUXFWXUăPLúFăULPXúFKLLFDUHOHSURGXF
10. $UWLFXODĠLDUDGLRFDUSLDQă- VWUXFWXUăPLúFăULPXúFKLLFDUHOHSURGXF
11. $UWLFXODĠLLOHRDVHORUPkLQLL– FODVLILFDUHPLúFăUL
12. $UWLFXODĠLLOHRDVHORUFHQWXULLPHPEUXOXLLQIHULRU– VWUXFWXUăPLúFăUL
13. Bazinul în ansamblu – SHUHĠLFRPSDUWLPHQWHDSHUWXULRULILFLL
14. 'LPHQVLXQLOHED]LQXOXLIHPLQLQLPSRUWDQĠăDSOLFDWLYă
15. $UWLFXODĠLDFR[RIHPXUDOă– VWUXFWXUăPLúFăULPXúFKLLFDUHOHSURGXF
16. $UWLFXODĠLDJHQXQFKLXOXL- VWUXFWXUăPLúFăULPXúFKLLFDUHOHSURduc.
185
183
17. Unirile oselor gambei – VWUXFWXUă
18. $UWLFXODĠLDWDORFUXUDOă- VWUXFWXUăPLúFăULPXúFKLLFDUHOHSURGXF
19. $UWLFXODĠLLOHRDVHORUSLFLRUXOXL- VWUXFWXUăPXúFKLLFDUHOHLQIOXHQĠHD]ăPLúFăUL
20. 3LFLRUXOvQDQVDPEOX%ROĠLOHSLFLRUXOXLDVSHFWHFOLQLFH
21. VaORDUHDFOLQLFăDLQIRUPDĠLLORUSULYLQGPRUIRORJLDDUWLFXODĠLLORU

,96LVWHPXOPXVFXODU PLRORJLHVSHFLDOă 
1. 0XúFKLLVXSHUILFLDOLúLIDVFLLOHVSDWHOXL– VWUXFWXUăWRSRJUDILHIXQFĠLL
2. 0XúFKLLSURIXQ]LDLVSDWHOXL- VWUXFWXUăWRSRJUDILHIXQFĠLL
3. 0XúFKLL úLIDVFLLOHWRUDFHOXL– FODVLILFDUHVWUXFWXUăWRSRJUDILHIXQFĠLL
4. Diafragma – VWUXFWXUă WRSRJUDILH IXQFĠLL 5HJLXQL YXOQHUDELOH DOH GLDIUDJPHL LPSRUWDQĠă
DSOLFDWLYă
5. 0XúFKLLúLIDVFLLOHDEGRPHQXOXL– FODVLILFDUHVWUXFWXUăWRSRJUDILHIXQFĠLL
6. LiniDDOEăúLWHDFDPXúFKLXOXLUHFWDEGRPLQDO– VWUXFWXUăWRSRJUDILHDVSHFWHFOLQLFH
7. /RFXULOHVODEHGLQSHUHWHOHDQWHULRUDODEGRPHQXOXLLPSRUWDQĠăFOLQLFă
8. Canalul inghinal – SHUHĠLRULILFLLFRQĠLQXWVHPQLILFDĠLHDSOLFDWLYă
9. $FĠLXQHD GH WRWDOLWDWH D PXúFKLORU DEGRPLQDOL LQIOXHQĠă DVXSUD FRORDQHL YHUWHEUDOH SUHVD
DEGRPLQDOăHWF 
10. 0XúFKLLVXSHUILFLDOLDLJkWXOXLúLPXúFKLLLQVHUDĠLSHRVXOKLRLG– VWUXFWXUăWRSRJUDILHIXQFĠLL
11. 0XúFKLLSURIXQ]LDLJkWXOXL– VWUXFWXUăWRSRJUDILHIXQFĠLL
12. Fasciile gâtului – VWUXFWXUăWRSRJUDILH6SDĠLLOHLQWHUIDVFLDOHDOHJkWXOXLLPSRUWDQĠDORUFOLQLFă
13. 7RSRJUDILDJkWXOXL UHJLXQLWULXQJKLXULVSDĠLL 
14. 0XúFKLLFDSXOXL– FODVLILFDUH0XúFKLLPLPLFL– VWUXFWXUăWRSRJUDILHIXQFĠLL
15. 0XúFKLL PDVWLFDWRUL – VWUXFWXUă WRSRJUDILH IXQFĠLL %LRPHFDQLFD DUWLFXODĠLHL
temporomandibulare.
16. Fasciile capului – VWUXFWXUăWRSRJUDILH6SDĠLLOHLQWHUIDVFLDOHDOHFDSXOXL
17. 0XúFKLLFHQWXULLVFDSXODUH– VWUXFWXUăWRSRJUDILHIXQFĠLL
18. 0XúFKLLEUDĠXOXL- VWUXFWXUăWRSRJUDILHIXQFĠLL
19. MuúFKLLDQWHEUDĠXOXLJUXSXODQWHULRU- VWUXFWXUăWRSRJUDILHIXQFĠLL
20. 0XúFKLLDQWHEUDĠXOXLJUXSXOSRVWHULRU- VWUXFWXUăWRSRJUDILHIXQFĠLL
21. 0XúFKLLPkLQLL- VWUXFWXUăWRSRJUDILHIXQFĠLL
22. Fasciile membrului superior - VWUXFWXUăWRSRJUDILHIXQFĠLL
23. ToSRJUDILDUHJLXQLLD[LODUH IRVDFDYLWDWHDSHUHĠLLRULILFLLOHFRQĠLQXWXO 
24. 7RSRJUDILDEUDĠXOXLúLDUHJLXQLLFXELWDOH
25. 7RSRJUDILDDQWHEUDĠXOXLúLDPkLQLL
26. Canalele osteofibroase ale mâinii.
27. 7HFLOHVLQRYLDOHDOHWHQGRDQHORUPXúFKLORUPHPEUXOXLVXSHULRU
28. 0XúFKLLLQWHUQLDLED]LQXOXL- VWUXFWXUăWRSRJUDILHIXQFĠLL
29. 0XúFKLLH[WHUQLDLED]LQXOXL- VWUXFWXUăWRSRJUDILHIXQFĠLL
30. 0XúFKLLFRDSVHL– FODVLILFDUHVWUXFWXUăWRSRJUDILHIXQFĠLL
31. 0XúFKLLJDPEHL– FODVLILFDUHVWUXFWXUăWRSRJUDILHIXQFĠLL
32. 0XúFhii piciorului – FODVLILFDUHVWUXFWXUăWRSRJUDILHIXQFĠLL
33. (OHPHQWHOHDFWLYHúLSDVLYHFXUROGHIRUWLILFDUHDEROĠLORUSLFLRUXOXL
34. Fasciile membrului inferior - VWUXFWXUăWRSRJUDILHGHULYDWH
35. &DQDOHOHRVWHRILEURDVHúLWHFLOHVLQRYLDOHDOHPHPEUXOXLinferior.
36. )RUPDĠLXQLOHWRSRJUDILFHGLQUHJLXQHDSHOYLVXOXL– orificiile supra- úLLQIUDSLULIRUPFDQDOXO
REWXUDWRUODFXQHOHPXVFXODUăúLYDVFXODUă– SHUHĠLúLFRQĠLQXW
37. 7RSRJUDILDFRDSVHLúLDIRVHLSRSOLWHH
38. 7RSRJUDILDJDPEHLúLDSLFLRUXOXL
39. Dinamica coORDQHLYHUWHEUDOHúLDFRDVWHORU
186
184
40. Dinamica capului.
41. 'LQDPLFDFHQWXULLVFDSXODUHúLDEUDĠXOXL
42. 'LQDPLFDDQWHEUDĠXOXLúLDPkLQLL
43. Dinamica membrului inferior.
44. Mersul – VSHFLILFXOúLRUJDQL]DUHDPHUVXOXLSDUWLFXODULWăĠLOHOXLGHYkUVWă
45. Aplicabilitatea infRUPDĠLLORUSULYLQGVWUXFWXUDWRSRJUDILDúLIXQFĠLLOHPXúFKLORU

9'H]YROWDUHDúLDQRPDOLLOHGHGH]YROWDUHDRUJDQHORUDSDUDWXOXLGHVXVĠLQHUHúLPLúFDUH
1. 1RĠLXQLJHQHUDOHGHVSUHGH]YROWDUHDRDVHORUúLDQRPDOLLOHORU
2. /HJLWăĠLOHGH]YROWăULLVLVWHPXOXLRVRVúLDOHSURFHVHORUGHRVLILFDUH
3. 'H]YROWDUHDYHUWHEUHORU9DULDQWHúLDQRPDOLLGHGH]YROWDUHDYHUWHEUHORU
4. 'H]YROWDUHDFRDVWHORUúLDVWHUQXOXL9DULDQWHúLDQRPDOLLGHGH]YROWDUHDFRDVWHORUúLD
sternului.
5. Dezvoltarea oaselor membrului superior. VariaQWHúLDQRPDOLLGHGH]YROWDUHDRDVHORU
membrului superior.
6. 'H]YROWDUHDRDVHORUPHPEUXOXLLQIHULRU9DULDQWHúLDQRPDOLLGHGH]YROWDUHDRDVHORU
membrului inferior.
7. Dezvoltarea oaselor craniului cerebral.
8. 9DULDQWHúLDQRPDOLLGHGH]YROWDUHDRDVHORUFUDQLXlui cerebral.
9. Dezvoltarea oaselor craniului facial.
10. 9DULDQWHúLDQRPDOLLGHGH]YROWDUHDRDVHORUFUDQLXOXLIDFLDO
11. 'H]YROWDUHDOHJăWXULORUGLQWUHRDVHYDULDQWHúLDQRPDOLL
12. 'H]YROWDUHDPXúFKLORUQRĠLXQLJHQHUDOH
13. 'H]YROWDUHDPXúFKLORUWUXQFKLXOXL
14. Dezvoltarea diafragmei, anomalii.
15. 'H]YROWDUHDPXúFKLORUPHPEUHORUVXSHULRDUHúLLQIHULRDUH
16. 'H]YROWDUHDPXúFKLORUFDSXOXL
17. 9DULDQWHúLDQRPDOLLGHGH]YROWDUHDPXúFKLORUWUXQFKLXOXLFDSXOXLúLPHPEUHORU

9,3DUWLFXODULWăĠLLQGLYLGXDOHGHYkUVWăúLGHVH[DOH RUJDQHORUDSDUDWXOXLGHVXVĠLQHUHúL
PLúFDUH
1. ,QIOXHQĠDIDFWRULORULQWHUQLúLH[WHUQLDVXSUDVWUXFWXULLRDVHORU6WUXFWXUDRDVHORUvQGHSHQGHQĠă
GHPXQFDIL]LFăúLVSRUW
2. 3DUWLFXODULWăĠLGHYkUVWăúLGHVH[vQVWUXFWXUDRDVHORU
3. 3DUWLFXODULWăĠLGHYkUVWăale coloanei vertebrale.
4. 3DUWLFXODULWăĠLGHYkUVWăúLGHVH[DOHSHOYLVXOXL
5. Craniul nou-QăVFXWXOXLúLWUDQVIRUPăULOHOXLSRVWQDWDOH
6. 3DUWLFXODULWăĠLGHYkUVWăúLGHVH[DOHFUDQLXOXL
7. 3DUWLFXODULWăĠLLQGLYLGXDOHDOHFUDQLXOXL
8. )DĠDHOHPHQWHOHFDUHGHWHUPLQăSDUWLFXODULWăĠLOHHLLQGLYLGXDOH)RUPDUHDIHĠHLúLHWDSHOHHL
9. 3DUWLFXODULWăĠLGHYkUVWăDOHDUWLFXODĠLLORU
10. $QDWRPLDGHYkUVWăDPXúFKLORU
11. 3DUWLFXODULWăĠLGHYkUVWăúLGHVH[DOHUHJLXQLORUVODEHGLQSHUHWHOHDQWHULRUDODEGRPHQXOXL
12. Valoarea informDĠLLORUGHVSUHSDUWLFXODULWăĠLOHLQGLYLGXDOHGHYkUVWăúLGHVH[SHQWUXSUDFWLFD
PHGLFDOă

VII. (OHPHQWHGHDQDWRPLHSHYLXDDSDUDWXOXLGHVXVĠLQHUHúLPLúFDUH
1. ğLQXWDWLSXULOHHLIDFWRULLFDUHRGHWHUPLQăúLFDUDFWHULVWLFDORU
2. Habitusul.

187
185
3. Palparea pe viu DYHUWHEUHORUúLVWDELOLUHDORFDOL]ăULLORUvQFRORDQDYHUWHEUDOăXWLOL]kQGSXQFWHúL
OLQLLGHLGHQWLILFDUHLPSRUWDQĠăDSOLFDWLYă
4. 3DOSDUHDSHYLXDFRDVWHORUVWHUQXOXLúLDVSDĠLLORULQWHUFRVWDOH6WDELOLUHDORFDOL]ăULLFRDVWHORU
SHYLXLPSRUWDQĠăDSOLFDWLYă
5. 5HSHUHOHRVRDVHDOHWRUDFHOXLLPSRUWDQĠăDSOLFDWLYă
6. &RORDQDYHUWHEUDOăvQLPDJLQHUDGLRORJLFă
7. 7RUDFHOHvQLPDJLQHUDGLRORJLFă
8. )RUPDĠLXQLOHFUDQLXOXLSDOSDELOHSHYLX UHSHUHRVRDVHDOHFDSXOXL LPSRUWDQĠăDSOLFDWLYă
9. Craniul în imagine radiolRJLFă
10. 3DUWLFXODULWăĠLLQGLYLGXDOHGHIRUPăúLGLPHQVLXQLDOHFUDQLXOXLFDUHSRWILGHSLVWDWHSHYLX
11. 5HSHUHRVRDVHDOHJkWXOXLLPSRUWDQĠăDSOLFDWLYă
12. )RUPDĠLXQLOHRVRDVHDOHPHPEUXOXLVXSHULRUSDOSDELOHSHYLX UHSHUHRVRDVHDOHPHPEUXOXL
superior), imSRUWDQĠăDSOLFDWLYă
13. 2DVHOHPHPEUXOXLVXSHULRUvQLPDJLQHUDGLRORJLFă
14. 5HJLXQLOHGHSDOSDUHSHYLXDOHXQRUIRUPDĠLXQLDOHVFKHOHWXOXLPHPEUXOXLLQIHULRU UHSHUH
RVRDVHDOHPHPEUXOXLLQIHULRU LPSRUWDQĠăDSOLFDWLYă
15. 5HSHUHRVRDVHDOHSHOYLVXOXLLPSRUWDQĠăDSOLFDWLYă
16. 1RĠLXQLJHQHUDOHGHSHOYLPHWULHLQWHUQăúLH[WHUQă
17. 6FKHOHWXOPHPEUXOXLLQIHULRUvQLPDJLQHUDGLRORJLFă
18. ([SORUDUHDSHYLXDDUWLFXODĠLLORU1RĠLXQLJHQHUDOHGHVSUHSXQFĠLLDUWLFXODUHDUWURVFRSLH
JRLQLRPHWULHLPSRUWDQĠăDSOLFDWLYă
19. ArticulDĠLLOHFRORDQHLYHUWHEUDOHvQLPDJLQHUDGLRORJLFă
20. $UWLFXODĠLLOHFRDVWHORUvQLPDJLQHUDGLRORJLFă
21. $UWLFXODĠLLOHRDVHORUFHQWXULLVFDSXODUHvQLPDJLQHUDGLRORJLFă
22. $UWLFXODĠLDXPăUXOXLvQLPDJLQHUDGLRORJLFă
23. $UWLFXODĠLDFRWXOXLúLDUWLFXODĠLLOHRDVHORUDQWHEUDĠXOXLvQLPDJLQHUDGLRORJLFă
24. $UWLFXODĠLDUDGLRFDUSLDQăúLDUWLFXODĠLLOHPkLQLLvQLPDJLQHUDGLRORJLFă
25. $UWLFXODĠLLOHSHOYLVXOXLvQLPDJLQHUDGLRORJLFă
26. $UWLFXODĠLDFR[RIHPXUDOăvQLPDJLQHUDGLRORJLFă
27. $UWLFXODĠLDJHQXQFKLXOXLvQLPDJLQHUDGLRORJLFă
28. $UWLFXODĠLDWDORFUXUDOăvQLPDJLQHUDGLRORJLFă
29. $UWLFXODĠLLOHSLFLRUXOXLvQLPDJLQHUDGLRORJLFă
30. Repere musculare ale membrului superior.
31. Repere musculare ale membrului inferior.
32. Repere musculare ale toracelui.
33. /LQLLOHFRQYHQĠLRQDOHGHRULHQWDUHSHSHUHĠLLWRUDFHOXLLPSRUWDQĠăDSOLFDWLYă
34. 5HSHUHPXVFXODUHúLRVRDVHDOHSHUHWHOXLDQWHURODWHUDODODEGRPHQXOXL
35. 3URLHFĠLDúLH[SORUDUHDSHYLXD]RQHORUVODEHGLQSHUHWHOHDEGRPLQDOLPSRUWDQĠăDSOLFDWLYă

9,,,)RUPXODUHDGHILQLĠLLORUH[SOLFDUHDXQRUQRĠLXQL sau termeni privind aparatul de


VXVĠLQHUHúLPLúFDUH
1. Anatomia omului.
2. $QDWRPLHVLVWHPLFă GHVFULSWLYă 
3. $QDWRPLHIXQFĠLRQDOă
4. $QDWRPLHWRSRJUDILFă UHJLRQDOă 
5. $QDWRPLHDUWLVWLFă SODVWLFă 
6. $QDWRPLHFRPSDUDWă FRPSDUDWLYă 
7. $QDWRPLHPDFURVFRSLFă
8. AnatomLHPLFURVFRSLFă
9. $QDWRPLHPDFURPLFURVFRSLFă
188
186
10. $QDWRPLHFOLQLFă
11. Anatomie pe viu.
12. $QDWRPLHDGH]YROWăULL
13. Anatomie a vârstelor (ilikianatomie).
14. 1RPHQFODWXUăDQDWRPLFă
15. 3R]LĠLHDQDWRPLFăSULQFLSDOă
16. )LORJHQH]ă
17. 2QWRJHQH]ă
18. Sclerotom.
19. Miotom.
20. Anomalie de dezvoOWDUHPDOIRUPDĠLH
21. Osteon.
22. Osteologie.
23. 2VWHRJHQH]ă
24. Centri de osificare.
25. Oase primare.
26. Oase secundare.
27. Periost, endost.
28. Pericondru.
29. Antropometrie.
30. Craniometrie.
31. Puncte craniometrice.
32. Indice cranian longitudinal.
33. Indice cranian vertical.
34. Indice facial.
35. Pelvimetrie.
36. $[ăFRQGXFWRDUHDED]LQXOXL
37. Artrologie.
38. Sindesmologie.
39. Sinfibroze.
40. Sincondroze.
41. Sinostoze.
42. Sinsarcoze.
43. Amfiartroze.
44. $UWLFXODĠLLVLPSOH
45. $UWLFXODĠLLFRPSXVH
46. $UWLFXODĠLLFRPSOH[H
47. $UWLFXODĠLLFRPELQDWH
48. Complex solidar al mâinii.
49. Complex solidar al piciorului.
50. Miologie.
51. 0XúFKLDQWDJRQLúWL
52. 0XúFKLVLQHUJLúWL
53. 6HFĠLXQHWUDQVYHUVDOăDQDWRPLFăúLIL]LRORJLFăDPXúFKLORU
54. Schelet moale.
55. Nod fascial.
56. &HQWUXGHJUDYLWDĠLHDFRUSXOXLXPDQ

,;(QXPHUDUHGHIRUPDĠLXQLDOHDSDUDWXOXLGHVXVĠLQHUHúLPLúFDUe.
1. 3RUĠLXQLOHXQXLRVWXEXODUOXQJ
189
187
2. 3RUĠLXQLOHXQXLRVPHWDFDUSLDQ PHWDWDUVLDQ 
3. Segmentele coloanei vertebrale.
4. 3ăUĠLOHFRPSRQHQWHDOHXQHLYHUWHEUH
5. 3ăUĠLOHFRPSRQHQWHDOHVWHUQXOXL
6. 3ăUĠLOHXQHLFRDVWH
7. Oasele craniului cerebral.
8. Oasele craniului facial.
9. 3RUĠLXQLOHRVXOXLIURQWDO
10. 3RUĠLXQLOHRVXOXLRFFLSLWDO
11. 3RUĠLXQLOHRVXOXLVIHQRLG
12. 3RUĠLXQLOHRVXOXLWHPSRUDO
13. 3RUĠLXQLOHPD[LOHL
14. 2DVHOHFDUHFRQVWLWXLHSHUHĠLLRUELWHL
15. 2DVHOHFDUHFRQVWLWXLHSHUHĠLLFDYLWăĠLLQD]DOH
16. )HĠHOHFRUSXOXLPD[LOHL
17. Apofizele maxilei.
18. )HĠHOHVWkQFLLWHPSRUDOXOXL
19. 2ULILFLLOHúLFDQDOHOHGLQIRVDFUDQLDQăDQWHULRDUă
20. 2ULILFLLOHúLFDQDOHOHGLQIRVDFUDQLDQăPHGLH
21. 2ULILFLLOHúLFDQDOHOHGLQIRVDFUDQLDQăSRVWHULRDUă
22. &RPXQLFăULOHRUELWHL
23. &RPXQLFăULOHFDYLWăĠLLQD]DOH
24. ComuniFăULOHIRVHLSWHULJRSDODWLQH
25. 2DVHOHFHQWXULLVFDSXODUHúLDOHPHPEUXOXLVXSHULRUOLEHU
26. 2DVHOHFHQWXULLSHOYLHQHúLDOHPHPEUXOXLLQIHULRUOLEHU
27. 7LSXULOHGHOHJăWXULGLQFDGUXOFRORDQHLYHUWHEUDOH
28. Tipuri de diartroze uniaxiale.
29. Tipuri de diartroze pluriaxiale.
30. Diartrozele complexe.
31. Diartrozele combinate.
32. Diartrozele sferoidale.
33. Diartrozele elipsoidale.
34. Diartrozele cilindrice.
35. Diartrozele trohleare.
36. $UWLFXODĠLLOHFXOLJDPHQWHLQWUDDUWLFXODUH
37. 9DULDQWHOHGHIRUPăDPXúFKLORU
38. (OHPHQWHOHDX[LOLDUHDOHPXúFKilor.
39. 0XúFKLLFDUHIOH[HD]ăFRORDQDYHUWHEUDOă
40. 0XúFKLLFDUHUHGUHVHD]ăFRORDQDYHUWHEUDOă
41. 0XúFKLLSDUWLFLSDQĠLODLQVSLUDĠLH
42. 0XúFKLLSDUWLFLSDQĠLODLQVSLUDĠLDIRUĠDWă
43. 0XúFKLLSDUWLFLSDQĠLODH[VSLUDĠLDIRUĠDWă
44. 0XúFKLLFDUHIRUPHD]ăSUHVDDEGRPLnala.
45. Regiunile slabe din peretele anterior al abdomenului.
46. 0XúFKLLFXRULJLQHVDXLQVHUĠLHSHVFDSXOă
47. 0XúFKLLIOH[RULDLDQWHEUDĠXOXL
48. 0XúFKLLH[WHQVRULDLDQWHEUDĠXOXL
49. 7HQGRDQHOHGHSHIDĠDYHQWUDOăDFDUSXOXL
50. Tecile sinoviale din regiunea carpului.
51. FRUPDĠLXQLOHWRSRJUDILFHDOHPHPEUXOXLVXSHULRU
190
188
52. 0XúFKLLIOH[RULDLFRDSVHL
53. 0XúFKLLH[WHQVRULDLFRDSVHL
54. 0XúFKLLIRUWLILFDWRULDLEROĠLORUSLFLRUXOXL
55. )RUPDĠLXQLOHWRSRJUDILFHGLQUHJLXQHDFRDSVHL
56. )RUPDĠLXQLOHWRSRJUDILFHGHSHJDPEăúLSLFLRU
57. Tecile siQRYLDOHGHSHJDPEăúLSLFLRU
58. 0XúFKLLOHJDĠLGHRVXOKLRLG
59. 0XúFKLLFDUHPLúFăPDQGLEXOD
60. Fasciile trunchiului.
61. Fasciile membrului superior.
62. Fasciile membrului inferior.
63. Fasciile capului.
64. Fasciile gâtului.
65. 6SDĠLLOHLQWHUIDVFLDOHGLQUHJLXQHDFDSXOXL
66. SpDĠLLOHLQWHUIDVFLDOHGLQUHJLXQHDJkWXOXL
67. Triunghiurile gâtului.
68. 6SDĠLLOHLQWHUPXVFXODUHGLQUHJLXQHDJkWXOXL

5HSUH]HQWDUHJUDILFăDFODVLILFăULLúLVWUXFWXULLXQRUIRUPDĠLXQLDOHDSDUDWXOXLGHVXVĠLQHUH
úLPLúFDUH
1. Clasificarea oaselor.
2. Schema osteonului.
3. 3RUĠLXQLOHRDVHORUWXEXODUHOXQJL
4. Elementele principale ale unei diartroze.
5. Elementele auxiliare ale diartrozelor.
6. &ODVLILFDUHDOHJăWXULORUGLQWUHRDVH
7. Clasificarea sinartrozelor.
8. Clasificarea diartrozelor.
9. &ODVLILFDUHDPXúFKLORU
10. 7HDFDPXúFKLXOXLUHct al abdomenului.
11. Triunghiurile gâtului.
12. Fasciile gâtului.
13. 2ULILFLLOHWULODWHUúLSDWUXODWHU
14. 6WUXFWXUDWHFLORURVWHRILEURDVHúLVLQRYLDOHvQVHFĠLXQHWUDQVYHUVDOă
15. 7HFLOHVLQRYLDOHDOHPkLQLL IDĠDSDOPDUă 
16. 7HFLOHVLQRYLDOHDOHPkLQLL IDĠDGRUVDOă 
17. LaFXQHOHPXVFXODUăúLYDVFXODUă

191
189
Anexa II
TESTE PENTRU INSTRUIRE ù,$872&21752/ LA OSTEOLOGIE

*HQHUDOLWăĠL6FKHOHWXOWUXQFKLXOXL

,6HOHFWDĠLúLQRWDĠLDILUPDĠLLOHFRUHFWH$UJXPHQWDĠLDOHJHUHDSHFDUHD-ĠLSUHIHUDW-o.

1 /DVLVWHPXORVRVVHUHIHUăQRĠiunile:
A. Miotom.
B. Osteon.
C. Periost.
'0ăGXYăURúLH
E. Ectoderm.
2 )XQFĠLLOHELRORJLFHDOHRVXOXLFDRUJDQ
$'HFUHúWHUH
%+HPDWRSRHWLFă
&'HORFRPRĠLH
D. Regenerare
('HSURWHFĠLH
3 PorĠiunile unui os tubular lung la adult :
A. Metafiza
B. Apofiza
C. Diafiza
D. Corticala
E. Epifiza
4 Deosebim următoarele tipuri de centre de osificare:
A. Tuberculare
B. Secundare
C. Epicondilare
D. Primare
E. Auxiliare
5 ğesutul osos spongios este prezent în:
A. Oasele craniului
B. Oasele tarsiene
C. Stern
D. Diafizele oaselor tubulare
E. Epifizele oaselor tubulare
6 ,QVWUXFWXUDRVXOXLODPDWXULSRWILHYLGHQWLDĠLRVWHRQL
A.În dezvoltare
%)UDJPHQWDĠL
&0DWXUL]DĠL
''HIRUPDĠL
E.În stare de resorbĠie
7 )RUPDĠLXQLOHVWUXFWXUDOHDOHRVXOXLVXQW
A. Stratul cambial
B. Stratul de osteoni
C. Pericondrul
D.Endostul
E.Periostul

192
190
8 In periost la copil deosebim următoarele straturi:
A. Cambial
B. Endostal
C. Adventiceal
D. Endocondral
E. Fibroelastic
9 2VWHRQXOUHSUH]LQWă
A. Lamele osoase în jurul diafizei
B. Lamele osoase în jurul canalului nutritiv
C. Lamele osoase în jurul canalului medular osos
D. Lamele osoase în jurul canalului Havers
E. Lamele osoase în jurul metafizei
10 DispoziĠia trabeculelor osoase corespunde cu:
A. Axa osului
%'LUHFĠLa fibrelor musculare
&'LUHFĠLDliniilor de presiune
D. A[HOHGHPLúFDUHvQDUWLFXODĠLL
('LUHFĠLDliniilor GHWUDFĠLXQH

11 'LVWLQJHPWLSXULOHGHRVWHRJHQH]ă
$(QFRQGUDOă
%3HULFRQGUDOă
&3HULRVWDOă
'0HGXODUă
E. DesPDOă
12 &UHúWHUHDRVXOui în grosime are loc pe contul:
A. Cartilajului hialin
B. Cartilajului fibros
C. Periostului
D. Metafizei
E. Fasciei
13 ÌQFRPSRQHQĠDVFKHOHWXOui D[LDOLQWUă
A. Craniul.
B. Oasele centurii scapulare.
C. Oasele toracelui.
D. Pelvisul.
E. Coloana vertebrală
14 Oasele tubulare lungi:
$6XQWFRQVWLWXLWHGLQFRUSúLHSLIL]H
%3DUWLFLSăODIRUPDUHDFDYLWăĠLORUFRUSXOXL
&&RQĠLQFDYLWăĠLWDSHWDWHFXPXFRDVă.
'$XIHĠHDUWLFXODUHWDSHWDWHFXFDUWLODM
()XQFĠLRQDOUHSUH]LQWăSkUJKLL
15 Oase primare sunt:
A. Vertebrele.
B. Parietalul.
C. Mandibula.
D. Frontalul.
E. Sternul.

193
191
16 Diploe UHSUH]LQWă
$6XEVWDQĠDVSRQJLRDVăDHSLIL]HORU
%6XEVWDQĠDVSRQJLRDVăDRDVHORUFDUSLHQH
&6XEVWDQĠDVSRQJLRDVăDRDVHORUFUDQLXOXL
'6XEVWDQĠDVSRQJLRDVăDVWHUQXOXL
E. SuEVWDQĠDVSRQJLRDVăDYHUWHEUHORU
17 Elemente principale ale unei vertebre sunt:
A. Arcul.
%$SRIL]DVWLORLGă
C. Corpul.
D. Orificiul intervertebral.
E. Pedunculii.
18 Vertebrele cervicale tipice se disting prin:
A. Corpul oval.
B. Orificiul vertebral rotund.
&3UH]HQĠDRULILFLLORUWUDQVYHUVDOH
D. Apofizele costotransversale.
E. Apofizele spinoase lungi.

19 /DFDUHGLQYHUWHEUHOHFHUYLFDOHOLSVHúWHDSRIL]DVSLQRDVă"
A. C 3
B. C 2
C. C 6
D. C 1
E. C 7
20 Apofizele spinoase sunt bifurcate la vertebrele:
A.C 1
B. C 2
C. C 3
D. C 5
E. C 7
21 Atlasului i se descriu:
A. Masele laterale.
%$UFXULOHDQWHULRUúLSRVWHULRU
&ùDQĠXULOHDUWHUHLYHUWHEUDOH
')HĠHOHDUWLFXODUHVXSHULRDUHúLLQIHULRDUH
($SRIL]DVSLQRDVă
22 Epistrofeului i se disting:
$$SRIL]DRGRQWRLGă
%ùDQĠXULOHDUWHUHLYHUWHEUDOH
&)HĠHOHDUWLFXODUHDQWHULRDUăúLSRVWHULRDUă
D. ASRIL]DVSLQRDVăELIXUFDWă
E. Tuberculul anterior.
23 3HFRUSXOFăUHLYHUWHEUHWRUDFice VHDIOăQXPDLRMXPăWDWHGHIRVHWăDUWLFXODUă"
A. Th 1
B. Th 12
C. T 11
D. Th 10
E. Th 8

194
192
24 Fosetele costale lipsesc pe apofizele transversale ale vertebrelor:
A. Th 1
B. Th 5
C. Th 11
D. Th 10
E. Th 12
25 )RUPDĠLXQLFDUDFWHULVWLFHQXPDLSHQWUXYHUWHEUHOHWRUDFLFH
A. Apofizele spinoase
B. Apofizele articulare
C. Fosele costale pe corp
D. Orificii pe apofizele transversale
E. Fosete pe apofizele transversale
26 Orificiile intervertebrale sunt delimitate de:
A. Apofizele articulare
B. Pediculii vertebrali
C. Apofizele transversale
D. Încizura vHUWHEUDOăVXSHULRDUă
E. Arcul vertebrei
27 3HFRUSXOFăURUYHUWebre deosebim fosete articulare:
A. C 3
B. Th 7
C. L 3
D. C 7
E. L 5
28 Promontoriul este format de FăWUH
A.Ultima vertebră cervicală úi Th1
B.Ultima vertebră toracicăúi L1
C.Ultima verteEUăORPEDUăúi S1
'8OWLPDYHUWHEUăVDFUDOă úi C1
E.Vertebrele Th6 si Th7
29 &DUHGLQYHUWHEUHDUHRGHQXPLUHVSHFLDOă"
A. Th 5
B. C 1
C. L 4
D. C 7
E. C 2
30 La formarea canalului vertebral iau parte:
A. Apofizele articulare
B. Apofizele transversale
C. Arcul vertebral
D. Corpul vertebral
E. Pedunculii vertebrali
31 $QRPDOLLOHUHJLXQLORUGHIURQWLHUăDVHJPHQWHORUFRORDQHLYHUWHEUDOH
A. Sacralizarea
B. Blocarea vertebrelor
C. Asomia
D. Platispondilia
E Lombalizarea

195
193
32 Curburile coloanei vertebrale situate în plan sagital sunt:
$/RUGR]DFHUYLFDOă
%6FROLR]DWRUDFDOă
&&LIR]DWRUDFDOă
'/RUGR]DORPEDUă
(6FROLR]DFHUYLFDOă
33 Care este rolul funFĠional al curburilor coloanei vertebrale?
A.De amortizare
B.De consolidare a vertebrelor
C.De sprijin
D.De fixare a membrelor
('HSURWHFĠLH
34 Care din curburile coloanei vertebrale apare la vârsta de 2-3 luni a dezvoltării
postnatale?
$/RUGR]DFHUYLFDOă
%6FROLR]DWRUDFDOă
&/RUGR]DORPEDUă
'&LIR]DVDFUDOă
(&LIR]DWRUDFDOă
35 Coastele adevarate:
A.Coasta a 7-a
B.Coasta a 8-a
C.Coasta a 5-a
D.Coasta a 6-a
E.Coasta a 9-a
36 Coastele false:
A.Coasta a X-a
B.Coasta a 6-a
C.Coasta a 8-a
D.Coasta a 11-a
E.Coasta a 9-a
37 3HFDSXOFăURUFRDVWHOLSVHúWHFUHDVWD"
A. Coastei VII
B. Coastei X
C. Coastei I
D. Coastei XI
E. Coastei XII
38 Coasta I:
$(VWHDWLSLFă
%(FHDPDLVFXUWăPDLODWăúLPDLFXUEDWă
&(DSODWL]DWăvQVHQVVXSHURLQIHULRU
'3HIDĠDLQIHULRDUăDUHXQWXEHUFXOúLúDQĠXUL
E. Extremitatea ei anterioDUăHPDLODWăúLPDLJURDVăGHFâWFHDSRVWHULRDUă
39 FDĠDDUWLFXODUăSHQWUXDSRIL]DWUDQVYHUVDOăOLSVHúWHOD
A. Coasta I
B. Coasta XI
C. Coasta X
D. Coasta XII
E. Coasta II

196
194
40 Nu pot fi palpate pe viu coastele:
A. 11-a
B. 9-a
C. 2-a
D. 1-a
E. 12-a
41 Manubriul sternal:
A. Se DIOăODQLYHOXOYHUWHEUHORUWRUDFLFH,,úL,,,
B. Pe marginHDOXLVXSHULRDUăVHDIOăRIDĠă DUWLFXODUă
C. ÌQXQJKLXULOHVXSHURODWHUDOHDOHVDOHVHORFDOL]HD]ăLQFL]XULFODYLFXODUH
D. 3HPDUJLQLOHOXLODWHUDOHVHDIOăFâWHIHĠHDUWLFXODUHFRVWDOH
E. Marginea LQIHULRDUăVHXQHúWHFXFRUSXOVWHUQDOIRUPând unghiul sternal Louis.
42 Corpul sternal:
A. (VWHSRUĠLXQHDFHDPDLOXQJăDVWHUQXOXL
B. 6HORFDOL]HD]ăODQLYHOXOYHUWHEUHORU7K- Th8, ½ Th9.
C. Este format prin fuziunea celor 4 sternebre
D. Pe marginea lui lateralăVHDIOăIHĠHOHDUWLFXODUHSHQWUXFRDVWHOH,,–VII.
E. )RUPHD]ăFXDSRIL]D[LIRLGăXQJKLXOVXEFRVWDO

43 2DVHOHFHGHOLPLWHD]ăDSHUWXUDWRUDFLFă superLRDUăVXQW
A. Clavicula
B. Coasta I
C. Corpul sternului
D. Manubriul sternului
(,YHUWHEUăWRUDFLFă
44 )RUPDĠLXQLOHFHGHOLPLWHD]ăDSHUWXUDWRUDFLFă LQIHULRDUă sunt:
A. Coasta VI
B. Apendicele xifoid al sternului
C. Arcul costal
'&RDVWHOH9,,,úL;
E. Corpul vertebrei ThX

45 Forma si dimensiunile toracelui depind de:


A. Forma sternului
B. VâUVWă
C. $UWLFXODĠLLOHFRVWRYHUWHEUDOH
D. Sex
E. Tipul FRQVWLWXĠLRQDO
46 La care indivizi toracele este plat?
A.La sportivi
B. La brahimorfi
C.La persoanele senile
D. La mezomorfi
E. La dolicomorfi

197
195
,,$VRFLDĠLQRĠLXQLOHGLQFRORDQDQXPHULFăFXFHOHGLQFRORDQDDOIDEHWLFă
QRWDĠLúLDUJXPHQWDĠLUăVSXQVXULOHFRUHFWH
47.Oase tubulare A. $XUROGHSURWHFĠLH
48.Oase spongioase B. Sunt unele din oasele craniului.
49.Oase plate C. 6XQWRDVHOHFDUSLHQHúLWDUVLHQH
50.Oase mixte D. 3DUWLFLSăODIRUPDUHDFDYLWăĠLORUFRUSXOXL
51.Oase aerofore E. &RQVWDXGLQSăUĠLFHGLIHUăGXSăIRUPăúLVWUXFWXUă
F. 5HDOL]HD]ăIXQFĠLLGHSkUJKLL

52. Oasele tubulare lungi $6XQWPLFLSODWHúLLQFRQVWDQWH


53.Oasele plate B. SuntGHUHJXOăOHQWLIRUPHORFDOL]DWHvQYHFLQăWDWHD
54.Oasele suturare DUWLFXODĠLLORUVDXvQWHQGRDQHOHXQRUPXúFKL
55. Oasele spongioase scurte C. Au cele 3 dimensiuni aproape egale, forma lor se
56.Oasele sesamoide DSURSLHGHFHDFXELFă
'ÌQGHSOLQHVFUROXOGHSkUJKLLGHYLWH]ă
(6XQWWXUWLWHFXIHĠHúLQXPăUYDULDELOGHPDUJLQLúL
unghiuri.
)HĠHOHDUWLFXODUH $6XQWGHWHUPLQDWHGHWUDFĠLXQHDH[HUFLWDWăGHPXúFKL
3URHPLQHQĠHOHRVRDVH %6HUYHVFSHQWUXLQVHUĠLLWHQGLQRDVHVDXOLJDPHQWH
)RVHOHúLúDQĠXULOH SHQWUXWUHFHUHDWHQGRDQHORUYDVHORUúLQHUYLORU
2ULILFLLOHúLFDQDOHOH C. Servesc pentru trecerea vaselor sangvine.
'6XQWPRGHODWHvQUDSRUWFXVXSUDIDĠDDUWLFXODUăFX
FDUHFRQWDFWHD]ă

61. Vertebrele toracice A. Au un orificiul în apofizele transversale.


62. Vertebrele cervicale B. Sunt rudimentare.
63. Vertebrele lombare C. Sunt concrescute, formând un singur os.
64. Vertebrele sacrale D. Au pe corp fosete costale.
65. Vertebrele coccigiene ($XFRUSXOPDVLYvQIRUPăGHERE
66. Vertebrele cervicale $6XQWPLFLDXIRUPăURWXQMLWă
67. Vertebrele toracice B. Au proces mamilar.
68. Vertebrele lombare &ÌQDGROHVFHQĠăIRUPHD]ăXQVLQJXURV
69. Vertebrele sacrale D. Au apofizele spinoase bifurcate.
70. Vertebrele coccigiene E. Au apofizele transversale lungi, situate în plan
cvazifrontal.
71. Atlasul $)HĠHOHORUDUWLFXODUHVXQWVLWXDWHvQSODQVDJLWDO
72. Axisul B. Are tuberculul carotid.
9HUWHEUDFHUYLFDOă9, C. Are fose coVWDOHVXSHULRDUHúLVHPLIRVHFRVWDOH
9HUWHEUDWRUDFLFă, inferioare.
75. Vertebrele lombare ')HĠHOHOXLDUWLFXODUHVXSHULRDUHVXQWORFDOL]DWHSH
corp.
E. Nu are corp.
76. Coasta I
77. Coasta V $$UHRVLQJXUăIDĠHWăDUWLFXODUăSHFap.
78. Coasta X B. Nu are tubercul costal.
79. Coasta II &(VWHFHDPDLvQFOLQDWăLQIHULRU
80. Coasta XII '3HFDSDUHIHĠHDUWLFXODUH
(&DUWLODMXOHLDUHRSR]LĠLHXúRUGHVFHQGHQWă

198
196
&RORDQDYHUWHEUDOă A. Are apertura suSHULRDUăúLLQIHULRDUă
82. Sternul %$UHRED]ăúLXQYkUI
&XWLDWRUDFLFă &$XSRUĠLXQLOHRVRDVăúLFDUWLODJLQRDVă
84. Sacrul '&RQVWăGLQPDQXEULXFRUSDSRIL]ă[LIRLGă
85. Coastele (3RVHGăORUGR]HúLFLIR]H

,,,'HWHUPLQDĠLGLQFDUHJUXSGHRDVHIDFSDUWH

86. Clavicula
87. Scapula A. Oasele tubulare
88. Osul navicular B. Oasele plate
89. Osul temporal C. Oasele spongioase
90. Maxila D. Oasele mixte
91. Coastele E. Oasele pneumatice
92. Rotula F. Oasele sesamoide
93. Osul piziform H. Oasele monoepifizare
94. Sternul
95.Oasele metacarpiene
96.Astragalul
97.Fibula

Scheletul membrului superior

,6HOHFWDĠLúLQRWDĠLDILUPDĠLLOHFRUHFWH$UJXPHQWDĠLDOHJHUHDSHFDUHD-ĠLSUHIHUDW-o.
98. Oasele centurii scapulare:
A. Humerusul
B. Clavicula
C.Sternul
D. Omoplatul
(,FRDVWă
99 &XSULYLUHODFODYLFXOă
A. Este unicul os lung din organism situat orizontal.
B. 3HWRDWăOXQJLPHDVDHVWHVLWXDWVXEFXWDQDW
C. Este primul os în care începe osificarea.
D. ([WUHPLWDWHDDFURPLDOăVHRVLILFăHQGHVPDO
E. (VWHXQLFXORVOXQJFDUHVHRVLILFăHQGHVPDO
100 )RUPDĠLXQLOHXQJKLXOXLODWHUDODORPRSODWXOXL
A. Spina scapulei
B. Tuberculul subarticular
&$SRIL]DFRUDFRLGă
')RVDVXSUDVSLQRDVă
E. Colul scapulei
101 )RUPDĠLXQLOHRDVHORUFHQWXULLVFDSXODUHSDOSDELOHSHYLX
$([WUHPLWDWHDVWHUQDOăDFODYLFXOHL
B. Tuberculul supraglenoidal
&([WUHPLWDWHDDFURPLDOăDFODYLFXOHL
D. Acromionul
E. Corpul claviculei

199
197
102 Scheletul membrului superior liber:
A. Epicondilul lateral al humerusului este mai proeminent decât cel medial.
B. Capul radiusului are forma unui disc.
&8OQDHVWHPDLOXQJăGHFkWUDGLXVXO
'6XELQFL]XUDUDGLDOăDXOQHLVHORFDOL]HD]ăIRVDVXSLQDWRULHGHOLPLWDWăSRVWHULRUGH
FUHDVWDRPRQLPă
()DĠDDQWHULRDUăDDSRIL]HLFRURQRLGHHVWHQHWHGă
103 Humerusul:
$&ROXODQDWRPLFVHSDUăFDSXOKXPHUXVXOXLGHWXEHUFXOHOHPDUHúLPLF
B. Colul chirurgical se aflăvQSRUĠLXQHDPHGLHDFRUSXOXLKXPHUXVXOXL
&3UR[LPDOGHWURKOHDKXPHUXVXOXLVHDIOăIRVHFRURQRLGăúLROHFUDQLDQă
D. Epicondilul medial se extinde de la capitul, iar cel lateral de la trohlee.
(ÌQIUDFWXULOHGHKXPHUXVH[LVWăSHULFROXOWUDXPDWL]ăULLQHUYLORUUDGLDOúLXOQDU
104 )RUPDĠLXQLOHHSLIL]HLSUR[LPDOHDKXPHUXVXOXL
A. Tuberculul mare
B. Creasta tuberculului mic
&ùDQĠXOQHUYXOXLUDGLDO
D. Colul anatomic
E. Capitulul condilului humeral
105 )RUPDĠLXQLOHHSLIL]HLGLVWDOHDKXPHUXVXOXL
A. Colul anatomic
%)RVDFRURQRLGă
&ùDQĠXOLQWHUWXEHUFXODU
'ùDQĠXOQHUYXOXLXOQDU
(ùDQĠXOQHUYXOXLUDGLDO
106 Elementele humerusului ce pot fi palpate pe viu:
A. Colul anatomic
B. Epicondilul medial
&)RVDFRURQRLGă
D. Epicondilul lateral
E. Colul chirurgical
107 &XSULYLUHODRDVHOHDQWHEUDĠXOXL
A. )DĠDODWHUDOăDUDGLXVXOXLHVWHFRQWLQXDWăGLVWDOGHDSRIL]DVWLORLGă
B. 0DUJLQHDSRVWHULRDUăDUDGLXVXOXLVHHYLGHQĠLD]ăPDLELQHvQSDUWHDGLVWDOăDDFHVWXLD
C. ([WUHPLWDWHDSUR[LPDOăD ulnei are 2 apofize úLLQFL]XUL
D. 0DUJLQHDSRVWHULRDUăD XOQHLHVLWXDWăVXEFXWDQ
E. 2ULILFLXOQXWULWLYDOXOQHLVHDIOăSHSDUWHDSUR[LPDOăDIHĠHLHLDQWHULRDUH
108 (OHPHQWHOHRDVHORUDQWHEUDĠXOXLFHSRWILSDOSDWHSHYLX
$$SRIL]DFRURQRLGăDXOQHL
B. Olecranonul
C. ApRIL]DVWLORLGăDXOQHL
'$SRIL]DVWLORLGăDUDGLXVXOXL
(0DUJLQHDLQWHURVRDVăDUDGLXVXOXL
109 Oasele mâinii:
A. Osul scafoid este cel mai mare os din rândul proximal al carpului.
%2VXOSL]LIRUPVHDIOăvQPDVDWHQGRQXOXLPXúFKLXOXLIOH[RUUDGLDODOcarpului.
C. Primul os metacarpian este cel mai scurt din toate oasele metacarpiene.
')LHFăUHLIDODQJHLVHGLVWLQJSRUĠLXQLED]DFRUSXOúLFDSXO
()DODQJHOHSROLFHOXLVXQWPDLJURDVHúLPDLOXQJLGHFkWFHOHDOHDOWRUGHJHWH

200
198
110 Oasele carpiene:
A. Cele din rândul proximal (în sens latero- PHGLDO VHVLWXHD]ăvQRUGLQHDVFDIRLGXO
lunatul , piramidalul, piziformul.
B. 7RDWHRDVHOHFDUSLHQHDXFkWHIHĠHDUWLFXODUH
C. 5kQGXOSUR[LPDOIRUPHD]ăRVWUXFWXUăFRQYH[ăSUR[LPDOúLFRQFDYăGLVWDO
D. Rândul GLVWDODUHRIDĠăFRQYH[ăSUR[LPDOúLXQDUHFWLOLQLHGLVWDO
(3HRDVHOHFDUSLHQHH[LVWăSXQFWHSURHPLQHQWHGHLQVHUĠLHúLGHRULJLQHSHVFDIRLGSH
RVXOSL]LIRUPSHWUDSH]úLSHRVXOFXFkUOLJ

111 La oasele metacarpiene distingem:


A. Epicondilii
B. Baza
C. Corpul
D. Colul
E. Capul

,,$VRFLDĠLQRĠLXQLOHGLQFRORDQDQXPHULFăFXFHOHGLQFRORDQDDOIDEHWLFă
QRWDĠLúLDUJXPHQWDĠLUăVSXQVXULOHFRUHFWH

112. Scapula $ùDQĠXOLQWHUtubercular.


113. Clavicula %$SRIL]DVWLORLGă
114. Humerusul &$SRIL]DFRUDFRLGă
115. Radiusul D. Tuberculul conoid.
116. Ulna E. Capul, colul.
117. Scapula $/LQLDWUDSH]RLGă
118. Clavicula %,QFL]XUDWURKOHDUă
119. Humerusul C. Acromionul.
120. Radiusul 'ùDQĠXOQHUYXOXLXlnar.
121. Ulna (,QFL]XUDXOQDUă

Scheletul membrului inferior

,6HOHFWDĠLúLQRWDĠLDILUPDĠLLOHFRUHFWH$UJXPHQWDĠLDOHJHUHDSHFDUHD-ĠLSUHIHUDW-o.
122 Osul coxal:
A. ,OLRQXOVHDIOăVXSHULRUSXELVXODQWHURLQIHULRULVFKLRQXO- posteroinferior.
B. Tuberculul SXELDQúLVSLQDLOLDFăDQWHULRDUăVXSHULRDUăVHDIOăvQSODQIURQWDO
C. Orificiul obturator este delimitat anterosuperior de osul pubian, posteroinferior - de
ischion.
D. 'LQWUHFHOHOLQLLJOXWHDOHFHDSRVWHULRDUăHVWHFHDPDLOXQJă
E. Punctul cel mai superior GHSHFUHDVWDLOLRQXOXLVHDIOăODQLYHOXOGLVFXOXLLQWHUYHUWHEUDO
GLQWUHYHUWHEUHOHORPEDUHúL

123 &R[DOXOHVWHDOFăWXLWGLQ
A. Pubis
B. Orificiul obturator
C. Ilion
D. Creasta ilionului
E. Ischion

201
199
124 )RUPDĠLXQLOHFR[DOXOXLSDOSDELOHSHYLXVunt:
$&UHDVWDLOLDFă
B. Acetabulul
C. Spinul iliac superior anterior
D. Tuberul ischionului
E. Spinul ischionului
125 Bazinul în ansamblu:
$$SHUWXUDVXSHULRDUăDED]LQXOXLPLFHVWHvQFOLQDWăDQWHURLQIHULRU
%8QJKLXOvQFOLQăULLIDĠăGHSODQXORUL]RQWDOODIHPHLHHVWHPDLPLFGHFkWODEăUEDW
&ÌQSR]LĠLHDQDWRPLFăVSLQHOHLOLDFHDQWHULRDUHúLWXEHUHOHsciatice se DIOă în DFHODúLSODQIURQWDO
'$SHUWXUDSHOYLDQăLQIHULRDUăODIHPHLHHVWHPDLODUJăFDODEăUEDW
(&RQMXJDWDDGHYăUDWăUHSUH]LQWăGLVWDQĠDGLQWUHSURPRQWRULXúLSXQFWXOFHOPDLSURHPLQHQW
în sens posterior al simfizei pubiene.
126 Scheletul membrului inferior liber:
$7URKDQWHUXOPLFHVWHORFDOL]DWvQXQJKLXOIRUPDWGHFROXOúLFRUSXOIHPXUXOXL
B. Corpul femurului este incurbat în sens anterior.
&)HPXUXOSRDWHILSDOSDWQXPDLvQSRUĠLXQHDVDGLVWDOă
D. Apexul patelar este îndreptat superior.
(5RWXODDUHIXQFĠLHGHVXSRUW
127 )RUPDĠLXQLOHHSLIL]HLGLVWDOHDIHPXUXOXL
A.Colul femurului
%)DĠDSRSOLWHH
C. Tuberozitatea glutee
D. Condilul medial
E. Epicondilul lateral
128 )RUPDĠLXQLOHIHPXUXOXLFHSRWILSDOSDWHSHYLX
A. Capul femurului
B. Epicondilul medial
C. Trohanterul mic
D. Trohanterul mare
E. Epicondilul lateral
129 )RUPDĠLXQLOHHSLIL]HLSUR[LPDOHDWLELHL
A. EPLQHQĠDLQWHUFRQGLODUă
%)DĠDDUWLFXODUăILEXODUă
C. Tuberculul intercondilar medial
'0DOHRODPHGLDOă
E. Tuberculul intercondilar lateral
130 )RUPDĠLXQLOHHSLIL]HLGLVWDOHD tibiei:
$/LQLDPXúFKLXOXLVROHDU
%ùDQĠul maleolar
&0DOHRODPHGLDOă
D. MDOHRODODWHUDOă
E. IncizXUDILEXODUă
131 )RUPDĠLXQLOHRDVHORUJDPEHLFHSRWILSDOSDWHSHYLX
$(PLQHQĠDLQWHUFRQGLODUă
%0DOHRODODWHUDOă
&0DOHRODPHGLDOă
D. Tuberozitatea tibiei
E. Capul fibulei

202
200
132 Scheletul piciorului este subdivizat în:
A. Oasele carpului
B. Oasele tarsului
C. Oasele metacarpului
D. Oasele metatarsului
E. Oasele degetelor piciorului

133 Oasele rândului distal al tarsului:


A. Astragalul
B. Cuboidul
C. Cuneiformul medial
D. Navicularul
E. Cuneiformul lateral

134 Oasele ce constituie complexul solidar al piciorului:


A. Calcaneul
B. Navicularul
C. Astragalul
D. Oasele cuneiforme
E. Osul cuboid
135 %ROĠLOHSLFLRUXOXL
A. ([LVWăODRPúLXQHOHYHUWHEUDWHVXSHULRDUH
B. &RQYH[LWDWHDEROĠLLWUDQVYHUVDOHODPDUJLQHDPHGLDOăDSODQWHLHVWHPDLSURQXQĠDWă
C. Degetele nu au rol de sprijin.
D. %ROĠLOHSLFLRUXOXLVXQWVXVĠLQXWHGHIRUPDRDVHORUOLJDPHQWHPXúFKLDSRQHuroze.
E. &HOPDLOXQJúLPDLvQDOWDUFORQJLWXGLQDOHVWHDOWUHLOHD
136 Structurile de amortizare ale membrului inferior :
A. Meniscurile
B. Lichidul sinovial
C. Oasele gambei
D. Rotula
E. Bolta piciorului
137 Care din oasele membrului inferior sunt sesamoide?
A. Astragalul
B. Rotula
C. Cuboidul
D. Cuneiformul medial
E. Navicularul

Craniul
,6HOHFWDĠLúLQRWDĠLDILUPDĠLLOHFRUHFWH$UJXPHQWDĠLDOHJHUHDSHFDUHD-ĠLSUHIHUDW-o.

138 Oase ale craniului cerebral sunt:


A. Sfenoidul
B. Occipitalul
C. Vomerul
D. Palatinul
E. Etmoidul

203
201
139 Baza craniului se împarte în:
$%D]DDQWHULRDUă
%%D]DSRVWHULRDUă
&%D]DH[WHUQă
'%D]DODWHUDOă
(%D]DLQWHUQă
140 Oase ale craniului facial sunt:
A. Mandibula
B. Etmoidul
C. Osul zigomatic
D. Frontalul
E. Osul nazal
141 Oase impare ale craniului sunt:
A. Maxila
B. Mandibula
C. Sfenoidul
D. Vomerul
E. Palatinul
142 Din oasele pneumatice fac parte:
A. Coxalul
B. Frontalul
C. Humerusul
D. Sfenoidul
E. Maxila
143 2ULILFLLOHED]HLH[WHUQHDFUDQLXOXLFHVHIRUPHD]ă la uQLUHDDGRXăVDXPDLPXOWHRDVH
A. Stiloid
B. Lacerat
C. Mastoidian
D. Orificiul extern al canalului carotid
E. Jugular
144 %ROWDFUDQLXOXLHVWHIRUPDWăGH
A. Solzul osului frontal
%3DUWHDED]LODUăDRFFLSLWDOXOXL
C. Solzul temporalului
D. Oasele parietale
E. Corpul sfenoidului
145 Elementele structurale ale osului frontal:
A. $SRIL]D]LJRPDWLFă
B. ,QFL]XUDVXSUDRUELWDUă
C. /LQLDWHPSRUDOă
D. Creasta de coFRú
E. Arcurile superciliare.
146 PorĠLXQLOHRVXOXLRFFLSLWDO
$3DUWHDED]LODUă
B. Partea temporDOă
&3DUWHDODWHUDOă
D. Partea sfenoidală
E. Solzul occipital

204
202
147 Osul occipital ia parte la formarea orificiilor:
A. Rotund
B. Occipital mare
C. Jugular
D. Oval
E. Lacerat
148 ,QGLFDĠLXQGHVHGHVFKLGHVLQXVXOIURQWDO"
A. ÌQRUELWă
B. În meatul nazal mediu.
C. În meatul nazal inferior.
D. În meatul nazal superior.
E. ÌQIRVDWHPSRUDOă
149 3RUĠLXQLOHRVXOXLVIHQRLG
A. Baza.
B. Corpul.
C. Aripa mare.
D. $ULSDPLFă
E. Apofizele pterigoide.
150 Canalele osului sfenoid:
A. Musculo-tubar
B. Optic
C. Carotid
D. Pterigoid
E. Infraorbitar
151 )HĠHOHDULSLORUPDULDRVXOXLVIHQRLG
A. CHUHEUDOă
B. THPSRUDOă
C. ZLJRPDWLFă
D. Orbitară
E. IQIUDWHPSRUDOă
152 La formarea căror orificii ia parte osul sfenoid:
A. Jugular
B. Occipital
C. Lacerat
D. Infraorbitar
E. Mastoidian
153 StrXFWXULOHFHQXVHUHIHUăODFRUSXOVIHQRLGXOXL
A. )RVDKLSRIL]DUă
B. Sinusul sfenoid.
C. ùDQĠXOSWHULJRSDODWLQ
D. Apofizele clinoide anterioare.
E. ùDQĠXOFDURWLG
154 $SRIL]DSWHULJRLGăQXFRQĠLQH
A. ùDQĠXOSWHULJRSDODWLQ
B. )RVDSWHULJRLGă
C. Rostrul sfenoidal.
D. Inci]XUDSWHULJRLGă
E. Cârligul pterigoid.

205
203
155 3ăUĠLOHRsului etmoid:
$/DPDODWHUDOă
B. Labirintul etmoid
&/DPDPHGLDOă
'/DPDFULEURDVă
(/DPDSHUSHQGLFXODUă
156 3RUĠLXQLOHRVXOXLWHPSRUDO
A. Piramida
B. Corpul
&3DUWHDPDVWRLGLDQă
D. Partea scuaPRDVă
(3DUWHDWLPSDQLFă
157 7RDWHDILUPDĠLLOHUHIHULWRDUHODSLUDPLGDWHPSRUDOXOXLVXQWFRUHFWHFXH[FHSĠLD
A. 3HPXFKLDVXSHULRDUăWUHFHúDQĠXOVLQXVXOXLSLHWURVVXSHULRU
B. 3HIDĠDSRVWHULRDUăVHDIOăIRVDMXJXODUă
C. ,PSUHVLXQHDWULJHPLQDOăVHDIOăvQDSropierea vîrfului pâramidei.
D. ÌQIRVDMXJXODUăVHDIOăRULILFLXOH[WHUQDOFDQDOXOXLFDURWLG
E. /DWHUDOGHIRVDMXJXODUăSURHPLQăDSRIL]DVWLORLGă

158 ÌQSLUDPLGDWHPSRUDOXOXLVHDIOăFDQDOHOHFXH[FHSĠLD
A. Canalului carotid.
B. Canalului nervului facial;
C. Canaliculului timpanic;
D. Canalului nervului hipoglos;
E. Canalului nervului pietros mare.
159 7RDWHDILUPDĠLLOHSULYLQGRVXOWHPSRUDOVXQWFRUHFWHFXH[FHSĠLD
A. 3HIXQGXOPHDWXOXLDFXVWLFLQWHUQH[LVWăRULILFLLSHQWUXQHUYXOIDFLDOQHUYXO
vestibulocohlear, vasele sangvine.
B. 3HIDĠDSRVWHULRDUăDSLUDPLGHLVHDIOăDSHUWXUDH[WHUQăDFDQDOLFXOXOXLFRKOHDU
C. 0HGLDOGHLQFL]XUDPDVWRLGLDQăVHDIOăúDQĠXODUWHUHLRFFLSLWDOH
D. 3HúWHUDPDVWRLGLDQăFRPXQLFăFXFDYLWDWHDWLPSDQLFă
E. )LVXUDWLPSDQRVFYDPRDVăVHvPSDUWHvQILVXULSHWURVFYDPRDVăúLSHWURWLPSDQLFă

160 Cu privire la craniul facial:


A. Osul hioid este situat la nivelul vertebrei cervicale III.
B. 3HYkUIXOFRDUQHORURVXOXLKLRLGVHDIOăWXEHUFXOL
C. 3RUĠLXQHDSRVWHULRDUăDSHUHWHOXLQD]DOVXSHULRU e IRUPDWăGHODPHODFULEURDVăDRVXOXL
etmoid.
D. /DIRUPDUHDPDUJLQLORUVHSWXOXLQD]DOFRQWULEXLHVSLQDQD]DOăDIURQWDOXOXLURVWUXO
VIHQRLGDOFUHVWHOHQD]DOHDOHRDVHORUQD]DOHSDODWLQHúLPD[LODUH
E. 3RUĠLXQHDVXSHULRDUăDVHSWXOXLQD]DOHVWHGDWăGHYRPHU
161 &XSULYLUHODFDYLWăĠLOHFUDQLXOXLIDFLDO:
A. 3HUHĠLLPHGLDOLDLRUELWHORUVXQWSDUDOHOLLDUFHLODWHUDOLVHDIOăVXEXQXQJKL drept unul
IDĠăGHDOWXO
B. &DQDOXORSWLFVHDIOăODQLYHOXOXQirii peretelui superior al orbitei cu cel medial.
C. 6LQXVXOIURQWDOvQXQHOHFD]XULVHH[WLQGHvQSDUWHDDQWHURPHGLDOăDSHUHWHOXLVXSHULRUDO
orbitei.
D. 3HUHWHOHRUELWDULQIHULRUVHSDUăRUELWDGHVLQXVXOPD[LODU
E. Peretele orbitar PHGLDOHVWHFHOPDLJURVúLPDLUH]LVWHQWGLQWUH WRĠL SHUHĠLLRrbitari.

206
204
162 Cu privire la corpul maxilei:
A. $UHIHĠH
B. )DĠDLQIUDWHPSRUDOăSDUWLFLSăODIRUPDUHDIRVHORULQIUDWHPSRUDOăúLSWHULJRSDODWLQă
C. 3HIDĠDQD]DOăHVLWXDWúDQĠXOSDODWLQPDUH
D. $QWHULRUGHKLDWXOPD[LODUWUHFHúDQĠXOODFULPDO
E. 3DUWLFLSăla formareDRUELWHLFDYLWăĠLLQD]DOHúLFDYLWăĠLLEXFDOH
163 &XSULYLUHODPDQGLEXOă
A. 0DUJLQHDDQWHULRDUăDUDPXUHLPDQGLEXODUHHVWHPDLVXEĠLUHGHFkWPDUJLQHDSRVWHULRDUă
B. )RVDVXEPDQGLEXODUăHVWHVLWXDWăVXEOLQLDPLORKLRLGLDQă, iar fosa VXEOLQJYDOă - deasupra ei.
C. (VWHFHOPDLPDVLYúLPDLWUDLQLFRVDO craniului facial.
D. 3HIDĠDLQWHUQăDUDPXUHLPDQGLEXOHLWUHFHOLQLDREOLFă
E. Mandibula este al doilea os din organismul uman, în care începe procesul de osificare.
164 &XSULYLUHODPRGLILFăULOHGHYkUVWăDOHPDQdibulei:
$$PEHOHMXPăWăĠLDOH PDQGLEXOHLIX]LRQHD]ăSHSDUFXUVXOSULPXOXLDQGHYLDĠă
B. La nou-QăVFXWRULILFLXOPHQWDOVHORFDOL]HD]ăvQDSURSLHUHDmarginii inferioare a mandibulei.
C. La nou-QăVFXWXQJKLXOGLQWUHFRUSúLUDPXUăHVWHREWX]- cca 1400 úi mai mult.
'/DEăWUkQvQăOĠLPHDFRUSXOXLPDQGLEXOHLFUHúWH
(/DDGXOWRULILFLXOPHQWDOVHORFDOL]HD]ăODPLMORFXOGLVWDQĠHLGLQWUHPDUJLQHDVXSHULRDUăúL
FHDLQIHULRDUăDPDQGLEXOHL
165 )RUPDĠLXQLOHRVXOXLSDODWLQ
A. Lamela orbitară
B. Lamela orizoQWDOă
&/DPHODHWPRLGDOă
'/DPHODSHUSHQGLFXODUă
(/DPHODVIHQRLGDOă
166 Peretele medial al orbitei este format de:
$)DĠDRUELWDrăDDULSLORUPDUL
B. Osul lacrimal
C. Aripele mici
D. Lamela orbitarăDRVXOXLHWPRLG
($SRIL]DIURQWDOăDPD[LOHL
167 Peretele inferior al orbitei este format de:
$)DĠDRUELWDrăDRVXOXL]LJRPDWLF
%$SRIL]DIURQWDOăDRVXOXL]LJRPDWLF
C. Fata orbitarăDPD[LOHL
'$SRIL]D]LJRPDWLFăDRVXOXLIURQWDO
E. Apofiza orbitarăDRVXOXLSDODWLQ
168 Peretele lateral al orbitei este format de :
A. LDPHODODWHUDOăDDSRIL]HLSWHULJRLGH
B. ASRIL]D]LJRPDWLFăDRVXOXLIURQWDO
C. FeĠele orbitare ale aripilor mari a osului sfenoid
D. ASRIL]DIURQWDOăDPD[LOHL
E. ASRIL]DIURQWDOăDRVXOXL]LJRPDWLF
169 Orbita comunică cu endobaza craniului prin:
A. Canalul optic
B. Orificiul rotund
C. Fisura orbitarăVXSHULRDUă
D. Fisura orbitarăLQIHULRDUă
E. Orificiile etmoidale

207
205
170 Fisura orbitaUăLQIHULRDUăHVWHGHOLPLWDWăGH
A. Apofiza orbitarăDRVXOXLSDODWLQ
B. Osul frontal
C. FDĠDRUELWDrăDPD[LOHL
D. Lamela orbitarăDRVXOXLHWPRLG
E. FDĠDRUELWDrăDDULSLORUPDULDle osului sfenoid
171 2UELWDFRPXQLFăFXFDYLWDWHDQD]DOăSULQ
A. Orificiul etmoid anterior
B. Canalul palatin mare
C. Canalul nazolacrimal
D. Orificiul etmoid posterior
E. Canalul optic
172 /DIRUPDUHDSHUHWHOXLQD]DOODWHUDOSDUWLFLSă
A. Osul lacrimal.
B. Maxila.
C. Labirintul etmoid.
D. Oasele nazale.
E. Osul palatin.

173 Septul osos al nasului este constituit de:


A. Spina nasalis a osului frontal
%$SRIL]DIURQWDOăDPD[LOHL
C. LaPHODSHUSHQGLFXODUăDRVXOXLHWPRLG
'/DPHODSHUSHQGLFXODUăDRVXOXLSDODWLQ
E. Vomer

174 Cu privire la craniul în ansamblu:


A.%D]DFUDQLXOXLHVWHPDLIUDJLOăGHFkWFDOYDULD
B. /DPHODLQWHUQăDRDVHORUFDOYDULHLHVWHPDLUH]LVWHQWăGHFkWFHDexWHUQă
C. FosDFUDQLDQăPHGLHFRQĠLQHORELLWHPSRUDOLDLHPLVIHUHORUFHUHEUDOH
'2ULILFLXOMXJXODUVHORFDOL]HD]ăvQSDUWHDSRVWHULRDUăDILVXULLSHWURRFFLSLWDOH
(2ULILFLXOVSLQRVOHDJăIRVDFUDQLDQăPHGLHFXIRVDLQIUDWHPSRUDOă
175 &XSULYLUHODIRVDFUDQLDQăDQWHULRDUă:
A. /DPHODFLXUXLWăDRVXOXLHWPRLGVHSDUăIRVDFUDQLDQăDQWHULRDUăGHFDYLWDWHDQD]DOă
B. ÌQIRVDFUDQLDQăDQWHULRDUăVHDIOăRULILFLXORUEúLRULILFLLOHFDQDOHORUHWPRLGDOHDQWHULRUúL
posterior.
C. 0DUJLQLOHPHGLDOHDOHSRUĠLXQLORURUELWDUHDOHRVXOXL froQWDODFRSHUălabirintele etmoidale.
D. /DIRUPDUHDIRVHLFUDQLHQHDQWHULRDUHSDUWLFLSăRDVH
E. &DQDOHOHHWPRLGDOHVHIRUPHD]ăODMRQFĠLXQHDPDUJLQLLODWHUDOHDODPHLFULEURDVHFXRVXO
frontal.

176 &XSULYLUHODIRVDFUDQLDQăPHGLH:
A. ÌQSDUWHDFHQWUDOăD HLVHDIOăFDQDOXORSWLFúDQĠXOFKLDVPDWLFúLúDXDWXUFHDVFă
B. ÌQSDUWHDDQWHULRDUăDúHLLWXUFHúWLVHDIOăWXEHUFXOXOvQFHDSRVWHULRDUă- speteaua, iar în
mijloc - IRVDKLSRIL]LDOă
C. $QWHULRUVHDIOăvQUDSRUWFXRUELWHOHODWHUDOFXIRVDWHPSRUDOăLQIHrior cu fosa
SWHULJRSDODWLQă
D. 3RVWHURPHGLDOGHRULILFLXORYDOVHDIOăRULILFLXOUXSW
E. &RPXQLFăFXRUELWDIRVDSWHULJRSDODWLQăúLH[RED]DFUDQLDQă

208
206
177 &XSULYLUHODIRVDFUDQLDQăSRVWHULRDUă
A. (VWHFHDPDLODUJăúLSURIXQGăGLQFHOHIRVHFUDQLHQH
B. LaterDOHVWHGHOLPLWDWăGHSDUWHDPDVWRLGLDQăDWHPSRUDOXOXLúLXQJKLXOPDVWRLGLDQDO
parietalului .
C. &OLYXVXOHVWHVHSDUDWGHSLUDPLGDWHPSRUDOăSULQILVXUDSHWURVIHQRLGDOă
D. 2ULILFLXOPDVWRLGLDQVHGHVFKLGHvQSRUĠLXQHDVXSHULRDUăDúDQĠXOXLVLQXVXOXLWUDQVYHUV.
E. 3RUĠLXQHDDQWHULRDUăDPDUHLJăXULRFFLSLWDOHHVWHPDLvQJXVWăGHFkWFHDSRVWHULRDUă
178 ,QIRVDFUDQLDQăSRVWHULRDUăVHGHVFKLGRULILFLLOH
A. Jugular
B. Oval
C. Acustic intern
D. Hipoglos
E. Sfenopalatin
179 )RVDLQIUDWHPSRUDOăHVWHGHOLPLWDWăGH
A$SRIL]DSWHULJRLGăDVIHQRLGXOXL
B. Osul palatin
C. Osul temporal
D. Osul zigomatic
E. Ramurile mandibulei
180 In care canal se FRQWLQXăIRVDSWHULJRSDODWLQă"
A. Infraorbitar
B. Palatin mare.
C. Palatin mic.
D. Supraorbitar.
E. Sfenopalatin.
181 Orbita cRPXQLFăFXIRVDSWHULJRSDODWLQăSULQ
A. Orificiul rotund.
B. Orificiul palatin mare.
C. Fisura orbitaUăLQIHULRDUă
D. Fisura orbitaUăVXSHULRDUă
E. Canalul pterigoid .
182 Fosa infratePSRUDOăFRPXQLFăFXRUELWDSULQ
A. Fisura orbitarăVXSHULRDUă
B. Fisura orbitarăLQIHULRDUă
C. Canalul optic.
')LVXUDSWHULJRPD[LODUă
()LVXUDSHWURVFYDPRDVă
183 ,QGLFDĠLFHLSHUHĠLDLIRVHLSWHULJRSDODWLQH
A. Anterior - tuberculul maxilei
B. Lateral - DSRIL]DSWHULJRLGă
C. Posterior- baza apofizei pterigoide
D. Medial - ODPHODSHUSHQGLFXODUăDRVXOXLSDODWLQ
E. Superior - arcul zigomatic
184 Ce constituie fontanelele?
$3RUĠLXQLFDUWLODJLQRDVHDOHFDOYDULHL
%3RUĠLXQLPHPEUDQRDVHDOHFDOYDULHL
C. Suturile calvariei.
''HUHJOăULDle osteogenezei.
E. Fisuri ale calvariei.

209
207
185&XSULYLUHODSDUWLFXODULWăĠLOHGHVH[DOHFUDQLXOXL:
0DQGLEXODHVWHUXJRDVăúLFRPSDFWă
3URWXEHUDQĠDPHQWDOăHELQHHYLGHQĠLDWă
3. Unghiul mandibulei e înclinat spre interior. A. La craniul feminin
$ULDQXFDOăHVODESURQXQĠDWă B. La craniul masculin
5. ArcurilHVXSHUFLOLDUHúLJODEHODVXQWELQHSURQXQĠDWH
$SRIL]DPDVWRLGLDQăHVODESURQXQĠDWă
186. Cu privire la meaturile acustice:
6HORFDOL]HD]ăvQSDUWHDWLPSDQLFăDRVXOXLWHPSRUDO
2. Se deschide pe IDĠDSRVWHULRDUăDSLUDPLGHLWHPSRUDOH A. Meatul extern
&RQĠLQHYDVHVDQJYLQHúLQHUYL B. Meatul intern
6HUYHúWHSHQWUXWUDQVPLWHUHDXQGHORUVRQRUH
6HDIOăODWHUDOGHFDYLWDWHDWLPSDQLFă
187. Cu privire la tipul de osificare a oaselor craniene:
1 Frontalul
2 Parietalul A. 2VLILFDUHGHVPDOă
3 Etmoidul B. 2VLILFDUHFRQGUDOă
4 Cornetul nazal inferior C. Prin ambele tipuri.
5 Occipitalul
6 Osul lacrimal
7 Sfenoidul
8 Maxila
9 Osul nazal
10 Temporalul
11 Osul palatin
12 Mandibula
13 Osul zigomatic
188. &XSULYLUHODúDQĠXULOHVLQXVXULORUSDKLPHQLQJHOXL
7UHFHSULQVRO]XORVXOXLIURQWDOPDUJLQHDVDJLWDOăD
SDULHWDOXOXLúLVRO]XORFFLSLWDOXOXL A. ùDQĠXOVLQXVXOXLVDJLWDO
6HWHUPLQăODQLYHOXORULILFLXOXLMXJXODU superior
7UHFHRUL]RQWDOSHIDĠDLQWHUQăDVRO]ului osului occipital. B. ùDQĠXOVLQXVXOXLVLJPRLGLDQ
4. Este rectiliniu. C. ùDQĠXOVLQXVXOXLSLHWURV
6HWHUPLQăvQVHFWRUXOVXSHULRUDOúDQĠXOXLVLJPRLGLDQ superior
6HORFDOL]HD]ăSHRDVHSDULHWDOWHPSRUDOúLRFFLSLWDO D. ùDQĠXOVLQXVXOXLWUDQVYHUV
6HDIOăSHPDUJLQHDVXSHULRDUăDSiramidei osului temporal.

II$VRFLDĠLQRĠLXQLOHGLQFRORDQDQXPHULFăFXFHOHGLQFRORDQDDOIDEHWLFăQRWDĠLúL
DUJXPHQWDĠLUăVSXQVXULOHFRUHFWH
189.Osul frontal. A. Aripi mici.
190.Osul temporal. B. )RVHWăWURKOHDUă
191.Osul occipital. C. /DPăSHUSHQGLFXODUă
192.Osul sfenoid. D. Linii nucale.
193.Osul etmoid. E. Canal carotidian.
194. Osul etmoid. A. Tubercul faringian.
195. Osul sfenoid. B. Piramida.
196. Osul temporal. C. Unghi sfenoid.
197. Osul occipital. '/DPHOăRUELWDUă
198. Osul parietal. E. Canal optic.

210
208
199. Corpul osului sfenoid. $/DPăFULEURDVă
200. Solzul occipitalului. B. Canal carotidian.
201. Osul temporal. CùDQĠDOVLQXVXOXLVDJLWDO superior.
202. Osul parietal. '$SRIL]ăFOLQRLGăSRVWHULRDUă
203. Osul etmoid. (/LQLHQXFDOăLQIHULRDUă
204. Osul palatin. A. Aripi.
205. Vomerul. B. Tubercul marginal.
206. Maxila. &/LQJXOă
207. Mandibula. '/DPăSHUSHQGLFXODUă
208. Osul zigomatic. (ùDQĠODFULPDO
209. Fosete granulare. A. Osul temporal.
210ùDQĠXOVLQXVXOXLVLJPRLG B. Osul occipital.
2113DUWHDWLPSDQLFă C. Osul sfenoid.
212. Orificiul oval. D. Osul frontal.
213,QFL]XUDHWPRLGDOă E. Osul parietal.
214. Canalul pterigoid. A. Osul parietal.
215. Canalul optic. B. Osul temporal.
216ùDQĠXOVLQXVXOXLSLHWURVLQIHULRU C. Osul frontal.
217. Unghiul frontal. D. Osul sfenoid.
218. Canalul hipoglos. E. Osul occipital.
219)LVXUDSHWURWLPSDQLFă A. Nervul facial.
220. Orificiul stilomastoidian. B. Orificiul inferior al
221. Canaliculul mastiodian. canaliculului timpanic.
222)RVHWăSLHWURDVă &1HUYLLFUDQLHQL9,,úL9,,,
223. Meatul acustic intern. '&RDUGDWLPSDQLFă
E. Ramura auULFXODUăDQHUYXOXL vag.
224. Maxila. A. Corp, 2 ramuri.
225. Mandibula. %$UHDSRIL]HWHPSRUDOăúLIURQWDOă
226. Vomerul. &$UHDSRIL]HODFULPDOăPD[LODUă
227. Osul zigomatic. HWPRLGă
228. Cornetul nazal inferior. D. 2 aripi.
E. ASRIL]HOHIURQWDOăDOYHRODUă
LQIUDWHPSRUDOăSDODWLQă
229)RVDFUDQLDQăDQWHULRDUă A. Orificiul lacerat.
230)RVDFUDQLDQăPHGLH B. Orificiul orb.
231)RVDFUDQLDQăSRVWHULRDUă C. Fisura pteULJRPD[LODUă
232)RVDLQIUDWHPSRUDOă D. Orificiul sfenopalatin.
233)RVDSUHULJRSDODWLQă E. Orificiul acustic intern.
234. Meatul nazal superior. A. Orificiul incisiv.
235. Meatul nazal mediu. B. Apertura sinusului etmoid.
236. Meatul nazal inferior. C. Infundibulul etmoidal.
237'HSUHVLXQHDVIHQRHWPRLGDOă D. Celulele posterioare ale osului etmoid.
238. Palatul dur. E. Canalul nazolacrimal.
239. Peretele superior al orbitei $)RUPDWGHRDVHVIHQRLG]LJRPDWLFúL
240. Peretele inferior al orbitei frontal.
241. Peretele lateral al orbitei B. Fosa sacului lacrimal.
242. Peretele medial al orbitei &ùDQĠXOLQIUDRUELWDU
243. Vârful orbitei D. Canalul optic
()RVDWURKOHDUă

211
209
244)LVXUDGLQWUHSHUHWHOHODWHUDOúLFHOLQIHULRUDO A. Canalul inciziv.
orbitei. %$SHUWXUDSLULIRUPă
245. Canalul de la baza apofizei pterigoidiene. &3HúWHUDPDVWRLGLDQă
246. Orificiul delimitat de incizurile nazale. ')LVXUDRUELWDUăLQIHULRDUă.
247)RUPDĠLXQHDGHODFDSăWXODQWHULRUDOVXWXULL E. Toate false.
palatine mediane.
248. Cavitatea osului temporal.

249&DQDOLFXOXOFHvQFHSHGLQIRVDMXJXODUă A. Canaliculul mastoidian.


250&DQDOLFXOXOFHvQFHSHGHODIRVHWDSLHWURDVă B. Canalul musculotubar.
2512ULILFLLOHSRVWHULRDUHDOHFDYLWăĠLLQD]DOH C. Canaliculul coardei timpanice.
252&DQDOLFXOXOFDUHSRUQHúWHGLQFDQDOXO D. Canaliculul timpanic.
nervului facial. E. Coane.
253. Canalul de pe muchiDDQWHULRDUăD
piramidei temporale.
254. Canalul format de 3 oase: sfenoid, maxilar A. Orificiul lacerat.
úLSDODWLQ B. Canalul nervului hipoglos.
255. Orificiul localizat anterior de vârful C. Orificiul rotund.
piramidei temporale, posterior de apofiza D. Orificiul jugular.
SWHULJRLGLDQă E. Canalul pterigopalatin.
256. Canalul de la baza condilului occipital.
2572ULILFLXOGHSHIDĠDPD[LODUăDDULSHLPDULD
sfenoidului.
258. Orificiul format cu participarea oaselor
WHPSRUDOúLRFFLSLWDO
259%XODHWPRLGLDQă A. Meatul nazal inferior.
260. Canalul nazolacrimal. B. Peretele medial al orbitei.
261. Orificiile etmoidiene. C. Baza apofizei zigomatice.
262)RVDPDQGLEXODUă D. Piramida osului temporal.
263ùDQĠXOVLQXVXOXLSLHWUos superior. E. Meatul nazal mediu.
264&DQDOXOLPSRUWDQWSHQWUXIXQFĠLRQDUHD A. Canaliculul mastoidian.
organului auzului. B. Canalul incisiv.
265. Canalul ce se deschide în cavitatea C. Canalul musculotubar.
craniului, lateral de corpul sfenoidului. D. Canaliculul timpanic.
266. Canaliculul ce se deschide în fisura E. Canalul carotid.
timpano-PDVWRLGLDQă
267&DQDOXOGLQWUHFDYLWDWHDQD]DOăúLEXFDOă
268. Canaliculul ce trece prin cavitatea
WLPSDQLFăDSRLSHQHWUHD]ăVHSWXOFDQDOXOXL
musculotubar.

III'HWHUPLQDĠLODFDUHFRPSDUWLPHQWHDOHVFKHOHWXOXLVHUHIHUăHSRQLPHOH
269. Orizontala Frankfurt
270. Unghiul Camper $&XWLDWRUDFLFă
271. Linia lui Schoemacker B. Craniu
272. Tuberculul Chassaignac C. Bazin
273. Tuberculul Lisfranc '&RORDQDYHUWHEUDOă
274. Linia Lange
275. Unghiul Louis

210 212
TESTE PENTRU INSTRUIRE ù,$872&21752/ LA ARTROSINDESMOLOGIE
*HQHUDOLWăĠL
I. 6HOHFWDĠLúLQRWDĠLDILUPDĠLLOHFRUHFWHDUJXPHQWDĠL-le.
1. Unirile oaselor prin membrane se numesc:
A. Sincondroze
B. Sinelastoze
C. Sinsarcoze
D. Sinfibroze
E. Sinostoze
2. Suturile fac parte din:
A. Sinsarcoze
B. Sinelastoze
C. Sincondroze
D. Sinfibroze
C. Sinostoze
3. *RPIR]HOHĠLQGH :
A. Ligamente
B. Sincondroze
C. Sinfibroze
D. Sinelastoze
E. Membrane
4. Caracteristica sinartrozelor :
$'XSăGXUDWDH[LVWHQĠHLVLQRVWR]HOHVHvPSDUWvQWHPSRUDUHúLSHUPDQHQWH
B. Membranele se deosebesc de ligamente prLQPăULPHDVSDĠLXOXLRFXSDW
&$UWLFXODĠLLOHRDVHORUvQGH]YROWDUHDORUWUHFSULQDFHOHDúLWUHLVWDGLLFDúLVFKHOHWXO
'6LPIL]DHVWHRIRUPăGHWUDQ]LĠLHGHODVLQGHVPR]HODVLQFRQGUR]H
(6LQGHVPR]HOHVHSRWWUDQVIRUPDvQVLQFRQGUR]HúLVLQRVWR]H
5. )HĠHOHDUWLFXODUHDOHGLDUWUR]HORU :
A. &DUWLODMXODUWLFXODUGXSăVWUXFWXUDVDHVWHGHRELFHLKLDOLQLF
úLGRDUUDUHRULILEURV
B. *URVLPHDFDUWLODMXOXLDUWLFXODUYDULD]ăGHODSkQăOD
mm.
C. ÌQXQHOHFD]XULIHĠHOHDUWLFXODUHQXVXQWFRQJUXHnte.
D. ÌQFD]GHLQFRQJUXHQĠăDIHĠHORUDUWLFXODUHGLIHUHQĠDHVWH
QLYHODWăSULQRDVHVHVDPRLGH
E. 'LVFXULOHLQWUDDUWLFXODUHFXFLUFXPIHULQĠDORUDGHUăVWUkQVOD
FDSVXODDUWLFXODUă
6. Straturile capsulei articulare:
A. Adventiceal
B. Epitelial
C. Fibros
D. Seros
E. Sinovial
7. Lichidul sinovial are rol de:
$'LULMDUHDPLúFăULORU
B. Metabolism
C. Amortizare
'/XEULILHUHDIHĠHORUDUWLFXODUH
(&UHúWHUHDRDVHORU

213
211
8. )XQFĠLLOHFDSVXOHLDUWLFXODUHVXQWGH:
$3URWHFĠLH
B. Sprijin
C. Consolidare a oaselor
'5HJOHPHQWDUHDPLúFăULORU
(6HFUHĠLH
9. )XQFĠLLOHOLJDPHQWHORUVXQWFHOHGH:
A. Consolidare a oaselor
B. Fortificare a capsulei articulare
&)UkQDUHDPLúFăULORU
''LULMDUHDPLúFăULORU
(3URWHFĠLH
10. Cartilajul articular :
$1XFRQĠLQHWHUPLQDĠLLQHUYRDVH
%$UHSURSULHWăĠLGHFRPSUHVLELOLWDWHúLHODVWLFLWDWH
&-RDFăUROGHDPRUWL]DWRU
''HYLQHPDLJURVSHPăVXUDvQDLQWăULLvQYkUVWă
(ÌQFD]GHLPRELOL]DUHvQGHOXQJDWăSRDWHILLQYDGDWGHYDVHVDQJYLQH

,,$VRFLDĠLDILUPDĠLLOHGLQ FRORDQDQXPHULFăFXIRUPDĠLXQLOHGLQFRORDQDDOIDEHWLFă
QRWDĠLúLDUJXPHQWDĠLUăVSXQVXULOHFRUHFWH
0LúFDUHDSULQFDUHGRXăVHJPHQWHDOHXQXLPHPEUXVHDSURSLHXQXO $&LUFXPGXFĠLD
de altul. %$GGXFĠLD
0LúFDUHDSULQFDUHGRXăVHJPHQWHDOHXQXLPHPEUXVHvQGHSăUWHD]ă &$EGXFĠLD
unul de altul. D. Extensia
0LúFDUHDGDWRULWăFăUHLDXQPHPEUXVDXXQVHJPHQWGHPHPEUXVH F. Flexia
apropie de planul sagital al corpului.
0LúFDUHDFHUH]XOWăGLQUHDOL]DUHDVXFFHVLYăDDEGXFĠLHLH[WHQVLHL
DGGXFĠLHLúLIOH[LHL
3HUPLWHGRDUPLúFăULGHURWDĠLH $$UWLFXODĠLDSODQă
6XQWSRVLELOHQXPDLPLúFăULGHDOXQHFDUH %$UWLFXODĠLDWURKOHDQă
3HUPLWHPLúFăULGHIOH[LH- extensie. &$UWLFXODĠLDWURKRLGă
5HDOL]HD]ăPLúFăULGHIOH[LH- H[WHQVLHDEGXFĠLH- DGGXFĠLHúL '$UWLFXODĠLDFRQGLODUă
FLUFXPGXFĠLH ($UWLFXODĠLDvQúD
5HDOL]HD]ăPLúFăULGHIOH[Le - H[WHQVLHDEGXFĠLH- DGGXFĠLHURWDĠLH )$UWLFXODĠLD
úLFLUFXPGXFĠLH HOLFRLGDOă
3RVHGăIHĠHDUWLFXODUHLGHQWLFH *$UWLFXODĠLDHOLSVRLGă
3HUPLWHPLúFăULRSXVHvQWU-un singur plan. +(QDUWUR]ă
3HUPLWHPLúFăULvQMXUXODGRXăD[HUHFLSURFSHUSHQGLFXODUH ,$PILDUWUR]ă
3HUPLWHPLúFăULvQWRDWHSODQXULOH
ùDQĠXOWURKOHHLHVWHVLWXDWVXEXQXQJKLIDĠăGHD[DHL
2(VWHFRPSXVăGLQXQLUHDPDLPXOWRURDVH A. 'LDUWUR]ăVLPSOă
3UH]LQWăRFRPELQDUHIXQFĠLRQDOăDFvWRUYDDUWLFXODĠLLDQDWRPLF B. 'LDUWUR]ăFRPSXVă
separate. C. 'LDUWUR]ă
&RQĠLQHFDUWLODMLQWUDDUWLFXODU FRPELQDWă
(VWHFRPSXVăSULQXQLUHDDGRXăRDVH D. DLDUWUR]ăFRPSOH[ă

214
212
-RQFĠLXQLOHRDVHORUFUDQLHQH

I6HOHFWDĠLúLQRWDĠLDILUPDĠLLOHFRUHFWHDUJXPHQWDĠL-le.

29. -RQFĠLXQLOHRDVHORUFUDQLHQH:
A. Oasele faciale se unesc numai prin intermediul suturilor plane.
B. 6XWXULOHGLQĠDWHOLSVHVFvQUHJLXQHDFUDQLXOXLfacial.
C. ÌQWUHFRUSXOVIHQRLGXOXLúLED]DRFFLSLWDOXOXLVHDIOăRVLQFRQGUR]ăSHUPDQHQWă
D. *RPIR]HOHUHSUH]LQWăRYDULHWDWHDVLQGHVPR]HORU
E. $UWLFXODĠLDWHPSRURPDQGLEXODUăHVWHRGLDUWUR]ăFRQGLODUăFRPSOH[ăFRPELQDWă
30. $UWLFXODĠLDWHPSRURPDQGLEXODUă :
A. &DYLWDWHDDUWLFXODUăHVWHVHSDUDWăvQGRXăHWDMH
%'LVFXODUWLFXODUDUHRIRUPăGHOHQWLOăELFRQYH[ă
&0LúFăULOHGHDOXQHFDUHDXORFvQHWDMXOLQIHULRU
'0LúFăULOHGHURWDĠLHvQMXUXOD[HLYHUWLFDOHVHHIHFWXHD]ăvQHWDMXOVXSHULRU
E. În caz de laterRSXOVLHDUHORFPLúFDUHDGHDOXQHFDUHXQLODWHUDOăDFDSXOXLPDQGLEXOHLFX
GLVFXODUWLFXODUvQHWDMXOVXSHULRUDO$70LDUvQSDUWHDFRQWUDODWHUDOă- URWDĠLDvQHWDMXO
inferior.

31. $SDUDWXOOLJDPHQWDUDODUWLFXODĠLHLWHPSRURPDQGLEXODUH:
A. Ligamentul laterDOHVWHFRQFUHVFXWFXFDSVXODDUWLFXODUă
B. Ligamentele extrinseci unesc mandibula cu craniul.
C. /LJDPHQWXOVWLORPDQGLEXODUUHSUH]LQWăRvQJURúDUHDFDSVXOHLILEURDVHDJODQGHL
parotide.
D. /LJDPHQWXOVIHQRPDQGLEXODUVHH[WLQGHGHODVSLQDRVXOXLVIHQRLGSkQăODunghiul
mandubulei.
E. /LJDPHQWXOVIHQRPDQGLEXODUMRDFăUROXOGHVXSRUWSDVLYDOPDQGLEXOHL
32. 0LúFăULOHvQDUWLFXODĠLDWHPSRURPDQGLEXODUă :
A. ÌQSURSXOVLHDUHORFDOXQHFDUHDELODWHUDOăDFDSXOXLPDQGLEXOHLvPSUHXQăFXGLVFXO
DUWLFXODUSHIDĠDDUWLFXODUăDtemporalului.
B. ÌQUHWURSXOVLHDXORFPLúFăULGHURWDĠLHvQHWDMXOLQIHULRU
C. /DPLúFDUHDGHFRERUkUHDPDQGLEXOHLVHGLVWLQJWUHLID]H
D. ÌQGHSODVDUHDPDQGLEXOHLDQWHULRUPLúFDUHDVHUHDOL]HD]ăGRDUvQHWDMXOLQIHULRU
(ÌQODWHURSXOVLHPLúFăULOHFDUHDX ORFvQDPEHOHDUWLFXODĠLLQXVXQWLGHQWLFH

II. $VRFLDĠLQRĠLXQLOHGLQFRORDQDQXPHULFăFXFHOHGLQFRORDQDDOIDEHWLFă
QRWDĠLúLDUJXPHQWDĠLUăVSXQVXULOHFRUHFWH

'HWHUPLQDĠLWLSXOVXWXULORUvQWUHRDVHOH :
3DULHWDOúLRFFLSLWDO A. Sutura serrata
)URQWDOúLQD]al B. Sutura squamoza
0D[LODGUHDSWăúLVWkQJă C. Sutura plana
7HPSRUDOúLVIHQRLG
)URQWDOúLSDULHWDO
7HPSRUDOúL]LJRPDWLF

215
213
-RQFĠLXQLOHRDVHORUWUXQFKLXOXL
,6HOHFWDĠLúLQRWDĠLDILUPDĠLLOHFRUHFWHDUJXPHQWDĠL-le
39. ArticulDĠLLOHFRUSXULORUYHUWHEUHORU:
A. Între corpurile vertebrelor limitrofe unirea are loc prin sincondroze, sindesmoze sau
sinostoze.
%*URVLPHDGLVFXULORULQWHUYHUWHEUDOHHVWHPDLPLFăvQVHJPHQWXOthoracic al coloanei vertebrale.
C. Discurile intervertebrale sunt bine vascularizate.
'/LJDPHQWXOORQJLWXGLQDODQWHULRUHVWHFRQFUHVFXWFXFRUSXULOHYHUWHEUHORUúLQXVHXQHúWHFX
discurile intervertebrale.
E. Ligamentul longitudinal posterior începe de la PDUJLQHDSRVWHULRDUăDRULILFLXOXLRFFLSLWDO mare.
40. Discurile intervertebrale:
A. Au aspectul unei lentile biconvexe.
B. Dimensiunile lor sunt mai mari ca cele ale corpurilor vertebrelor.
C. Unirea vertebrelor limitrofe are loc prin nucleul pulpos.
D. Rolul principal al inelului fibros este cel de amortizare.
(3ULPXOVHORFDOL]HD]ăvQWUHYHUWHEUHOHFHUYLFDOH,úL,,
41 Unirea arcurilor vertebrale are loc prin intermediul :
A. Lig. zigapofizale
B. Lig. supraarcuate
C. Lig. intervertebrale
D. Lig. galbene
E. Lig. interarcuate
42 Ligamentele longitudinale ale coloanei vertebrale:
$6HORFDOL]HD]ăELODWHUDOGHFRUSXULOHYHUWHEUDOH
%/LJDPHQWXODQWHULRUVHvQWLQGHGHODWXEHUFXOXOIDULQJLDQSkQăODOLQLDWUDQVYHUVDOăVDFUDOăD
II a sau a III.
&/LJDPHQWXOORQJLWXGLQDOSRVWHULRUVHOăĠHúWHla nivelul discurilor intervertebrale.
D. Ligamentele longitudinale concresc tenace cu discurile intervertebrale.
(/LJDPHQWXOORQJLWXGLQDOSRVWHULRUVHWHUPLQăSHIDĠDSRVWHULRDUăDFRUSXULORUYHUWHEUHORU
sacrale sau cel al vertebrei coccigiene I.
43. /LJDPHQWXOVXSUDVSLQDOLQUHJLXQHDFHUYLFDOăHQXPLW :
A. Lig. occipital inferior
B. Lig. supraspinal posterior
C. Lig. supraspinal cervical
D. Lig. nucal
E. Lig. occipital posterior
44. $UWLFXODĠLLOHYHUWHEUHORU :
A. Arcurile vertebrale se unesc prin sinfibroze.
B. $UWLFXODĠLLOHLQWHUYHUWHEUDOHVXQWGLDUWUR]HSODQHSOXULD[LDOHSXĠLQPRELOH
C. /LJDPHQWHOHLQWHUWUDQVYHUVDOHVXQWELQHHYLGHQĠLDWHvQSRUĠLXQHDFHUYLFDOă
D. /LJDPHQWXOQXFDOHVWHLQVHUDWVXSHULRUSHFUHDVWDH[WHUQăDRVXOXLRFFLSLWDOLQIHULRU–
SHDSRIL]DVSLQRDVăDYHUWHEUHLSURHPLQHQWH
(/LJDPHQWHOHLQWHUVSLQDOHVXQWIRDUWHILQHvQUHJLXQHDFHUYLFDOă
45. $UWLFXODĠLLOH]LJDSRIL]DOHUHSUH]LQWă:
A. Amfiartroze
B. Diartroze uniaxiale
C. Diartroze plane
D. Sinartroze
E. Diartroze pluriaxiale

216
214
46. &RORDQDYHUWHEUDODSUH]LQWăPRELOLWDWHVSRULWăODQLYHOXO :
A. Lordozelor
B. Segmentului toracic
C. Cifozelor
D. Segmentului cervical
E. Segmentului lombar.

47. $UWLFXODĠLLOHFRORDQHLYHUWHEUDOHFXFUDQLXO :
A. /DDUWLFXODĠLDFRORDQHLYHUWHEUDOHFXFUDQLXOSDUWLFLSăRDVH
B. $UWLFXODĠLLOHDWODQWRRFFLSLWDOHVXQWIRUWLILFDWHGHPHPEUDQHOHDWODQWRRFFLSLWDOHDQWHULRDUăúL
SRVWHULRDUă
C. 0HPEUDQDDWODQWRRFFLSLWDOăDQWHULRDUăHVWHPDLODWăGHFkWFHDSRVWHULRDUă
D. $UWLFXODĠLLOHDWODQWRD[LDOHVXQWDFRSHULWHDQWHUior de membrana tectorie.
($SRIL]DRGRQWRLGăHVWHPHQĠLQXWăvQSR]LĠLHVWDELOăSULQOLJDPHQWHOHDODUFUXFLIRUPúL
apical.

48. 0LúFăULOHFRORDQHLYHUWHEUDOH :
A. ÌQFRORDQDYHUWHEUDOăVXQWSRVLELOHPLúFăULGHIOH[LHúLH[WHQVLHDGGXFĠLHúLDEGXFĠLH
rotDĠLH
B. )RUPDGLVFXULORULQWHUYHUWHEUDOHVHPRGLILFăvQWLPSXOPLúFăULL
C. &HDPDLPRELOăSRUĠLXQHDFRORDQHLYHUWHEUDOHHVWHFHDORPEDUă
D. ÌQFRORDQDYHUWHEUDOăVXQWSRVLELOHPLúFăULGHFLUFXPGXFĠLH
E. $PSOLWXGLQHDPLúFăULORUGHDEGXFĠLHúLDGGXFĠLHvQSRUĠLXQHD WRUDFLFăDFRORDQHLYHUWHEUDOH
HVWHPDLPDUHGHFkWDFHORUGHURWDĠLH
F.
49. -RQFĠLXQLOHH[WUHPLWăĠLORUSRVWHULRDUHDOHFRDVWHORU
A. Capetele coastelor II-;IRUPHD]ăFXYHUWHEUHOHGLDUWUR]HFRPSXVH
B. 7RDWHDUWLFXODĠLLOHFDSXOXLFRVWDOVXQWFRQVROLGDWHSULQtr-XQOLJDPHQWLQWUDDUWLFXODUúLXQXO
extraarticular radiat.
C. ([WUHPLWăĠLOHSRVWHULRDUHDOHFRDVWHORUVHXQHVFvQWUHHOHSULQPHPEUDQDLQWHUFRVWDOă
H[WHUQă
D. 5RWDĠLDvQDUWLFXODĠLLOHFRVWRYHUWHEUDOHúLFRVWRWUDQVYHUVDOHSHUPLWHPLúFăULGHDVFHQVLXQHúL
descHQVLXQHDH[WUHPLWăĠLORUDQWHULRDUHDOHFRDVWHORU
E. $UWLFXODĠLLOHFRVWRWUDQVYHUVDOHVXQWOLSVLWHGHOLJDPHQWHGHFRQVROLGDUH
F.
50. -RQFĠLXQLOHH[WUHPLWăĠLORUDQWHULRDUHDOHFRDVWHORU
A. &DSVXODDUWLFXODĠLLORUVWHUQRFRVWDOHSUH]LQWăRFRQWLQXDUHDSHULRVWXOXi sternal.
B. 3ULPDFRDVWăVHXQHúWHFXVWHUQXOSULQVLQFRQGUR]ă
C. $UWLFXODĠLLOHFRVWRVWHUQDOH,,-9,,VXQWFRQVROLGDWHSULQOLJDPHQWXOLQWUDDUWLFXODUúL
ligamentele sternocostale radiate.
D. &DUWLODMHOHFRDVWHORUIDOVHFRQFUHVFvQWUHHOHVDXIRUPHD]ăDUWLFXODĠLL intercondrale.
E. &DYLWDWHDDUWLFXODĠLHLVWHUQR-FRVWDOHD,,HVWHVHSDUDWăvQGRXăFRPSDUWLPHQWH
F.
51. /DFDUHLQGLYL]LWRUDFHOHHGHIRUPDFRQLFă"
A. La femei
B. La cei de tip brahimorf
C. La cei de tip dolicomorf
D. La cei de tip mezomorf
E. La persoanele senile

217
215
,,$VRFLDĠLQRĠLXQLOHGLQFRORDQDQXPHULFăFXFHOHGLQFRORDQDDOIDEHWLFă
QRWDĠLúLDUJXPHQWDĠLUăVSXQVXULOHFRUHFWH
52. Ligamentele alare. A. Articulatio atlantoaxialis mediana
8QLULSODQHSOXULD[LDOHSXĠLQPRELOH B. Articulatio atlanto - occipitalis
0HPEUDQDDWODQWRRFFLSLWDOăDQWHULRDUă C. Articulationes zygapophysiales
55.Ligamentul apical al apofizei odontoide. D. Articulationes atlantoaxiales
56.Ligamentul transvers al atlasului. laterales
57.Membrana tectorie.
58.Unirile corpurilor vertebrale A. Diartroze
59.Unirile arcurilor vertebrale B. Sinelastoze
-RQFĠLXQLOHDSRIL]HORUDUWLFXODUHDOHYHUWHEUHORU C. Sincondroze
61.Unirile apofizelor transversale D. Sinostoze
62.Unirile apofizelor spinoase E. Simfize
63.Unirile vertebrelor sacrale F. Sinfibroze
G. Sinsarcoze
-RQFĠLXQLOHPHPEUXOXLVXSHULRU
,6HOHFWDĠLúLQRWDĠLDILUPDĠLLOHFRUHFWHDUJXPHQWDĠL-le.
64. $UWLFXODĠLDVWHUQRFODYLFXODUă :
A. )HĠHOHDUWLFXODUHVXQWFRQJUXHQWH
B. $UWLFXODĠLDHVWHFRPSOH[ăFRPELQDWă
C. 6XQWSRVLELOHPLúFăULvQMXUXODD[H
D. &DYLWDWHDDUWLFXODUăHVWHGLYL]DWăvQGRXăFDPHUH
E. (VWHFRQVROLGDWăGHOLJDPHQWHOHVWHUQRFODYLFXODUHLQWHUFODYLFXODUúLFRVWRFODYLFXODU
65. $UWLFXODĠLDDFURPLRFODYLFXODUă :
A. (VWHRGLDUWUR]ăPXOWLD[LDOăFRPELQDWă
B. În 1/3 din cazuri are un disc articular.
C. Discul uneori are un orificiu .
D. &DSVXODHVWHFRQVROLGDWăGHOLJDPHQWXOFRUDFRDFURPLDO
E. /LJDPHQWXOFRUDFRFODYLFXODULQFOXGHSRUĠLXQL OLJFRQRLGúLOLJWUDSH]RLG
66. $UWLFXODĠLDXPăUXOXL :
A. 'HSUHVLXQHDVFDSXOHLHVWHGHRULPDLPLFăGHFkWVXSUDIDĠDcapului humerusului.
B. &DSVXODDUWLFXODUăVHLQVHUăODGLVWDQĠăGHFDSXOKXPHUDO
C. &DSVXODDUWLFXODUăHVWHILQăúLOLEHUă
D. %XUVDVXEVFDSXODUăVHORFDOL]HD]ăODED]DDSRIL]HLFRUDFRLGH
E. 7HDFDVLQRYLDOăLQWHUWXEHUFXODUăFXSULQGHWHQGRQXOFDSXOXLOXQJDOPXúFKLXlui biceps
al humerusului.
67. $UWLFXODĠLDFRWXOXL :
A. /DIRUPDUHDHLSDUWLFLSăIHĠHDUWLFXODUH
B. $UWLFXODĠLDUDGLRXOQDUăSUR[LPDOăHVWHIRUWLILFDWăGHOLJDPHQWHOHFRODWHUDOH
C. ÌQUHJLXQHDDUWLFXODĠLHLOLSVHVFEXUVHOHVLQRYLDOH
D. ,QFRPSRQHQĠDDUWLFXODĠLHLFXELWDOHLQWUăDUWLFXODĠLLGHIRUPHGLIHULWHVIHURLGă
WURKRLGăúLWURKOHDUă
E. ÌQHDVXQWSRVLELOHPLúFăULvQMXUXODD[H
68. -RQFĠLXQLOHRDVHORUDQWHEUDĠXOXL :
A. 2DVHOHDQWHEUDĠXOXLVHXQHVFSULQVLQGHVPR]ăúLGLDUWUR]H
B. $UWLFXODĠLDUDGLRXOQDUăSUR[LPDOăHVWHFRQVROLGDWăGHOLJDPHQWHOHLQHODUúLSDWUDW
C. &DSVXODDUWLFXODĠLHLUDGLRXOQDUHGLVWDOHIRUPHD]ăRSURODEDUHvQWUHRDVHOHFDUSLHQH
D. $PSOLWXGLQHDVXSLQDĠLHLúLSURQDĠLHLvQDUWLFXODĠLLOHUDGLRXOQDUHDWLQJH0.
E. $UWLFXODĠLDUDGLRXOQDUăGLVWDOăHVWHFRPSOH[ă

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216
69. $UWLFXODĠLDUDGLR-FDUSLDQă :
A. (VWHIRUPDWăGLQRDVH UDGLXVúLRDVHDOHUkQGXOXLSUR[LPDODOFDUSXOXL
B. &DSVXODDUWLFXODUăHVWHIL[DWăODGLVWDQĠăGHIHĠHOHDUWLFXODUH
C. Ligamentul radiocarpian palmar se extinde de la radius pâQăODRVXOVFafoid.
D. (VWHRDUWLFXODĠLHHOLSVRLGăELD[LDOă
E. 3RVHGăOLJDPHQWHGHFRQVROLGDUHFRODWHUDOHúLUDGLRFDUSLHQH
70. $UWLFXODĠLLOHPkLQLL :
A. &DSVXODDUWLFXODĠLHLPHGLRFDUSLHQHHVWHIRDUWHILQăvQSDUWHDSDOPDUă
B. &DYLWDWHDDUWLFXODĠLHLPHGLRFDUSLHQHFRPXQLFăFXFHDDDUWLFXODĠLHLUDGLRFDUSLHQH
C. $UWLFXODĠLLOHLQWHUFDUSLHQHVXQWFRQVROLGDWHGHOLJDPHQWHOHLQWHUFDUSLHQHGRUVDOH
SDOPDUHLQWHURVRDVHúLOLJDPHQWXOUDGLDWSL]RKDPDWSL]RPHWDFDUSLDQ
D. $UWLFXODĠLLOHFDUSRPHWDFDUSLHQH,,-V au fisură DUWLFXODUăFRPXQă
(&DYLWDWHDDUWLFXODĠLHLFDUSRPHWDFDUSLHQHDSROLFHOXOXLHVWHL]RODWăGHDOWHDUWLFXODĠLL
carpometacarpiene.

71. $UWLFXODĠLLOHLQWHUPHWDFDUSLHQHPHWDFDUSRIDODQJLHQHúLLQWHUIDODQJLHQH :
A. $UWLFXODĠLLOHLQWHUPHWDFDUSLHQHDXFDSVXOăFRPXQăFXDUWLFXODĠLLOHFDUSRPHWDFDUSLHQH
II-V.
B. $UWLFXODĠLLOHPHWDFDUSRIDODQJLHQHVXQWHOLSVRLGHPXOWLD[LDOH
C. $UWLFXODĠLLOHLQWHUPHWDFDUSLHQHVXQWFRQVROLGDWHGHOLJDPHQWHOHGRUVDOHSDOPDUHúL
LQWHURVRDVHFHDXGLUHFĠLHWUDQVYHUVDOă
D. Capsulele artiFXODĠLLORUPHWDFDUSRIDODQJLHQHVXQWvQWLQVH
($UWLFXODĠLLOHLQWHUIDODQJLHQHVXQWWURKOHDUHXQLD[LDOH
72. /LJDPHQWHOHDUWLFXODĠLHLXPărului :
A. Scapulohumeral
B. Acromiohumeral
C. Clavihumeral
D. Deltoideohumeral
E. Coracohumeral

73. $UWLFXODĠLL biaxiale ale membrului superior :


A. A. umarului
%0HGLRFDUSLDQă
&5DGLRFDUSLDQă
D. Interfalangiene
(&DUSRPHWDFDUSLDQăDSROLFHOXL
74. (OHPHQWHDX[LOLDUHLQDUWLFXODĠLDXPDUXOXL :
A. Lig. coracohumeral
%7HDFDVLQRYLDOăLQWHUWXEHUFXODUă
C. Lig. acromiohumeral
'%XUVDVXEWHQGLQRDVăDPVXEFODYLFXODU
E. Bureletul articular

75. /LJDPHQWHOHDUWLFXODĠLHLFRWXOXL :
A. Colateral humeral
B. Colateral ulnar
C. Colateral radial
D. Colateral radioulnar
E. Inelar al radiusului

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217
76. $UWLFXODĠLLOHVHODUHDOHmembrului superior :
$&DUSRPHWDFDUSLDQăDSROLFHOXL
%5DGLRXOQDUăSUR[LPDOă
&+XPHURXOQDUă
D. A. cotului
E. Carpometacarpiene
77. $UWLFXODĠLLOHFRPSXVHDOHPHPEUXOXLVXSHULRU :
A. Interfalangiene
%5DGLRFDUSLDQă
&&DUSRPHWDFDUSLDQăDSROLFHOXL
D. A. cotului
E. Carpometacarpiene
78. Componentele complexului solidar al mâinii :
A. $UWLFXODĠLLOHFDUSR-metacarpiene cu ligamentele lor
%$UWLFXODĠLLOHLQWHUFDUSLHQHFXDSDUDWXOORUOLJDPHQWDU
$UWLFXODĠLDUDGLRFDUSLDQăFXDSDUDWXOHLGHFRQVROLGDUH
D. ArticXODĠLLOHLQWHUPHWDFDUSLHQHFXOLJDPHQWHOHORU
($UWLFXODĠLLOHPHWDFDUSRIDODQJLHQHFXDSDUDWXOORUOLJDPHQWDU

-RQFĠLXQLOHRDVHORUPHPEUXOXLLQIHULRU

,6HOHFWDĠLúLQRWDĠLDILUPDĠLLOHFRUHFWHDUJXPHQWDĠL-le.

79. $UWLFXODĠLDVDFURLOLDFă:
A. (VWHIRUPDWăGLQIHĠHOHDUWLFXODUHDXULFXODUHDOHVDFUXOXLúLFR[DOXOXL
B. &DSVXODDUWLFXODUăHVWHOLEHUăúLUH]LVWHQWă
C. Cartilajul articular pe osul coxal este mai gros decât de pe sacru.
D. Dintre ligamentele sacroiliace cel interosos este cel mai puternic.
E. 3UH]LQWăRDPILDUWUR]ă
80. 6LPIL]DSXELDQă :
A. (VWHRKHPLDUWUR]ăIRUPDWăvQWUHRDVHOHSXELHQHFRQWUDLDFHQWH
B. 'LVFXOILEURFDUWLODJLQRVLQWHUSXELDQHVWHPDLPDVLYODEăUEDĠL
C. ÌQăOĠLPHDVLPIL]HLHVWHPDLPDUHODIHPHL
D. 0LúFăULOHVXQWSRVLELOHODIHPHLvQWLPSXOQDúWHULL
E. (VWHIL[DWăGHOLJDPHQWXOSXELDQVXSHULRUúLOLJDPHQWXODUFXDWDOSXELVXOXL
81. Bazinul în ansamblu:
A. Constituie un inel osos.
B. %D]LQXOPDUHDOFăWXLHúWHSDUWHDLQIHULRDUăDFDYLWăĠLLDEGRPLQDOH
C. 2ULILFLXOVFLDWLFPDUHHVWHGHOLPLWDWGHLQFL]XUDVFKLDWLFăPDUHúLOLJDPHQWXO sacrotuberal.
D. 2ULILFLXOVFLDWLFPLFHVWHIRUPDWGHLQFL]XUDVFKLDWLFăPLFăúLOLJDPHQWXOVDFURVSLQDO
E. ÌQSR]LĠLHDQDWRPLFăDSHUWXUDVXSHULRDUăDED]LQXOXLODIHPHLIRUPHD]ăFXSODQXO
orizontal un unghi (50-550).

82. /LQLDWHUPLQDOăHIRUPDWăGLQ
A. Promontoriu
B. &UHDVWDLOLDFă
C. /LQLDDUFXDWă
D. &UHDVWDSXELFă
E. 0DUJLQHDVXSHULRDUăDVLPIL]HLSXELHQH

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218
83. Limitele aperturii inferioare a bazinului includ:
A. Coccisul
B. Ligamentele sacrospinale
&7XEHUR]LWăĠLOHVFLDWLFH
'5DPXULOHVFLDWLFHúi pubiene inferioare
(6LPIL]DSXELDQă
84. $UWLFXODĠLDFR[RIHPXUDOă
A. (VWHIRUPDWăGHFDSXOIHPXUXOXLúLIRVDDFHWDEXODUă
B. %XUHOHWXODFHWDEXODUFRQVWăGLQFDUWLODMKLDOLQLF
C. &DSVXODDUWLFXODUăVe IL[HD]ăGHEXUHOHWXODFHWDEXODU
D. &ROXOIHPXUDOVHDIOăvQLQWHULRUXOFDYLWăĠLLDUWLFXODUH
E. Aparatul de fixare include ligamente extraarticulare, intracapsulare, intraarticulare.

85. 0LúFăULOHvQDUWLFXODĠLDFR[RIHPXUDOă
A. $PSOLWXGLQHDPLúFăULORUGHSLQGHGHSR]LĠLDDUWLFXODĠLHLJHQXQFKLXOXL
B. 5RWDĠLDODWHUDOă HVWHPDLHYLGHQWăGHFkWFHDPHGLDOă
C. /LJDPHQWXOLVFKLRIHPXUDOIUkQHD]ăH[WHQVLD
D. 0LúFăULOHVXQWOLPLWDWHGHDSDUDWXOOLJDPHQWDU
E. $PSOLWXGLQHDURWDĠLHLFRQVWLWXLH-80 grade

86. $UWLFXODĠLDJHQXQFKLXOXL
$)HĠHOHDUWLFXODUHVXQWH[WLQVHLQFRQJUXHQWH
%(VWHFRQVWLWXLWăGLQDUWLFXODĠLDIHPXURWLELDOăúLSDWHORIHPXUDOă
&&DSVXODILEURDVăVHLQVHUăGLVWDQĠDWGHPDUJLQLOHFDUWLODMHORUDUWLFXODUHDOHWLELHL
'6WDELOLWDWHDHLGHSLQGHGHOLJDPHQWHOHPXúFKLLúLWHQGRDQHOHGLQMXUXODUWLFXODĠLHL
E. EVWHRGLDUWUR]ăXQLD[LDOă

87. (OHPHQWHOHLQWUDDUWLFXODUHDOHDUWLFXODĠLHLJHQXQFKLXOXL
A. /LJDPHQWHOHFUXFLDWHVXQWORFDOL]DWHvQDIDUDFDYLWăĠLLVLQRYLDOH
B. Ligamentul cruciat anterior este mai slab decât cel posterior.
C. Ligamentul cruciat posterior previnHGHSODVDUHDSRVWHULRDUăDIHPXUXOXLSHWLELHúL
hiperextensia genunchiului.
D. Ligamentul cruciat posterior previne hiperflexia genunchiului.
E. /LJDPHQWXOFUXFLDWDQWHULRUHVWHIDFWRUXOSULQFLSDOGHVWDELOL]DUHDIHPXUXOXLvQSR]LĠLDGH
IOH[LHVXELQIOXHQĠDPDsei corpului.

88. Bursele sinoviale ale articulatiei genunchiului:


$,QIUDURWXOLDQăSURIXQGă
%/DWHURURWXOLDQă
&6XEFXWDQDWăSUHURWXOLDQă
'5HWURURWXOLDQă
(6XSUDURWXOLDQă

89. Meniscurile:
A. &RQWULEXLHODFRQJUXHQĠDIHĠHORUDUWLFXODUHúLDPRUWL]DUH.
B. 0DUJLQLOHH[WHUQHDOHORUVHXQHVFFXFDSVXODILEURDVă
C. Marginile interne ale lor sunt libere.
D. &HOPHGLDODUHIRUPăVHPLOXQDUă
E. &HOODWHUDOHVWHDSURDSHURWXQGPDLPLFúLPDLPRELOGHFkWFHOPHGLDO

221
219
90. &RPSRQHQWHOHDUWLFXODĠLHLJHQXQFKLXOXL
A. LigaPHQWXOWUDQVYHUVDOJHQXQFKLXOXLXQHúWHSRUĠLXQLOHDQWHULRDUHDOHPHQLVFXULORU
%0HQLVFXOODWHUDOHVWHIL[DWODOLJDPHQWXOFUXFLDWSRVWHULRUúLODFRQGLOXOPHGLDODOIHPXUXOXL
prin ligamente.
&1XPăUXOúLGLPHQVLXQLOHEXUVHORUVLQRYLDOHYDULD]ăLQGividual.
'&DSVXODILEURDVăHOD[ă
E. Bursele VLQRYLDOHVXSUDSDWHODUăSRSOLWHHDQVHULQăúLJDVWURFQHPLDQăFRPXQLFăFX
cavitatea VLQRYLDOăDJHQXQFKLXOXL
91. $UWLFXODĠLDWLELRILEXODUă :
A. )DĠDDUWLFXODUăDFDSXOXLILEXODUHVWHVLPLODUăFXFHDORFDOL]DWăSHIDĠDSRVWHURODWHUDOăD
condilului lateral al tibiei.
B. &DSVXODHLVHLQVHUăSHPDUJLQHDIHĠHORUDUWLFXODUH
C. (VWHFRQVROLGDWăGHOLJDPHQWHOHLQWUDFDSVXODUHDOHFDSXOXLIXEXODU DQWHULRUúLSRVWHULRU 
D. (VWHRDPILDUWUR]ă
E. &DYLWDWHDHLDUWLFXODUăFRPXQLFăFXFHDDJHQXQFKLXOXL
92. -RQFĠLXQHDWLELRILEXODUăGLVWDOă
A. Integritatea sindesmozHLWLELRILEXODUHGLVWDOHHVWHHVHQĠLDOăSHQWUXVWDELOLWDWHDDUWLFXODĠLHLWDORFUXUDOH
B. $UHDUXJRDVăWULXQJKLXODUăDPDOHROHLODWHUDOHVHXQHúWHFXLQFL]XUDILEXODUăGHSH
H[WUHPLWDWHDGLVWDOăDWLELHL
C. (FRQVROLGDWăGHOLJDPHQWXOLQWHURVRVúLOLJDPHQWHWLELRILEXODUH DQWHULRUúLSRVWHULRU 
D. 5HSUH]LQWăRGLDUWUR]ăFRPELQDWă
E. 0HPEUDQDLQWHURVRDVăQXSDUWLFLSăODFRQVROLGDUHDHL
93. $UWLFXODĠLDWDORFUXUDOă
A. Este IRUPDWăGHIHĠHDUWLFXODUH
B. &DSVXODDUWLFXODUăDHLHVWHJURDVăvQWăULWăGHOLJDPHQWHOHODWHUDOHSXWHUQLFH
&&DSVXODVHLQVHUăSHPDUJLQHDIHĠHORUDUWLFXODUH
'0HPEUDQDVLQRYLDOăHVWHOD[ă
(&DYLWDWHDVLQRYLDOăVHH[WLQGHGHVHRULVXSHULRUvQWUHOigamentele tibiofibulare.
94. (OHPHQWHOHGHFRQVROLGDUHDDUWLFXODĠLHLWDORFUXUDOH:
A. /LJDPHQWXOODWHUDOFRPSXVGLQSRUĠLXQL
B. /LJDPHQWXOWDORILEXODUDQWHULRUH[WLQVvQWUHPDOHRODODWHUDOăúLFROXOWDODU
C. Ligamentul talofibular posterior, extins de la maOHRODODWHUDOăSkQăODWXEHUFXOXOlateral talar.
D. /LJDPHQWXOFDOFDQHRILEXODUORFDOL]DWvQWUHYkUIXOPDOHROHLODWHUDOHúLIDĠDODWHUDOăD
calcaneului.
E. /LJDPHQWXOPHGLDOFDUHSRUQHúWHGHODPDOHRODPHGLDOăúLVHLQVHUăSHWDOXVFDOFDQHXúL
osul navicular.
95. $UWLFXODĠLLOHSLFLRUXOXL:
$$UWLFXODĠLD&KRSDUWHVWHFHDPDLPRELOăDUWLFXODĠLHDSLFLRUXOXL
%$UWLFXODĠLDWUDQVYHUVDOăDWDUVXOXLLQFOXGHDUWLFXODĠLLOHWDORQDYLFXODUăúLFDOFDQHR-FXERLGă
&0LúFăULOHSULQFLSDOHvQDUWLFXODĠLDWUDQVYHUVDOăDWDUVXOXLúLFHDVXEWDODUăVXQWLQYHUVLDúL
eversia.
'ÌQDUWLFXODĠLDVXEWDODUăVHUHDOL]HD]ăPLúFăULGHDGGXFĠLHúLDEGXFĠLHDSLFLRUXOXL
(3ULQVLQXVXOWDUVXOXLWUHFHWHQGRQXOXQXLPXúFKL
96. $UWLFXODĠLDFDOFDQHRFXERLGă
A. )HĠHOHDUWLFXODUHQXVXQWcongruente.
B. (VWHRDUWLFXODĠLHVHOLIRUPăFHSHUPLWHRURWDĠLHOLPLWDWă
C. &DSVXODHVWHPDLJURDVăúLPDLWHQVLRQDWăGLQSDUWHDPHGLDOă
D. &DYLWDWHDDUWLFXODUăXQHRULFRPXQLFăFXFHDDDUWLFXODĠLHLWDORFDOFDQHRQDYLFXODUH
E. 3HIDĠDGRUVDOăHVWHFRQVROLGDWăPDLELQHGHFkWSHFHDSODQWDUă

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220
97. /LJDPHQWHOHDUWLFXODĠLLORUSLFLRUXOXL
A. Ligamentul plantar lung - cel mai puternic dintre ligamentele piciorului.
B. /LJDPHQWXOSODQWDUOXQJvQFHSHSHIDĠDODWHUDOăDFDOFDQHXOXLúLVHLQVHUăSHED]HOHRDVHORU
metatarsiene II-V.
C. Ligamentul-FKHLHDODUWLFXODĠLHL&KRSDUWHVWHOLJDPHQWXOELIXUFDW
D. /LJDPHQWXOELIXUFDWHVWHDOFăWXLWGLQSRUĠLXQLFDOFDQHRQDYLFXODUăúL
FDOFDQHRFXQHLIRUPă
E. &HOHPDLSXWHUQLFHOLJDPHQWHVXQWSHIDĠDSODQWDUă
98. $UWLFXODĠLDFXQHRQDYLFXODUă
A. Este o artLFXODĠLHHOLSVRLGăIRUPDWăGLQRDVH
B. &DSVXODHLHVWHOLEHUăIL[DWăGHPDUJLQHDIHĠHORUDUWLFXODUH
C. (VWHIRUWLILFDWăGHWLSXULGHOLJDPHQWHFXQHRQDYLFXODUH SODQWDUHGRUVDOH 
LQWHUFXQHLIRUPHLQWHURVRDVHLQWHUFXQHLIRUPHGRUVDOHúLSODQWDUH
D. Fisura aUWLFXODUăVHSUHOXQJHúWHvQWUHRDVHOHFXQHLIRUPH
E. ÌQXQHOHFD]XULFDYLWDWHDDUWLFXODUăFRPXQLFăFXFDYLWDWHDDUWLFXODĠLLORUWDUVRPHWDWDUVLHQH
99. $UWLFXODĠLLOHWDUVRPHWDWDUVLHQHúLLQWHUPHWDWDUVLHQH :
A. 6XQWDUWLFXODĠLLWDUVRPHWDWDUVLHQHFRPSXVHL]RODWe una de alta.
B. 6XQWFRQVROLGDWHSULQOLJDPHQWHOHWDUVRPHWDWDUVLHQHGRUVDOHSODQWDUHúLLQWHURVRDVH
C. /LJDPHQWXOWDUVRPHWDWDUVLDQLQWHURVRVODWHUDOUHSUH]LQWăFKHLDDUWLFXODĠLHL/LVIUDQF
D. $UWLFXODĠLLOHLQWHUPHWDWDUVLHQHVXQWSODQH
E. Orientarea tuturor ligameQWHORUGRUVDOHSODQWDUHúLLQWHURVRDVHHVWHWUDQVYHUVDOă
100. $UWLFXODĠLLOHPHWDWDUVRIDODQJLHQH:
A. )HĠHOHFDSHWHORURDVHORUPHWDWDUVLHQHVXQWVIHURLGHXúRUDSODWL]DWHWUDQVYHUVDO
B. &DSVXODDUWLFXODUăHVWHILQăúLIODVFă
C. Sunt fortificate de ligamentele coODWHUDOH PHGLDOHúLODWHUDOH SODQWDUHúLOLJDPHQWXO
transversal profund al metatarsului.
D. /LJDPHQWHOHFRODWHUDOHPHGLDOHVXQWPDLPDVVLYHúLPDLSXWHUQLFH
E. 0LúFăULOHGHH[WHQVLHVXQWPDLUHGXVHGHFkWvQDUWLFXODĠLLOHVLPLODUHDOHPkLQLL
101. $UWLFXODĠLLOHPHWDWDUVRIDODQJLHQHúLLQWHUIDODQJLHQH:
A. /LJDPHQWXOWUDQVYHUVDOSURIXQGDOPHWDWDUVXOXLXQHúWHFDSHWHOHWXWXURURDVHORU
metatarsiene.
B. $UWLFXODĠLLOHPHWDWDUVRIDODQJLHQHVXQWSOXULD[LDOH
C. 0LúFăULOHGHIOH[LHúLH[WHQVLHvQDUWLFXODĠLLOHPHWDWDUVRIDODQJiene sunt mai reduse decât
FHOHGHDEGXFĠLHúLDGGXFĠLH
D. $UWLFXODĠLLOHLQWHUIDODQJLHQHVXQWWURKOHDUHXQLD[LDOH
E. $UWLFXODĠLLOHLQWHUIDODQJLHQHVXQWFRQVROLGDWHGHOLJDPHQWHOHFRODWHUDOHúLGRUVDOH

$VRFLDĠLQRĠLXQLOHGLQFRORDQDQXPHULFăFXFHOHGLQFRORDQDDOIDEHWLFă
QRWDĠLúLDUJXPHQWDĠLUăVSXQVXULOHFRUHFWH
$UWVDFURLOLDFă A. 8QLD[LDOă
$UWúROGXOXL B. %LD[LDOă
104. Art.genunchiului C. 0XOWLD[LDOă
$UWWLELRILEXODUăSUR[LPDOă D. $PILDUWUR]ă
$UWWDORFUXUDOă E. 6LPSOă
$UWVXEWDODUă F. &RPSXVă
$UWFDOFDQHRFXERLGă G. &RPSOH[ă
$UWWDORQDYLFXODUă H. &RPELQDWă
110. Art.cuneonaviculare
111. Art.tarsometatarsiene

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221
112. Art.intermetatarsiene
113. Art.metatarsofalangiene
114. Art.interfalangiene
115. Lig.deltoid A. $UWFR[RIHPXUDOă
116. Lig.transversal al acetabulului B. $UWVDFURLOLDFă
117. Ligg. colaterale C. Art.genunchiului
118. Lig. lateral D. $UWWLELRILEXODUă
119. Lig.cruciat E. 6LQGHVPR]ă
120. Lig.cuneometatarsian interosos medial WLELRILEXODUă
121. Lig.bifurcat F. Art. Lisfranc
122. Lig.sacrospinal G. Art. Chopart
123. Burelet fibrocartilaginos H. $UWWDORFUXUDOă
/LJJWLELRILEXODUHDQWúLSRVW

/DXUPăWRDUHOHvQWUHEăULUăVSXQGHĠLSULQ
A – GDFăFHOHGRXăDILUPDĠLLVXQWDGHYăUDWHúLvQWUHHOHH[LVWăRUHODĠLHFDX]ă-efect;
B – GDFăFHOHGRXăDILUPDĠLLVXQWDGHYăUDWHGDUvQWUHHOHQXH[LVWăRUHODĠLHFDX]ă-efect;
C – GDFăSULPDDILUPDĠLHHDGHYăUDWăLDUDGRXD– IDOVă
D – GDFăSULPDDILUPDĠLHHVWHIDOVăLDUDGRXD– DGHYăUDWă
E – GDFăDPEHOHDILUPDĠLLVXQWIDOVH

$UWLFXODĠLDWDORFUXUDOăHVWHUHODWLYLQVWDELOăvQWLPSXOIOH[LHLSODQWDUHGHRDUHFHWURKOHDSRVWHULRU
HVWHPDLvQJXVWă
2DVHOHFHQWXULLVFDSXODUHVHXQHVFSULQGLDUWUR]HúLVLQVDUFR]HLDURDVHOHFHQWXULLSHOYLHQH–
SULQDPILDUWUR]HVLPIL]HúLVLQRVWR]H
127. 2DVHOHDQWHEUDĠXOXLVHXQHVFSULQGLDUWUR]HFLOLQGULFHFHOHDOHJDPEHL– prin intermediul unei
singure amfiartroze.
2DVHOHSLFLRUXOXLIRUPHD]ăEROWDSODQWDUăvQFRQIRUPLWDWHFXDGDSWDUHDODPLúFDUHDELSHGă
129. La omul matur structurDED]LQXOXLSRVHGăSDUWLFXODULWăĠLGHVH[YăGLWHILLQGFăIXQFĠLLOH
ED]LQXOXLPDVFXOLQúLIHPLQLQGLIHUă
'LPHQVLXQLOHED]LQXOXLPLFODEăUEDWVXQWPDLPLFLILLQdFăRDVHOHPDVFXOLQHVXQWPDLJURDVH

TESTE PENTRU INSTRUI5(ù,$872&21752//$ MIOLOGIE

GHQHUDOLWăĠL
6HOHFWDĠLúLQRWDĠLDILUPDĠLLOHFRUHFWHDUJXPHQWDĠL-le.
1. 0XúFKLLVFKHOHWLFL:
A. 5HSUH]LQWăFRPSRQHQWXODFWLYDODSDUDWXOXLORFRPRWRU
B. $XIXQFĠLH FRQWUDFWLOă
C. &RQVWLWXLHVXUVDSULQFLSDOăGHFăOGXUăvQRUJDQLVP
D. Constituie 55 - 60% din masa corpului.
E. $XUROvQFLUFXODĠLDVDQJYLQăúLOLPIDWLFă
2. 'LVSR]LWLYHDX[LOLDUHDOHPXúFKLORUVXQW
A. Retinaculele
B. Mezotendoanele
C. Plicele sinoviale
D. Venterele musculare
E. Tecile sinoviale

224
222
3. Fasciile:
A. 8QHVFSLHOHDFXPXúFKLL
B. $VLJXUăLQWHJUitatea morfofuncĠLRQDOăDPXúFKLORU
C. MăUHVF randamentul muscular
D. )RUPHD]ăWHFLSHQWUXIDVFLFXOHOHYDVFXORQHUYRDVH
E. 6HSDUăSHULRVWXOGHPXúFKL

4. ,PSRUWDQĠDIXQFĠLRQDOăDvQFUXFLúăULORUPXVFXODUHFRQVWăvQ
A. Mărirea randamentului muscular
B. AsigXUDUHDLQWHJULWDWLLPRUIRIXQFWLRQDOHDPXúFKLORUGLQGLIHULWH
segmente
C. Consolidarea flexorilor si extensorilor
D. (IHFWXDUHDPLúFăULORUILQHúLDUPRQLRDVH
E. Asigurarea PLúFărilRUGHURWDĠie

5. RetinacuOHOHúLWHFLle sinoviale ale tendoanelor :

A. Retinaculele VXQWvQJURúăULILEURDVHDOHIDVFLLORUGHvQYHOLúVXEIRUPăGH
SDQJOLFă
B. RetinacuOHOHPHQĠLQWHQGRDQHOHaproape de oase.
C. 7HFLOHVLQRYLDOHIDYRUL]HD]ăDOXQHFDUHa tendoanelor în interiorul
canalelor osteofibroase.
D. 7HDFDVLQRYLDOăSUH]LQWăXQWXEFLOLQGULFIRUPDWGLQGRXăIRLĠH
E. Teci sinoviale DXWHQGRDQHOHWXWXURUPXúFKLORU

6. Bursele sinoviale :
$6HIRUPHD]ăODQLYHOXOWHQGRDQHORUúLPXúFKLORUvQORFXULle unde
DFHúWHDVunt expuúL presiunii.
B. Sunt subcutanate, subfasciaOHVXEWHQGLQRDVHúLVXEPXVFXODUH
&ÌQXQHOHFD]XULFRPXQLFăFXFDYLWDWHDDUWLFXODUă
'/DFRSLLúLEăWUkQLOLSVHVF
(ÌQWRWGHDXQDFRPXQLFăFXFDYLWDWHDDUWLFXODĠLHLDSURSLDWH
7. 3URSULHWăĠLOHIL]LFHDOHPXúFKLlor scheletici:
A. Elasticitatea
B. Extensibilitatea
C. Conductibilitatea
D. Contractilitatea
E. Tonicitatea

0XúFKLLWUXQFKLXOXL

,6HOHFWDĠLúLQRWDĠLDILUPDĠLLOHFRUHFWHDUJXPHQWDĠL-le.
8. 0XúFKLLWRUDFHOXL
A. 6HGLVWLQJPXúFKLGHULYDĠLGLQSULPRUGLXOPHPEUXOXLVXSHULRUúLPXúFKLDXWRhtoni.
B. Diafragma derivă GLQSRUĠLXQLOHYentrale ale miotomilor cervicali.
C. 0XúFKLLproprii ai WRUDFHOXLúLai membrelor superioare FXLQVHUĠLHSHWRUDFHVXQW
respiratori.
D. 0XúFKLLDXWRKWRQLUHDOL]HD]ăPLúFDUHDGHLQVSLUDĠLH
E. Contribuie la PHQĠLQHUea SR]LĠLHL verticale a corpului.

225

223
9. 0XúFKLXOSHFWRUDOPDUH:
A. Constă GLQSRUĠLXQLFODYLFXODUăVWHUQDOăúLFRVWDOă
B. 3RUĠLXQLOHOXLFRQYHUJVSUHXQWHQGRQFRPXQ
C. Se iQVHUăSHWXEHUFXOXOPDUHDl humerusului.
D. Marginea OXLVXSHURODWHUDOăvPSUHXQăFXGHOWoidul delimiteD]ăIRVD0RKUHQKHLP
E. AvkQGSXQFWIL[SHWRUDFHDGGXFHúLURWHúWHEUDĠXOvQDIDUă
10. 0XúFKLXOSHFWRUDOPLF:
A. 3RUQHúWHGHODFDUWLODMHOHFRDVWHORU,,,-V.
B. Se iQVHUăSHDSRIL]DFRUDFRLGăDVFDSXOHL
C. Marginea lui VXSHURPHGLDOăVHFRQWLQXăFXPVXEFODYLFXODU
D. &kQGSXQFWXOIL[HVWHSHWRUDFHWUDJHXPăUXOvQVXVúLvQDLQWH
E. ÌQWUHWHQGRQXOOXLúLDSRIL]a FRUDFRLGăVHDIOăREXUVăVLQRYLDOă
11. 0XúFKLXOGLQĠDWDQWHULRU :
A. Este tetragonal.
B. 6HvQWLQGHGHODSULPHOHFRDVWHSkQăODPDUJLQHDPHGLDOăDVFDSXOHL
C. FaĠDVXSHUILFLDOăDSRUĠLXQLLLQIHULRDUHIRUPHD]ăSHUHWHOHPHGLDODOD[LOHL
D. ÌQIXQFĠLHGHSXQFWXOIL[WUDJHVFDSXODODWHUDOúLvQDLQWHVDXSDUWLFLSăODUHVSLUDĠLH
E. (VWHXQPXúFKLLQVSLUDWRU
12. 0XúFKLLSURSULLDLWRUDFHOXL:
A. 0DMRULWDWHDSDUWLFLSăvQDFWXOGHH[SLUDĠLH
B. 0XúFKLLLQWHUFRVWDOLH[WHUQLRFXSăVSDĠLXOLQWHUFRVWDOGHODWXEHUFXOXOFRDVWHORUSkQăOD
stern.
C. 0XúFKLLLQWHUFRVWDOLLQWHUQLVHDIOăvQVSDĠLXOLQWHUFRVWDOGHODVWHUQúLSRUĠLXQLOHRVRDVH
ale coastelor falsHSkQăODXQJKLXULOHFRDVWHORU
D. 0XúFKLLVXEFRVWDOLSRUQHVFGLQDSURSLHUHDXQJKLXULORUFRVWDOe úLVHLQVHUăSHIDĠDLQWHUQă
a coastelor supraiacente.
E. 0XúFKLXOWUDQVYHUVDODOWRUDFHOXLVHDIOăSHIDĠDLQWHUQăDSHUHWHOXLSRVWHULRUDOFXWLHL
toracice.
13. Diafragmul :
A. )DĠDVXSHULRDUă conve[ăIRUPHD]ăED]DFDYLWăĠLLWRUDFLFHLDUFHDLQIHULRDUăFRQFDYă
IRUPHD]ăSODIRQXOFDYLWăĠLLDEGRPLQDOH
B. &XSRODGLDIUDJPHLSUH]LQWăRGHSUHVLXQHFHQWUDOăFRUeVSXQ]ăWRDUHLQLPLL
C. ÌQGUHDSWDVHULGLFăSkQăODFRDVWD9LDUvQVWkQJD– SkQăODD,9-a.
D. 3RUĠLXQHDPXVFXODUăRFXSăSR]LĠLe SHULIHULFă
E. 3R]LĠLDsa se VFKLPEăvQIXQFĠLHGHVH[YkUVWăSR]LĠLDFRUSXOXLúLPLúFăULOH respiratorii.
F.
14. Diafragmul este constituit din SRUĠLXQLOH
A. AEGRPLQDOă
B. CRVWDOă
C. TRUDFLFă
D. SWHUQDOă
E. LRPEDUă

15. Centrul tendinRVDOGLDIUDJPXOXLSUH]LQWă


A. Hiatul aortic
%6SDĠLXOVWHUQRFRVWDO
C. Orificiul venei cave inferioare
D. Hiatul esofagian
E. Trigonul lombocostal

224 225
16. )XQFĠLLOHGLDIUDJPXOXL :
A. 'HUHVSLUDĠLH
B. Contribuie ODFLUFXODĠLDVDQJYLQăúLOLPIDWLFă
C. Participă la actul de GHJOXWLĠLH
D. Contribuie la motorica organelor abdominale.
E. Contribuie la vorbire.
17. 0XúFKLDXWRKWRQLDLWRUDFHOXLVXQW
$0GLQĠDWSRVWHULRULQIHULRU
B. Mm. intercostali interni si externi
C. M. supraspinos
D. M. subcostali
E. M. transvers al toracelui
18. Fasciile toracelui:
A. )DVFLDWRUDFLFăVXSHUILFLDOăHVWHELQHGH]YROWDWăúLWULPLWHVHSWXUi în interiorul glandei
mamare.
B. )RLĠHOHIDVFLHLSHFWRUDOHFXSULQGPSHFWRUDOPDUH
C. 3RUĠLXQHDVXSHULRDUăPDLJURDVăDIRLĠHLSURIXQGHDIDVFLHLSHFWRrale constituie fascia
FODYLSHFWRUDOă
D. )DVFLDSHFWRUDOăIRUPHD]ăOLJDPHQWHOHVXVSHQVRDUHDOHJODQGHLPDPDUH
E. &RDVWHOHúLPXúFKLLLQWHUFRVWDOLVXQWWDSHWDĠLGLQH[WHULRUFXIDVFLDWRUDFLFăSURSULHGLQ
interior – FXIDVFLDHQGRWRUDFLFă
19. 0XúFKLLVSDWHOXi :
A. 2FXSăWRDWăVXSUDIDĠDGRUVDOăDWUXQFKLXOXLGHODUHJLXQHDVDFUDOăúLFUHVWHOHLOLDFHSkQăOD
baza craniului.
B. 0XúFKLLVXSHUILFLDOLaXLQVHUĠLDSHVFKHOHWXOPHPEUXOXLVXSHULRUúLSHFRDVWH
C. 0XúFKLLVXSHUILFLDOLVXQWDXWRKWRQL
D. 0XúFKLLSURIXQ]LIRUPHD]ăGRXăVWUDWXUL
E. 0XúFKLLSURIXQ]LVHvPSDUWvQDXWRKWRQLúLGHRULJLQHYHQWUDOă

20. 2ULJLQHDPXúFKLXOXLWUDSH]:
A. /LQLDQXFDOăLQIHULRDUă
B. &UHDVWDRFFLSLWDOăH[WHUQă
C. Ligamentul nucal.
D. Apofizele spinoase ale vertebrelor C7-T12.
E. Ligamentul supraspinos din segmentul toracic al coloanei vertebrale.

21. $FĠLXQHD PXúFKLXOXLWUDSH]VHUH]XPăOD


$$GGXFĠLDEUDĠXOXL
B. ApropiereDVFDSXOHLGHFRORDQDYHUWHEUDOă
C. Ridicarea scapulei
D. Coborârea scapulei
(([WHQVLDSRUĠLXQLLFHUYLFDOHDFRORDQHLYHUWHEUDOH

22. 0XúFKLLURPERL]LPDUHVLPLFLúi iau originea de pe :


A. Apofizele transversale ale vertebrelor C VI-VII, Th I-V
B. Ligamentele nucal si supraspinos
C. Apofizele spinoase ale vertebrelor C VII - Th I-V
D. Ligamentul interspinos
E. ProtuberanĠa occipitală externă

226 225
23. 2ULJLQHDPXúFKLXOXLmare dorsal :
A. )DĠDH[WHUQăDFHORU-4 coaste inferioare.
B. Apofizele spinoase ale ultimelor 2 vertebre toracice.
C. Apofizele spinoase ale vertebrelor lombare.
D. &UHDVWDVDFUDOăODWHUDOă
E. %X]DLQWHUQăDFUHVWHLLOLDFH

24. AFĠLXQHDPXúFKLXOXLGRUVDOPDUHVHUH]XPăOD
$$GGXFĠLDEUDĠXOXL
%)OH[LDEUDĠXOXL
&6XSLQDĠLDEUDĠXOXL
'5RWLUHDEUDĠXOXLVSUHLQIHULRU
(([WHQVLDLQDUWLFXODĠLDXPăUXOXL

25. 0XúFKLXOULGLFăWRUDOVFDSXOHL:
A. Are formă WULXQJKLXODUă
B. 3RUQHúWHGHODapofizele transversale ale ultimelor 4-5 vertebre cervicale.
C. (VWHDQWDJRQLVWXOSRUĠLXQLLVXSHULRDUHDPWUDSH]
D. Se iQVHUăSHPDUJLQHDPHGLDOăDVFDSXOHL
E. Când punctul fix e pe scapulă vQFOLQăFRORDQDYHUWHEUDOăspre partea sa.

26. 0XúFKLXOHUHFWRUVSLnae :
A. 5HSUH]LQWăXQFRPSOH[PXVFXODUORFDOL]DWvQúDQĠXOFRVWRYHUWHEUDO
B. /HDJăED]LQXOGHWRUDFHúLFRORDQDYHUWHEUDOăSRUĠLXQLOHFRORDQHLYHUWHEUDOHvQWUHHOHúL
FUDQLXOGHFRORDQDYHUWHEUDOă
C. 0XúFKLLlui FRPSRQHQĠLVHFRQWRSHVFvQSDUWHDVXSHULRDUăvQWU-RPDVăFRPXQă
D. 5HSUH]LQWăPXVFXODWXUDDXWRKWRQăDFRORDQHLYHUWHEUDOH
E. $VLJXUăPHQĠLQHUHDSR]LĠLHLYHUWLFDOHDFRUSXOXL

27. )XQFĠLLOHPXúFKLORUVSDWHOXL:
$0PURPERL]LULGLFăDGGXFúLURWHVFVFDSXOD
%0GLQĠDWSRVWHULRUHVWHH[SLUDWRU
C. În coQWUDFĠLHVLPXOWDQăPXúFKLLGLQĠDĠLSRVWHULRULGHYLQLQVSLUDWRUL
'0VSOHQLXVDOFDSXOXLvQFRQWUDFĠLHXQLODWHUDOăSURYRDFă URWDĠLDKHWHURODWHUDOăD
capului.
(0OXQJGRUVDOUHDOL]HD]ăH[WHQVLDFRORDQHLYHUWHEUDOHúLvQFOLQDUHDHLODWHUDOă
28. Fasciile spatelui:
A. Sunt 3QXFDOăWRUDFRORPEDUăúLLQWHUPHGLDUăDGLQĠDĠLORU
B. )DVFLDWRUDFRORPEDUăHVWHVLWXDWăvQUHJLXQHDORPEDUăúLWRUDFLFăLQIHULRDUă
C. $SRQHXUR]DLQWHUPHGLDUăDGLQĠDĠLORUVHvQVHUăPHGLDOSHDSRIL]HOHWUDQVYHUVDOHDOH
vertebrelor, lateral – pe coaste.
D. )DVFLDQXFDOăHVWHIDVFLDPVSOHQLX
E. )DVFLDQXFDOăVHFRQWLQXăODWHUDOFXIDVFLDVXSHUILFLDOăDJâtului.
29. Fascia WRUDFRORPEDUă:
A. $FRSHUăPXúFKLLVXSHUILFLDOLDLVSDWHOXL
B. La diferite niveluri HVWHGH]YROWDWăXQLIRUP
C. (VWHUHSUH]HQWDWăGH GRXăIRLĠHFDUHIRUPHD]ăWHDFă pentru m.erector spinae.
D. 3HPDUJLQHDODWHUDOăDPEHOHIRLĠHGHYLQFRDOHVFHQWH
E. )RLĠDSURIXQGăVHSDUăPHUHFWRUVSLQDHGH m.patrat lombar.

226 227
30. 0XúFKLLDEGRPHQXOXL:
A. 3HUHWHOHDQWHURODWHUDOHVWHIRUPDWGLQPXúFKLDXWRKWRQL
B. FiecDUHPXúFKLODWDUHSRUĠLXQHPXVFXODUăúLDSRQHXUR]ă
C. 3DUWLFLSăla LQVSLUDĠLH
D. Contribuie la fixarea organelor interne.
E. $XDFĠLXQHDVXSUDFRORDQHLYHUWHEUDOH
31. 0XúFKLXOREOLFH[WHUQDODEGRPHQXOXL:
A. 3RUQHúWHGHSHIDĠDH[WHUQăDXOWLPLORU-8 coaste.
B. Fasciculele OXLSRVWHULRDUHDXSR]LĠLH DSURDSHYHUWLFDOăúLVHiQVHUăSHEX]DLQWHUQăD
crestei iliace.
C. 'LQĠLLOXLVHLQWHUFDOHD]ăFXGLQĠLLPGLQĠDWDQWHULRUúLDi m. mare dorsal.
D. /LJDPHQWXOLQJKLQDOVHUDFRUGHD]ăvQWUHVSLQDLOLDFăLQIHULRDUăúLWXEHUFXOXl pubian.
E. /DQLYHOXOLQVHUĠLHLSHRVul pubian aponeuroza lui IRUPHD]ăGRLSHGXQFXOLVXSHULRUúL
inferior.

32. 0XúFKLXOREOLFLQWHUQDODEGRPHQXOXL:
A. 'LIHUăGHFHOH[WHUQSULQVLWXDĠLHGLPHQVLXQLúLGLUHFĠLDfasciculelor.
B. Ìúi ia originea de la coastele iQIHULRDUHIDVFLDWRUDFRORPEDUăFUHDVWDLOLRQXOXLVSLQD
LOLDFăDQWHURVXSHULRDUăúLSRUĠLXQHDODWHUDOăDOLJDPHQWXOXLLQJKLQDO
C. Fasciculele SRVWHURVXSHULRDUHWUHFGHMRVvQVXVúLVHiQVHUăSHFDUWLODMHOHFRDVWHORU
inferioare.
D. Aponeuroza lui se împarte în GRXăIRLĠHFHFXSULQGPGUHSWDEGRPLQDOSHWRDWăvQWLQGHUHD
lui.
E. )DVFLFXOHOHLQIHULRDUHvPSUHXQăFXFHOHGHYLDWHGHODPREOLFH[WHUQIRUPHD]ăPOHYDWRU
al testiculului.

33. 0XúFKLXOWUDQVYHUV al abdomenului:


A. Este compus dintr-RSDUWHPXVFXODUăúLGRXăDSRQHXURWLFHDQWHULRDUăúLSRVWHULRDUă
B. 3RUQHúWHGHODFRDVWHOHLQIHULRDUHIDVFLDWRUDFRORPEDUăFUHDVWDLOLRQXOXLúLSRUĠLXQHD
ODWHUDOăDOLJDPHQWXOXLLQJKLQDO
C. /DPDUJLQHDODWHUDOăDPGUHSWDEGRPLQDODSRQHXUR]DOXLVHvPSDUWHvQGRXăIRLĠH
D. 2/3 superiRDUHDOHDSRQHXUR]HLvPSUHXQăFXIRLĠDSRVWHULRDUăDDSRQHXUR]HLREOLFXOXL
LQWHUQIRUPHD]ăODPDSRVWHULRDUăDWHFLLPGUHSWDEGRPLQDO
E. /LQLDFRQYH[ăGHWUHFHUHa fibrelor musculare în ceOHDSRQHXURWLFHVHQXPHúWHOLQLH
DUFXDWă

34. 0XúFKLXOGUHSWDEGRPLQal:
A. ÌúLLDRULJLQHa GHSHFUHDVWDSXELDQăúLGHSHVLPIL]DSXELDQă
B. Se iQVHUăSHIDĠDLQWHUQăD[LIRLGXOXLúLIHĠHOHLQWHUQHDOHFDUWLODMHORUFRVWDOH9-VII.
C. &HLGRLGUHSĠLDEGRPLQDOLVXQWVHSDUDĠLSULQWU-XQUDIHXWHQGLQRVQXPLWOLQLDVHPLOXQDUă
D. Este cuprins în teaca m.drept abdominal.
E. )DĠDOXLSRVWHULRDUăDGHUăLQWLPODWHDFă.

35. 7HDFDPXúFKLXOXLUHFWDEGRPLQDOHVWHIRUPDWăGLQ
A. M. oblic abdominal intern
%/LQLDDOEă
&/DPHOHOHDSRQHXUR]HLPXúFKLXOXLREOLFDEGRPLQDOLQWHUQ
D. Aponeuroza m. oblic abdominal extern
($SRQHXUR]DPXúFKLXOXLWUDQVYHUVDEGRPLQDO

228 227
36. Canalul inghinal:
A. 3HUHWHOHLQIHULRUUHSUH]LQWăPDUJLQHDLQIHULRDUăDDSRQHXUR]HLPREOLFLQWHUQ
B. Peretele posterior, format de fascia transversă HVWHvQWăULWGHOLJ,QWHUIRYHRODU
Hesselbach, lig. rHIOH[OLJ+HQOHúLWHQGRQXOFRQMXQFW
C. 7HQGRQXOFRQMXQFWVHORFDOL]HD]ăvQSDUWHDODWHUDOăDSHUHWHOXLVXSHULRUDOFDQDOXOXL
inghinal.
D. Inelul inghinal superficial este delimitat de stâlpii aponeurozei oblicului extern, fibrele
LQWHUFUXUDOHúLOLJUeflex.
E. &DQDOXOLQJKLQDOODIHPHLHVWHPDLVFXUWúLPDLODUJ
37. Inelele inghinale:
A. Localizarea inelului profund corespunde fosei inghinale mediale.
B. La femei sunt mai largi.
C. La nivelul inelului profund are loc trecerea fasciei transversale în fascia spermDWLFă
LQWHUQă
D. /DEăUEDĠLODQLYHOXOLQHOXOXLVXSHUILFLDOGHVHRULVHDIOăREXOăJUăVRDVă
E. Posterior, inelul superficial este format din fibrele ligamentului reflex, provenite din
DSRQHXUR]DREOLFXOXLH[WHUQGLQSDUWHDRSXVă

38. Fosele inghinale:


A. Sunt 6 GHSUHVLXQLGHWHUPLQDWHGHSUH]HQĠDXQRUSOLFLSHULWRQHDOH
B. 3OLFDXPELOLFDOăPHGLDQăVHvQWLQGHGHODXPELOLFODYkUIXOYH]LFLLXULQDUH
C. )RVDVXSUDYH]LFDOăFRUăVSXQGHLQHOXOXLLQJKLQDOVXSHUILFLDO
D. )RVDLQJKLQDOăODWHUDOăHVWHGHOLPLWDWăGHSOLFele ombiliFDOHPHGLDOHúLODWHUDOH
E. )RVDLQJKLQDOăPHGLDOăUăVSXQGHSHUHWHOXLSRVWHULRUDOFDQDOXOXLLQJKLQDO

39. Fasciile abdomenului:


A. )DVFLDVXSHUILFLDOăHVWHGH]YROWDWăPDLELQHvQSRUĠLXQLOHHLVXSHULRDUH
B. )DVFLDSURSULHIRUPHD]ăIRLĠHFHDPDLGH]YROWDWăGLQHOHWDSHWHD]ăPREOLFLQWHUQ
C. )RLĠDVXSHUILFLDOăDIDVFLHLSURSULLVHSUHOXQJHúWHvQIDVFLDPOHYDWRUDOWHVWLFXOXOXL
D. )DVFLDWUDQVYHUVDOăHVWHRSRUĠLXQHDIDVFLHLHQGRDEGRPLQDOH
E. )DVFLDWUDQVYHUVDOăHVWHIRUWLILFDWăvQSRUĠLXQHa LQIHULRDUăDOLQLHLDObe de fibre
longitudinale.

,,$VRFLDĠLQRĠLXQLOHGLQFRORDQDQXPHULFăFXFHOHGLQFRORDQDDOIDEHWLFă
QRWDĠLúLDUJXPHQWDĠLUăVSXQVXULOHFRUHFWH

40.Triunghiul lombocostal Locuri slabe ale diafragmului


41. Tetragonul Grynfelt Locuri slabe ale peretelui
426SDĠLXOdintre fasciculele sternale ale abdominal anterior
diafragmului Locuri slabe ale peretelui
43. Triunghiul sternocostal abdominal posterior
44/LQLDVHPLOXQDUă
45+LDWXODRUWLFGXSăGHDQL
46.Triunghiul Petit
47)DVFLDWUDQVYHUVDOădiQWUHOLJ+HQOHúL
lig. interfoveolar
48. Triunghiul Volânski
49/LQLDDUFXDWă

228 229
0XúFKLLPHPEUXOXLVXSHULRU
I. 6HOHFWDĠLúLQRWDĠLDILUPDĠLLOHFRUHFWHDUJXPHQWDĠLUăVSXQVXULOH

50. *UXSXOPXúFKLORUFHQWXULLVFDSXODUHLQFOXGH
A. M. levator al scapulei
B. M. supraspinos
C. M. deltoid
D. M. pectoral mic
E. M. subscapular

51. Originea m. deltoid:


A. 7UHLPHDODWHUDOăDFODYLFXOHL
B. Colul chirurgical al humerusului
C. Acromionul
D. Spina scapulei
E. Unghiul superior al scapulei
52. 0XúFKLXOVXEVFDSXODU
A. 2FXSăIRVDVXEVFDSXODUă
B. 7UHFHSRVWHULRUGHFDSVXODDUWLFXODĠLHLVFDSXORKXPHUDOH
C. 7HQGRQXOOXLHVWHVHSDUDWGHFDSVXODDUWLFXODĠLHLXPăUXOXLSULQWU-REXUVă
D. Este antagonistul m.supraspinos.
E. 7HQGRQXOOXLDGHUăVWUkQVODFDSVXODDUWLFXODĠLHLXPăUXOXL
53. PHUHWHOHSRVWHULRUDOFDYLWDĠLLD[LODUHHVWHFRQVWLWXLWGLQ
A. M. trapez
B. M. marele dorsal
C.M. infraspinos
D.M. subscapular
E.M. rotund mare

54. 3HUHWHOHPHGLDODOFDYLWăĠLLD[LODUHHVWHIRUPDWGH
$0GLQĠDWPHGLDO
%0GLQĠDWSRVWHULRULQIHULRU
&0GLQĠDWDQWHULRU
D. M. romboid mare
(0GLQĠDWSRVWHULRUVXSHULRU

55. 3HUHWHOHDQWHULRUDOFDYLWDĠLLD[LODUHHVWHFRQVWLWXLWGLQ
A.M. deltoid
B.M. pectoral mare
C.M. pectoral anterior
D.M. pectoral mic
E.M. biceps brahial

56. Peretele lateral aOFDYLWDĠLLD[LODUHHVWHFRQVWLWXLWGLQ


A.M. triceps brahial
B.M. pectoral mic
C.M. biceps brahial
'0GLQĠDWDQWHULRU
E.M. coracobrahial

230
229
57. Orificiul trilater este delimitat de :
A. Tendonul capului lung al muúchiului biceps brahial
B. Tendonul capulXLOXQJDOPXúchiului triceps brahial
C. M. rotund mare
D. M. infraspinos
E.M. subscapular
58. Orificiul patrulater este delimitat de :
A.Tendonul capului lung al m. biceps brahial
B. Humerus
C.M. infraspinos
D.M. subscapular
E.M. rotund mare

59. Pe perHWHOHDQWHULRUDOFDYLWDĠLLD[LODUHVHGLVWLQJ
A. Trigonul omoclavicular
B. Trigonul clavipectoral
C. Trigonul deltoideopectoral
D. Trigonul suprapectoral
E. Trigonul subpectoral
60. )XQFĠLLOHPXúFKLORUDQWHULRULDLEUDĠXOXLVHUH]XPăOD
A. Extensia în DUWLFXODĠLDXPăUXOXL
%)OH[LDvQDUWLFXODĠLDFRWXOXL
&$EGXFĠLDvQDUWLFXODĠLDXPăUXOXL
')OH[LDDQWHULRDUăDEUDĠXOXL
(5RWLUHDEUDĠXOXL
61. 0XúFKLLJUXSXOXLSRVWHULRUDOEUDĠXOXLHIHFWXHD]ă
$$GGXFĠLDEUDĠXOXL
%([WHQVLDvQDUWLFXODĠLDXPăUXOXL
C.$QWHIOH[LDEUDĠXOXL
'([WHQVLDvQDUWLFXODĠLDFRWXOXL
()OH[LDvQDUWLFXODĠLDFRWXOXL
62. )RVDFXELWDOăHVWHGHOLPLWDWăGH
A.M. coracobrahial
B.M. brahial
C.M. brahioradial
D.M. supinator
E.M. pronator patrat
63. ùDQĠXOFXELWDODQWHULRUODWHUDOHVWHGHlimitat de :
A. M. biceps brahial
B.M. brahial
C.M. triceps brahial
D.M. brahioradial
E.M. pronator rotund
64. ùDQĠul cubital anterior medial este delimitat de :
A.M. coracobrahial
B.M. brahial
C.M. supinator
D.M. brahioradial
E.M. pronator rotund

230 231
65. ùaQĠXOUDGLDOHVWHGHOLPLWDWGH
A.M. flexor superficial al degetelor
B.M. flexor ulnar al carpului
C.M. flexor radial al carpului
D.M. palmar lung
E.M. brahioradial

66. ùDQĠXOPHGLDQHVWHGHOLPLWDWGH
A.M. flexor profund al degetelor
B.M. palmar lung
C.M. flexor radial al carpului
D.M. flexor ulnar al carpului
E.M. flexor superficial al degetelor

67. ùDQĠXOXOQDUHVWHGHOLPLWDWGH
A.M. flexor lung al policelui
B.M. flexor profund al policelui
C.M. flexor ulnar al carpului
D.M. pronator patrat
E.M. flexor superficial al degetelor
68. Sub retinaculul extensoriloULQUHJLXQHDFDUSLDQăVHDIOă
A. Canale pentru nervi
B. SpaĠii pentru artere
C. Teci sinoviale pentru tendoanele muúchilor lungi ai antebratului
D. Burse sinoviale
E. Teci fibroase pentru vaVHOLPIDWLFHúLYHQH

69. 0XúFKLLPâiQLLHPLQHQĠa tenară


A. 6HGLVWLQJPXúFKLLSDOPDULGRUVDOLúLLQWHURVRúL
B. 0XúFKLLHPLQHQĠHLWHQDUHVXQWVLWXDĠL în trei planuri.
C. &HOPDLSURIXQGPXúFKLGLQJUXSXOWHQDUHVWHPRSR]DQWDOSROLFHOXOXL
D. 7RĠLPXúFKLLHPLQHQĠHLWHQDUHFXH[FHSĠLDFHOXLDGGXFWRUDOSROLFHOXOXLLDXRULJLQH
pe rândul proximal al oaselor carpiene.
E. M.opozant al policelului se iQVHUăSHSULPXORVPHWDFDUSLDQ

70. 0XúFKLLHPLQHQĠHLKLSRWHQDUH:
A. 6XQWvQQXPăUGHSDWUX
B. M.palmar scurt este inconstant.
C. Cel mai superficial este opozantul degetului mic.
D. CXH[FHSĠLDSDOPDUului VFXUWvúLLDXRULJLQHa de pe retinaculul flexorilor, osul
SL]LIRUPúLRVXOFXFkUOLJ
E. 7RĠLPXúFKLLKLSRWHQDULVHiQVHUăSHIDODQJDSUR[LPDOăDGHJHWXOXLPLF

71. Fasciile membrului superior :


A. ÌQUHJLXQHDXPăUXOXLVHGLVWLQJIDVFLLOHVXSUDVFDSXODUăúLVXEVFDSXODUă
B. )DVFLDLQIUDVSLQRDVăVHvPSDUWHvQIRLĠHFDUHvQYelesc deltoidul.
C. De la IDVFLDEUDKLDOăSRUQHVFVHSWe LQWHUPXVFXODUHDQWHULRUúLSRVWHULRU
D. 3RUĠLXQHDGLVWDOăDIDVFLHLDQWHEUDĠXOXLIRUPHD]ăUHWLQDFXOH
E. ÎQUHJLXQHDDQWHEUDĠXOXLH[LVWă GRXăORMHPXVFXODUHDQWHULRDUăúLSRVWHULRDUă

232 231
72. )DVFLLOHúLDSRQHXUR]HOHPkinii:
A. )DVFLDGRUVDOăHVWHFXPXOWPDLVXEĠLUHGHFâWFHDSDOPDUă
B. 6SDĠLXOGLQWUHHPLQHQĠHle WHQDUăúLKLSRWHQDUăHVWHRFXSDWGHDSRQHXUR]DSDOPDUă
C. $SRQHXUR]DSDOPDUăHVWHIRUPDWăGLQILEUHORQJLWXGLQDOHúLWUDQVYHUVDOH
D. /DED]DRDVHORUPHWDFDUSLHQHILEUHOHWUDQVYHUVDOHDOHDSRQHXUR]HLSDOPDUHIRUPHD]ă
lig.metacarpian superficial.
E. 'HODSRUĠLXQLOHPHGLDOăúLODWHUDOăDOHIDVFLHLSDOPDUHSRUQHVFfascicule care se
iQVHUăSHIDVFLDPXúFKLORULQWHURVRúL
73. Retinaculele membrului superior :
A. Retinaculul flexorilor VHH[WLQGHGHODRDVHOHSL]LIRUPúLcel FXFkUOLJSkQăODVFDIRLG
úLWUDSH]RLG
B. Retinaculul flexorilor WUDQVIRUPăúDQĠXOFDUSDOvQFDQDOXOFDUSDO
C. Prin canalul carpal trec 2 teci sinoviale.
D. Fasciculele retinaculului flexorilor VHGHGXEOHD]ăODWHUDOúLPHGLDOIRUPkQGFDQDOHOH
UDGLDOúLXOQDU ale carpului.
E. 6SDĠLXOVXEUHWLQDFXOXOH[WHQVRUilor este divizat în 4 canale.
74. Canalul caUSDOFRQĠLQHWHFLVLQRYLDOHSHQWUX
A. Tendonul m. flexor ulnar al carpului
B. THQGRDQHOHIOH[RULORUVXSHUILFLDOúLSURIXQGDi degetelor
C. Tendonul m. flexor radial al carpului
D. Tendonul m. flexor lung al policelui
E. Tendonul abductorului lung al policelui
75. 7RSRJUDILDEUDĠXOXL :
A. &DQDOXOQHUYXOXLUDGLDOVHDIOăvQWUHKXPHUXVúLELFHSVXOEUDKLDO
B. Orificiul de iQWUDUHDOFDQDOXOXLUDGLDOVHORFDOL]HD]ăGLQSDUWHDPHGLDOăDEUDĠXOXL
între treimile lui superLRDUăúLPHGLH
C. Limitele orificiului de intrare în canalul radial sunt formate de humerus, capul medial
úLFHOODWHUDODOWULFHSVXOXLEUDKLDO
D. Prin canalul nervului UDGLDOWUHFQHUYXOUDGLDODUWHUDúLYHQDRPRQLPH
E. ùDQĠXULOHELFLSLWDOHVHSDUăUHJLXQHDDQWHULRDUăDEUDĠXOXLGHFHDSRVWHULRDUă

$VRFLDĠLQRĠLXQLOHGLQFRORDQDQXPHULFăFXFHOHGLQFRORDQDDOIDEHWLFă
QRWDĠLúLDUJXPHQWDĠLUăVSXQVXULOHFRUHFWH
76. M.deltoid 0HQĠLQe capul humeral în
77. M.subscapular cavitatea gleQRLGă
78. M.supaspinos RotHúWH EUDĠXOvQăXQWUX
79. M.rotund mare Abduce EUDĠXO
80. M.rotund mic RotHúWH EUDĠXOvQDIDUă
81. M.infraspinos
82. M.deltoid
83. M. coracobrahial $GHUăODFDSVXODDUWLFXODUăD
84. M.subscapular XPăUXOXL
85. M.brahial $GHUăODFDSVXODDUWLFXODUăD
86. M.biceps brahial cotului.
87. M.supaspinos Nu DGHUăODFDSVXOHOHDUWLFXODUH
88. M.rotund mare
89. M.triceps brahial
90. M.rotund mic
91. M.infraspinos

232 233
0XúFKLL membrului inferior

,6HOHFWDĠLúLQRWDĠLDILUPDĠLLOHFRUHFWHDUJXPHQWDĠLUăVSXQVXrile.
92. 0XúFKLLED]LQXOXL:
A. 6XQWIOH[RULH[WHQVRULURWDWRULDEGXFWRULúLDGGXFWRULDLcoapsei.
B. )RUPHD]ăvQMXUXODUWLFXODĠLHLFR[RIHPXUDOHFHDPDLSXWHUQLFăDJORPHUDUH
PXVFXODUăDFRUSXOXL
C. Sunt biarticulari.
D. 6HFODVLILFăvQPHGLDOLúLODWHrali.
E. Se iQVHUăSHHSLIL]DSUR[LPDOăDIHPXUXOXL
93. Fasciile bazinului:
0SVRDVHVWHDFRSHULWGHIDVFLDORPEDUă
B. )DVFLDLOLDFăUHSUH]LQWăFRQWLQXDUHDIDVFLHLORPEDUH
C. 3RUĠLXQHDODWHUDOăDIDVFLHLODWHVHvQGHSăUWHD]ăGHOLJLQJKLQDOIRUPând arcul
iliopectineu.
D. )DVFLDJOXWHDOăVHSDUăPPJOXWHLGHDOĠLPXúFKLH[WHUQLDi bazinului.
E. 'LVWDOIDVFLDJOXWHDOăse FRQWLQXăvQIDVFLDODWăDFRDSVHL
94. Prin orificiul sciatic mare trece :
A.M. obturator intern
B.M. obturator extern
C.M. gluteu mic
D.M. piriform
E.M. iliopsoas
95. Prin orificiul sciatic mic trece :
A.M. piriform
B.M. obturator intern
C.M. obturator extern
D.Mm. gemeni
E. M. psoas mic
96. Canalul obturator este delimitat de:
M.obturator extern
B. M.pectineu
C. Orificiul obturator
D. ùDQWXOREWXUDWRU
E. M.obturator intern

97. Lacuna vasculară VHVHSDUăGHFHDPXVFXODUăSULQ


A.Lig. lacunar
B.Lig. inghinal
C.Lig. reflex
D.Arcul iliopectineu
()DVFLDWUDQVYHUVă

98 0XúFKLLDQWHULRULDi coapsei:
A. Sunt uniartuculari
B. )OHFWHD]ăFRDSVDúLJDPED
C. Sunt cei mai lungi din corpul omului
D. )RUPHD]ăun tendon comun.
E. M.cvadriceps se iQVHUăSHURWXOă.

234 233
99 0XúFKLLSRVWHULRULDi coapsei:
A. Sunt extensori ai coapsei.
B. )OHFWHD]ăJDPED
C. Au origine pe osul iliac.
D. 0ELFHSVDOIHPXUXOXLúLPVHPLWHQGLQRV VXQWURWDWRULVLQHUJLúWLDi gambei.
E. 7RĠLSDUWLFLSăla formarea pes anserinus profundus.
100 0XúFKLLPHGLDOLDi coapsei:
A. 7RĠLVXQWDGGXFWRULDi coapsei.
B. 7RĠLVHiQVHUăSHOLQLDDVSHUDIHPRULV
C. ÌúLLDXRULJLQHa de pe osul pubis.
D. 0JUDĠLRVSDUWLFLSăla formarea pes anserinus superficialis.
E. 0SHFWLQHXSDUWLFLSăODIOH[LDúLDEGXFHUHDFRDSVHL
101 )DVFLDODWă:
A. 3RUĠLXQHDHLSRVWHULRDUăare un caracter tendinos.
B. ÌQSRUĠLXQHDDQWHURVXSHULRDUăVHvPSDUWHvQGRXăIRLĠH
C. /DPHODSURIXQGăHVWHSHUIRUDWăGHKLDWXOVDfen.
D. )RUPHD]ăWHFLSHQWUXFYDGULFHSVúLDGGXFWRUXOPDUH
E. 3RUĠLXQHDei ODWHUDOăVHQXPHúWHWUDFWLOLRWLELDO
102 Canalul adductor este delimitat de :
A.M. adductor mic
B.M. adductor mare
C.M. adductor lung
D.M. vast medial
E.M. vast lateral

103 Canalului femuropopliteu i se disting:


A. 2 pereĠi
%SHUHĠi
C. 2 orificii
D. 3 orificii
E. 2 fisuri
104 Triunghiul femural este delimitat de:
A. M.pectineu
B. M.croitor
C. M.adductor mare
D. Lig.inghinal
E. M.adductor lung
105 În triunghiul femural se deschid :
A. Canalul inghinal
B. Canalul femural
C. Canalul obturator
D. Canalul adductor
E. Canalul cruropopliteu
106 LacunDPXVFXODUăHVWHGHOLPLWDWăGH
A. M. iliopsoas
B. M. croitor
C. Osul coxal
D. Lig. lacunar
E. Arcul iliopectineu

234 235
107 LacunDYDVFXODUăHVWHGHOLPLWDWăGe :
A. Vena femurală
B. M. psoas mare
C. Lig. inghinal
D. Lig. pectineal
E. Arcul iliopectineu
108 Inelul femural este delimitat de :
A. Arcul iliopectineu
B. Lig. inghinal
C. Artera femurală
D. Lig. lacunar
E. Lig. pectineal
109 Canalul femural are:
A. 2 pereĠi
%SHUHĠi
&SHUHĠi
D. 2 inele
E. 1 sept
110 FoVDSRSOLWHHHVWHGHOLPLWDWăGH
A. M. plantar
B. M. gastrocnemian
C. M. biceps al coapsei
D. M. soleu
E. M. semimembranos
111 0XúFKLLJDPEHL:
A. 6XQWJUXSDĠLVLPHWULFvQMXUXORDVHORU
B. 6XQWVLWXDĠi în 3 loje separate.
C. 0DMRULWDWHDWHQGRDQHORUORUvúLVFKLPEăGLUHFĠLD
D. 0XúFKLLJUXSXOXLDQWHULRUVXQWH[WHQVRUL ai gambei.
E. În majoritatea lor sunt multiarticulari.

112 3HURQLHUXODOWUHLOHDUHSUH]LQWăRSRUĠLXQHDPXúFKLXOXL
A. Tibial anterior
B. Peronier lung
C. Tibial posterior
D. Peronier scurt
E. Extensor lung al degetelor
113 &RPSRQHQWHOHODQĠXOXLDQWLJUDYLWDĠLRQDO:
A. M.iliac
B. M.gluteu mare
C. M.popliteu
D. M.triceps sural
E. M.cvadriceps al coapsei
114 Fascia gambei:
A. &RQFUHúWHFXFUHDVWDDQWHULRDUăúLIDĠDPHGLDOăDWLELHi.
B. Trimite 2 septe intermusculare: medial úLODWHUDO
C. )RUPHD]ăUHWLQDFXOHDOIOH[RULORUúLDOH[WHQVRULORU
D. /DPHODHLSURIXQGăVHSDUăPJDVWURFQHPLDQGHFHOVROHar.
E. 6SDĠLXOdintre tendonul lui $KLOHúLODPHODSURIXQGăDIDVFLHLFRQĠLQHĠHVXW celuloadipos.

236 235
115 Retinaculele, formate de fascia crurală
A. Retinaculul extensorilor úLFHOal flexorilor au câWHGRXăSRUĠLXQLVXSHULRDUăúLLQIHULRDUă
B. Sub retinaculul flexorilor VHIRUPHD]ăGRXăcanale osteofibroase.
C. 9DVHOHWLELDOHSRVWHULRDUHúLQHUYXOWLELDOWrec printr-o WHDFă VHSDUDWă
D. 3RVWHULRUGHPDOHRODODWHUDOăVHIRUPHD]ăGRXăUHWLQDFXOHSHURQLHUH
E. Sub retinaculul inferior aOH[WHQVRULORUVHDIOăFDQDOHRVWHRILEURDVH

116 Canalul musculoperonier superior este format de :


A.Tibie
%)LEXOă
C.M. solear
D.M. peronier lung
E.M. flexor lung al halucelui
117 Canalul musculoperonier inferior este format de :
A.M. tibial posterior
%)LEXOă
C.M. flexor lung al halucelui
D.M. peronier lung
(0SHURQHXVWHUĠLXV

118 Canalul cruropopliteu este format de :


A.Tibie
B.M. tibial anterior
C.M. gastrocnemian
D.M. solear
E.M. tibial posterior

,,$VRFLDĠLQRĠLXQLOHGLQFRORDQDQXPHULFăFXFHOHGLQFRORDQDDOIDEHWLFă
QRWDĠLúLDUJXPHQWDĠLUăVSXQVXULOHFRUHFWH

0XúFKLLFRDSVHL: Grup muscular :


119. Semimembranos A. Medial
120. Cvadriceps B. Anterior
121.Biceps femural C. Posterior
122. Semitendinos
123. Pectinat
124. *UDĠLRV
125. Croitor
126. Adductor mare
0XúFKLLED]LQXOXL: $FĠLXQHD:
127. Gluteu mare A. Flexia coapsei
128. Piriform B. Extensia coapsei
129. Obturator intern C. $EGXFĠLDFRDSVHL
130. Gluteu mediu D. $GGXFĠLDFRDSVHL
131. Patrat al femurului E. 5RWDĠLDcoapsei vQăXQWUX
132. Gemeni F. 5RWDĠLDcoapsei vQDIDUă
133. Obturator extern
134. Iliopsoas
135. Tensor al fasciei late

236 237
)RUPDĠLXQLWRSRJUDILFe : Localizarea :
136. Canalul Pirogov A. &RDSVă
137. Canalul femural B. *DPEă
138. Canalul cruropopliteu C. Picior
139. Hiatul safen
140. Canalul adductor
141. Triunghiul Scarpa

0XúFKLLFDSXOXLúLJkWXOXL
,6HOHFWDĠLúLQRWDĠLDILUPDĠLLOHFRUHFWHDUJXPHQWDĠLUăVSXQVXULOH
142. &ODVLILFDUHDPXúFKLORUFDSXOXL:
A. 0XúFKLLSHQDĠi
%0XúFKLLPLPLFL
&0XúFKLLELYHQWHUL
'0XúFKLLPDVWLFDWRUL
(0XúFKLLDQWDJRQLúWL

143. ,QVHUĠLDPXúFKLORUPLPLFL:
A. ÌQIDVFLDVXSHUILFLDOă
B. În aponeuroze
C. În piele
D. Pe ligamente
(3HWHQGRDQHOHPXúFKLORUPDVWLFDWRUL

144. ,QVHUĠLDPXúFKLORUPDVWLFDWRUL:
$3HPD[LOă
B. Pe osul occipital
&3HPDQGLEXOă
D. Pe osul hioid
E. Pe osul temporal
145. 0XúFKLLFDSXOXLDFRSHULĠLGH fascii:
A. M.temporal
B. M.mental
C. M.buccinator
D. M.pterigoid lateral
E. M.maseter
146. &ODVLILFDUHDPXúFKLORUJkWXOXL:
A. Muúchi anteriori
%0Xúchii superficiali
C. MXúchi scurĠi
'0Xúchi profunzi
(0Xúchi fusiformi

147. 0XúFKi superficiali ai gâtului sunt :


A. Suprahioidienii
B. Scalenii
C. Sternocleidomastoidianul
D. M. lung al gâtului
E. M. pielos al gâtului

238 237
148. Triunghiul medial al gâtului include triunghiurile :
A. Clavipectoral
B. Submandibular
C. Carotid
D. Omoclavicular
E. Omotraheal
149. *UXSXOPXúFKLORUSURIunzi ai gâtului include :
A. Muschii infrahioidieni
%0XVFKLLOXQJLDOFDSXOXLúLDOJkWXOXL
C. Muschii scaleni
D. Muschiul digastric
E. Muschii drepĠi anterior si lateral

150. Triunghiul lateral al gâtului include :


A. Trigonul omohioidian
B. Trigonul omotrapezoidian
C. Trigonul clavipectoral
D. Trigonul omoclavicular
E. Trigonul omotraheal

151. Spatii interfasciale ale gâtului sunt :


A. Interscalen
B. Interaponeurotic suprasternal
C. Antescalen
D. Previsceral
E. Retrovisceral
152. 6SDĠLXOLQWHUVFDOHQHVWHGHOLPLWDWGH:
A. M. sternocleidomastoidian úLVFDOHQDQWHULRU
B. 0VFDOHQPHGLXúLPOXQJDOJkWXOXL
C. 0PVFDOHQLDQWHULRUúLPHGLX
D. 0PVFDOHQLPHGLXúLSRVWHULRU
E. 0VFDOHQSRVWHULRUúLPOXQJDOJkWXOXL

238 239
Bibliografia UHFRPDQGDWă

6XUVHGHED]ă

1. &DWHUHQLXF , ùWHIDQHĠ 0 *ORED / /XSDúFX 7 %DWkU ' 7LWRY 7 %ROGXPD '
&XOHJHUHGHVFKHPHODDQDWRPLDRPXOXL&KLúLQăX
2. /XSDúFX 7 1RĠLXQL GH DQDWRPLH SH YLX SHQWUX OXFUăULOH GH ODERUDWRU OD DQDWRPLD
aparatului locomotor (manuscris).
3. Papilian V. Anatomia omului, v. I, Aparatul locomotor%XFXUHúWL
4. Sapin M. R. Anatomia omuluiY,&KLúLQăX
5. Sinelnicov R. D., Sinelnicov Ia. R. Atlas de anatomia omului, v. I (oricare ed.)
6. ùWHIDQHĠ0. Anatomia omuluiY,&KLúLQăX
7. Materialele prelegerilor (conspect).

Surse suplimentare

1. Andronescu A. Anatomia copilului%XFXUHúWL


2. Bordei P., Ulmeanu D. $QDWRPLDGHVFULSWLYăDPHPEUXOXLVXSHULRU&RQVWDQĠD
3. Bordei P., Ulmeanu D. Anatomia descrLSWLYăDPHPEUXOXLLQIHULRU&RQVWDQĠD
4. &HUEXOHVFX & ,IULP 0 0DURú 7 1LFXOHVFX *K. $WODV GH DQDWRPLH XPDQă. v. I,
%XFXUHúWL
5. Diaconescu N., Rottenberg N., Niculescu V. 1RĠLXQL GH DQDWRPLH SUDFWLFă 7LPLúRDUD
1979.
6. Drake R. L. Vogl W., Mitchell A. W. M. Gray´s Anatomy for Students. Philadelphia.
Toronto, 2005.
7. Drake R. L. Vogl A.W., Mitchell A. W. M., Tibbitts R.M., Richardson P. E. Gray´s Atlas of
Anatomy. Elsevier, 2008.
8. Gray´s Anatomy, 39-th ed. Edinburgh... Toronto, 2005.
9. Gray´s Anatomy, 40-th ed. Edinburgh... Elsevier Limited, 2008.
10. Ifrim M., Niculescu Gh. Compendiu de anatomie%XFXUHúWL
11. ,IULP0$QGULHú9%UDWX'. Anatomia omului&KLúLQăX
12. Kahle W., Leonhardt H., Platzer W. Anatomie, apparel locomotor. v. I, Paris, 1982.
13. /kVHQNRY 1 . %XúNRYLFL 9 , Prives M. G. 0DQXDO GH DQDWRPLH QRUPDOă D RPXOXL.
&KLúLQăX
14. Lumley J. S. P. Surface Anatomy. Edinburgh... Toronto, 2002.
15. Moore K. L., Dalley A. F. Clinical oriented Anatomy. Philadelphia... Tokyo, 1999.
16. Niculescu V., IIULP0$QGULHú91LFXOHVFX0&. $QDWRPLDFDSXOXLúLJkWXOXL&KLúLQăX
2007.
17. ùWHIDQHĠ0ùWHIDQHĠ,&DWHUHQLXF, $QDWRPLDSUHYHQWLYăY,&KLúLQăX
18. ùWHIDQHĠ0ùWHIDQHĠ, Anatomiɟ SUHYHQWLYă&KLúLQăX
19. ɄɢɪɩɚɬɨɜɫɤɢɣɂȾȻɨɱɚɪɨɜȼə ɊɟɥɶɟɮɧɚɹɚɧɚɬɨɦɢɹɆ
20. ɄɪɚɟɜȺȼ ȺɧɚɬɨɦɢɹɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚɌ,Ɇ
21. ɉɪɢɜɟɫɆȽɅɵɫɟɧɤɨɜɇɄȻɭɲɤɨɜɢɱȼɇ ȺɧɚɬɨɦɢɹɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚɆ
22. ɋɚɩɢɧɆɊȻɢɥɢɱȽɅ ȺɧɚɬɨɦɢɹɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚɆ

240 239
CUPRINS

Lucrarea nr. 1...................................................................................................1


Lucrarea nr. 2...................................................................................................6
Lucrarea nr. 3...................................................................................................11
Lucrarea nr. 4...................................................................................................19
Lucrarea nr. 5...................................................................................................27
Lucrarea nr. 6...................................................................................................34
Lucrarea nr. 7...................................................................................................41
Lucrarea nr. 8...................................................................................................48
Lucrarea nr. 9...................................................................................................55
Lucrarea nr. 10.................................................................................................60
Lucrarea nr. 11.................................................................................................65
Lucrarea nr. 12.................................................................................................71
Lucrarea nr. 13.................................................................................................77
Lucrarea nr. 15.................................................................................................83
Lucrarea nr. 16.................................................................................................89
Lucrarea nr. 17.................................................................................................94
Lucrarea nr. 18.................................................................................................99
Lucrarea nr. 19.................................................................................................106
Lucrarea nr. 20.................................................................................................113
Lucrarea nr. 21.................................................................................................120
Lucrarea nr. 22.................................................................................................127
Lucrarea nr. 23.................................................................................................132
Lucrarea nr. 24.................................................................................................136
Lucrarea nr. 25.................................................................................................142
Lucrarea nr. 26.................................................................................................147
Lucrarea nr. 27.................................................................................................152
Lucrarea nr. 28.................................................................................................161
Lucrarea nr. 29.................................................................................................164
Lucrarea nr. 30.................................................................................................167
Lucrarea nr. 31.................................................................................................172
Anexa I. Chestionarul .....................................................................................176
Anexa II, Teste .................................................................................................190
%LEOLRJUDILDUHFRPDQGDWă................................................................................239

240

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