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AndreiRacautanu,anul3,Informatica(20082009)Proiectcurs,Reteledecalculatoare

Schema retelei

AndreiRacautanu,anul3,Informatica(20082009)Proiectcurs,Reteledecalculatoare

Subalocarea adresei IP

Plecand de la adresa de retea 157.183.0.0/16 se doreste a se obtine un numar


de 139 de subretele.
Adresa IP a retelei, 157.183.0.0, a fost identificata ca fiind de clasa B, astfel
primii 2 octeti corespund campului NetID, iar ultimii doi octeti corespund campului
HostID.
Pentru obtinerea celor 139 de retele este nevoie de imprumutarea a 8 biti din
campul HostID, astfel incat 2nrbi - 2 >=nrs, unde nrbi = numar de biti imprumutati, nrs =
numarul de subretele valide => 28 - >= 139 (256).
Cei 8 biti imprumutati sunt primii biti ai campului HostID, astfel incat adresa
initiala formata din 16 biti (NetID) + 16 biti (HostID) va fii impartita in felul urmator:
16 biti (NetID) + 8 biti (SubnetID) + 8 biti (HostID).
Adresele valide de subretea vor fii formate in modul urmator:

Primii 16 biti raman cei de la NetID


Urmatorii 8 biti vor identifica unic fiecare adresa de subretea, variind
intre 00000000 si 11111110 (se ia in considerare reteaua 0 datorita
cerintei)
Bitii de HostID vor fii toti 0 in cazul adresei de subretea.

Pentru gazdele de pe fiecare subretea raman disponibili 16-nrbiti = 8 biti,


rezultand astfel 28 2 = 254 adrese valide, cu o structura a celor 8 biti cuprinsa intre
00000001 si 11111110. Cele doua 2 combinatii excluse semnifica urmatoarele:

00000000 permite obtinerea adresei de subretea


11111111 permite obtinerea adresei de broadcast

Vom prezenta in urmatorul tabel adresele a 20 dintre cele 254 de subretele


valide, impreuna cu intervalele adreselor valide de host-uri pentru fiecare dintre ele,
masca de subretea si adresa de broadcast a subretelei.

AndreiRacautanu,anul3,Informatica(20082009)Proiectcurs,Reteledecalculatoare

Nr
crt
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
....
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Adresa
subretea
157.183.0.0
157.183.1.0
157.183.2.0
157.183.3.0
157.183.4.0
157.183.5.0
157.183.6.0
157.183.7.0
157.183.8.0
157.183.9.0

157.183.245.0
157.183.246.0
157.183.247.0
157.183.248.0
157.183.249.0
157.183.250.0
157.183.251.0
157.183.252.0
157.183.253.0
157.183.254.0

Interval adrese hosturi


157.183.0.1 157.183.1.1 157.183.2.1 157.183.3.1 157.183.4.1 157.183.5.1 157.183.6.1 157.183.7.1 157.183.8.1 157.183.9.1 .
157.183.245.1
157.183.246.1
157.183.247.1
157.183.248.1
157.183.249.1
157.183.250.1
157.183.251.1
157.183.252.1
157.183.253.1
157.183.254.1

157.183.0.254
157.183.1.254
157.183.2.254
157.183.3.254
157.183.4.254
157.183.5.254
157.183.6.254
157.183.7.254
157.183.8.254
157.183.9.254
-

157.183.245.254
157.183.246.254
157.183.247.254
157.183.248.254
157.183.249.254
157.183.250.254
157.183.251.254
157.183.252.254
157.183.253.254
157.183.254.254

Gradul de utilizare:
Gradutilizare = (NS * NHT)/NT
Unde :
-

NS numarul de sburetele valide


NHS numarul de hosturi pe subretea
NT numarul total de adrese IP de hosturi
Gradutilizare = (254 * 254) / 64770 = 0.99

Masca
subretea
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
.
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0

Adresa
broadcast
157.183.0.255
157.183.1.255
157.183.2.255
157.183.3.255
157.183.4.255
157.183.5.255
157.183.6.255
157.183.7.255
157.183.8.255
157.183.9.255

157.183.245.255
157.183.246.255
157.183.247.55
157.183.248.255
157.183.249.255
157.183.250.255
157.183.251.255
157.183.252.255
157.183.253.255
157.183.254.255

AndreiRacautanu,anul3,Informatica(20082009)Proiectcurs,Reteledecalculatoare

Topologia retelei

Pentru a obtine o configuratie cu 10 subretele s-au folosit:


-

Routere de tip ethernet2_slip8_gtwy 2 interfete ethernet si 8


interfete pentru linii seriale.
Caracteristici:
o The ethernet2_slip8_gtwy node model represents an IP-based gateway
supporting up to two Ethernet interfaces and up to 8 serial line interfaces
at a selectable data rate. IP packets arriving on any interface are routed to
the appropriate output interface based on their destination IP address. The
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) or the Open Shortest Path First
(OSPF) protocol may be used to automatically and dynamically create the
gateway's routing tables and select routes in an adaptive manner.

Legaturi PPP DS 3 intre routere (44.736 Mbps)

switch cu 16 porturi ethernet

Caracteristici:
The ethernet16_switch node model represents a switch supporting up
to 16 Ethernet interfaces. The switch implements the Spanning Tree
algorithm in order to ensure a loop free network topology. Switches
communicate with each other by sending Bridge Protocol Data Units
(BPDU's). Packets are received and processed by the switch based on
the current configuration of the spanning tree.
-

Legaturi 100BASET

Noduri 100BaseT_Lan

AndreiRacautanu,anul3,Informatica(20082009)Proiectcurs,Reteledecalculatoare

Caracteristici:
Use 100BaseT_LAN object to represent a Fast Ethernet LAN in a
switched topology. The object contains any number of clients as well
as one server. Client traffic can be directed to the internal server as
well as external servers.

Adresele interfetelor routerelor:


CONSTANTA:
IF9: 157.183.1.0/24 (subreteaua Public)
IF8: 157.183.2.0/24 (subreteaua Marketing)
IF5: 157.183.3.0/24 (subreteaua Contabilitate)
EFORIE NORD:
IF8: 157.183.4.0/24 (subreteaua NET_HOTEL_EN)
EFORIE SUD:
IF8: 157.183.5.0/24 (subreteaua NET_HOTEL_ES)
NEPTUN:
IF8: 157.183.6.0/24 (subreteaua NET_RESTAURANT)
IF9: 157.183.7.0/24 (subreteaua NET_HOTEL_NEPTUN)
MAMAIA:
IF8: 157.183.8.0/24 (subreteaua NET_HOTELMAM)
NAVODARI:
IF8: 157.183.10.0/24 (subreteaua NET_HOTELNAV)
IF9: 157.183.9.0/24 (subreteaua NET_COFFESHOP)

AndreiRacautanu,anul3,Informatica(20082009)Proiectcurs,Reteledecalculatoare

AndreiRacautanu,anul3,Informatica(20082009)Proiectcurs,Reteledecalculatoare

AndreiRacautanu,anul3,Informatica(20082009)Proiectcurs,Reteledecalculatoare

Lista cu adresele IP:

AndreiRacautanu,anul3,Informatica(20082009)Proiectcurs,Reteledecalculatoare

Experimentare RIP Failure

Duplicam scenariul actual, iar apoi adaugam din


Object Pallete->Utilities->Failure Recovery.

AndreiRacautanu,anul3,Informatica(20082009)Proiectcurs,Reteledecalculatoare

Apoi setam urmatoarele:

AndreiRacautanu,anul3,Informatica(20082009)Proiectcurs,Reteledecalculatoare

RIP vs RIP Failure

Traficul trimis:

AndreiRacautanu,anul3,Informatica(20082009)Proiectcurs,Reteledecalculatoare

Traficul primit:

Tabelele de rutare ale routerului Navodari in cazul RIP FAILURE:

AndreiRacautanu,anul3,Informatica(20082009)Proiectcurs,Reteledecalculatoare

Si in cazul RIP:

Vizualizarea rutelor: pentru vizualizarea rutelor intre 2 routere se pot genera Traffic
Demands. (Menu Protocols-IP-Demands-Create Traffic Demands)

AndreiRacautanu,anul3,Informatica(20082009)Proiectcurs,Reteledecalculatoare

Apoi se ruleaza simularea; din View alegem Demand Objects-Hide All. Apoi mergem la
Protocols IP Demands si selectam Display Routes for Configured Demands.

Repetam pasii de mai sus pentru scenariul RIP_Fail. Pentru obtinerea rutelor schimbate
trebuie sa mergem la Protocols-IP-Demands-Configure Start Time. In fereastra aparuta
setam timpul 400 sec si bifam All Demands.

AndreiRacautanu,anul3,Informatica(20082009)Proiectcurs,Reteledecalculatoare

Rezultatul:

Scenariul OSPF
Selectam scenariul RIP si il duplicam.
Pentru stabilirea costurilor vom lua in considerare urmatorul graf:

AndreiRacautanu,anul3,Informatica(20082009)Proiectcurs,Reteledecalculatoare

Apoi selectam toate legaturile de 5 si mergem la Protocols-IP-Routing-Configure


Interface Metric Information:

Repetam acest procedeu si pentru celelalte legaturi completand cu 100.000 in campul


Bandwidth. Vom crea Traffic Demands ca in simularea RIP.:

AndreiRacautanu,anul3,Informatica(20082009)Proiectcurs,Reteledecalculatoare

Apoi trebuie sa selectam protocolul de rutare (Protocols-IP-Routing-Configure Routing


Protocols):

Urmatorul pas este sa configuram simularea (Simulation-Configure Discrete Event


Simulation) si apasam Run.

Ca si in cazul RIP mergem la Protocols-IP-Demands-Display Routes for Configured


Demads.:

AndreiRacautanu,anul3,Informatica(20082009)Proiectcurs,Reteledecalculatoare

Pentru analiza tabelelor de rutare mergem la Results-Open Simulation Log:

Observam alegerea celei mai scurte rute dupa graful costurilor, spre deosebire
de cazul RIP.

AndreiRacautanu,anul3,Informatica(20082009)Proiectcurs,Reteledecalculatoare

Simularea traficului FTP,Telnet si HTTP

Adaugati din Object Palette, Internet Toolbox->Application Config si Profile


Config.
Faceti click drept pe Application config->Edit Attributes si setati in urmatorul fel:

Apoi selectati nodul Profile Config, faceti click dreapta si Edit Attributes si faceti
urmatoarele setari:

AndreiRacautanu,anul3,Informatica(20082009)Proiectcurs,Reteledecalculatoare

AndreiRacautanu,anul3,Informatica(20082009)Proiectcurs,Reteledecalculatoare

Ulterior faceti click drept pe subreteaua HOTELMAM->Edit Attributes si setati


astfel:

Faceti acelasi lucru si pentru NET_Restaurant.

AndreiRacautanu,anul3,Informatica(20082009)Proiectcurs,Reteledecalculatoare

Selectati statisticile pentru vizualizare : click drept pe spatiul de lucru->Choose


Individual Statistics->Link Statistics->Throughput(packets/sec)->OK.

Apoi Run Simulation. Setati Duration la 20 secunde si click pe Run.


Faceti click drept pe spatiul de lucru si View Results. Schimbati As Is cu Sample
Sum.

Bibliografie
1.K.Brown,L.Christianson,OPENTLabManualtoAccompanyDataandComputerCommunications,
PrenticeHall
2.D.E.Comer,ComputerNetworksandInternetswithInternetApplications,4thEdition,Pearson
PrenticeHall,2004.
3.J.F.KuroseandKeithW.Ross,SupplementtoComputerNetworking:ATopDownApproachFeaturing
theInternet,3rdedition.
4. J. Matthews, Computer Networking: Internet Protocols in Action, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005, from
http://pcl.cs.ucla.edu/projects/glomosim
6. E. Petac, note de curs, http://scdsd.bluepink.ro/cursuri
7. James F. Kurose, Pearson, Keith W. Ross, Addison-Wesley, Computer Networking: A Top-Down
Approach Featuring the Internet
*** http://www.opnet.com/university_program/teaching_with_opnet/