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257 (de) vizualizări696 paginiThis is a set of 82 selected articles published by Dr. Fran De Aquino along 20 years; all of them developed starting from the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity (first article). Together they provide the theoretical foundations for the Technology of Control of the Gravitational Energy. The author is Professor Emeritus of Physics of Maranhao State University, UEMA, and Titular Researcher (R) of National Institute for Space Research, INPE.

Oct 29, 2015

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This is a set of 82 selected articles published by Dr. Fran De Aquino along 20 years; all of them developed starting from the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity (first article). Together they provide the theoretical foundations for the Technology of Control of the Gravitational Energy. The author is Professor Emeritus of Physics of Maranhao State University, UEMA, and Titular Researcher (R) of National Institute for Space Research, INPE.

© All Rights Reserved

257 (de) vizualizări

This is a set of 82 selected articles published by Dr. Fran De Aquino along 20 years; all of them developed starting from the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity (first article). Together they provide the theoretical foundations for the Technology of Control of the Gravitational Energy. The author is Professor Emeritus of Physics of Maranhao State University, UEMA, and Titular Researcher (R) of National Institute for Space Research, INPE.

© All Rights Reserved

- The Bipolar Linear Momentum transported by the Electromagnetic Waves
- Controlled Nuclear Fusion by means of Gravity Control
- The Universal Quantum Fluid
- How a Planet with Earth’s size can have a Gravitational Field Much Stronger than the Neptune
- Russian Sleep Weapon
- Gravitational Condensation of Atmospheric Water Vapor
- The Gravitational Invisibility
- Mathematical Foundations of the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity
- Gravitational Generation of Rain
- How the Thrust of Shawyer’s Thruster can be Strongly Increased
- Gravitational Separator of Isotopes
- Gravitational Blueshift and Redshfit generated at Laboratory Scale
- A New Form of Matter-Antimatter Transformation
- The Genesis of the Earth’s Moon
- The Gravitational Mass of the Millisecond Pulsars
- Divergence in the Stefan-Boltzmann law at High Energy Density Conditions
- The Gravitational Heat Exchanger
- How a Massive Planet can affect Human Consciousnesses when Passing Nearby the Sun
- The Origin of the Most Part of Water on the Earth, and the Reason why there is More Water on the Earth than on the other Terrestrial Planets
- A System to Generate Intense Fluxes of Extremely-Low Frequency Radiation

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Gravitational

Energy

Control

January

2020

Gravitational Energy Control

Fran De Aquino

January

2020

Gravitational Energy Control

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, translated, stored in a

retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, electrostatic,

magnetic, tape, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise without the

permission from Professor Fran De Aquino.

PREFACE

De Aquino along 20 years; all of them developed starting from the

Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity (first article). Together they

provide the theoretical foundations for the Technology of Control of

the Gravitational Energy. The author is Professor Emeritus of

Physics of Maranhao State University, UEMA, and Titular

Researcher (R) of National Institute for Space Research, INPE.

To my sons and grandsons.

xi

CONTENTS

Page Number

(at bottom center)

2. Gravity Control by means of Electromagnetic Field through Gas or Plasma at Ultra-Low Pressure ……. 91

6. High-power ELF radiation generated by modulated HF heating of the ionosphere can cause

Earthquakes, Cyclones and localized heating …………………………………………………………….. 231

10. On the Cosmological Variation of the Fine Structure Constant …………………………………………. 285

12. Proca Equations and the Photon Imaginary Mass ……………………………………………………….. 292

Electromagnetic Fields of Extremely-low Frequencies …………………………………………………. 302

15. A Possible Explanation for Anomalous Heat Production in Ni-H Systems ……………………………... 308

18. A System to convert Gravitational Energy directly into Electrical Energy ……………………………… 326

19. Superconducting State generated by Cooper Pairs bound by Intensified Gravitational Interaction ………343

xii

29. Scattering of Sunlight in Lunar Exosphere Caused by Gravitational Microclusters of Lunar Dust …….. 429

30. Correlation between the Earth’s Magnetic Field and the Gravitational Mass of the Outer Core ……….. 435

31. Electromagnetic Method for blocking the action of Neutrons, apha-particles, beta-particles and

gamma-rays upon Atomic Nuclei. ……………………………………………………………………….. 440

Origin of the Gravitational Interaction………………………………………………………….. 464

39. How Masers can remove the Geostationary Satellites …………………………………………………... 478

40. Divergence in the Stefan-Boltzmann law at High Energy Density Conditions …………………………. 482

42. How the Thrust of Shawyer’s Thruster can be Strongly Increased ……………………………………… 494

44. A Solution for Reducing the Pollution of the Atmospheric Air …………………………………………. 506

45. How a Strong Solar Coronal Mass Ejection can Eject Dust from the Earth’s Surface to the Atmosphere .511

47. The Origin of Water on the Earth, and the Reason why there is More Water on the Earth

than on the other Terrestrial Planets .......................................................................................................... 522

48. How a Planet with Earth’s size can have a Gravitational Field Much Stronger than

the Neptune .……………………………………………………………………………………………… 529

xiii

50. The Intrinsic Magnetic Field of Magnetic Materials and Gravitomagnetization ………………………... 538

55. A System to Generate Intense Fluxes of Extremely-Low Frequency Radiation ……………………….... 562

56. The Beginning and End of Time in our Universe ……………………………………………………….. 565

63. How a Massive Planet can affect Human Consciousnesses when Passing Nearby the Sun ………………599

67. The Gravelectric Generator: Conversion of Gravitational Energy directly into Electrical Energy…………624

69. Activation of Autophagy Process in Cancerous Cells at Quasi-Zero Gravity Environments ……………....635

by means of Control of the Gravitational Mass ……………………………………………………………..640

74. Gravitational Interaction between Photons and Unification of All the Fundamental Interactions ………......657

75. Controlling the Gravitational Mass of a Metallic Lamina and the Gravity Acceleration above it…………...664

and the Gravity Acceleration above it……………………………………………………………………......671

xiiii

78. An Experiment to show that there is Gravitational Interaction among photons, because

they have non-null Imaginary Gravitational Mass ……..…………………………………………….. 678

81. The Observed Magnitude of Cosmological Constant directly derived from the

Quantization Theory of Gravity ………………………………………………………………………...693

82. Experimental set-up to check the decreasing of the Gravitational Mass in Metallic Discs subjected to an

alternating voltage of extremely low frequency………………………………………………………….696

Mathematical Foundations of the

Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity

Fran De Aquino

Maranhao State University, Physics Department, S.Luis/MA, Brazil.

Copyright © 2008-2011 by Fran De Aquino. All Rights Reserved

Abstract: Starting from the action function, we have derived a theoretical background that leads to

the quantization of gravity and the deduction of a correlation between the gravitational and the inertial

masses, which depends on the kinetic momentum of the particle. We show that the strong equivalence

principle is reaffirmed and, consequently, Einstein's equations are preserved. In fact, such equations

are deduced here directly from this new approach to Gravitation. Moreover, we have obtained a

generalized equation for the inertial forces, which incorporates the Mach's principle into Gravitation.

Also, we have deduced the equation of Entropy; the Hamiltonian for a particle in an electromagnetic

field and the reciprocal fine structure constant directly from this new approach. It was also possible to

deduce the expression of the Casimir force and to explain the Inflation Period and the Missing Matter,

without assuming existence of vacuum fluctuations. This new approach to Gravitation will allow us to

understand some crucial matters in Cosmology.

PACs: 04.60.-m; 98.80.Qc; 04.50. +h

Contents

1. Introduction 3

2. Theory 3

Quantization of Velocity 7

Quantization of Time 7

Gravitational Motor 28

15

2

A Creator’s need 63

Appendix A 71

Appendix B 74

References 75

16

3

1. INTRODUCTION

b

S = −α ∫a ds

Quantum Gravity was originally

studied, by Dirac and others, as the where α is a quantity which

problem of quantizing General characterizes the particle.

Relativity. This approach presents In Relativistic Mechanics, the

many difficulties, detailed by Isham action can be written in the following

[1]. In the 1970's, physicists tried an form [3]:

t2 t2

even more conventional approach: S = ∫ Ldt = − ∫ αc 1 − V 2 c 2 dt

t1 t1

simplifying Einstein's equations by

assuming that they are almost linear, where

and then applying the standard L = −αc 1 − V 2 c 2

methods of quantum field theory to is the Lagrange's function.

the thus oversimplified equations. But In Classical Mechanics, the

this method, too, failed. In the 1980's Lagrange's function for a free-particle

a very different approach, known as is, as we know, given by: L = aV 2

string theory, became popular. Thus where V is the speed of the particle

far, there are many enthusiasts of

and a is a quantity hypothetically [4]

string theory. But the mathematical

given by:

difficulties in string theory are

formidable, and it is far from clear that

a=m 2

they will be resolved any time soon. where m is the mass of the particle.

At the end of 1997, Isham [2] pointed However, there is no distinction about

out several "Structural Problems the kind of mass (if gravitational

Facing Quantum Gravity Theory". At mass, m g , or inertial mass mi ) neither

the beginning of this new century, about its sign (±) .

the problem of quantizing the The correlation between a and

gravitational field was still open. α can be established based on the

In this work, we propose a new

fact that, on the limit c → ∞ , the

approach to Quantum Gravity.

relativistic expression for L must be

Starting from the generalization of the

reduced to the classic expression

action function we have derived a

theoretical background that leads to L = aV 2 .The result [5] is: L = αV 2 2c .

the quantization of gravity. Einstein's Therefore, if α = 2 ac = mc , we obtain

General Relativity equations are L = aV 2 . Now, we must decide if

deduced directly from this theory of m = mg or m = mi . We will see in this

Quantum Gravity. Also, this theory work that the definition of m g includes

leads to a complete description of the

Electromagnetic Field, providing a mi . Thus, the right option is m g , i.e.,

consistent unification of gravity with a = mg 2 .

electromagnetism.

Consequently, α = m g c and the

2. THEORY generalized expression for the action

of a free-particle will have the

We start with the action for a following form:

(1)

b

free-particle that, as we know, is S = −m g c ∫ ds

a

given by

or

17

4

t2

S = − ∫ mg c 2 1 − V 2 c 2 dt (2) sign if m g < 0 . Consequently, we will

t1 r

express the momentum p in the

where the Lagrange's function is

following form

L = −mg c 2 1 − V 2 c 2 . (3) r

r

m gV r

t2 p = = M gV (4)

The integral S = ∫t m g c 2 1 − V 2 c 2 dt , 1−V 2 c2

1

r

preceded by the plus sign, cannot The derivative dp dt is the

have a minimum. Thus, the integrand inertial force Fi which acts on the

of Eq.(2) must be always positive.

Therefore, if m g > 0 , then necessarily particle. If the force is perpendicular

to the speed, we have r

t > 0 ; if m g < 0 , then t < 0 . The r mg

possibility of t < 0 is based on the Fi =

dV

(5)

1 − V 2 c 2 dt

well-known equation t = ± t0 1 − V 2 c 2

However, if the force and the speed

of Einstein's Theory. have the same direction, we rfind that

Thus if the gravitational mass r mg

of a particle is positive, then t is also Fi =

dV

(6)

(1 − V c )

3

2 2

2

dt

positive and, therefore, given by

t = +t0 1−V 2 c2 . This leads to the From Mechanics [6], we know that

r r

well-known relativistic prediction that p ⋅ V − L denotes the energy of the

the particle goes to the future, if particle. Thus, we can write

V → c . However, if the gravitational r r mg c 2

mass of the particle is negative, then Eg = p ⋅ V − L = = M g c2 (7)

t is negative and given by 1 −V 2 c2

t = − t0 1 −V 2 c2 . In this case, the Note that Eg is not null for V =0, but

prediction is that the particle goes to that it has the finite value

the past, if V → c . Consequently,

m g < 0 is the necessary condition for E g 0 = mg 0 c 2 (8)

the particle to go to the past. Further Equation (7) can be rewritten in

on, a correlation between the the following form:

gravitational and the inertial masses mg c 2

will be derived, which contains the E g = mg c −

2

− mg c 2 =

possibility of m g < 0 . 1−V c 2 2

⎢ ⎞⎥

the same rule for m g > 0 and m g < 0 , mg ⎢ 2 ⎛⎜ mi c 2 2 ⎟⎥

= mi c + − mi c =

i.e., the sign before 1 − V 2 c 2 will be mi ⎢ ⎜ 1−V 2 c2 ⎟⎥

⎢ ⎝144424443⎠⎥

(+ ) when m g > 0 and (− ) if m g < 0 . ⎢⎣ EKi ⎥⎦

The momentum, as we know, mg m

r r = (Ei 0 + EKi ) = g Ei (9)

is the vector p = ∂L ∂V .Thus, from mi mi

Eq.(3) we obtain r By analogy to Eq. (8), Ei 0 = mi 0 c 2 into

r mgV r the equation above, is the

p = = M gV

± 1−V 2 c2 inertial energy at rest. Thus,

Ei = Ei 0 + EKi is the total inertial

The (+ ) sign in the equation above

will be used when m g > 0 and the (− )

energy, where E Ki is the kinetic

18

5

we thus obtain =

∂r r 2 1 − V 2 c 2

mi 0 c 2

Ei = = M ic2. (10) By definition, the gravitational

1−V c 2 2

potential energy per unit of

For small velocities (V <<c) , we gravitational mass of a particle inside

obtain a gravitational field is equal to the

Ei ≈ mi 0 c 2 + 12 miV 2 (11) gravitational potential Φ of the field.

Thus, we can write that

where we recognize the classical U (r )

expression for the inertial kinetic Φ=

m′g

energy of the particle.

The expression for the Then, it follows that

gravitational kinetic energy, E Kg , is

∂U (r ) ∂Φ m g m ′g

easily deduced by comparing Eq.(7) Fg = − = − m ′g = −G

with Eq.(9). The result is ∂r ∂r r 2 1 −V 2 c2

mg

EKg = EKi . (12)

mi If m g > 0 and m ′g < 0 , or m g < 0 and

In the presented picture, we

r m ′g > 0 the force will be repulsive; the

can say that the gravity, g , in a force will never be null due to the

gravitational field produced by a existence of a minimum value for m g

particle of gravitational mass M g ,

(see Eq. (24)). However, if m g < 0

depends on the particle's gravitational

and m ′g < 0 , or m g > 0 and m ′g > 0

energy, E g (given by Eq.(7)), because

the force will be attractive. Just

we can write

for m g = mi and m ′g = mi′ we obtain

Eg Mg c2

g = −G = −G 2 2 (13) the Newton's attraction law.

r 2c2 rc On the other hand, as we

Due to g = ∂Φ ∂r , the expression of know, the gravitational force is

the relativistic gravitational potential, conservative. Thus, gravitational

Φ , is given by energy, in agreement with the energy

GM g Gm g conservation law, can be expressed

Φ=− =− by the decrease of the inertial energy,

r r 1−V 2 c2 i.e.,

Then, it follows that ΔE g = −ΔEi (14)

This equation expresses the fact that

GM g Gmg φ

Φ=− =− = a decrease of gravitational energy

r r 1−V 2 c2 1−V 2 c2 corresponds to an increase of the

inertial energy.

where φ = − Gm g r . Therefore, a variation ΔEi in

Then we get E i yields a variation ΔEg = −ΔEi in E g .

∂Φ ∂φ Gm g Thus Ei = Ei0 + ΔEi ; Eg = Eg0 + ΔEg = Eg0 −ΔEi

= =

∂r ∂r 1 − V 2 c 2 r 2 1 − V 2 c 2 and

whence we conclude that

Eg + Ei = Eg 0 + Ei 0 (15)

Comparison between (7) and (10)

shows that Eg0 = Ei0 , i.e., m g 0 = mi 0 .

Consequently, we have

19

6

Eg + Ei = Eg 0 + Ei 0 = 2 Ei 0 (16) is obviously its inertial energy at rest

However Ei =Ei0 +EKi.Thus, (16) becomes m g c 2 = mi c 2 . Therefore we can write

E g = Ei 0 − EKi . (17 ) n2h2

= mg c 2

Note the symmetry in the equations of 8m g L2max

Ei and E g .Substitution of Ei0 = Ei − EKi Then from the equation above it follows

into (17) yields that

E i − E g = 2 E Ki (18) mg = ±

nh

(23)

Squaring the Eqs.(4) and (7) and cLmax 8

comparing the result, we find the whence we see that there is a minimum

following correlation between value for m g given by

gravitational energy and momentum :

E g2 mg (min) = ±

h

(24)

= p + mg c .

2 2 2

(19) cLmax 8

c2 The relativistic gravitational mass

The energy expressed as a function of

the momentum is, as we know, called (

M g = mg 1 − V 2 c )

2 − 2

1

, defined in the

Hamiltonian or Hamilton's function: Eqs.(4), shows that

H g = c p + mg c .

2 2 2

(20 ) M g (min) = mg (min) (25)

Let us now consider the problem The box normalization leads to the

of quantization of gravity. Clearly there is conclusion that the propagation number

r

something unsatisfactory about the k = k = 2π λ is restricted to the

whole notion of quantization. It is

important to bear in mind that the values k = 2π n L . This is deduced

quantization process is a series of rules- assuming an arbitrarily large but finite

of-thumb rather than a well-defined 3

cubical box of volume L [8]. Thus, we

algorithm, and contains many

ambiguities. In fact, for electromagnetism have

we find that there are (at least) two L = nλ

different approaches to quantization and From this equation, we conclude that

that while they appear to give the same Lmax

theory they may lead us to very different nmax =

quantum theories of gravity. Here we will λmin

follow a new theoretical strategy: It is and

known that starting from the Schrödinger Lmin = nmin λ min = λ min

equation we may obtain the well-known

Since nmin = 1. Therefore, we can write

expression for the energy of a particle in

periodic motion inside a cubical box of that

edge length L [ 7 ]. The result now is Lmax = nmax Lmin (26)

n2h2 From this equation, we thus conclude

En = n = 1,2,3,... (21) that

8m g L2

2 2

L = nLmin (27 )

Note that the term h 8m g L (energy) or

will be minimum for L = Lmax where Lmax Lmax

is the maximum edge length of a cubical

L= (28)

n

box whose maximum diameter

Multiplying (27) and (28) by 3 and

d max = Lmax 3 (22) reminding that d = L 3 , we obtain

is equal to the maximum length scale of

the Universe.

20

7

d = nd min or d= (29) that we can have V = Vmax or

n

Equations above show that the length V = Vmax 2 , but there is nothing in

(and therefore the space) is quantized.

between. This shows clearly that Vmax

By analogy to (23) we can also

conclude that cannot be equal to c (speed of light in

vacuum). Thus, it follows that

M g (max) =

nmax h

(30) n =1 V = Vmax

cLmin 8

n=2 V = Vmax 2

since the relativistic gravitational mass,

(

M g = mg 1 − V 2 c 2 )− 12

, is just a

n=3 V = Vmax 3 Tachyons

........ ..................

multiple of m g .

n = nx − 1 V = Vmax (nx − 1)

Equation (26) tells us that

Lmin = Lmax nmax . Thus, Eq.(30) can be −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

rewritten as follows n = nx V = Vmax nx = c ←

2 n = nx + 1 V = Vmax (nx + 1) Tardyons

M g (max ) =

n max h

(31)

cLmax 8 n = nx + 2 V = Vmax (nx + 2)

Comparison of (31) with (24) shows that ...............

...........................

M g (max ) = n 2

max m g (min ) (32 ) where nx is a big number.

which leads to following conclusion that Then c is the speed upper limit of

M g = n 2 m g (min ) (33) the Tardyons and also the speed lower

This equation shows that the limit of the Tachyons. Obviously, this limit

gravitational mass is quantized. is always the same in all inertial frames.

Substitution of (33) into (13) leads Therefore c can be used as a reference

to quantization of gravity, i.e., speed, to which we may compare any

speed V , as occurs for the relativistic

GM g ⎛ Gm g (min ) ⎞

g= = n 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟=

⎟ factor 1 −V 2 c2 . Thus, in this factor, c

r2 ⎝ (rmax n )

2

⎠

= n 4 g min (34 ) does not refer to maximum propagation

speed of the interactions such as some

From the Hubble's law, it follows that authors suggest; c is just a speed limit

Vmax = Hlmax = H (d max 2)

~ ~

which remains the same in any inertial

Vmin = Hl min = H (d min 2)

~ ~ frame.

The temporal coordinate x 0 of

whence

space-time is now x 0 = Vmax t ( x 0 = ct

Vmax d max

= is then obtained Vmax →c ).

when

Vmin d min

Equations (29) tell us that

~

Substitution of Vmax = nV = n Hl into this ( )

d max d min = nmax . Thus the equation ~ 0

equation yields t = x Vmax = 1 nH x l .

0

( )( )

above gives ~

On the other hand, since V = H l and

V max

V min = (35 ) V = Vmax n we can write that

( )

n max

l = Vmax H −1 n .Thus x 0 l = H (nt) = Ht max .

~ ~ ~

which leads to following conclusion

V max Therefore, we can finally write

V = (36 )

n

this equation shows that velocity is also (~

)( )

t = 1 nH x 0 l = t max n (37)

quantized.

which shows the quantization of time.

21

8

easily conclude that the spacetime is not Δp =

(m g − Δm g ) V

1 − (V c )

2

continuous it is quantized.

Now, let us go back to Eq. (20) From the Eq.(16) we obtain:

Eg = 2Ei 0 − Ei = 2Ei 0 − (Ei 0 + ΔEi ) = Ei 0 − ΔEi

which will be called the gravitational

Hamiltonian to distinguish it from the

inertial Hamiltonian H i : However, Eq.(14) tells us that −ΔEi = ΔEg ;

what leads to Eg = Ei0 + ΔEg or mg = mi0 + Δmg .

H i = c p 2 + mi 0 c 2 .

2

(38)

Thus, in the expression of Δ p we

( )

Consequently, Eq. (18) can be rewritten

in the following form: can replace m g − Δm g for mi 0 , i.e,

H i − H g = 2ΔH i (39) mi0 V

Δp =

where Δ H i is the variation on the

1 − (V c )

2

energy. A momentum variation Δp yields

Δp

a variation Δ H given by: =

V c

(42)

mi 0 c 1 − (V c )

i 2

2 2 2

By substitution of the expression above

By considering that the particle is into Eq. (41), we thus obtain:

initially at rest ( p = 0) . Then, Eqs. (20),

(38) and (39) give respectively: Hg = mgc , 2

⎢⎣

(

mg = mi 0 − 2⎡ 1 − V 2 c 2 ) − 12

− 1⎤mi 0

⎥⎦

(43)

Hi = mi0c2 and

For V = 0 we obtain mg = mi0 .Then,

⎡ 2 ⎤

⎢ ⎛ Δp ⎞

ΔH i = 1 + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − 1⎥ mi 0 c 2 mg (min) = mi0(min)

⎢ ⎝ mi 0 c ⎠ ⎥

⎣ ⎦ Substitution of m g (min ) into the quantized

By substituting H g , H i and ΔH i into expression of M g (Eq. (33)) gives

Eq.(39), we get

M g = n 2 mi 0(min )

⎡ 2 ⎤

⎛ Δp ⎞

⎢

mg = mi0 − 2 1 + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − 1⎥mi0. (41) where mi 0 (min ) is the elementary

⎢ ⎝ i0 ⎠

m c ⎥

⎣ ⎦ quantum of inertial mass to be

determined.

This is the general expression of the For V = 0 , the relativistic

correlation between the gravitational and

inertial mass. Note that expression M g = mg 1 −V 2 c2 becomes

for Δ p > m i 0 c ( )

5 2 , the value of m g Mg = Mg0 = mg0 . However, Eq. (43) shows

becomes negative. that m g 0 = mi 0 . Thus, the quantized

Equation (41) shows that mg expression of M g reduces to

decreases of Δm g for an increase of

mi 0 = n 2 mi 0 (min )

Δp . Thus, starting from (4) we In order to define the inertial quantum

obtain number, we will change n in the

p + Δp =

(m g − Δm g ) V expression above for ni . Thus we have

1 − (V c )

2

m i 0 = n i2 m i 0 (min ) (44 )

By considering that the particle is initially

at rest ( p = 0) , the equation above gives

22

9

inertial mass; ni is the inertial Posteriorly, Eötvos experiment has

quantum number. been repeated with accuracy of one

We will change n in the quantized part in 10 9 . In 1963, the experiment

expression of M g for n g in order to was repeated with an even greater

define the gravitational quantum accuracy, one part in 1011 . The result

number. Thus, we have was the same previously obtained.

In all these experiments, the

M g = n g2 mi 0(min ) (44a ) ratio V 2 2c 2 is less than 10 −17 , which

is much smaller than the accuracy of

Finally, by substituting mg 10 −11 obtained in the previous more

given by Eq. (43) into the relativistic precise experiment.

expression of M g , we readily obtain Then, we arrive at the

conclusion that all these experiments

mg

Mg = = say nothing in regard to the relativistic

1−V 2 c2 behavior of masses in relative motion.

⎢⎣

(

= M i − 2⎡ 1 − V 2 c 2 )

− 12

− 1⎤ M i

⎥⎦

(45 ) Let us now consider a planet in

the Sun’s gravitational field to which,

in the absence of external forces, we

By expanding in power series apply Lagrange’s equations. We

and neglecting infinitesimals, we arrive at the well-known equation:

2 2

2 ⎛ dϕ ⎞

arrive at: ⎛ dr ⎞ 2GM i

⎜ ⎟ +r ⎜ ⎟ − =E

⎝ dt ⎠ ⎝ dt ⎠ r

⎛ V2 ⎞

M g = ⎜1 − 2

⎜

⎟M i

⎟

(46) r2

dϕ

=h

⎝ c ⎠ dt

where M i is the inertial mass of the

Thus, the well-known expression for Sun. The term E = − GM i a , as we

the simple pendulum know, is called the energy constant;

period, T =2π (Mi Mg )(l g) , can be rewritten a is the semiaxis major of the Kepler-

in the following form: ellipse described by the planet

l ⎛⎜ V2 ⎞ around the Sun.

T = 2π 1+ 2 ⎟ for V << c By replacing M i into the

g ⎜⎝ 2c ⎟

⎠

differential equation above for the

Now, it is possible to learn why expression given by Eq. (46), and

Newton’s experiments using simple expanding in power series, neglecting

penduli do not find any difference infinitesimals, we arrive, at:

between M g and M i . The reason is

due to the fact that, in the case of ⎛ dr ⎞

2

2 ⎛ dϕ ⎞

2

2GM g 2GM g ⎛ V 2 ⎞

⎜ ⎟ +r ⎜ ⎟ − =E + ⎜ ⎟

penduli, the ratio V 2 2c 2 is less than ⎝ dt ⎠ ⎝ dt ⎠ r r ⎜⎝ c 2 ⎟⎠

10 −17 , which is much smaller than the

accuracy of the mentioned Since V = ωr = r (dϕ dt ) , we get

experiments.

Newton’s experiments have 2 2 2

⎛ dr ⎞ 2 ⎛ dϕ ⎞ 2GM g 2GM g r ⎛ dϕ ⎞

been improved upon (one part in ⎜ ⎟ +r ⎜ ⎟ − =E + ⎜ ⎟

⎝ dt ⎠ ⎝ dt ⎠ r c 2 ⎝ dt ⎠

60,000) by Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel

which is the Einsteinian equation of the

(1784–1846). In 1890, Eötvos planetary motion.

confirmed Newton’s results with

23

10

(dt dϕ )2 and remembering that g =−

r 2 1 − V 2 c2

(dt dϕ ) = r

2 4 2

h , we obtain

⎛ dr ⎞

2

⎛ r 4 ⎞ 2GMg r3 2GMg r

⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + r 2 = E⎜ 2 ⎟ + + where V is the velocity of the mass

⎝ dϕ ⎠ ⎜h ⎟ h2 c2

⎝ ⎠ mg , in respect to the observer. V is

Making r = 1 u and multiplying both

also the velocity with which the

members of the equation by u 4 , we

get observer moves away from mg . If

2 3

⎛ du ⎞ E 2GMgu 2GMgu the observer is inside the gravitational

⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + u2 = 2 + +

⎝ dϕ ⎠ h h2 c2 mg , then, V

field produced by is the

This leads to the following expression

GMg ⎛ 3 u2h 2 ⎞

velocity with which the observer

d 2u ⎜1 + ⎟

+ u =

dϕ 2 h 2 ⎜⎝ c2 ⎟⎠ escapes from mg (or the escape

In the absence of term 3h 2 u 2 c 2 , the velocity from the gravitational field of

integration of the equation should be mg ). Since the gravitational field is

immediate, leading to 2π period. In

created by a particle with non-null

order to obtain the value of the

gravitational mass, then obviously,

perturbation we can use any of the

V < c . If V << c the escape velocity is

well-known methods, which lead to

given by

an angle ϕ , for two successive

perihelions, given by mg M g′

6G 2 M g2 1

M g′ V 2 = G

2π +

2

r

c 2h 2

Calculating per century, in the case of whence we obtain

Mercury, we arrive at an angle of 43”

for the perihelion advance. 2Gmg

This result is the best V2 =

theoretical proof of the accuracy of r

Eq. (45).

Now consider a relativistic By substituting this expression into

particle inside a gravitational field. the equation of g , above obtained,

The condition for it to escape from the the result is

gravitational field is that its inertial

kinetic energy becomes equal to the ∂Φ Gmg

absolute value of the gravitational g= =

∂r r 2 1− 2 Gm rc2

energy of the field, which is given g

GM g M ′g

U (r ) = − = whence we recognize the

r

Schwzarzschilds’ equation. Note in

Gmg M g′ this equation the presence of m g ,

=−

r 1−V 2 c2 whose value, according to Eq. (41)

can be reduced or made negative. In

Since Φ = U (r ) M g′ and g = ∂Φ ∂r

then, we get

24

11

produced by Schwzarzschilds’ radius of universal time, remains constant

r = 2Gmg c2 , (m g = m i ), obviously

during its propagation, and that it can be

expressed by

does not occur. Consequently, Black ∂ψ

ω0 =

Hole does not exist. ∂t

For V << c we get 1−V c ≅1+V 2c .

2 2 2 2 where dψ dt is the derivative of the

eikonal ψ with respect to the time.

Since V =2Gmg r , then we can write that

2

On the other hand, the frequency

Gmg φ of the wave measured in units of own

1−V 2 c2 ≅ 1+ 2

= 1+ time is given by

rc c2 ∂ψ

ω=

Substitution of 1−V 2 c2 =1+ φ c2 into the ∂T

well-known expression below Thus, we conclude that

ω ∂t

T = t 1− V 2 c2 =

ω 0 ∂T

which expresses the relativistic

whence we obtain

correlation between own time (T) and

ω t 1

universal time (t), gives = =

⎛ φ ⎞ ω0 T ⎛ φ ⎞

T = t ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ ⎜1 + 2 ⎟

⎝ c ⎠ ⎝ c ⎠

It is known from the Optics that the By expanding in power series, neglecting

infinitesimals, we arrive at:

⎛ φ ⎞

*

This can occur, for example, in a stage of ω = ω 0 ⎜1 − 2 ⎟

gravitational contraction of a neutron star (mass > ⎝ c ⎠

2.4M~), when the gravitational masses of the In this way, if a light ray with a frequency

neutrons, in the core of star, are progressively ω 0 is emitted from a point where the

turned negative, as a consequence of the increase gravitational potential is φ1 , it will have a

of the density of magnetic energy inside the

neutrons, Wn = 12 μ0 Hn2 , reciprocally produced by frequency ω1 . Upon reaching a point

the spin magnetic fields of the own neutrons, where the gravitational potential is φ 2 its

( ) ( )

r r r frequency will be ω 2 . Then, according to

Hn = 12 μ0 Mn 2π rn3 = γ n eSn 4πmnrn3 due to the

equation above, it follows that

decrease of the neutrons radii, rn , along the very

⎛ φ ⎞ ⎛ φ ⎞

strong compression at which they are subjected. ω1 = ω 0 ⎜1 − 12 ⎟ and ω 2 = ω 0 ⎜1 − 22 ⎟

⎝ c ⎠ ⎝ c ⎠

−6

Since Wn ∝ rn , and ρ n ∝ rn−3 , then Wn

Thus, from point 1 to point 2 the

increases much more rapidly – with the decrease frequency will be shifted in the

of rn – than ρ n . Consequently, the ratio interval Δω = ω1 − ω 2 , given by

Wn ρ n increases progressively with the ⎛φ −φ ⎞

Δω = ω 0 ⎜ 2 2 1 ⎟

compression of the neutrons star. According to ⎝ c ⎠

If Δω < 0 , (φ1 > φ 2 ) , the shift occurs in the

Eq. (41), the gravitational masses of the neutrons

can be turned negative at given stage of the

compression. Thus, due to the difference of direction of the decreasing frequencies

pressure, the value of Wn ρ n in the crust is (red-shift). If Δω > 0 , (φ1 < φ 2 ) the blue-

smaller than the value in the core. This means shift occurs.

that, the gravitational mass of the core becomes Let us now consider another

negative before of the gravitational mass of the consequence of the existence of

crust. This makes the gravitational contraction correlation between M g and M i .

culminates with an explosion, due to the repulsive

gravitational forces between the core and the Lorentz's force is usually written in

crust. Therefore, the contraction has a limit and, the following form:

consequently, the singularity does not occur.

25

12

r r r r

d p dt = qE + qV × B surface dA )is equal to the energy dU

r r absorbed per unit volume (dU dV ) .i.e.,

where p = mi 0V 1 − V 2 c 2 . However,

r

Eq.(4) tells us that p = mgV 1 − V c .

dP =

dU

=

dU

=

dU

(47)

dV dxdydz dAdz

2 2

be corrected by multiplying its members of radiation) into the equation above

by m g mi 0 ,i.e., gives

r r dU (dU dAdt ) dD

r mg

p =

mg mi 0V

=

mgV r

= p

dP = = = (48)

dV v v

mi 0 mi 0 1 − V 2 c2 1 − V 2 c2 Since dPdA = dF we can write:

and

r

dp d ⎛ r m g ⎞

dFdt =

dU

(49)

= ⎜⎜ p

r r r m

⎟ = qE + qV × B g

dt dt ⎝ mi 0 ⎟⎠ mi 0

( ) v

However we know that dF= dp dt , then

That is now the general expression for

Lorentz's force. Note that it depends on dp =

dU

(50)

v

mg . From Eq. (48), it follows that

When the force is perpendicular to dVdD

the speed, Eq. (5) gives dU = dPd V = (51)

v

( )

r r

dp dt = mg dV dt 1−V2 c2 .By comparing Substitution into (50) yields

dVdD

with Eq.(46), we thus obtain dp = (52 )

(mi0 1−V 2

c 2

)(r r

)

r r

dV dt = qE + qV × B

or

v2

Note that this equation is the expression Δp 1 D V

of an inertial force. ∫0 dp = ∫0 ∫0 dVdD

Starting from this equation, well- v2

known experiments have been carried whence

VD

out in order to verify the relativistic Δp = (53)

expression: m i 1−V

c . In general, 2 2 v2

This expression is general for all types of

the momentum variation Δp is waves including non-electromagnetic

expressed by Δp = FΔt where F is the waves such as sound waves. In this

applied force during a time interval Δt . case, v in Eq.(53), will be the speed of

Note that there is no restriction sound in the medium and D the intensity

concerning the nature of the force F , of the sound radiation.

i.e., it can be mechanical, In the case of electromagnetic

electromagnetic, etc. waves, the Electrodynamics tells us that

For example, we can look on the v will be given by

momentum variation Δp as due to dz ω c

v= = =

absorption or emission of dt κ r ε r μr ⎛ ⎞

⎜ 1 + (σ ωε ) + 1⎟

2

electromagnetic energy by the particle 2 ⎝ ⎠

(by means of radiation and/or by means

of Lorentz's force upon the charge of the where kr is the real part of the

r r

particle). propagation vector k ; k = k = k r + iki ;

In the case of radiation (any

type), Δp can be obtained as follows. It ε , μ and σ, are the electromagnetic

is known that the radiation pressure , characteristics of the medium in which

dP , upon an area dA = dxdy of a the incident (or emitted) radiation is

propagating ( ε = ε r ε 0 where ε r is the

volume d V = dxdydz of a particle( the

relative dielectric permittivity and

incident radiation normal to the

ε0 = 8.854×10−12 F / m ; μ = μ r μ 0 where

26

13

⎪ ⎡ R4ω 4 ⎤ ⎫⎪

mg (disk ) ≅ ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 1.12 ×10−13 − 1⎥ ⎬mi 0(disk )

and μ 0 = 4π × 10 −7 H / m ; σ is the ⎪⎩ ⎢ f ⎥⎪

⎣ ⎦⎭

electrical conductivity). For an atom Note that the effect of the

inside a body, the incident (or emitted) electromagnetic radiation applied upon

radiation on this atom will be propagating the disk is highly relevant, because in the

inside the body, and consequently, absence of this radiation the index of

σ=σbody, ε=εbody, μ=μbody. refraction, present in equations above,

It is then evident that the index of becomes equal to 1. Under these

refraction nr = c v will be given by circumstances, the possibility of strongly

reducing the gravitational mass of the

εμ

= r r ⎛⎜ 1 + (σ ωε ) + 1⎞⎟ (54)

c

nr =

2

disk practically disappears. In addition,

v 2 ⎝ ⎠ the equation above shows that, in

On the other hand, from Eq. (50) follows practice, the frequency f of the

that radiation cannot be high, and that

U ⎛c⎞ U extremely-low frequencies (ELF) are

Δp = ⎜ ⎟ = nr most appropriated. Thus, if the frequency

v ⎝c⎠ c

of the electromagnetic radiation applied

Substitution into Eq. (41) yields

upon the disk is f = 0.1Hz (See Fig. I (a))

⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫

⎪ ⎛ U ⎞ ⎪ and the radius of the disk is R = 0.15m ,

⎢

mg = ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜⎜ n ⎟ − 1⎥⎬mi0

2 r⎟

(55)

⎢ ⎥⎪ and its angular speed

⎪

⎩ ⎣

⎝ mi0c ⎠

⎦⎭ (

ω = 1.05×10 rad / s ~ 100,000 rpm ,

4

) the

If the body is also rotating, with an result is

angular speed ω around its central axis, m g (disk ) ≅ −2.6mi 0(disk )

then it acquires an additional energy

This shows that the gravitational mass of

equal to its rotational energy

(E )

= 1 2 Iω 2 . Since this is an increase

k

a body can also be controlled by means

of its angular velocity.

in the internal energy of the body, and In order to satisfy the condition

this energy is basically electromagnetic, U << ΔU , we must have dU dt <<dΔU dt ,

we can assume that E k , such as U , where Pr = dU dt is the radiation power.

corresponds to an amount of By integrating this expression, we

electromagnetic energy absorbed by the get U = Pr 2 f . Thus we can conclude

body. Thus, we can consider E k as an

that, for U << ΔU , we must have

increase ΔU = E k in the electromagnetic

Pr 2 f << 12 Iω 2 , i.e.,

energy U absorbed by the body.

Consequently, in this case, we must Pr << Iω 2 f

replace U in Eq. (55) for (U + ΔU ) . If By dividing both members of the

U << ΔU , the Eq. (55) reduces to expression above by the area S = 4πr 2 ,

⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫ we obtain

⎪ ⎛ Iω 2 n r ⎞

⎢

m g ≅ ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥ ⎪⎬mi 0 Iω 2 f

⎜ 2m c 2 ⎟ ⎥ Dr <<

⎪ ⎢ ⎝ i0 ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭ 4πr 2

⎩ ⎣

For σ << ωε , Eq. (54) shows that Therefore, this is the necessary condition

in order to obtain U << ΔU . In the case

n r = c v = ε r μ r and n r = μσc 2 4πf in of the Mumetal disk, we must have

the case of σ >> ωε . In this case, if the D r << 10 5 r 2 watts / m 2( )

body is a Mumetal disk

( )

From Electrodynamics, we know

μ r = 105,000 at 100gauss; σ = 2.1 × 10 S.m −1

7

that a radiation with frequency f

( )

with radius R , I = 1 2 mi 0 R 2 , the equation

propagating within a material with

electromagnetic characteristics ε, μ and

above shows that the gravitational mass σ has the amplitudes of its waves

of the disk is

27

14

penetrates a distance z, given by †

∂BG

z=

1 ∇ × EG = −

∂t

ω 1 2 εμ ⎛⎜ 1 + (σ ωε )2 − 1⎞⎟ ∇.BG = 0

⎝ ⎠

For σ >>ωε , equation above reduces to ∂DG

∇ × H G = − jG +

z=

1 ∂t

πμfσ where DG = 4ε rG ε 0G E G is the

In the case of the Mumetal subjected to gravitodisplacement field ( ε rG is the

an ELF radiation with frequency

gravitoelectric relative permittivity of the

f = 0.1Hz , the value is z = 1.07 mm .

medium; ε 0G is the gravitoelectric

Obviously, the thickness of the Mumetal

disk must be less than this value. permittivity for free space and E G = g

Equation (55) is general for all is the gravitoelectric field intensity); ρ is

types of electromagnetic fields including the density of local rest mass in the local

gravitoelectromagnetic fields (See Fig. I rest frame of the matter;

(b)).

BG = μ rG μ 0G H G is the gravitomagnetic

Transmitter field ( μ rG is the gravitomagnetic relative

ELF electromagnetic radiation

permeability for free space and H G is

Mumetal disk the gravitomagnetic field intensity;

Motor

jG = −σ G E G is the local rest-mass

current density in this frame ( σ G is the

gravitoelectric conductivity of the

Balance medium).

Then, for free space we can write

(a)

that

⎛ GM ⎞

DG = 4ε 0G EG = 4ε 0G g = 4ε 0G ⎜ 2 ⎟

⎝ r ⎠

Gravitoelectric

Field But from the electrodynamics we know

that

q

D = εE =

Acceleration

4πr 2

By analogy we can write that

Mg

DG =

Gravitomagnetic 4πr 2

Field

By comparing this expression with the

(b) previous expression of DG , we get

Fig. I – (a) Experimental set-up in order to measure the 1

gravitational mass decreasing in the rotating Mumetal ε 0G = = 2.98 × 10 8 kg 2 .N −1 .m − 2

disk. A sample connected to a dynamometer can measure 16πG

the decreasing of gravity above the disk. (b) which is the expression of the

Gravitoelectromagnetic Field.

gravitoelectric permittivity for free

space.

The Maxwell-like equations for The gravitomagnetic permeability

weak gravitational fields are [9] for free space [10,11] is

16πG

† μ 0G = 2

= 3.73 × 10 −26 m kg

Quevedo, C. P. (1978) Eletromagnetismo c

McGraw-Hill, p.269-270.

We then convert Maxwell-like equations

28

15

⎪ ⎢ ⎛ W ⎞ ⎥⎪

mg = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜ G 2 ⎟ − 1⎥⎬mi0

free space in the standard way. We

conclude that the speed of Gravitational ⎜ρ c ⎟

⎪ ⎢ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎪

Waves in free space is ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭

1

v= =c ⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫

ε 0G μ 0G ⎪ ⎛ BG2 ⎞

⎢

= ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥⎪⎬mi 0 (55a)

⎢ 2 ⎟ ⎥⎪

This means that both electromagnetic ⎪ ⎢⎣ ⎝ μ0G ρ c ⎠ ⎥⎦⎭

and gravitational plane waves propagate ⎩

at the free space with the same speed. where ρ = mi 0 V .

Thus, the impedance for free space is This equation shows how the

EG 16πG gravitational mass of a particle is altered

ZG = = μ0G ε 0G = μ0G c = by a gravitomagnetic field.

HG c

A gravitomagnetic field, according

and the Poynting-like vector is

r r r to Einstein's theory of general relativity,

S = EG × H G arises from moving matter (matter

For a plane wave propagating in the current) just as an ordinary magnetic

vacuum, we have E G = Z G H G . Then, it field arises from moving charges. The

Earth rotation is the source of a very

follows that

weak gravitomagnetic field given by

r 1 r 2 ω 2 r 2 c 2ω 2

S = EG = h = h0i

2

μ 0G ⎛ Mω ⎞

2Z G 2Z G 32πG BG ,Earth = − ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 10 −14 rad .s −1

16π ⎝ r ⎠ Earth

which is the power per unit area of a

harmonic plane wave of angular Perhaps ultra-fast rotating stars can

frequency ω . generate very strong gravitomagnetic

In classical electrodynamics the fields, which can make the gravitational

density of energy in an electromagnetic mass of particles inside and near the star

negative. According to (55a) this will

field, We , has the following expression

occur if BG > 1.06c μ 0G ρ . Usually,

We = 12 ε r ε 0 E 2 + 12 μ r μ 0 H 2

however, gravitomagnetic fields

In analogy with this expression we produced by normal matter are very

define the energy density in a weak.

gravitoelectromagnetic field, WG , as Recently Tajmar, M. et al., [12]

follows have proposed that in addition to

WG = 12 ε rG ε 0G EG2 + 12 μ rG μ 0G H G2 the London moment, B L ,

For free space we obtain ( )

( BL = − 2m* e* ω ≅ 1.1×10−11ω ; m and

*

ε 0G = 1 μ 0G c 2 respectively), a rotating superconductor

E G H G = μ 0G c should exhibit also a large

gravitomagnetic field, BG , to explain an

and

BG = μ 0 G H G apparent mass increase of Niobium

Cooper-pairs discovered by Tate et

Thus, we can rewrite the equation of WG al[13,14]. According to Tajmar and Matos

as follows [15], in the case of coherent matter, BG

2

⎛ 1⎞ 2 2 1 ⎛B ⎞ B2 is given by: BG = −2ωρc μ0G λ2gr where ρ c

WG = 1⎜ ⎟c BG + μ0G ⎜ G ⎟ = G

2⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ μ0G ⎟

⎝ μ0G c ⎠

2

⎝ ⎠ μ0G is the mass density of coherent matter

and λ gr is the graviphoton wavelength.

Since U G = WGV , (V is the volume of the By choosing λ gr proportional to the local

particle) and nr = 1 for free space we density of coherent matter, ρ c . i.e.,

can write (55) in the following form

29

16

= ⎜⎜ ⎟ = μ 0G ρ c

⎟ check the changes in the gravitational

λ2gr ⎝ h ⎠ mass of the coherent part of a given

we obtain material (e.g. the Cooper-pair fluid). Thus

⎛ 1 ⎞ for the electrons of the Cooper-pairs we

BG = −2ωρc μ0G λ2gr = −2ωρc μ0G ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = have

⎝ μ0G ρ c ⎠

= −2ω ⎡ 2⎤

⎛ 2 ⎞

= mie + 2⎢1 − 1 − ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎥m =

BG

and the graviphoton mass, m gr , is m ge 2 ⎟ ⎥ ie

⎢ μ ρ

⎢⎣ ⎝ 0G e ⎠ ⎥

c

m gr = μ 0 G ρ c h c ⎦

Note that if we take the case of no ⎡ 2⎤

⎛ 4ω 2 ⎞ ⎥

local sources of coherent matter (ρ c = 0 ) , ⎢

= mie + 2 1 − 1 − ⎜⎜ ⎟ m =

⎢ 2 ⎟ ⎥ ie

the graviphoton mass will be zero. μ ρ

⎝ 0G e ⎠ ⎥

c

⎣⎢ ⎦

However, graviphoton will have non-zero

mass inside coherent matter (ρ c ≠ 0 ) . = mie + χ e mie

This can be interpreted as a

consequence of the graviphoton gaining where ρ e is the mass density of the

mass inside the superconductor via the electrons.

Higgs mechanism due to the breaking of In order to check the changes in

gauge symmetry. the gravitational mass of neutrons and

It is important to note that the protons (non-coherent part) inside the

minus sign in the expression for BG superconductor, we must use Eq. (55a)

can be understood as due to the and BG = −2ωρμ 0G λ2gr [Tajmar and

change from the normal to the

coherent state of matter, i.e., a switch Matos, op.cit.]. Due to μ 0G ρ c λ2gr = 1 ,

between real and imaginary values that expression of BG can be rewritten in

for the particles inside the material the following form

BG = −2ωρμ 0G λ2gr = −2ω (ρ ρ c )

when going from the normal to the

coherent state of matter. Consequently,

in this case the variable U in (55) Thus we have

must be replaced by iU G and not by U G ⎡ 2 ⎤

⎢ ⎛ BG2 ⎞

only. Thus we obtain mgn = min − 2 1+ ⎜ ⎟ −1⎥min =

⎢ ⎜ μ ρ c2 ⎟ ⎥

⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫ ⎢⎣ ⎝ 0G n ⎠ ⎥⎦

⎪ ⎢ ⎛ UG ⎞ ⎪

mg = ⎨1− 2 1− ⎜⎜ n ⎟ −1⎥⎬mi0 (55b)

2 r⎟

⎢ ⎥ ⎡ ⎤

⎛ 4ω2 (ρn ρc )2 ⎞

2

⎪ ⎣ ⎝ mi0c ⎠ ⎦⎪⎭ ⎢

⎩ = min − 2⎢ 1+ ⎜ ⎟ −1⎥min =

⎜ μ ρ c2 ⎟ ⎥

Since U G = WGV , we can write (55b) ⎢⎣ ⎝ 0G n ⎠ ⎥⎦

for nr = 1 , in the following form

= min − χnmin

⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫

⎪ ⎛ WG ⎞ ⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎟ − 1⎥⎪⎬mi 0

2

mg = ⎨1 − 2 1 − ⎜⎜ ⎢ ⎛ B2 ⎞

⎪ ⎢ ⎝ ρc c ⎠

2 ⎟ ⎥⎪ mgp = mip − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜ G ⎟ −1⎥m =

⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ ⎜ μ0G ρ p c ⎟

2 ⎥ ip

⎢⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦

⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫

⎪ ⎛ B 2

⎞ ⎥⎪⎬m (55c)

= ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 − ⎜⎜ ⎟ − ⎡ ⎤

( )2 ⎞⎟

G

2 ⎟

1 2

⎪ ⎢ ⎝ μ 0G ρ c c ⎠ ⎥⎪ i 0 ⎢ ⎛ 4ω 2 ρ p ρc ⎥

⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ = mip − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜ − 1⎥mip =

⎜ μ ρ c2 ⎟

where ρ c = mi 0 V is the local density ⎢ ⎝ 0G p ⎠ ⎥

⎣ ⎦

of coherent matter. = mip − χ p mip

Note the different sign (inside

the square root) with respect to (55a).

30

17

of neutrons and protons respectively.

In Tajmar’s experiment, induced By comparing this expression with

accelerations fields outside the Δm g ≈ 1 × 10 −4 mi which has been

superconductor in the order of 100 μg , at

obtained from Tajmar’s experiment, we

−1

angular velocities of about 500rad .s conclude that at angular velocities

were observed. ω ≈ 500rad .s −1 we have

Starting from g = Gm g (initial ) r we

χ p ≈ 1 × 10 −4

(

can write that g + Δg = G mg(initial) + Δmg r . ) From the expression of m gp we get

Then we get Δg = GΔmg r . For

⎡ 2 ⎤

⎢ ⎛ B G2 ⎞ ⎥

Δg =ηg =ηGmg(initial) r it follows that χ p = 2⎢ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥ =

⎜ μ 0G ρ p c ⎟

2

Δ m g = η m g (initial ) = η m i . Therefore a ⎢⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦

variation of Δg = ηg corresponds to a ⎡ ⎤

( )

2

⎢ ⎛ 4ω 2 ρ p ρ c 2 ⎞ ⎥

gravitational mass variation Δmg = ηmi0 . = 2⎢ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥

⎜ μ ρ c2 ⎟

Thus Δg ≈ 100μg = 1×10−4 g corresponds ⎢

⎣

⎝ 0G p ⎠ ⎥

⎦

to where ρ p = m p V p is the mass density

Δm g ≈ 1 × 10 −4 mi 0 of the protons.

On the other hand, the total In order to calculate V p we need

gravitational mass of a particle can be

expressed by to know the type of space (metric) inside

the proton. It is known that there are just

mg = Nnmgn + N pmgp + Nemge + N p ΔE c2 = 3 types of space: the space of positive

Nn (min − χnmin ) + N p (mip − χ pmip ) + curvature, the space of negative

curvature and the space of null

+ Ne (mie − χemie ) + N pΔE c2 = curvature. The negative type is

= (Nnmin + N pmip + Nemie ) + N pΔE c2 − obviously excluded since the volume of

the proton is finite. On the other hand,

the space of null curvature is also

= mi − (Nn χnmin + N p χ pmip + Ne χemie ) + N pΔE c2 excluded since the space inside the

proton is strongly curved by its enormous

where ΔE is the interaction mass density. Thus we can conclude that

energy; N n , N p , N e are the number of inside the proton the space has positive

neutrons, protons and electrons curvature. Consequently, the volume of

respectively. Since min ≅ mip and the proton, V p , will be expressed by the

ρ n ≅ ρ p it follows that χn ≅ χ p and 3-dimensional space that corresponds to

a hypersphere in a 4-dimentional space,

consequently the expression of mg i.e., V p will be the space of positive

reduces to curvature the volume of which is [16]

2ππ π

mg ≅ mi0 − (2Npχpmip + Neχemie ) + NpΔE c2 (55d ) Vp = ∫ ∫ ∫ rp sin

3 2

χ sin θdχdθdφ = 2π 2 r p3

000

Assuming that Ne χemie <<2Np χ pmip and In the case of Earth, for example,

ρ Earth << ρ p . Consequently the

Np ΔE c2 <<2Npχpmip Eq. (55d) reduces to

curvature of the space inside the Earth is

approximately null (space approximately

mg ≅ mi0 − 2Npχpmip = mi − χpmi (55e) flat). Then V Earth ≅ 3 π r Earth .

4 3

or

For rp = 1.4 ×10−15 m we then get

31

18

mp ⎡ 2⎤

ρp = ≅ 3 × 1016 kg / m 3 ⎛ ω 2 ⎞

Vp χ = 2⎢1 − 1 − ⎜⎜

* 4 ⎟ ⎥ = 0.84 × 10−4

⎢ * 2 ⎟ ⎥

⎢⎣ ⎝ μ 0G ρ c ⎠ ⎥

Starting from the London moment ⎦

it is easy to see that by precisely From this equation we then obtain

measuring the magnetic field and the

angular velocity of the

superconductor, one can calculate the

ρ * ≅ 3 × 1016 kg / m 3

mass of the Cooper-pairs. This has Note that ρ p ≅ ρ * .

been done for both classical and high-Tc Now we can calculate the

superconductors [17-20]. In the

graviphoton mass, m gr , inside the

experiment with the highest precision to

date, Tate et al, op.cit., reported a Cooper-pairs fluid (coherent part of the

disagreement between the theoretically superconductor) as

predicted Cooper-pair mass in Niobium

of m* 2me = 0.999992 and its m gr = μ 0G ρ * h c ≅ 4 × 10 −52 kg

experimental value of 1.000084(21) ,

Outside the coherent matter (ρ c = 0 ) the

where me is the electron mass. This

graviphoton mass will be zero

anomaly was actively discussed in the

literature without any apparent solution (m gr = μ 0 G ρ c h c = 0 . )

−1

[21-24]. Substitution of ρp, ρc =ρ and ω ≈ 500rad.s

*

If we consider that the apparent

mass increase from Tate’s into the expression of χ p gives

measurements results from an increase

in the gravitational mass m*g of the χ p ≈ 1 × 10 −4

Cooper-pairs due to BG , then we can

write Compare this value with that one

obtained from the Tajmar experiment.

m *g m *g

= * = 1.000084 Therefore, the decrease in the

2m e mi gravitational mass of the superconductor,

expressed by (55e), is

Δm *g = m *g − m *g (initial ) = m *g − m i* =

m g ,SC ≅ mi ,SC − χ p mi ,SC

= 1.000084 m i* − mi* =

≅ mi ,SC − 10 − 4 mi ,SC

−4

= +0.84 × 10 mi* =χ *

m i* This corresponds to a decrease of the

−4

where χ = 0.84 × 10 .

* −2

order of 10 % in respect to the initial

From (55c) we can write that gravitational mass of the superconductor.

However, we must also consider the

⎡ 2⎤ gravitational shielding effect, produced

⎢ ⎛ 4ω 2 ⎞ ⎥ * −2

m*g = mi* + 2 1− 1− ⎜ ⎟ mi = by this decrease of ≈ 10 % in the

⎢ ⎜ μ ρ*c2 ⎟ ⎥

⎢⎣ ⎝ 0G ⎠ ⎥ gravitational mass of the particles inside

⎦ the superconductor (see Fig. II).

= mi* + χ * mi* Therefore, the total weight decrease in

the superconductor will be much greater

−2

than 10 % . According to Podkletnov

where ρ * is the Cooper-pair mass

experiment [25] it can reach up to 1% of

density. the total weight of the superconductor

(5000rpm) . In this

Consequently we can write −1

at 523.6rad .s

experiment a slight decrease (up to

≈ 1% ) in the weight of samples hung

above the disk (rotating at 5000rpm) was

32

19

of 0.1% has been observed when the

r GM g

disk is not rotating. The percentage of is g ′ = − g = + μ̂ . This means that

weight decrease is the same for samples R2

of different masses and chemical in this case, the gravitational flux, φ g′ ,

compounds. The effect does not seem to

diminish with increases in elevation through the particle m ′g will be given by

above the disk. There appears to be a φ g′ = g ′S = − gS = −φ g , i.e., it will be

“shielding cylinder” over the disk that symmetric in respect to the flux when

extends upwards for at least 3 meters.

No weight reduction has been observed

m′g = mi′0 (third case). In the second case

under the disk. (m′g ≅ 0) , the intensity of the

It is easy to see that the decrease

gravitational force between m ′g and M g

in the weight of samples hung above the

disk (inside the “shielding cylinder” over will be very close to zero. This is

the disk) in the Podkletnov experiment, equivalent to say that the gravity

is also a consequence of the acceleration upon the particle with mass

Gravitational Shielding Effect showed in m ′g will be g ′ ≅ 0 . Consequently we can

Fig. II.

write that φ g′ = g ′S ≅ 0 . It is easy to see

In order to explain the

Gravitational Shielding Effect, we start that there is a correlation between

with the gravitational field, m ′g m i′0 and φ g′ φ g , i.e.,

r GM g

g=− μ̂ , produced by a particle

R2 _ If m ′g mi′0 = −1 ⇒ φ g′ φ g = −1

with gravitational mass, M g . The

gravitational flux, φ g , through a spherical _ If m ′g m i′0 = 1 ⇒ φ g′ φ g = 1

surface, with area S and radius R ,

concentric with the mass M g , is given _ If m ′g m i′0 ≅ 0 ⇒ φ g′ φ g ≅ 0

by

r r Just a simple algebraic form contains the

φ g = ∫ gdS = g ∫ dS = g S = requisites mentioned above, the

S S

correlation

=

GM g

2

(4πR ) = 4πGM

2

g

φ g′

=

m ′g

R

φ g mi′0

Note that the flux φ g does not depend on

By making m ′g mi′0 = χ we get

the radius R of the surface S , i.e., it is

the same through any surface concentric

with the mass M g . φ g′ = χ φ g

Now consider a particle with

gravitational mass, m ′g , placed into the This is the expression of the gravitational

flux through m ′g . It explains the

gravitational field produced by Mg.

Gravitational Shielding Effect presented

According to Eq. (41), we can in Fig. II.

have m′g mi′0 = −1, m′g mi′0 ≅ 0 ‡ , m′g mi′0 = 1, As φg = gS and φ g′ = g ′S , we obtain

etc. In the first case, the gravity

‡ g′ = χ g

The quantization of the gravitational mass

(Eq.(33)) shows that for n = 1 the gravitational This is the gravity acceleration inside m ′g .

mass is not zero but equal to mg(min).Although the Figure II (b) shows the gravitational

gravitational mass of a particle is never null,

shielding effect produced by two particles

Eq.(41) shows that it can be turned very close to

zero.

at the same direction. In this case, the

33

20

gravity acceleration inside and above the flux on the surface α returns from O′ to

second particle will be χ 2 g if m g 2 = m i1 . O and is detected by the

These particles are representative galvanometer G . That is, there is no

of any material particles or material deflection for the cathodic rays. Then it

r r

substance (solid, liquid, gas, plasma, follows that eVB = eEy since FB = FE .

electrons flux, etc.), whose gravitational

mass have been reduced by the Then, we get

factor χ . Thus, above the substance, the Ey

V =

gravity acceleration g ′ is reduced at the B

same proportion χ = m g mi 0 , and, This gives a measure of the velocity of

the electrons.

consequently, g ′ = χ g , where g is the Thus, by means of the

gravity acceleration below the substance. experimental set-up, shown in Fig. III, we

Figure III shows an experimental can easily obtain the velocity V of the

set-up in order to check the factor χ electrons below the body β , in order to

above a high-speed electrons flux. As we calculate the theoretical value of χ . The

have shown (Eq. 43), the gravitational experimental value of χ can be obtained

mass of a particle decreases with the

by dividing the weight, Pβ′ = m gβ g ′ of

increase of the velocity V of the particle.

~

Since the theory says that the the body β for a voltage drop V across

factor χ is given by the correlation the anode and cathode, by its

m g mi 0 then, in the case of an electrons weight, Pβ = m gβ g , when the voltage

flux, we will have that χ = mge mie where ~

V is zero, i.e.,

m ge as function of the velocity V is Pβ′ g′

χ = =

given by Eq. (43). Thus, we can write Pβ g

that

According to Eq. (4), the gravitational

mass, M g , is defined by

m ge ⎧⎪ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎫⎪

χ= = ⎨1 − 2 ⎢ − 1⎥ ⎬ mg

mie ⎪⎩ ⎢

⎣ 1−V c

2 2

⎥⎦ ⎪⎭ Mg =

1 − V 2 c2

Therefore, if we know the velocity V of

the electrons we can calculate χ . ( mie is While Eq. (43) defines m g by means of

the electron mass at rest). the following expression

When an electron penetrates the ⎧⎪ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎫⎪

electric field E y (see Fig. III) an electric m g = ⎨1 − 2 ⎢ − 1⎥ ⎬mi 0

r r ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ 1 − V 2 c 2 ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭

force, FE = −eE y , will act upon the

r In order to check the gravitational mass

electron. The direction of FE will be of the electrons it is necessary to know

r the pressure P produced by the

contrary to the direction of E y . The

r electrons flux. Thus, we have put a

magnetic force FB which acts upon the piezoelectric sensor in the bottom of the

r glass tube as shown in Fig. III. The

electron, due to the magnetic field B , is electrons flux radiated from the cathode

r r

FB = eVBμ̂ and will be opposite to FE is accelerated by the anode1 and strikes

because the electron charge is negative. on the piezoelectric sensor yielding a

By adjusting conveniently B we pressure P which is measured by

r r means of the sensor.

can make FB = FE . Under these

circumstances in which the total force is

zero, the spot produced by the electrons

34

21

g g′ < g g′ < 0

mg = mi mg < mi mg < 0

g g g

(a)

Particle 2 P2 = mg 2 g′ = mg 2 ( x g )

mg 2

g′ < g due to the gravitational

g′ shielding effect produced by mg 1

mg 1 = x mi 1 ; x < 1

Particle 1

mg 1 P1 = mg 1 g = x mi 1 g

g

(b)

35

22

between P and M ge . all the forces Fφ produced by each

When the electrons flux strikes electrons flux that passes through

the sensor, the electrons transfer to it each hole of area S φ in the grid of the

a momentum Q = neqe = ne MgeV . anode 1, and is given by

Since Q = FΔt = 2Fd V , we conclude that ⎛ αnSφ ⎞ ~ 32

F = nFφ = n(PSφ ) = ⎜⎜ ⎟

2 ⎟

M VV

⎛F⎞

2d ⎝ 2ed ⎠

ge

M ge = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

V2

⎝ ne ⎠ where n is the number of holes in the

The amount of electrons, ne , is given grid. By means of the piezoelectric

sensor we can measure F and

by ne = ρSd where ρ is the amount of

consequently obtain M ge .

electrons per unit of volume

We can use the equation

(electrons/m3); S is the cross-section

above to evaluate the magnitude of

of the electrons flux and d the

the force F to be measured by the

distance between cathode and

piezoelectric sensor. First, we will find

anode.

the expression of V as a function of

In order to calculate ne we will ~

V since the electrons speed V

start from the Langmuir-Child law and ~

the Ohm vectorial law, respectively depends on the voltage V .

given by We will start from Eq. (46)

~ 3 which is the general expression for

and J = ρ cV , (ρ c = ρ e )

V2

J =α Lorentz’s force, i.e.,

r

( )

d dp r r r mg

where J is the thermoionic current = qE + qV × B

− 32

dt mi 0

density; α = 2.33 × 10 − 6 A.m −1 .V is

~ When the force and the speed

the called Child’s constant; V is the have the same direction Eq.

r r (6) gives

voltage drop across the anode and dp mg dV

=

cathode electrodes, and V is the dt (1 − V 2 c 2 )2 dt

3

By comparing the Langmuir- By comparing these expressions we

Child law with the Ohm vectorial law obtain r

we obtain mi 0 dV r r r

~ = q E + q V ×B

( )

3

αV

3

1 − V 2 c 2 2 dt

2

ρ= 2

ed V In the case of electrons accelerated

Thus, we can write that by a sole electric field (B = 0) , the

~ 3

αV S 2

equation above gives

ne = r r ~

( )

edV r dV eE 2eV

and a= = 1−V c

2 2

dt mie mie

⎛ 2ed 2 ⎞

M ge = ⎜⎜ ~ 3 ⎟⎟ P Therefore, the velocity V of the

⎝ α VV 2 ⎠ electrons in the experimental set-up

Where P = F S , is the pressure to be is

~

measured by the piezoelectric

( 2eV

)

3

V = 2ad = 1 − V 2 c 2 4

sensor. mie

In the experimental set-up the

From Eq. (43) we conclude that

total force F acting on the

36

23

Dynamometer (D)

d

~

Collimators g’= χ g ↓g + Vy

Grid d Collimators B

O’ +

α γ

F

e V

y Ey O⋅ e

Piezoelectric − G ↓iG

sensor

- +

~

V

+ −

Fig. III – Experimental set-up in order to check the factor χ above a high-speed electrons flux.

The set-up may also check the velocities and the gravitational masses of the electrons.

37

24

of this value of V into equation above d = 0.08m in the experimental set-up

~

gives V ≅ 479.1KV . This is the then it follows that

~

F = 1.82 × 1014 M geVV

3

voltage drop necessary to be applied 2

electrodes in order to obtain mge ≅ 0 . By varying V from 10KV up to 500KV

we note that the maximum value for

Since the equation above can ~

be used to evaluate the velocity V of F occurs when V ≅ 344.7 KV . Under

~ these circumstances, V ≅ 0.7c and

the electrons flux for a given V , then

M ge ≅ 0.28mie . Thus the maximum

we can use the obtained value of V to

r value for F is

evaluate the intensity of B in order to

produce eVB = eE y in the Fmax ≅ 1.9 N ≅ 190 gf

~

experimental set-up. Then by Consequently, for Vmax = 500 KV , the

adjusting B we can check when the piezoelectric sensor must satisfy the

electrons flux is detected by the following characteristics:

galvanometer G . In this case, as we

have already seen, eVB = eE y , and − Capacity 200gf

the velocity of the electrons flux is − Readability 0.001gf

calculated by means of the

expression V = E y B . Substitution of Let us now return to the

explanation for the findings of

V into the expressions of m ge and

Podkletnov’s experiment. Next, we

M ge , respectively given by will explain the decrease of 0.1% in

⎧⎪ ⎡ ⎤ ⎫⎪ the weight of the superconductor

1

mge = ⎨1 − 2⎢ − 1⎥ ⎬mie when the disk is only levitating but not

⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ 1 − V 2 c 2 ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭ rotating.

Equation (55) shows how the

and gravitational mass is altered by

m ge electromagnetic fields.

M ge = The expression of nr for

1−V 2 c2 σ >> ωε can be obtained from (54),

yields the corresponding values of in the form

m ge and M ge which can be compared μσ c 2

nr =

c

= (56 )

with the values obtained in the v 4πf

experimental set-up:

Substitution of (56) into (55) leads to

(

m ge = χmie = Pβ′ Pβ mie ) ⎧

⎪

⎡

μσ ⎛ U ⎞

2 ⎤⎫

⎪

⎢

mg = ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − 1⎥⎬mi 0

F ⎛ 2ed 2 ⎞ ⎪ ⎢ 4πf ⎝ mi c ⎠ ⎥⎪

M ge = ⎜ ⎟ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭

~3 ⎜ αnS φ ⎟

VV 2 ⎝ ⎠ This equation shows that atoms of

ferromagnetic materials with very-

where Pβ′ and Pβ are measured by high μ can have gravitational

the dynamometer D and F is masses strongly reduced by means

measured by the piezoelectric of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF)

sensor. electromagnetic radiation. It also

shows that atoms of superconducting

38

25

also have its gravitational masses for high critical temperature (HTC)

strongly reduced by means of ELF superconducting materials, is in the

electromagnetic radiation. order of 10 2 K . Thus (58a) gives

Alternatively, we may put ⎧ ⎡ ⎫

⎪ ~ 10−9 ⎤⎪

Eq.(55) as a function of the power mg,CPfluid = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ 2 −1⎥⎬mi,CPfluid (58b)

density ( or intensity ), D , of the ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ ρCPfluid ⎥⎦⎪

⎭

radiation. The integration of (51)

Assuming that the number of Copper-

gives U =VD v . Thus, we can write

pairs per unit volume is N ≈ 10 26 m −3

(55) in the following form:

[27] we can write that

⎧ ⎡ ⎤⎫

ρ CPfluid = Nm* ≈ 10 −4 kg / m 3

2

⎪ ⎛ nr2 D ⎞ ⎪

mg = ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ − 1⎥⎬mi 0

⎢ (57)

⎪ ⎢ ⎝ ρc ⎠ ⎥⎪ Substitution of this value into (58b)

⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ yields

where ρ = mi 0 V .

For σ >> ωε , nr will be given by mg,CPfluid = m − 0.1 mi,CPfluid

i,CPfluid

(56) and consequently (57) becomes

⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫ This means that the gravitational

⎪ ⎛ μσ ⎞ ⎪

⎟⎟ − 1⎥ ⎬mi 0 (58)

D

mg = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜⎜ masses of the electrons are

⎪⎩ ⎢ ⎝ 4πfρc ⎠ ⎥⎪ decreased of ~10%. This

⎣ ⎦⎭

corresponds to a decrease in the

In the case of Thermal gravitational mass of the

radiation, it is common to relate superconductor given by

m g ,SC N (m ge + m gp + m gn + ΔE c 2 )

the energy of photons to

temperature, T, through the = =

relation, mi , SC N (mie + mip + min + ΔE c 2 )

hf ≈ κT ⎛ m ge + m gp + m gn + ΔE c 2 ⎞

=⎜ ⎟=

where κ = 1.38 × 10 −23 J / °K is the ⎜ m + m + m + ΔE c 2 ⎟

⎝ ie ip in ⎠

Boltzmann’s constant. On the other

hand it is known that ⎛ 0.9mie + mip + min + ΔE c 2 ⎞

=⎜ ⎟=

D = σ BT 4 ⎜ m + m + m + ΔE c 2 ⎟

⎝ ie ip in ⎠

where σ B = 5.67 × 10 −8 watts / m 2 ° K 4 = 0.999976

is the Stefan-Boltzmann’s constant. Where ΔE is the interaction energy.

Thus we can rewrite (58) in the Therefore, a decrease of

following form (1 − 0.999976) ≈ 10 , i.e., approximately

−5

⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫

⎪ ⎛ μσσ 3

⎞ ⎪ 10 −3% in respect to the initial

⎢ − 1⎥⎬mi0 (58a)

⎜ hT ⎟

mg = ⎨1 − 2 1 + B

⎢ ⎜ 4πκρ c ⎟ ⎥ gravitational mass of the

⎪

⎩ ⎢⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦⎪⎭ superconductor, due to the local

Starting from this equation, we can thermal radiation only. However, here

evaluate the effect of the thermal we must also consider the

radiation upon the gravitational mass gravitational shielding effect

of the Copper-pair fluid, m g ,CPfluid . produced, in this case, by the

Below the transition temperature, Tc , decrease of ≈ 10 − 3% in the

gravitational mass of the particles

(T Tc < 0.5) the conductivity of the inside the superconductor (see Fig.

superconducting materials is usually II). Therefore the total weight

larger than 10 22 S / m [26]. On the decrease in the superconductor will

39

26

r r

be much greater than ≈ 10 − 3% . This J = Δ eVd

can explain the smaller effect on the where Δe is the density of the

order of 0.1% observed in the

free electric charges ( For cooper

Podkletnov measurements when the

disk is not rotating. conductors Δe = 1.3 × 1010 C / m 3 ).

Let us now consider an electric Therefore increasing Vd produces an

current I through a conductor increase in the electric current I .

subjected to electromagnetic Thus if mge is reduced 10 times

radiation with power density D and

frequency f .

(m ge ≈ 0.1me ) the drift velocity Vd is

Under these circumstances the increased 10 times as well as the

gravitational mass mge of the electric current. Thus we conclude

that strong fluxes of ELF radiation

electrons of the conductor, according upon electric/electronic circuits can

to Eq. (58), is given by suddenly increase the electric

⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫ currents and consequently damage

⎪ ⎢ ⎛ μσD ⎞ ⎪

m ge = ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − 1⎥ ⎬m e these circuits.

⎪ ⎢ ⎝ 4πfρc ⎠ ⎥⎪ Since the orbital electrons

⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭

−31 moment of inertia is given

where me = 9.11 × 10 kg .

by I i = Σ (mi ) j rj , where mi refers to

2

the conductor has extremely-low inertial mass and not to gravitational

frequency (ELF radiation) then mge mass, then the momentum L = I iω of

can be strongly reduced. For the conductor orbital electrons are not

affected by the ELF radiation.

example, if f ≈ 10−6 Hz , D ≈ 10 5 W / m 2

Consequently, this radiation just

and the conductor is made of copper affects the conductor’s free electrons

( μ ≅ μ0 ; σ = 5.8×107 S / mand velocities. Similarly, in the case of

ρ = 8900kg / m3 ) then superconducting materials, the

⎛ μσD ⎞ momentum, L = I iω , of the orbital

⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ≈ 1 electrons are not affected by the

⎝ 4πfρc ⎠

gravitomagnetic fields.

and consequently mge ≈ 0.1me . r r

The vector D = (U V )v , which we

According to Eq. (6) the force

may define from (48), has the same

upon each free electron is given by r

direction of the propagation vector k

r and evidently corresponds to the

r m ge dV r r

Fe = = eE

(1 − V c2 ) 2

Poynting vector. Then D can be

2

3

dt r r

replaced by E× H .Thus we can write

D = 12 EH = 12 E(B μ) = 12 E[(E v) μ] = 12 (1 vμ)E2 .

where E is the applied electric field.

For σ >> ωε Eq. (54) tells us that

Therefore, the decrease of mge

v = 4πf μσ . Consequently, we obtain

produces an increase in the velocity

V of the free electrons and σ

D = 12 E 2

consequently the drift velocity Vd is 4πfμ

also increased. It is known that the This expression refers to the

density of electric current J through instantaneous values of D and E .

a conductor [28] is given by The average value for E 2 is equal to

1 E 2 because E varies sinusoidaly

2 m

40

27

Substitution of the expression of D negative inertial mass increases, but

into (58) gives its total inertial mass decreases, i.e.,

⎧ although there is an increase of

⎡ 3 ⎤⎫

μ ⎛σ ⎞ E

2

⎪ ⎪

⎟⎟ 2 − 1⎥⎬mi0 (59a)

inertial mass, the total inertial mass

mg = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 2 ⎜⎜

⎪⎩ ⎢ 4c ⎝ 4πf ⎠ ρ ⎥⎪ (which is equivalent to gravitational

⎣ ⎦⎭ mass) will be reduced.

Since E rms = E m 2 and E = 12 E m2 we 2

On the other hand, Eq.(4)

can write the equation above in the shows that the velocity of the body

following form must increase as consequence of

⎧ ⎡ the gravitational mass decreasing

3 ⎤⎫

⎪ ⎢ μ ⎛ σ ⎞ Erms 2

⎪

−1⎥⎬mi0 (59a)

since the momentum is conserved.

mg = ⎨1− 2 1+ 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ 4c ⎝ 4πf ⎠ ρ 2

⎥⎪ Consider for example a spacecraft

⎦⎭ with velocity Vs and gravitational

Note that for extremely-low

mass M g . If M g is reduced to m g

frequencies the value of f − 3 in this

then the velocity becomes

V s′ = (M g m g )V s

equation becomes highly expressive.

Since E = vB equation (59a)

can also be put as a function of B , In addition, Eqs. 5 and 6 tell us that

i.e., the inertial forces depend on m g .

⎧⎪ ⎡ ⎛ σ ⎞ B4 ⎤⎫⎪ Only in the particular case of

mg = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜⎜ ⎟

2 ⎟ 2

− 1⎥⎬mi 0 (59b) m g = m i 0 the expressions (5) and

⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ ⎝ 4πfμc ⎠ ρ ⎥⎦⎪⎭

(6) reduce to the well-known

For conducting materials with Newtonian expression F = mi 0 a .

σ ≈ 10 S / m ; μ r = 1 ; ρ ≈ 10 kg / m3

7 3

Consequently, one can conclude that

the expression (59b) gives the inertial effects on the spacecraft

⎧⎪ ⎡ ⎛ ≈ 10 −12 ⎞ 4 ⎤ ⎫⎪ will also be reduced due to the

mg = ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜⎜

⎢ ⎟⎟ B − 1⎥ ⎬mi 0 decreasing of its gravitational mass.

⎪⎩ ⎢

⎣ ⎝ f ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭

Obviously this leads to a new

This equation shows that the concept of aerospace flight.

decreasing in the gravitational mass Now consider an electric

of these conductors can become current i = i0 sin2πft through a

experimentally detectable for

conductor. Since the current density,

example, starting from 100Teslas at r r r r

10mHz. J , is expressed by J = di dS = σE ,

One can then conclude that an then we can write that

interesting situation arises when a E = i σS = (i0 σS ) sin 2πft . Substitution

body penetrates a magnetic field in of this equation into (59a) gives

the direction of its center. The ⎧⎪ ⎡ ⎤⎫⎪

i4μ

gravitational mass of the body mg = ⎨1−2⎢ 1+ 3 20 2 4 3 sin4 2πft −1⎥⎬mi0 (59c)

decreases progressively. This is due ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ 64π c ρ S f σ ⎥⎦⎪⎭

to the intensity increase of the If the conductor is a supermalloy rod

magnetic field upon the body while it

penetrates the field. In order to

(1 × 1 × 400mm) then μr = 100,000

understand this phenomenon we (initial); ρ = 8770kg / m 3 ; σ = 1.6 ×106 S / m

might, based on (43), think of the and S = 1 × 10 −6 m 2 . Substitution of

inertial mass as being formed by two these values into the equation above

parts: one positive and another yields the following expression for the

negative. Thus, when the body

41

28

rod =

m i 0 c 2 ρ 2 cv 3

⎩ ⎢⎣

( )

mg(sm) =⎧⎨1−2⎡ 1+ 5.71×10−12i04 f 3 sin42πft −1⎤⎫⎬mi(sm)

⎥⎦⎭

Substitution of this expression into

(41) gives

Some oscillators like the HP3325A ⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫

⎪ ⎢ ⎛ P2 ⎞ ⎪

(Op.002 High Voltage Output) can mg = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜ 2 3 ⎟ −1⎥⎥⎬mi 0 (60)

generate sinusoidal voltages with ⎜ 2ρ cv ⎟

⎪ ⎢⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦⎪⎭

extremely-low frequencies down to ⎩

f = 1 × 10 −6 Hz and amplitude up to This expression shows that in the

case of sound waves the decreasing

20V (into 50Ω load). The maximum

of gravitational mass is relevant for

output current is 0.08 App . very strong pressures only.

Thus, for i0 = 0.04 A (0.08 A pp ) It is known that in the nucleus

and f < 2.25 × 10 −6 Hz the equation of the Earth the pressure can reach

values greater than 1013 N / m 2 . The

above shows that the gravitational

mass of the rod becomes negative at equation above tells us that sound

waves produced by pressure

2πft = π 2 ; for f ≅ 1.7 × 10−6 Hz at

variations of this magnitude can

t = 1 4 f = 1.47 × 10 5 s ≅ 40.8h it shows cause strong decreasing of the

that m g ( sm ) ≅ − mi ( sm ) . gravitational mass at the

This leads to the idea of the surroundings of the point where the

Gravitational Motor. See in Fig. IV a sound waves were generated. This

type of gravitational motor (Rotational obviously must cause an abrupt

Gravitational Motor) based on the decreasing of the pressure at this

possibility of gravity control on a place since pressure = weight /area =

ferromagnetic wire. mgg/area). Consequently a local

It is important to realize that instability will be produced due to the

this is not the unique way of opposite internal pressure. The

decreasing the gravitational mass of conclusion is that this effect may

a body. It was noted earlier that the cause Earthquakes.

expression (53) is general for all Consider a sphere of radius r

types of waves including non- around the point where the sound

electromagnetic waves like sound waves were generated (at ≈ 1,000km

waves for example. In this case, the depth; the Earth's radius is 6 ,378km ).

velocity v in (53) will be the speed of If the maximum pressure, at the

sound in the body and D the intensity explosion place ( sphere of radius r0 ),

of the sound radiation. Thus from (53) is Pmax ≈ 1013 N / m 2 and the pressure

we can write that

at the distance r = 10km is

Δp V D D

= = Pmin = (r0 r ) Pmax ≈ 10 N / m then we can

2 9 2

mi c mi c ρcv 2

consider that in the sphere

It can easily be shown that

D = 2π 2 ρf 2 A 2 v where A = λP 2πρv 2 ; P = PmaxPmin ≈ 10 N / m .Thus assuming

11 2

amplitude and maximum pressure calculate the variation of gravitational

variation of the sound wave. mass in the sphere by means of the

Therefore we readily obtain equation of m g , i.e.,

42

29

⎧ ⎡ i4μ ⎤⎫

⎪ ⎢ ⎪

α = ⎨1 − 2 1 + − 1⎥ ⎬

⎪⎩ ⎢ 64π c ρ S f σ

3 2 2 4 3

⎥⎪

⎣ ⎦⎭

Axis

of the

Rotor

Ferromagnetic wire F = mg g = α mi g

P = mi g

of the Rotor

ELF current

source

Several plates of

ferromagnetic wire

43

30

r

force, Fi , is given by Eq.(6), and from

Δmg = mg (initial) − mg = Eq.(13) we can obtain the

r r r

⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫ gravitational force, Fg . Thus, Fi ≡ Fg

⎪ ⎛ P2 ⎞ ⎪

= mi 0 − ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜⎜ 2 3 ⎟⎟ − 1⎥⎬mi 0 = leads to

⎢

⎪⎩ ⎢ ⎝ 2ρ cv ⎠ ⎥⎪

⎣ ⎦⎭ mg r m′g mg

a ≡G ≡

⎡

⎛ P2 ⎞

2 ⎤ 1−V c

2 2 2

3

( ⎛ )

⎜ r′ 1−V c ⎟

2 2 ⎞

2

1 −V 2 2

c

= 2⎢ 1 + ⎜⎜ 2 3 ⎟⎟ − 1⎥ ρV ≈ 1011 kg ⎝ ⎠

⎢ ⎝ 2 ρ cv ⎠ ⎥ ⎛ m′g ⎞ mg mg

⎣ ⎦ r

≡ ⎜⎜G 2 ⎟⎟ ≡g (61)

The transitory loss of this great ( )

⎝ r′ ⎠ 1−V 2 c2 2

3

( 3

)

1−V 2 c2 2

amount of gravitational mass may whence results

r r

evidently produce a strong pressure a≡g (62 )

variation and consequently a strong

Consequently, the equivalence is

Earthquake.

evident, and therefore Einstein's

Finally, we can evaluate the

equations from the General Relativity

energy necessary to generate those

continue obviously valid.

sound waves. From (48) we can write

The new expression for Fi

D max = Pmax v ≈ 10 16 W / m 2 . Thus, the

released power is P0 = Dmax(4πr02 ) ≈ 1021W

(Eqs. (5) and (6)) shows that the

inertial forces are proportional to the

and the energy ΔE released at the gravitational mass, m g . This means

time interval Δt must be ΔE = P0 Δt . that these forces result from the

Assuming Δt ≈ 10 s we readily obtain

−3

gravitational interaction between the

ΔE = P0 Δt ≈ 1018 joules ≈ 10 4 Megatons particle and the other gravitational

This is the amount of energy released masses of the Universe, just as

by an earthquake of magnitude 9 Mach’s principle predicts. Therefore

(Ms =9) , i.e., E = 1.74×10(5+1.44Ms ) ≅ 1018 joules. the new expression for the inertial

forces incorporates the Mach’s

The maximum magnitude in the principle into Gravitation Theory, and

Richter scale is 12. Note that the sole furthermore reveals that the inertial

releasing of this energy at 1000km effects upon a particle can be

depth (without the effect of reduced because, as we have seen,

gravitational mass decreasing) the gravitational mass may be

cannot produce an Earthquake, since reduced. When m g = mi 0 the

the sound waves reach 1km depth

with pressures less than 10N/cm2. nonrelativistic equation for inertial

r r

Let us now return to the Theory. forces, Fi = mg a , reduces to

The equivalence between r r

Fi = mi 0 a . This is the well-known

frames of non-inertial reference and

gravitational fields assumed m g ≡ mi Newton's second law for motion.

In Einstein's Special Relativity

because the inertial forces were given Theory the motion of a free-particle is

r r

by Fi = mi a , while the equivalent described by means of δS = 0 [29].

r r Now based on Eq. (1), δS = 0 will be

gravitational forces, by Fg = mg g .

given by the following expression

Thus, to satisfy the equivalence

r r r δS = − m g cδ ∫ ds = 0. (63 )

( a ≡ g and Fi ≡ Fg ) it was necessary

which also describes the motion of

that m g ≡ mi . Now, the inertial the particle inside the gravitational

44

31

the General Relativity can be derived limit). Therefore, just under these

starting from δ (S m + S g ) = 0 , where circumstances the Einstein's

S g and S m refer to the action of the equations from the General Relativity

can be used in order to “classicalize”

gravitational field and the action of the quantum theory by means of

the matter, respectively [30]. approximated description of the

The variations δS g and δS m can spacetime.

be written as follows [31]: Later on we will show that the

∫( )

c3 length d min of Eq. (29) is given by

δSg = Rik − 12 gik R δg ik − g dΩ (64)

16πG ( )

1

≈ 10 −34 m (70)

~ ~

d min = k l planck = k Gh c 3 2

1

(65 )

2c ∫

δS m =− Tik δg ik − g dΩ (See Eq. (100)). On the other hand,

where Rik is the Ricci's tensor; g ik the we will find in the Eq. (129) the length

scale of the initial Universe, i.e.,

metric tensor and Tik the matter's dinitial ≈10−14m. Thus, from the Eq. (29)

energy-momentum tensor:

we get: n = dinitial dmin = 10−14 10−34 ≈ 1020

Tik = (P + ε g )μ i μ k + Pg ik (66 )

this is the quantum number of the

where P is the pressure and εg = ρgc2 spacetime at initial instant. That

is now, the density of gravitational quantum number is sufficiently large

energy, E g , of the particle; ρ g is then for the spacetime to be considered

the density of gravitational mass of approximately “continuous” starting

the particle, i.e., M g at the volume from the beginning of the Universe.

Therefore Einstein's equations can be

unit. used even at the Initial Universe.

Substitution of (64) and (65) into Now, it is easy to conclude why

δS m + δS g = 0 yields the attempt to quantize gravity

c3

16πG

( 8πG

)

∫ Rik − 2 gik R − c 4 Tik δg − g dΩ = 0

1 ik

starting from the General Relativity

was a bad theoretical strategy.

Since the gravitational

whence,

interaction can be repulsive, besides

⎛⎜ R − 1 g R − 8πG T ⎞⎟ = 0 (67)

⎝ ik 2 ik c4

ik

⎠

attractive, such as the

electromagnetic interaction, then the

because the δg ik are arbitrary.

graviton must have spin 1 (called

Equations (67) in the following form graviphoton) and not 2.

Rik − 12 g ik R = 8π4G Tik (68) Consequently, the gravitational forces

c

are also gauge forces because they

or

are yielded by the exchange of the

Rik − 12 gδ ik R = 8π4G Tik . (69) so-called "virtual" quanta of spin 1,

c

are the Einstein's equations from the such as the electromagnetic forces

General Relativity. and the weak and strong nuclear

It is known that these equations forces.

are only valid if the spacetime is Let us now deduce the Entropy

continuous. We have shown at the Differential Equation starting from Eq.

beginning of this work that the (55). Comparison of Eqs. (55) and

spacetime is not continuous it is (41) shows that Unr = Δpc . For small

quantized. However, the spacetime velocities, i.e., (V << c ) , we have

can be considered approximately

Unr << mi 0 c 2 . Under these

“continuous” when the quantum

45

32

( )

Eq. (55) in power of Unr mi 0 c 2 gives However, Eq.(18) shows that

⎛ Unr ⎞

2 2EKi =Ei −Eg .Therefore Eq.(77) becomes

mg = mi 0 − ⎜⎜ ⎟ mi 0

2 ⎟

(71) Eg = Ei − T (∂Ei ∂T ) (78)

⎝ i0 ⎠

m c

In the particular case of thermal Here, we can identify the energy E i

radiation, it is usual to relate the with the free-energy of the system-F

energy of the photons to the and E g with the internal energy of

temperature, through the relationship the system-U. Thus we can write the

hν ≈ kT where k = 1.38×10−23 J K is Eq.(78) in the following form:

the Boltzmann's constant. Thus, in U = F − T (∂F ∂T ) (79)

that case, the energy absorbed by the This is the well-known equation of

particle will be U = η hν ≈ ηkT , Thermodynamics. On the other hand,

where η is a particle-dependent remembering that ∂Q = ∂τ +∂U (1st

absorption/emission coefficient. principle of Thermodynamics) and

Therefore, Eq.(71) may be rewritten F = U − TS (80)

in the following form: (Helmholtz's function), we can easily

⎡⎛ nrηk ⎞2 T 2 ⎤ obtain from (79), the following

mg = mi0 − ⎢⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎥mi0 (72) equation

⎢⎣⎝ c ⎠ mi0 ⎥⎦ (81)

2

∂Q = ∂τ + T∂S .

For electrons at T=300K, we have For isolated systems, ∂τ = 0 , we have

⎛ nrηk ⎞ T 2

2

∂Q = T∂S (82)

⎜ 2 ⎟ ≈ 10 −17

⎝ c ⎠ me which is the well-known Entropy

2

Let us now consider the

1 ⎛ nrηk ⎞ T 2

2

2 ⎝ c ⎠ mi 0 where the inertial energy of the

The derivative of E Ki with respect to particle E i = M i c 2 is much larger than

temperature T is its inertial energy at rest mi 0 c 2 .

∂E Ki

= (nrηk c ) (T mi 0 ) (74) Comparison of (4) and (10) leads to

2

Thus, relativistic case, gives

∂E

T Ki = r 2

(n ηkT)2 (75) Δp = EiV c ≅ Ei c ≅ Mi c . On the other

2

Substitution of EKi = Ei − Ei0 into (75) shows that Unr = Δpc . Thus

gives Unr = Δpc ≅ Mi c2 >> mi0c2 . Consequently,

⎛ ∂Ei ∂Ei 0 ⎞ (nrηkT )

2

⎝ ∂T ∂T ⎠ mi 0 c 2

By comparing the Eqs.(76) and (73) m g = mi 0 − 2 Un r c 2 (83 )

and considering that ∂Ei0 ∂T = 0

because E i 0 does not depend on T , Therefore, the action for such

particle, in agreement with the Eq.(2),

the Eq.(76) reduces to is

46

33

t2

S = −∫t mgc2 1 − V 2 c2 dt = complete description of the

1 electromagnetic field. This means

t2

( )

= ∫t − mi + 2Unr c2 c2 1 −V 2 c2 dt = that from the present theory for

[ ]

1

gravity we can also derive the

= ∫t − mic2 1 − V 2 c2 + 2Unr 1 − V 2 c2 dt. (84)

t2

equations of the electromagnetic

1

field.

The integrant function is the Due to Un r = Δpc ≅ M i c 2 the

Lagrangean, i.e.,

second term on the right hand side of

L = −mi0c2 1−V 2 c2 + 2Unr 1−V 2 c2 (85) Eq.(86) can be written as follows

Starting from the Lagrangean we can

find the Hamiltonian of the particle, by Δpc⎢

(

⎡ 4V 2 c 2 − 2 ⎤

⎥=

)

means of the well-known general ⎢⎣ 1 − V 2 c 2 ⎥⎦

formula:

H = V (∂L ∂V ) − L.

=⎢

( )

⎡ 4V 2 c 2 − 2 ⎤

⎥M i c 2 =

The result is ⎢⎣ 1 − V c ⎥⎦

2 2

H=

mi0c2

+ Unr ⎢

(

⎡ 4V 2 c2 − 2 ⎤

⎥.

)

(86) = Qϕ =

QQ′

=

QQ′

1−V c2 2

⎢

⎣ 1−V c ⎦

2 2

⎥ 4πε0 R 4πε0 r 1 − V 2 c 2

The second term on the right hand whence

QQ ′

side of Eq.(86) results from the

particle's interaction with the (4V 2

)

c 2 − 2 M ic 2 =

4πε 0 r

electromagnetic field. Note the

similarity between the obtained (

The factor 4V 2 c 2 − 2 becomes )

Hamiltonian and the well-known equal to 2 in the ultra-relativistic case,

Hamiltonian for the particle in an then it follows that

QQ ′

electromagnetic field [32]: 2M i c 2 = (88 )

4πε 0 r

H = mi0c2 1 − V 2 c2 + Qϕ. (87) From (44), we know that there is a

minimum value for M i given by

in which Q is the electric charge and M i (min) = mi (min) . Eq.(43) shows that

ϕ , the field's scalar potential. The mg (min) = mi0(min) and Eq.(23) gives

quantity Q ϕ expresses, as we mg (min) = ± h cLmax 8 = ± h 3 8 cdmax .

know, the particle's interaction with

Thus we can write

the electromagnetic field in the same

way as the second term on the right Mi(min) = mi0(min) = ± h 3 8 cdmax (89)

hand side of the Eq. (86). According to (88) the value 2M i (min )c 2

It is therefore evident that it is

the same quantity, expressed by is correlated to (QQ′ 4πε0r)min =Qmin2

4πε0 rmax,

different variables. i.e.,

2

Thus, we can conclude that, in Q min

= 2 M i (min )c 2 (90 )

ultra-high energy conditions 4πε 0 rmax

( 2 2

)

Unr ≅ M i c > mi 0 c , the gravitational where Qmin is the minimum electric

and electromagnetic fields can charge in the Universe ( therefore

be described by the same equal to minimum electric charge of

Hamiltonian, i.e., in these

the quarks, i.e., 13 e ); rmax is the

circumstances they are unified !

It is known that starting from maximum distance between Q and

that Hamiltonian we may obtain a Q ′ , which should be equal to the so-

47

34

Universe is

nU VU ≅ 10 particles/ m

46

we can 3

conclude

Universe ( d c = 2lc where l c is obtained

that these particles fill all space in the

from the Hubble's law for V = c , i.e., Universe, by forming a Continuous 4

~

l c = cH −1 ). Thus, from (90) we readily Universal Medium or Continuous

obtain Universal Fluid (CUF), the density of

which is

Qmin = πε 0 hc 24 (dc d max ) = nU m i 0(min )

ρ CUF = ≅ 10 − 27 kg / m 3

( ~

= πε 0 hc 2 96H −1 d max = ) VU

Note that this density is much smaller

= 13 e (91) than the density of the Intergalactic

whence we find (

Medium ρ IGM ≅ 10 −26 kg / m 3 . )

d max = 3 .4 × 10 30 m The extremely-low density of the

This will be the maximum "diameter" that Continuous Universal Fluid shows that its

the Universe will reach. Consequently, local gravitational mass can be strongly

Eq.(89) tells us that the elementary affected by electromagnetic fields

quantum of matter is (including gravitoelectromagnetic fields),

pressure, etc. (See Eqs. 57, 58, 59a,

mi 0(min) = ± h 3 8 cdmax = ±3.9 × 10−73 kg 59b, 55a, 55c and 60). The density of

this fluid is clearly not uniform along the

Universe, since it can be strongly

This is, therefore, the smallest indivisible compressed in several regions (galaxies,

particle of matter. stars, blackholes, planets, etc). At the

Considering that, the inertial mass normal state (free space), the mentioned

of the Observable Universe is fluid is invisible. However, at super

MU = c 2H0G ≅10 kg and that its volume

3 53 compressed state it can become visible

by giving origin to the known matter

is V U = 4

3

π R U3 = 4

3

π (c H 0 )3 ≅ 10 79 m 3 , since matter, as we have seen, is

where H 0 = 1.75 × 10 −18 s −1 is the Hubble quantized and consequently, formed by

an integer number of elementary

constant, we can conclude that the

number of these particles in the quantum of matter with mass mi 0(min ) .

Observable Universe is Inside the proton, for example, there are

nU =

MU

≅ 10125 particles n p = m p mi0(min) ≅ 1045 elementary quanta

mi 0(min ) of matter at supercompressed state, with

By dividing this number by VU , we get volume V proton n p and “radius”

nU

≅ 10 46 particles / m 3 Rp 3 n p ≅ 10 −30 m .

VU

Therefore, the solidification of the

Obviously, the dimensions of the

matter is just a transitory state of this

smallest indivisible particle of matter

Universal Fluid, which can back to the

depend on its state of compression. In

primitive state when the cohesion

free space, for example, its volume is

conditions disappear.

VU nU . Consequently, its “radius” is

Let us now study another aspect

RU 3 nU ≅ 10 −15 m . of the present theory. By combination of

If N particles with diameter φ fill gravity and the uncertainty principle we

will derive the expression for the Casimir

all space of 1m 3 then Nφ 3 = 1 . Thus, if force.

φ ≅ 10 −15 m then the number of particles, An uncertainty Δmi in mi

with this diameter, necessary to fill produces an uncertainty Δp in p and

all 1m 3 is N ≅ 10 45 particles . Since the

number of smallest indivisible particles of 4

At very small scale.

48

35

ΔF = −⎜ ⎟ l2 =

⎝ π ⎠ (Δr )

4 planck

which according to Eq.(41) , is given

by

⎛ π ⎞ hc ⎡⎛ 960 ⎞ 2 ⎤

⎡ ⎤ = −⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ π 2 ⎟l planck ⎥ =

⎝ 480 ⎠ (Δr )

2

⎛ Δp ⎞ 4

⎣⎝ ⎠ ⎦

⎢

Δmg = Δmi − 2 1 + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − 1⎥ Δmi (92)

⎢ Δ

⎝ i ⎠

m c ⎥ ⎛ πA ⎞ hc

⎣ ⎦ = −⎜ 0 ⎟ (97 )

⎝ 480 ⎠ (Δr )

4

From the uncertainty principle for

position and momentum, we know or

that the product of the uncertainties of ⎛ πA ⎞ hc

the simultaneously measurable F0 = −⎜ 0 ⎟ 4 (98)

⎝ 480 ⎠ r

values of the corresponding position which is the expression of the Casimir

and momentum components is at

least of the magnitude order of h , (

force for A = A0 = 960 π 2 l planck

2

. )

i.e., This suggests that A0 is an

Δ p Δr ~ h elementary area related to the

Substitution of Δp ~ h Δr into (92) yields existence of a minimum length

~

⎡ ⎤ d min = k l planck what is in accordance

h Δmi c ⎞

2

⎛

Δmg = Δmi − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥Δmi (93) with the quantization of space (29)

⎢

⎣ ⎝ Δr ⎠ ⎥

⎦ and which points out to the existence

Therefore if of d min .

h

Δr << (94 ) It can be easily shown that the

Δmi c minimum area related to d min is the

then the expression (93) reduces to: area of an equilateral triangle of side

2h

Δm g ≅ − (95) length d min ,i.e.,

Δrc

Note that Δmg does not depend on

( )

Amin = 43 d min

2 ~ 2

( )

= 43 k 2 l planck

On the other hand, the maximum

mg . area related to d min is the area of a

Consequently, the uncertainty sphere of radius d min ,i.e.,

ΔF in the gravitational ~ 2

Amax = πd min

2

= πk 2 l planck

force F = − Gmg m′g r , will be given by

2

Δmg Δm′g A0 = δ A d min

2 ~ 2

= δ A k 2l planck (99)

ΔF = −G =

(Δr )2 must have a value between Amin and

Amax , i.e.,

⎡ 2 ⎤ hc ⎛ Gh ⎞

= −⎢ 2⎥ 2 ⎜ 3 ⎟

(96) <δA <π

3

⎣π (Δr ) ⎦ (Δr ) ⎝ c ⎠

4

The previous assumption that

(

A 0 = 960 π l planck

2 2

) shows that

( ) 1

The amount Gh c 3 2 = 1.61 × 10 −35 m ~2

δ A k = 960 π 2 what means that

is called the Planck length, l planck ,( the ~

5 .6 < k < 14 .9

length scale on which quantum

fluctuations of the metric of the space Therefore we conclude that

time are expected to be of order

~

d min = k l planck ≈ 10 −34 m. (100 )

unity). Thus, we can write the The n − esimal area after A0 is

expression of ΔF as follows

49

36

2

It can also be easily shown that the Hubble's law and (22) we have

the minimum volume related to d min that

( )

is the volume of a regular tetrahedron

Vmax = Hlmax = H (d max 2 ) =

~ ~ ~

of edge length d min , i.e., 3 2 HLmax

( )

Ω min = 122 d min3

( ) ~

= 122 k 3 l 3planck ~

where H = 1.7 × 10−18 s −1 . Therefore we

The maximum volume is the volume

obtain

of a sphere of radius d min , i.e.,

Vmax ≅ 1012 m / s .

Ω max = ( 43π )d min = ( 43π )k 3l 3planck

3 ~

Thus, the elementary volume This is the speed upper limit imposed

~3 3

Ω 0 = δ V d min = δ V k l planck must have a

3

by the quantization of velocity (Eq.

36). It is known that the speed upper

value between Ω min and Ω max , i.e.,

( )< δ

limit for real particles is equal to c .

2

12< 43π V However, also it is known that

On the other hand, the n − esimal imaginary particles can have

volume after Ω 0 is velocities greater than c

(Tachyons). Thus, we conclude that

Ω = δ V (ndmin )3 = n3Ω0 n = 1,2,3,...,nmax . Vmax is the speed upper limit for

The existence of nmax given by imaginary particles in our ordinary

(26), i.e., space-time. Later on, we will see that

nmax = Lmax Lmin = d max d min = also exists a speed upper limit to the

= (3.4 × 1030 ) k l planck ≈ 1064

~ imaginary particles in the imaginary

space-time.

shows that the Universe must have a Now, multiplying Eq. (98) (the

finite volume whose value at the expression of F 0 ) by n 2 we obtain

present stage is

Ω 0 = (d p d min )3 δ V d min

⎛ πn2 A0 ⎞ hc ⎛ πA ⎞ hc

Ω Up = nUp = δ V d 3p F = n2 F0 = −⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 4 = −⎜ ⎟ 4 (102)

3 3

⎝ 480 ⎠ r ⎝ 480 ⎠ r

where d p is the present length scale

This is the general expression of the

of the Universe. In addition as

( )

Casimir force.

12 < δ V < 3

2 4π

we conclude that the Thus, we conclude that the

Universe must have a polyhedral Casimir effect is just a gravitational

space topology with volume between effect related to the uncertainty

the volume of a regular tetrahedron principle.

of edge length d p and the volume of Note that Eq. (102) arises only

the sphere of diameter d p . when Δmi and Δmi′ satisfy Eq.(94). If

A recent analysis of only Δ m i satisfies Eq.(94), i.e.,

astronomical data suggests not only Δmi <<h Δrc but Δmi′ >> h Δrc then

that the Universe is finite, but also Δm g and Δm′g will be respectively

that it has a dodecahedral space

given by

topology [33,34], what is in strong

accordance with the previous

Δ m g ≅ − 2 h Δ rc and Δ m ′g ≅ Δ mi

theoretical predictions.

From (22) and (26) we have

that Lmax = dmax 3 = nmaxdmin 3 . Since Consequently, the expression (96)

becomes

(100) gives dmin ≅ 10−34 m and nmax ≅ 10 64

50

37

ΔF = ⎜ ⎟= ⎜ ⎟=

(Δr )3 ⎝ πc 2 ⎠ (Δr )3 ⎜⎝ πc 4 ⎟⎠ Δmi′ >> h Δrc

hc ⎛ GΔE ′ ⎞ In this case, Δmg ≅ Δmi and

= ⎜ ⎟ (103)

(Δr )3 ⎝ πc 4 ⎠ Δm ′g ≅ Δmi′ . Thus,

However, from the uncertainty

ΔF = −G

Δmi Δmi′

= − G

(ΔE c 2 )(ΔE ′ c 2 ) =

principle for energy and time we know (Δr )2 (Δr )2

that

⎛ G ⎞ (h Δt ) ⎛ Gh ⎞ hc ⎛ 1 ⎞

2

ΔE ~ h Δt (104) = −⎜ 4 ⎟ = −⎜ 3 ⎟ 2 ⎜ 2 2 ⎟

=

⎝ c ⎠ (Δr ) ⎝ c ⎠ (Δr ) ⎝ c Δt ⎠

2

Therefore, we can write the

expression (103) in the following ⎛ 1 ⎞ hc 2

= −⎜ ⎟ l =

⎝ 2π ⎠ (Δr )

4 planck

form:

hc ⎛ Gh ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ hc ⎛ 960 2 ⎞ ⎛ πA ⎞ hc

ΔF = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟= = −⎜ ⎟ 4 ⎜ 2 planck ⎟

l = −⎜ 0 ⎟

(Δr )3 ⎝ c 3 ⎠⎝ πΔt ′c ⎠ ⎝ 1920 ⎠ (Δr ) ⎝ π ⎠ ⎝ 1920 ⎠ (Δr )

4

⎛ 1 ⎞ whence

=

hc

3 planck ⎜

l2 ⎟ (105) ⎛ πA ⎞ hc

(Δr ) ⎝ πΔt ′c ⎠

F = −⎜⎜ ⎟ 4 (107)

From the General Relativity Theory ⎟r

⎝ 1920⎠

we know that dr = cdt − g 00 . If the The force will be attractive and its

field is weak then g 00 = −1 − 2φ c and 2 intensity will be the fourth part of the

dr = cdt (1 + φ c 2 ) = cdt (1 − Gm r 2c 2 ) .

intensity given by the first expression

(102) for the Casimir force.

For Gm r 2 c 2 <<1 we obtain dr ≅ cdt . We can also use this theory to

Thus, if dr = dr′ then dt = dt ′ . This explain some relevant cosmological

means that we can change (Δt ′c ) by phenomena. For example, the recent

(Δr ) into (105). The result is discovery that the cosmic expansion

of the Universe may be accelerating,

hc ⎛ 1 2 ⎞ and not decelerating as many

ΔF = 4 ⎜

l planck ⎟ =

(Δ r ) ⎝ π ⎠ cosmologists had anticipated [35].

We start from Eq. (6) which

⎛ π ⎞ hc ⎛ 480 2 ⎞ r

= ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 l planck ⎟ =

⎝ 480 ⎠ (Δ r )

shows that the inertial forces, Fi ,

⎝1π4 2 4 3⎠

4

1

A0

whose action on a particle, in the

2

case of force and speed with same

⎛ π A 0 ⎞ hc direction, is given by

= ⎜ ⎟

⎝ 960 ⎠ (Δ r ) r

4

mg r

Fi = a

or (1 − V 2 c 2 )3

2

⎛ π A 0 ⎞ hc

F0 = ⎜ ⎟ 4 Substitution of m g given by (43) into

⎝ 960 ⎠ r

the expression above gives

whence

r ⎛ ⎞

⎛ πA ⎞ hc Fi = ⎜

3

−

2 ⎟ m ar

F = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 4 (106) ⎝ (

⎜ 1−V 2 c2 )3

2

(1 − V 2

c )

2 2 ⎟ i0

⎠

⎝ 960⎠ r

Now, the Casimir force is repulsive, whence we conclude that a particle

and its intensity is half of the intensity with rest inertial mass, mi 0 , subjected

r

previously obtained (102). to a force, Fi , acquires an

Consider the case when both Δmi r

acceleration a given by

and Δmi′ do not satisfy Eq.(94), and

51

38

r

r Fi

a =

⎛ 3 2 ⎞

⎜ − ⎟m

⎝ (

⎜ 1−V 2 c2 )

3

2

(1 − V 2

c2 )

2 ⎟ i0

⎠

δ

By substituting the well-known

β

expression of Hubble’s law for

~ ~ S C β

velocity, V = Hl , ( H = 1.7 × 10 −18 s −1 is

the Hubble constant) into the Photons

r

expression of a , we get the

acceleration for any particle in the

expanding Universe, i.e., Fig. V – Gravitational deflection of light about

r

r Fi the Sun.

a= Since δ and β are very small we can

⎛ ⎞

⎜ 3

−

2 ⎟ write that

~ 2 2 2 2 ⎟mi 0

⎝(

⎜ 1− H l c ) (

~ 2 2 2 32

1− H l c ⎠ ) δ = 2β and β =

Vy

Obviously, the distance l increases c

with the expansion of the Universe. Then

Under these circumstances, it is easy 2V y

to see that the term δ=

c

⎛ ⎞

⎜ 3

−

2 ⎟ Consider the motion of the

⎝ (

⎜ 1− H~2 2 2 2

l c

3

) ( ~2 2 2 2 ⎟

1− H l c ⎠ ) photons at some time t after it has

passed the point of closest approach.

decreases, increasing the acceleration of We impose Cartesian Co-ordinates

the expanding Universe. with the origin at the point of closest

Let us now consider the approach, the x axis pointing along its

phenomenon of gravitational path and the y axis towards the Sun.

deflection of light. The gravitational pull of the Sun is

A distant star’s light ray, M gS M gp

under the Sun’s gravitational force P = −G

field describes the usual central force r2

hyperbolic orbit. The deflection of the where M gp is the relativistic

light ray is illustrated in Fig. V, with gravitational mass of the photon and

the bending greatly exaggerated for a M gS the relativistic gravitational mass

better view of the angle of deflection.

The distance CS is the of the Sun. Thus, the component in a

distance d of closest approach. The perpendicular direction is

angle of deflection of the light ray, δ , F y = −G

M gS M gp

sin β =

is shown in the Figure V and is r2

δ = π − 2β . M gS M gp d

where β is the angle of the = −G

d +c t

2 2 2

d + c 2t 2

2

asymptote to the hyperbole. Then, it

follows that According to Eq. (6) the expression of

tan δ = tan(π − 2 β ) = − tan 2 β the force Fy is

From the Figure V we obtain ⎛ ⎞ dV

⎜ m gp ⎟ y

Vy Fy = ⎜ ⎟⎟ dt

tan β = ⎜ (1 − V 2 c 2 )2

3

.

c ⎝ y ⎠

By substituting Eq. (43) into this

expression, we get

52

39

⎛ ⎞ m gp = +

4 ⎛ hf ⎞

⎜ 3 2 ⎟ dV y ⎜ ⎟i

Fy = ⎜ −

⎜ (1 − V y c ) (1 − V 2 c 2 )2 ⎟

2 2 3

⎟ M ip 3 ⎝ c2 ⎠

dt

⎝ y ⎠ This means that the gravitational and

For V y << c , we can write this inertial masses of the photon are

imaginaries, and invariants with

expression in the following form

F y = M ip (dV y dt ). This force acts on

respect to speed of photon, i.e.

M ip = mip and M gp = m gp .On the other

the photons for a time t causing an

hand, we can write that

increase in the transverse velocity

2 ⎛ hf ⎞

Fy mip = mip (real ) + mip (imaginary ) = ⎜ ⎟i

dV y = dt 3 ⎝ c2 ⎠

M ip

and

Thus the component of transverse 4 ⎛ hf ⎞

velocity acquired after passing the mgp = mgp(real ) + mgp(imaginary) = ⎜ ⎟i

3 ⎝ c2 ⎠

point of closest approach is

M gp (

d − GM gS ) This means that we must have

Vy = ∫ dt = mip (real ) = m gp (real ) = 0

(d )

3

M ip 2

+ c 2t 2 2 The phenomenon of gravitational

− GM gS ⎛ M gp ⎞ − GM gS ⎛ m gp ⎞ deflection of light about the Sun

= ⎜ ⎟= ⎜ ⎟ shows that the gravitational

dc ⎜⎝ M ip ⎟ dc ⎜ mip ⎟

⎠ ⎝ ⎠ interaction between the Sun and the

Since the angle of deflection δ photons is attractive. Thus, due to the

is given by gravitational force between the Sun

2V y and a photon can be expressed by

δ = 2β =

c F = −G M g (Sun ) m gp (imaginary ) r 2 , where

we readily obtain m gp (imaginary ) is a quantity positive and

2V y − 2GM gS ⎛ m gp ⎞

δ= = ⎜ ⎟ imaginary, we conclude that the

c 2 ⎜ m ⎟

c d ⎝ ip ⎠ force F will only be attractive if the

If m gp mip = 2 , the expression above matter ( M g (Sun ) ) has negative

gives imaginary gravitational mass.

4GM gS The Eq. (41) shows that if the

δ =− inertial mass of a particle is null then its

c2d gravitational mass is given by

As we know, this is the correct m g = ± 2Δp c

formula indicated by the experimental where Δp is the momentum variation due

results.

to the energy absorbed by the particle. If

Equation (4) says that

the energy of the particle is invariant,

⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫ then Δp = 0 and, consequently, its

⎛ Δp ⎞

m gp

⎪ ⎢

= ⎨1 − 2 ⎢ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥ ⎪⎬mip

⎜ mip c ⎟ ⎥ gravitational mass will also be null. This

⎪

⎩ ⎢

⎣

⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭ is the case of the photons, i.e., they have

Since m gp mip = 2 then, by making an invariant energy hf and a momentum

energy, the variation in the momentum

get

will be null (Δp = 0) and, therefore, their

2 ⎛ hf ⎞

mip = + ⎜ ⎟i gravitational masses will also be null.

3 ⎝ c2 ⎠ However, if the energy of the

Due to m gp mip = 2 we get particle is not invariant (it is able to

absorb energy) then the absorbed

energy will transfer the amount of motion

53

40

(momentum) to the particle, and making the vortex (particle) gain or lose

consequently its gravitational mass will mass. If real motion is what makes real

be increased. This means that the mass then, by analogy, we can say that

motion generates gravitational mass. imaginary mass is made by imaginary

On the other hand, if the motion. This is not only a simple

gravitational mass of a particle is null generalization of the process based on

then its inertial mass, according to Eq. the theory of the imaginary functions, but

(41), will be given by also a fundamental conclusion related to

2 Δp the concept of imaginary mass that, as it

mi = ± will be shown, provides a coherent

5 c explanation for the materialization of the

From Eqs. (4) and (7) we get fundamental particles, in the beginning of

⎛ Eg ⎞ ⎛p ⎞ the Universe.

Δp = ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ΔV = ⎜ 0 ⎟ΔV

It is known that the simultaneous

⎝c ⎠ ⎝ c ⎠

disappearance of a pair

Thus we have (electron/positron) liberates an amount of

⎛ 2p ⎞ 2 ⎛p ⎞ energy, 2mi 0e(real )c 2 , under the form of

mg = ±⎜ 20 ⎟ΔV and mi = ± ⎜⎜ 20 ⎟⎟ΔV

⎝ c ⎠ 5⎝c ⎠ two photons with frequency f , in such a

Note that, like the gravitational mass, the way that

inertial mass is also directly related to the

motion, i.e., it is also generated by the

motion. 2mi 0e(real )c 2 = 2hf

Thus, we can conclude that is the Since the photon has imaginary masses

motion, or rather, the velocity is what associated to it, the phenomenon of

makes the two types of mass. transformation of the energy 2mi 0e(real )c 2

In this picture, the fundamental

particles can be considered as into 2hf suggests that the imaginary

immaterial vortex of velocity; it is the energy of the photon, mip (imaginary )c 2 ,

velocity of these vortexes that causes the

fundamental particles to have masses. comes from the transformation of

That is, there exists not matter in the imaginary energy of the electron,

usual sense; but just motion. Thus, the mi 0e(imaginary )c 2 , just as the real energy of

difference between matter and energy the photon, hf , results from the

just consists of the diversity of the motion

transformation of real energy of the

direction; rotating, closed in itself, in the

electron, i.e.,

matter; ondulatory, with open cycle, in

the energy (See Fig. VI).

Under this context, the Higgs 2m i 0 e (imaginary )c 2 + 2m i 0 e (real )c 2 =

mechanism † appears as a process, by

= 2m i 0 p (imaginary )c 2 + 2 hf

which the velocity of an immaterial vortex

can be increased or decreased by

†

The Standard Model is the name given to

the current theory of fundamental particles and mi 0e(imaginary ) = − mip (imaginary )

how they interact. This theory includes: Strong

interaction and a combined theory of weak and

electromagnetic interaction, known as The sign (-) in the equation above, is due

electroweak theory. One part of the Standard to the imaginary mass of the photon to

Model is not yet well established. What causes be positive, on the contrary of the

the fundamental particles to have masses? The imaginary gravitational mass of the

simplest idea is called the Higgs mechanism. This matter, which is negative, as we have

mechanism involves one additional particle, already seen.

called the Higgs boson, and one additional force

type, mediated by exchanges of this boson.

54

41

(Tardyons) (Tachyons)

v=∞

**

v=c

V 0≤v<c V 0≤v<c V 0≤v<Vmax V 0≤v<Vmax

(Particle) (Anti-Particle) Real Photons (Particle) (Anti-particle) Imaginary Photons

( “virtual” photons )

* Vmax is the speed upper limit for Tachyons with non-null imaginary inertial mass. It has been previously

~

(

obtained starting from the Hubble's law and Eq.(22). The result is: Vmax = 3 2 HLmax ≅ 10 12 m. s −1 . )

**

In order to communicate instantaneously the interactions at infinite distance the velocity of the quanta

(“virtual” photons) must be infinity and consequently their imaginary masses must be null .

and the proton have respectively,

mi0e(imaginary) = −mip(imaginary) = the following masses:

Electron

=− 2

3

(hf c ) i =

e

2

mi 0e(real) = 9.11×10−31 kg

=− 2 (h λec) i = − 23 mi0e(real)i

3 mi 0e(im) = − 2 mi 0e(real)i

3

⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫

wavelength for the electron. ⎪ ⎢ ⎛ U e(real) ⎞ ⎥⎪

mge(real) = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ −

By analogy, we can write for

⎜m 2⎟

1⎥⎬mi 0e(real) =

the neutron and the proton the ⎪ ⎢ ⎝ i 0e(real) ⎠

c ⎥⎪

⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭

following masses:

= χ e mi 0e(real)

mi 0neutron(imaginary ) = − 2 mi 0 neutron(real ) i

3

mi 0 proton(imaginary ) = + 2 mi 0 proton(real ) i

3 ⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫

⎪ ⎢ ⎛ U e(im) ⎞ ⎥⎪

The sign (+) in the expression of mge(im) = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ −

mi 0 proton (imaginary ) is due to the fact ⎜m 2⎟

1⎥⎬mi 0e(im) =

⎪ ⎢ ⎝ i 0e(im) ⎠

c ⎥⎪

that mi 0 neutron(imaginary ) and ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭

= χ e mi 0e(im)

mi 0 proton (imaginary ) must have contrary

signs, as will be shown later on.

55

42

Neutron absorption factors respectively, for the

mi0n(real) = 1.6747×10−27 kg neutrons, protons and electrons;

k = 1.38 × 10 −23 J /º K is the Boltzmann

constant; Tn , T pr and Te are the

mi0n(im) = − 2 m

3 i0n(real)

i

temperatures of the Universe,

respectively when neutrons, protons

⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫ and electrons were created.

⎪ ⎢ ⎛ Un(real) ⎞

mgn(real) = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ ⎜ ⎟ −1⎥⎪m In the case of the electrons, it

⎜m 2⎟ ⎥⎬ i0n(real) = was previously shown that η e ≅ 0.1 .

⎪ ⎢ ⎝ i 0n( )

real c ⎠ ⎥⎪

⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ Thus, by considering that

= χn mi0n(real) Te ≅ 6.2 ×10 K , we get

31

⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫ It is known that the protons were

⎪ ⎢ ⎛ Un(im) ⎞ ⎥⎪

mgn(im) = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ ⎜ ⎟ − created at the same epoch. Thus, we

⎜m 2⎟

1⎥⎬mi0n(im) = will assume that

⎪ ⎢ ⎝ i0n(im) ⎠

c ⎥⎪

⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ U pr (im ) = η pr kT pr i = 8.5 × 10 7 i

= χn mi0n(im) Then, it follows that

Proton χ e = −1.8 × 10 21

mi0pr(real) =1.6723×10−27kg

χ pr = −9.7 × 1017

mi0pr(im) = + 2

3 i0 pr(real)

m i Now, consider the gravitational forces,

due to the imaginary masses of two

⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫

⎪ ⎢ ⎛⎜ U pr(real) ⎞⎟ ⎥⎪ electrons, Fee , two protons, F prpr , and

mgpr(real) = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ −1⎥⎬mi0pr(real) =

⎜ 2⎟ one electron and one proton, Fepr , all at

⎪ ⎢ ⎝ mi0pr(real)c ⎠ ⎥⎪

⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ rest.

= χ prmi0pr(real) 2

m ge (im )

(− 2 mi 0e(real )i )

2

−Gχ e2

3

Fee = −G = =

⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫ r2 r2

⎪ ⎢ ⎛⎜ U pr(im) ⎞⎟ ⎥⎪

mgpr(im) = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ −1⎥⎬mi0pr(im) = mi20e(real ) + 2.3 ×10 −28

⎜ 2⎟ 4

= + Gχ e2 =

⎪ ⎢ ⎝ mi0pr(im)c ⎠ ⎥⎪ ( repulsion)

⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ 3 r2 r2

= χ prmi0pr(im) 2

2 ⎛⎜ + 2

mi0 pr(real)i ⎞⎟

mgpr(im) 2 ⎝ ⎠

= −Gχ pr

3

where U (real ) and U (im ) are Fprpr = −G 2 2

=

r r

respectively, the real and imaginary 4 mi0 pr(real) + 2.3 ×10−28

2

3 r2 r2

When neutrons, protons and

electrons were created after the Big-

mge(im)mgpr(im)

bang, they absorbed quantities of Fepr = −G =

electromagnetic energy, respectively r2

given by ⎛⎜ − 2

i ⎞⎟ ⎛⎜ + 2

i ⎞⎟

3 i0e(real) ⎠ 3 i 0 pr(real) ⎠

m m

U n(real ) = η n kTn U n(imaginary) = η n kTn i = −Gχe χ pr ⎝ ⎝ =

r2

U pr (real ) = η pr kT pr U pr (imaginary) = η pr kT pr i

4 mi0e(real)mi0 pr(real) − 2.3×10−28

= − Gχe χ pr =

U e(real ) = η e kTe U e(imaginary) = η e kTe i 3 r2 r2

(atraction)

56

43

−28

e 2

2.3 × 10 necessary to assume that

Felectric = =

4πε 0 r r2 2

qn = qn+ + qn− = 4πε0 G mgn

+

(imaginary) i +

Therefore, we can conclude that

e2 −

Fee = F prpr ≡ Felectric = + (repulsion) + 4πε0 G mgn(imaginary) i =

4πε 0 r 2

and = 4πε 0 G ⎛⎜ χ n mi+0n(imaginary) i ⎞⎟ +

⎝ ⎠

Fep ≡ Felectric = −

e2

4πε0r 2

(atraction) (

+ 4πε0 G χ n mi−0n(imaginary) i = )

These correlations permit to define the = 4πε G [χ (+

0 n

2

mi0n i )+ χ (−

2

n

2 )]

mi0n i 2 = 0

3 3

electric charge by means of the

following relation:

We then conclude that in the neutron,

half of the total amount of elementary

q= 4πε 0 G m g (imaginary ) i quanta of electric charge, q min , is negative,

while the other half is positive.

For example, in the case of the In order to obtain the value of

electron, we have the elementary quantum of electric

charge, q min , we start with the

qe = 4πε 0 G m ge(imaginary) i = expression obtained here for the

electric charge, where we

(

= 4πε 0 G χ e mi 0e(imaginary)i = ) change mg (imaginary) by its quantized

(

= 4πε 0 G − χ e 2

mi 0e(real)i 2 = ) expression mg (imaginary) = n 2 mi0(imaginary)(min) ,

4πε G (χ )

3

= 0 e

2 mi 0e(real) = −1.6 ×10−19 C derived from Eq. (44a). Thus, we get

3

In the case of the proton, we get q = 4 πε 0 G m g (imaginary ) i =

(

= 4πε 0 G χ pr mi 0 pr(imaginary)i = ) = 4 πε 0 G [n (±2 2 m i 0 (min )i )] i =

( )

3

4πε G (− χ )

3 3

= 0 pr

2 mi 0 pr(real) = +1.6 ×10−19 C

3

This is the quantized expression of the

electric charge.

For the neutron, it follows that For n = 1 we obtain the value of

q n = 4πε 0 G m gn (imaginary ) i = the elementary quantum of electric

(

= 4πε 0 G χ n m i 0 n (imaginary )i = ) charge, q min , i.e.,

(

= 4πε 0 G − χ n 2 m i 0 n (real )i 2 = ) q min = m 2 4πε 0 G mi 0(min ) = m3.8 × 10 −83 C

4πε G (χ )

3 3

= 0 n

2 m i 0 n (real )

3

where mi0(min) is the elementary

However, based on the quantization of

the mass (Eq. 44), we can write that quantum of matter, whose value

previously calculated, is

χ n 2 mi0n(real) = n 2 mi0(min) n≠0 −73

3 mi0(min) = ±3.9 ×10 kg .

Since n can have only discrete values

The existence of imaginary mass

different of zero (See Appendix B), we

associated to a real particle suggests

conclude that χ n cannot be null. the possible existence of imaginary

However, it is known that the electric

57

44

Nature. inasmuch as the particle is somewhere.

In this case, the concept of wave On the other hand, if

associated to a particle (De Broglie’s +∞

waves) would also be applied to the ∫−∞ Ψ

2

dV = 0

imaginary particles. Then, by analogy, the interpretation is that the particle will

the imaginary wave associated to an not exist. However, if

imaginary particle with imaginary +∞

masses miψ and m gψ would be ∫−∞ Ψ

2

dV = ∞ (108)

described by the following expressions The particle will be everywhere

r r simultaneously.

pψ = hkψ In Quantum Mechanics, the wave

Eψ = hωψ function Ψ corresponds, as we know,

to the displacement y of the

Henceforth, for the sake of simplicity,

we will use the Greek letterψ to stand undulatory motion of a rope.

r However, Ψ , as opposed to y , is not a

for the word imaginary; pψ is the

measurable quantity and can, hence,

momentum carried by the ψ wave and be a complex quantity. For this reason,

r

Eψ its energy; kψ = 2π λψ is the it is assumed that Ψ is described in the

x − direction by

propagation number and λψ the −(2π i h )( Et − px )

Ψ = Ψ0 e

wavelength of the ψ wave; ωψ = 2πfψ This is the expression of the wave

is the cyclical frequency. function for a free particle, with total

r

According to Eq. (4), the energy E and momentum p , moving in

r

momentum pψ is the direction + x .

r r As to the imaginary particle, the

pψ = M gψ V

imaginary particle wave function will be

where V is the velocity of the ψ denoted by Ψψ and, by analogy the

particle. expression of Ψ , will be expressed by:

By comparing the expressions of

r

pψ we get − (2π i h )(Eψ t − pψ x )

Ψψ = Ψ0ψ e

h

λψ =

M gψ V Therefore, the general expression of

It is known that the variable the wave function for a free particle can

quantity which characterizes the De be written in the following form

Broglie’s waves is called wave function,

−(2π i h )(E( real )t − p( real ) x )

usually indicated by symbol Ψ . The Ψ = Ψ0(real )e +

wave function associated with a

− (2π i h )(Eψ t − pψ x )

material particle describes the dynamic + Ψ0ψ e

state of the particle: its value at a

particular point x, y, z, t is related to the It is known that the uncertainty

probability of finding the particle in that principle can also be written as a

place and instant. Although Ψ does function of ΔE (uncertainty in the

not have a physical interpretation, its

energy) and Δt (uncertainty in the

square Ψ 2 (or Ψ Ψ * ) calculated for a time), i.e.,

particular point x, y, z, t is proportional

to the probability of finding the particle ΔE.Δt ≥ h

in that place and instant.

Since Ψ 2 is proportional to the This expression shows that a

probability P of finding the particle

variation of energy ΔE , during a

described by Ψ , the integral of Ψ 2 on

58

45

χ = ⎧⎨1 − 2⎡ 1 + (Δp mi 0 c ) − 1⎤ ⎫⎬

2

detected if Δt ≥ h ΔE . Consequently, ⎩ ⎢ ⎣ ⎥ ⎦⎭

a variation of energy ΔE , during a

time interval Δt < h ΔE , cannot be Since the condition to make

experimentally detected. This is a the particle imaginary is

limitation imposed by Nature and not

by our equipments. λg

λi <

Thus, a quantum of energy 2π

ΔE = hf that varies during a time and

interval Δt = 1 f = λ c < h ΔE (wave

period) cannot be experimentally λg h h λ

= = = i

detected. This is an imaginary 2π M g c χM i c 2πχ

photon or a “virtual” photon.

Now, consider a particle with Then we get

energy M g c 2 . The DeBroglie’s

gravitational and inertial wavelengths 1

χ< = 0.159

are respectively λ g = h M g c and 2π

λi = h M i c . In Quantum Mechanics,

However, χ can be positive or

particles of matter and quanta of

negative ( χ < +0.159 or χ > −0.159).This

radiation are described by means of

wave packet (DeBroglie’s waves) means that when

with average wavelength λi .

− 0.159 < χ < +0.159

Therefore, we can say that during a

time interval Δt = λi c , a quantum of

the particle becomes imaginary.

energy ΔE = Mgc2 varies. According Under these circumstances, we can

to the uncertainty principle, the say that the particle made a

particle will be detected if Δt ≥ h ΔE , transition to the imaginary space-

time.

i.e., if λi c ≥ h M g c 2 or λi ≥ λ g 2π .

Note that, when a particle

This condition is usually satisfied becomes imaginary, its gravitational

when M g = M i . In this case, λ g = λi and inertial masses also become

and obviously, λi > λi 2π . However, imaginary. However, the factor

χ = M g (imaginary ) M i (imaginary ) remains

when M g decreases λ g increases

real because

and λ g 2π can become bigger than

λi , making the particle non- M g (imaginary ) M gi Mg

χ = = = = real

detectable or imaginary. M i (imaginary ) M ii Mi

According to Eqs. (7) and (41)

we can write M g in the following

form:

mg χ mi

Mg = = = χM i

1−V 2

c 2

1−V 2

c 2

where

59

46

Body

χ Ordinary Space-time

0≤V < c

+0.159

0≤V ≤ ∞

Imaginary Body

0 Imaginary Space-time

“Virtual” Photons ( V = ∞ )

−0.159

Ordinary Space-time

Real Photons ( V = c )

Fig. VII – Travel in the imaginary space-time. Similarly to the “virtual” photons,

imaginary bodies can have infinite speed in the imaginary space-time.

60

47

Δt1 ΔE

Δt3

(a)

Δt3

Δt2 Vmax

(speed upper limit)

ΔE

Δt1

Imaginary particle Imaginary particle

(b)

Fig. VIII – “Virtual” Transitions – (a) “Virtual” Transitions of a real particle to the imaginary

space-time. The speed upper limit for real particle in the imaginary space-time is c.

(b) - “Virtual” Transitions of an imaginary particle to the ordinary space-time. The

speed upper limit for imaginary particle in the ordinary space-time is Vmax ≈ 1012m.s−1

Note that to occur a “virtual” transition it is necessary thatΔt=Δt1+ Δt2+ Δt3 <ℏ/ΔE

Thus, even at principle, it will be impossible to determine any variation of energy in

the particle (uncertainty principle).

61

48

particle is reduced by means of the M g (imaginary) = =

absorption of an amount of 1−V 2 c2

mg i mg i

electromagnetic energy U , for = =

example, we have i V 2 c2 −1 V 2 c2 −1

This expression shows that

χ=

Mg ⎧

= ⎨1 − 2⎡⎢ 1 + U mi0 c 2 ( )2 ⎫

− 1⎤⎥⎬ imaginary particles can have

Mi ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ velocities V greater than c in our

ordinary space-time (Tachyons).

This shows that the energy U of the The quantization of velocity (Eq. 36)

electromagnetic field remains acting shows that there is a speed upper

on the imaginary particle. In limit Vmax > c . As we have already

practice, this means that calculated previously, Vmax ≈ 1012m.s−1 ,

electromagnetic fields act on (Eq.102).

imaginary particles. Note that this is the speed

The gravity acceleration on a upper limit for imaginary particles in

imaginary particle (due to the rest of our ordinary space-time not in the

the imaginary Universe) are given imaginary space-time (Fig.7)

by because the infinite speed of the

“virtual” quanta of the interactions

g ′j = χ g j j = 1,2,3,..., n. shows that imaginary particles can

have infinite speed in the imaginary

where χ = M g (imaginary ) M i (imaginary ) space-time.

While the speed upper limit

and g j = − Gm gj (imaginary ) r . 2

j Thus, for imaginary particles in the

the gravitational forces acting on the ordinary space-time is

particle are given by Vmax ≈ 10 m.s , the speed upper limit

12 −1

Fgj = M g (imaginary) g ′j =

space-time is c , because the

(

= M g (imaginary) − χGmgj (imaginary) r j2 = ) relativistic expression of the mass

( )

= M g i − χGmgj i r j2 = + χGM g mgj r j2 .

shows that the velocity of real

particles cannot be larger than c in

any space-time. The uncertainty

Note that these forces are real. principle permits that particles make

Remind that, the Mach’s principle “virtual” transitions, during a time

says that the inertial effects upon a interval Δt , if Δt < h ΔE . The

particle are consequence of the “virtual” transition of mesons emitted

gravitational interaction of the from nucleons that do not change of

particle with the rest of the Universe. mass, during a time interval

Then we can conclude that the

Δt < h mπ c 2 , is a well-known

inertial forces upon an imaginary

particle are also real. example of “virtual” transition of

Equation (7) shows that , in particles. During a “virtual”

the case of imaginary particles, the transition of a real particle, the

relativistic mass is speed upper limit in the imaginary

space-time is c , while the speed

upper limit for an imaginary particle

62

49

Vmax ≈ 1012m.s−1 . (See Fig. 8). M i 2 = mi 2 1 − V2 c and mi 2 is the

2 2

cosmological problem to be solved: region 2.

the problem of the hidden mass. Now consider that from

Most theories predict that the Eq.(7), we can write

amount of known matter, detectable Eg M gc2

and available in the universe, is only ξ = = = ρgc2

about 1/100 to 1/10 of the amount V V

needed to close the universe. That where ξ is the energy density of

is, to achieve the density sufficient matter.

to close-up the universe by Note that the expression of ξ

maintaining the gravitational only reduces to the well-known

curvature (escape velocity equal to expression ρc 2 , where ρ is the

the speed of light) at the outer sum of the inertial masses per

boundary. volume unit, when m g = mi .

Eq. (43) may solve this

problem. We will start by substituting Therefore, in the derivation of the

the expression of Hubble's law for well-known difference

~ 8πGρU ~ 2

velocity, V = Hl , into Eq.(43). The −H

expression obtained shows that 3

particles which are at distances which gives the sign of the curvature

( )( ) ~

l = l0 = 5 3 c H =1.3×1026 m have

of the Universe [36], we must use

ξ = ρ gU c 2 instead of ξ = ρ U c 2 .The

quasi null gravitational mass

m g = m g (min ) ; beyond this distance, result obviously is

8πGρ gU

the particles have negative ~

− H2 (109)

gravitational mass. Therefore, there 3

are two well-defined regions in the where

M gU M g1 + M g 2

Universe; the region of the bodies

ρ gU = = (110)

with positive gravitational masses VU VU

and the region of the bodies with

M gU and VU are respectively the

negative gravitational mass. The

total gravitational mass of the first total gravitational mass and the

region, in accordance with Eq.(45), volume of the Universe.

will be given by Substitution of M g 1 and M g 2

mi1 into expression (110) gives

M g1 ≅ M i1 = ≅ mi1

1 − V1 2 c 2 ⎡ ⎤

3 2

miU + ⎢ − m − m ⎥

⎢ ⎥

i2 i2

where mi1 is the total inertial mass 1−V22 c2 1−V22 c2

ρgU = ⎣ ⎦

of the bodies of the mentioned VU

region; V1 << c is the average

velocity of the bodies at region 1. where miU = mi1 + mi 2 is the total

The total gravitational mass of the

inertial mass of the Universe.

second region is

The volume V1 of the region 1

⎛ ⎞

M g 2 = 1 − 2⎜

1

− 1⎟ M i 2 and the volume V 2 of the region 2,

⎜ ⎟

⎝ 1 − V2 c

2 2

⎠ are respectively given by

where V2 is the average velocity

63

50

shift of certain galaxies and stars.

~ Several observers have

where l c = c H = 1.8 × 10 26 m is the noticed red-shift values that cannot

so-called "radius" of the visible be explained by the Doppler-

Universe. Moreover, ρ i1 = mi1 V1 and Fizeau effect or by the Einstein

ρi 2 = mi 2 V 2 . Due to the hypothesis effect (the gravitational spectrum

shift, supplied by Einstein's theory).

of the uniform distribution of matter

This is the case of the so-

in the space, it follows that

called Stefan's quintet (a set of five

ρi1 = ρi2 .Thus, we can write

galaxies which were discovered in

m i1 V 1 ⎛ l 0 ⎞

3

1877), whose galaxies are located

= = ⎜ ⎟ = 0.38

mi 2 V 2 ⎜⎝ l c ⎟⎠ at approximately the same distance

from the Earth, according to very

Similarly, reliable and precise measuring

miU mi 2 mi1 methods. But, when the velocities of

= =

VU V 2 V1 the galaxies are measured by its

Therefore, red-shifts, the velocity of one of

⎡ ⎛ l ⎞3 ⎤ them is much larger than the

V2

mi 2 = m iU = ⎢1 − ⎜⎜ 0 ⎟⎟ ⎥ m iU = 0.62 m iU velocity of the others.

VU ⎢⎣ ⎝ l c ⎠ ⎥⎦ Similar observations have

and mi1 = 0.38miU . been made on the Virgo

constellation and spiral galaxies.

Substitution of mi 2 into the Also the Sun presents a red-shift

expression of ρ gU yields greater than the predicted value by

the Einstein effect.

It seems that some of these

1.86 1.24 anomalies can be explained if we

miU + − − 0.62 miU

1 −V22 c2 1 −V22 c2 consider the Eq.(45) in the

ρgU = calculation of the gravitational mass

VU of the point of emission.

The expression of the

Due to V 2 ≅ c , we conclude that the gravitational spectrum shift was

term between bracket is much larger previously obtained in this work. It is

than 10miU . The amount miU is the the same supplied by Einstein's

mass of matter in the universe (1/10 theory [37], and is given by

φ −φ

to 1/100 of the amount needed to Δω = ω1 − ω2 = 2 2 1 ω0 =

close the Universe). c

Consequently, the total − Gmg2 r2 + Gmg1 r1

mass = ω0 (111)

c2

1.86 1.24 where ω1 is the frequency of the

miU + − − 0.62 miU

1 − V22 c 2 1 − V22 c 2 light at the point of emission ; ω 2 is

the frequency at the point of

must be sufficient to close observation; φ1 and φ 2 are

the Universe. respectively, the Newtonian

There is another cosmological gravitational potentials at the point

problem to be solved: the problem of of emission and at the point of

observation.

64

51

expression has been deduced from known that it is located between

T = t − g 00 [38] which correlates 1.8M~ and 2.4M~. Thus, if the mass

own time (real time), t , with the of the star exceeds 2.4M~ , the

temporal coordinate x0 of the space- contraction will continue.

According to Hawking [40]

time ( t = x 0 c ). collapsed objects cannot have mass

When the gravitational field is

less than hc 4G = 1.1 × 10 −8 kg . This

weak, the temporal component g 00

means that, with the progressing of

of the metric tensor is given by the compression, the neutrons

goo =−1−2φ/ c2 [39].Thus, we readily cluster must become a cluster of

obtain superparticles where the minimal

T = t 1 − 2Gm g rc 2 (112 ) inertial mass of the superparticle is

This is the same equation that we

have obtained previously in this mi(sp) =1.1×10−8 kg. (113)

work.

Curiously, this equation tell us Symmetry is a fundamental

that we can have T < t when m g > 0 attribute of the Universe that

enables an investigator to study

; and T > t for m g < 0 . In addition, if

particular aspects of physical

m g = c 2 r 2G , i.e., if r = 2Gm g c 2 systems by themselves. For

(Schwarzschild radius) we obtain T =0. example, the assumption that space

Let us now consider the well- is homogeneous and isotropic is

known process of stars' gravitational based on Symmetry Principle. Also

contraction. It is known that the here, by symmetry, we can assume

destination of the star is directly that there are only superparticles

correlated to its mass. If the star's with mass mi ( sp) = 1.1 × 10−8 kg in the

mass is less than 1.4M~ cluster of superparticles.

(Schemberg-Chandrasekhar's limit), Based on the mass-energy of

it becomes a white dwarf. If its mass the superparticles ( ~1018 GeV ) we

exceeds that limit, the pressure can say that they belong to a

produced by the degenerate state of putative class of particles with mass-

the matter no longer energy beyond the supermassive

counterbalances the gravitational Higgs bosons ( the so-called X

pressure, and the star's contraction bosons). It is known that the GUT's

continues. Afterwards there occurs theories predict an entirely new

the reactions between protons and force mediated by a new type of

electrons (capture of electrons), boson, called simply X (or X boson

where neutrons and anti-neutrinos ). The X bosons carry both

are produced. electromagnetic and color charge, in

The contraction continues order to ensure proper conservation

until the system regains stability of those charges in any interactions.

(when the pressure produced by the The X bosons must be extremely

neutrons is sufficient to stop the massive, with mass-energy in the

gravitational collapse). Such systems unification range of about 1016 GeV.

are called neutron stars. If we assume the

There is also a critical mass superparticles are not hypermassive

for the stable configuration of Higgs bosons then the possibility of

neutron stars. This limit has not the neutrons cluster become a

65

52

becoming a superparticles cluster mass M i ( sp ) is

must be considered. On the other

Unr ηnr kT

hand, the fact that superparticles

must be so massive also means that

= 2 ≈ 10−8 kg

M i( sp) ≅ (115)

c2 c

it is not possible to create them in Comparing with the superparticles'

any conceivable particle accelerator inertial mass at rest (113), we

that could be built. They can exist as conclude that

free particles only at a very early

stage of the Big Bang from which

the universe emerged. Mi( sp) ≈ mi(sp) =1.1×10−8 kg (116)

Let us now imagine the

Universe coming back to the past.

There will be an instant in which it From Eqs.(83) and (115), we obtain

will be similar to a neutrons cluster, the superparticle's gravitational

such as the stars at the final state of mass at rest:

gravitational contraction. Thus, with m g ( sp ) = mi ( sp ) − 2 M i ( sp ) ≅

the progressing of the compression,

ηn r kT

the neutrons cluster becomes a (117 )

≅ − M i ( sp ) ≅ −

superparticles cluster. Obviously, c2

this only can occur before 10-23s Consequently, the superparticle's

(after the Big-Bang). relativistic gravitational mass, is

The temperature T of the

mg ( sp)

Universe at the 10-43s< t < 10-23s M g (sp) = =

period can be calculated by means 1−V 2 c 2

of the well-known expression[41]: ηnr kT

= (118)

T ≈ 10 (t 10 ) − 23 − 2

(114) c 2 1−V 2 c 2

1

22

− 43

Thus at t ≅ 10 s (at the first Thus, the gravitational forces

spontaneous breaking of symmetry) between two superparticles ,

according to (13), is given by:

the temperature was T ≈ 10 32 K

(∼1019GeV).Therefore, we can r r M g(sp) M 'g(sp)

assume that the absorbed F12 = −F21 = −G μˆ 21 =

r2

electromagnetic energy by each

⎡⎛ M ⎞ 2 G ⎤

superparticle, before t ≅ 10 −43 s , was ⎟ ⎛⎜ ⎞ 2 hc

= ⎢⎜

i ( sp)

⎟( ηn κT ) ⎥ μˆ 21 (119)

⎢⎜⎝ mi(sp) ⎟⎠ ⎝ c5 h ⎠ ⎥ r2

r

U =ηkT >1×109 J (see Eqs.(71) and ⎣ ⎦

(72)). By comparing with

mi(sp)c ≅ 9×10 J , we conclude that

2 8

Due to the unification of the

U > m i ( sp )c . Therefore, the gravitational and electromagnetic

(

unification condition Unr ≅ Mi c > mi c

2 2

) interactions at that period, we have

is satisfied. This means that, before

t ≅ 10 −43 s ,the gravitational and

electromagnetic interactions were

unified.

From the unification condition

( )

Unr ≅ Mi c2 , we may conclude that

66

53

F12 = −F21 = G μˆ 21 = time ,i.e., a particle cannot be

r2

precisely located in a particular

⎡⎛ M ⎞ 2 G ⎤

⎟ ⎛⎜ ⎞ 2 hc direction without loss of all

= ⎢⎜

i ( sp)

⎟(ηκ T ) ⎥ μˆ 21 =

⎢⎜⎝ mi( sp) ⎟⎠ ⎝ c5 h ⎠ ⎥ r2 knowledge of its momentum

⎣ ⎦ component in that direction . This

2

means that in intermediate cases

=

e

(120)

4πε0 r 2 the product of the uncertainties of

From the equation above we can the simultaneously measurable

write values of corresponding position

and momentum components is at

⎡⎛ M ⎞2 G ⎤ least of the magnitude order of h ,

⎢⎜ i(sp) ⎟ ⎛⎜ ⎞⎟(ηκT )2 hc⎥ = e

2

(121)

⎢⎜⎝ mi(sp) ⎟⎠ ⎝ c5h ⎠ ⎥ 4πε0 Δp.Δr ≥ h (127)

⎣ ⎦

Now assuming that

2 This relation, directly obtained here

⎛ M i ( sp ) ⎞ ⎛ G ⎞

⎜

⎜m

⎟ ⎜

⎟ ⎝ c 5 h ⎟⎠

(ηκT )2 = ψ (122) from the Unified Theory, is the well-

⎝ i ( sp ) ⎠ known relation of the Uncertainty

the Eq. (121) can be rewritten in the Principle for position and

following form: momentum.

According to Eq.(83), the

e2

ψ= =

1

(123) gravitational mass of the

4πε0 hc 137 superparticles at the center of the

which is the well-known reciprocal cluster becomes negative when

fine structure constant. 2η n r kT c > m i ( sp ) , i.e., when

2

gives mi(sp)c2

T > Tcritical= ≈1032K.

2

2ηnr k

⎛ M i ( sp ) ⎞ ⎛ G ⎞

ψ = ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜

⎟ 5 ⎟

(η n r κ T )2 ≈ 1 (124 )

⎝ m i ( sp ) ⎠ ⎝ c h ⎠ 100

According to Eq. (114) this

temperature corresponds to tc ≈10−43s .

This value has the same order of

magnitude as the exact value(1/137) With the progressing of the

of the reciprocal fine structure compression, more superparticles

constant. into the center will have negative

From equation (120) we can gravitational mass. Consequently,

write: there will be a critical point in which

the repulsive gravitational forces

⎛ M g ( sp ) M 'g ( sp ) ⎞ r

⎜G

⎜ r ⎟r = h

⎟

(125 ) between the superparticles with

⎝ ψ c r ⎠ negative gravitational masses and

The term between parentheses has the superparticles with positive

the same dimensions as the linear gravitational masses will be so

r strong that an explosion will occur.

momentum p . Thus, (125) tells us

that This is the event that we call the Big

r r

p ⋅ r = h. (126) Bang.

A component of the momentum of a Now, starting from the Big

particle cannot be precisely Bang to the present time.

specified without loss of all Immediately after the Big Bang, the

knowledge of the corresponding superparticles' decompression

67

54

the most central superparticle will .Thus,

only be positive when the

temperature becomes smaller than dcr − dinitial = 12 g(tc ) = χ

2

( )

GMi(U )

dcr dinitial

(tc )2 (130)

the critical temperature, Tcritical ≈ 1032 K .

At the maximum state of The Eq.(83), gives

compression (exactly at the Big

Bang) the volumes of the mg (sp) 2Unr 2ηnr kT

χ= = 1− = 1−

superparticles were equal to mi(sp) mi(sp) c 2 mi(sp) c 2

the elementary volume Ω 0 = δ V d min 3

Ω = δ V (ndmin )3 = δ V d initial

3

where d initial [41], indicate that it would seem

reasonable to suppose that the

was the initial length scale of the fraction of initial primordial black

Universe. At this very moment the hole mass ultimately converted into

average density of the Universe was photons is about 0.11 . This means

equal to the average density of the that we can take

superparticles, thus we can write η = 0.11

Thus, the amount η M iU c 2 ,

3

⎛ dinitial⎞ Mi(U)

⎜

⎜d ⎟ =m

⎟ (128) where M iU is the total inertial mass

⎝ min ⎠ i( sp)

of the Universe, expresses the total

where M i (U ) ≈ 10 53 kg is the inertial

amount of inertial energy converted

mass of the Universe. It has already into photons at the initial instant of

been shown that the Universe(Primordial Photons).

~ −34

d min = k l planck ≈ 10 m. Then, from It was previously shown that

Eq.(128), we obtain: photons and also the matter have

imaginary gravitational masses

dinitial ≈ 10−14 m (129) associated to them. The matter has

After the Big Bang the negative imaginary gravitational

Universe expands itself from d initial mass, while the photons have

positive imaginary gravitational

up to d cr (when the temperature

mass, given by

decrease reaches the critical

temperature Tcritical ≈ 10 32 K , and the 4 ⎛ hf ⎞

M gp (imaginary ) = 2M ip (imaginary ) = + ⎜ ⎟i

gravity becomes attractive). Thus, it 3 ⎝ c2 ⎠

expands by d cr − d initial , under

effect of the repulsive gravity where M ip (imaginary) is the imaginary

inertial mass of the photons.

g = gmaxgmin = Then, from the above we can

conclude that, at the initial instant of

= G(12 Mg(U ) ) 1

2

Mi(U ) = the Universe, an amount of

imaginary gravitational mass,

=

2G Mg(U )Mi(U )

=

2G ∑m ( g sp) Mi(U )

=

total

M gm (imaginary ) , which was associated

dcrdinitial dcrdinitial to the fraction of the matter

2G χ∑mi(sp)Mi(U ) 2GMi(U ) χ transformed into photons, has been

= = converted into imaginary

dcrdinitial dcrdinitial

gravitational mass of the primordial

68

55

total

photons, M gp (imaginary ) , while an where m gp (imaginary ) (the imaginary

amount of real inertial mass of the gravitational mass of the photon) is

a quantity positive and imaginary,

(real) =η MiU c , has been

total 2

matter, Mim

and M gSun (imaginary ) (the imaginary

converted into real energy of the

N gravitational mass associated to the

primordial photons, E p = ∑ hf j , i.e., matter of the Sun) is a quantity

j =1 negative and imaginary.

The fact of the gravitational

interaction between the imaginary

gravitational masses of the

(imaginary) + M im( real) =

total total

M gm

primordial photons and the

= M gp (imaginary) + M ip( real)

total total

imaginary gravitational mass of the

1424 3

Ep matter be attractive is highly

c2 relevant, because it shows that it is

necessary to consider the effect of

this gravitational interaction, which is

(imaginary ) = M gp (imaginary ) and

total total

where M gm

equivalent to the gravitational effect

produced by the amount of real

(real) = M im(real) = ηM iU ≅ 0.11M iU

E p c 2 ≡ M iptotal total

(real) ≅ 0.22M iU ,

total

gravitational mass, M gp

sprayed by all the Universe.

It was previously shown that, for the This means that this amount,

photons equation: M gp = 2 M ip , is which corresponds to 22% of the

valid. This means that total inertial mass of the Universe,

must be added to the overall

M gp(imagimary) + M gp(real) = computation of the total mass of the

14444244443 matter (stars, galaxies, etc., gas and

M gp

dust of interstellar and intergalactic

(

= 2 M ip(imagimary) + M ip(real)

14444244443

) media). Therefore, this additional

portion corresponds to what has

M ip

been called Dark Matter (See Fig.

By substituting M gp(imaginary) = 2Mip(imaginary) IX).

into the equation above, we get On the other hand, the total

amount of gravitational mass at the

M gp (real ) = 2M ip (real ) initial instant, M gtotal , according to

Eq.(41), can be expressed by

Therefore we can write that M gtotal = χ M iU

(real ) = 2 M ip (real ) = 0.22 M iU

total total

M gp This mass includes the total

The phenomenon of negative gravitational mass of the

total

gravitational deflection of light about matter, M gm (− ) , plus the total

the Sun shows that the gravitational gravitational mass, total

M gp ( real ) ,

interaction between the Sun and the

photons is attractive. This is due to converted into primordial photons.

the gravitational force between the This tells us that we can put

Sun and a photon, which is given by

M gtotal = M gm ( − ) + M gp ( real ) = χ M iU

total total

whence

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56

M iU

Imaginary spacetime

Real spacetime

(imaginary) + Mip( real) ) + Mim(real)

total total total total

Mgp Mgm (imaginary

Primordial Photons

total

M gp (imaginary) + M iptotal

( real )

1

42 43

Ep

c2

∼ 10-14 m

Fig. IX – Conversion of part of the Real Gravitational Mass of the Primordial Universe into

Primordial Photons. The gravitational effect caused by the gravitational interaction of imaginary

gravitational masses of the primordial photons with the imaginary gravitational mass associated to

the matter is equivalent to the effect produced by the amount of real gravitational mass,

(real ) ≅ 0.22 M iU , sprayed by all Universe. This additional portion of mass corresponds to what

total

M gp

has been called Dark Matter.

70

57

( −) = χ M iU − 0.22M iU (

M g ( sp ) = ⎛⎜1 − 2⎡ 1 − V 2 c 2 ) ⎤ ⎞M

total − 12

M gm

⎝ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎟⎠ i ( sp )

In order to calculate the value

of χ we can start from the By comparing this expression with

expression previously obtained for the equation above, we obtain

χ , i.e.,

1

m g ( sp ) 2η n r kT T ≅ 1 .5

χ= =1− =1− 1− V 2 c2

mi ( sp ) mi ( sp ) c 2 Tcritical

where Substitution of this value into the

expressions of χ and M gmtotal

(− ) results

mi ( sp ) c 2

Tcritical = = 3.3 × 10 32 K in

2ηn r k

χ = −0.5

and

and

⎛ m ⎞

⎜ i(sp) ⎟ 2

2 ⎜ ⎟c

Mi(sp)c ⎜⎝ 1 −V c ⎟⎠

2 2

T

T= = = critical ( − ) ≅ −0.72 M iU

total

M gm

2ηnr k 2ηnr k 1 − V 2 c2

This means that 72% of the total

We thus obtain energy of the Universe ( M iU c 2 ) is

due to negative gravitational mass

1

χ =1− of the matter created at the initial

1 − V 2 c2 instant.

Since the gravitational mass

By substitution of this expression is correlated to the inertial mass (Eq.

total

into the equation of M gm (41)), the energy related to the

(− ) , we get

negative gravitational mass is where

there is inertial energy (inertial

⎛ ⎞ mass). In this way, this negative

⎜ 1 ⎟

total

M gm = ⎜⎜ 0 . 78 − M iU

2 ⎟

(−) gravitational energy permeates all

1 − V 2

c ⎟

⎝ ⎠ space and tends to increase the rate

of expansion of the Universe due to

On the other hand, the Unification produce a strong gravitational

condition ( Unr ≅ Δpc= MiUc2 ) previously repulsion between the material

shown and Eq. (41) show that at the particles. Thus, this energy

initial instant of the Universe, corresponds to what has been

M g (sp ) has the following value: called Dark Energy (See Fig. X).

The value of χ = −0.5 at the

initial instant of the Universe shows

⎧ ⎡ ⎛ Un ⎞ ⎤⎫⎪ that the gravitational interaction was

⎪

Mg(sp) = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ ⎜ r ⎟ −1⎥⎬Mi(sp) ≅ 0.1Mi(sp)

⎜ Mi(sp) ⎟ ⎥ repulsive at the Big-Bang. It remains

⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦⎪⎭ repulsive until the temperature of the

Universe is reduced down to the

Similarly, Eq.(45) tells us that critical limit, Tcritical . Below this

temperature limit,

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58

Negative

Gravitational Mass of Matter

72%

22%

carried by the primordial photons

Positive

Gravitational M ass of

M atter

energy related to negative gravitational mass of all the matter in the

Universe corresponds to what has been called Dark Energy. While

the Dark Matter corresponds to the total gravitational mass carried by the

primordial photons, which is manifested in the interaction of the

imaginary gravitational masses of the primordial photons with the

imaginary mass of matter.

72

59

gravitational interaction became particles constitute the real bodies.

greater than the repulsive The idea that we make about

component, making attractive the a consciousness is basically that of

resultant gravitational interaction. an imaginary body containing

Therefore, at the beginning of the psychic energy and intrinsic

Universe – before the temperature knowledge. We can relate psychic

decreased down to Tcritical , there energy with psychic mass (psychic

occurred an expansion of the mass= psychic energy/c2). Thus, by

Universe that was exponential in analogy with the real bodies the

time rather than a normal power-law psychic bodies would be constituted

expansion. Thus, there was an by psychic particles with psychic

evident Inflation Period during the mass. Consequently, the psychic

beginning of the expansion of the particles that constitute a

Universe (See Fig. XI). consciousness would be equivalent

With the progressing of the to imaginary particles, and the

decompression the superparticles psychic mass , mΨ ,of the psychic

cluster becomes a neutrons cluster. particles would be equivalent to the

This means that the neutrons are imaginary mass, i.e.,

created without its antiparticle, the

antineutron. Thus, this solves the mΨ = mi(imaginary) (131)

matter/antimatter dilemma that is

unresolved in many cosmologies.

Now a question: How did the Thus, the imaginary masses

primordial superparticles appear at associated to the photons and

the beginning of the Universe? electrons would be elementary

It is a proven quantum fact psyche actually, i.e.,

that a wave function may collapse,

and that, at this moment, all the m Ψ photon = m i (imaginary ) photon =

possibilities that it describes are

2 ⎛ hf ⎞

suddenly expressed in reality. This = ⎜ ⎟ i (132 )

means that, through this process, 3 ⎝ c2 ⎠

particles can be suddenly

materialized. mΨelectron = mi(imaginary)electron =

The materialization of the

primordial superparticles into a ⎛ hf electron ⎞

=− 2

⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ i =

critical volume denotes knowledge 3

⎝ c2 ⎠

of what would happen with the =− 2 mi0(real)electron i (133)

Universe starting from that initial 3

the existence of a Creator. The idea that electrons have

It was shown previously the elementary psyche associated to

possible existence of imaginary themselves is not new. It comes

particles with imaginary masses in from the pre-Socratic period.

Nature. These particles can be By proposing the existence of

associated with real particles, such as psyche associated with matter, we

in case of the photons and electrons, as

are adopting what is called

we have shown, or they can be

associated with others imaginary

panpsychic posture. Panpsychism

dates back to the pre-Socratic period;

particles by constituting the

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60

χ ≅ − 0 .5

t =0 t ≈ 15 billion years

t ≈ 10 −43 s

Inflation Period

Fig. XI – Inflation Period. The value of χ ≅ −0.5 at the Initial Instant of the Universe shows that the

gravitational interaction was repulsive at the Big-Bang. It remains repulsive until the temperature of

the Universe is reduced down to the critical limit, Tcritical . Below this temperature limit, the

attractive component of the gravitational interaction became greater than the repulsive component,

making attractive the resultant gravitational interaction. Therefore, at beginning of the Universe −

before the temperature to be decreased down to Tcritical , there occurred an expansion of the Universe

that was exponential in time rather than a normal power-law expansion. Thus, there was an evident

inflation period during the beginning of the expansion of the Universe.

74

61

may be found in the Uno of in a consciousness with a psychic

Parmenides or in Heracleitus’s mass much greater than that

Divine Flow. The scholars of needed to materialize the Universe

Miletus’s school were called (material and psychic).

hylozoists, that is, “those who This giant consciousness, in

believe that matter is alive”. More its turn, would not only be the

recently, we will find the greatest of all consciences in the

panpsychistic thought in Spinoza, Universe but also the substratum of

Whitehead and Teilhard de Chardin, everything that exists and,

among others. The latter one obviously, everything that exists

admitted the existence of proto- would be entirely contained within it,

conscious properties at the including all the spacetime.

elementary particles’ level. Thus, if the consciousness we

We can find experimental refer to contains all the space, its

evidences of the existence of volume is necessarily infinite,

psyche associated to electron in an consequently having an infinite

experiment similar to that commonly psychic mass.

used to show the wave duality of This means that it contains all

light. (Fig. XII). One merely the existing psychic mass and,

substitutes an electron ray (fine therefore, any other consciousness

electron beam) for the light ray. Just that exists will be contained in it.

as in the experiment mentioned Hence, we may conclude that It is

above, the ray which goes through the Supreme Consciousness and

the holes is detected as a wave if a that there is no other equal to It: It is

wave detector is used (it is then unique.

observed that the interference Since the Supreme

pattern left on the detector screen is Consciousness also contains all time;

analogous with that produced by the past, present and future, then, for It

light ray), and as a particle if a the time does not flow as it flows for

particle detector is used. us.

Since the electrons are Within this framework, when

detected on the other side of the we talk about the Creation of the

metal sheet, it becomes obvious Universe, the use of the verb “to

then that they passed through the create” means that “something that

holes. On the other hand, it is also was not” came into being, thus

evident that when they approached presupposing the concept of time

the holes, they had to decide which flow. For the Supreme

one of them to go through. Consciousness, however, the

How can an electron “decide” instant of Creation is mixed up with

which hole to go through? Where all other times, consequently there

there is “choice”, isn’t there also being no “before” or “after” the

psyche, by definition? Creation and, thus, the following

If the primordial superparticles question is not justifiable: “What did

that have been materialized at the the Supreme Consciousness do before

beginning of the Universe came Creation?”

from the collapse of a primordial On the other hand, we may

wave function, then the also infer, from the above that the

psychic form described by this wave

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62

Light

(a)

Dw

Light

(b)

Dp

Electrons ?

(c)

Fig. XII – A light ray, after going through the holes in the metal sheet, will be detected as a

wave(a) by a wave detector Dw or as a particle if the wave detector is substituted for the wave

detector Dp. Electron ray (c) has similar behavior as that of a light ray. However, before going

through the holes, the electrons must “decide” which one to go through.

76

63

Consciousness has no defined limit the weak and strong nuclear forces.

(beginning and end), what confers Thus, the gravitational forces are

upon It the unique characteristic of produced by the exchange of “virtual”

uncreated and eternal. photons. Consequently, this is

If the Supreme Consciousness is precisely the origin of the gravity.

eternal, Its wave function ΨSC shall Newton’s theory of gravity does

never collapse (will never be null). not explain why objects attract one

Thus, for having an infinite psychic another; it simply models this

observation. Also Einstein’s theory

mass, the value of ΨSC 2

will be always

does not explain the origin of gravity.

infinite and, hence, we may write that Einstein’s theory of gravity only

describes gravity with more precision

+∞

∫−∞ ΨSC dV = ∞ than Newton’s theory does.

2

Besides, there is nothing in both

theories explaining the origin of the

By comparing this equation with Eq. energy that produces the gravitational

(108) derived from Quantum forces. Earth’s gravity attracts all

Mechanics, we conclude that the objects on the surface of our planet.

Supreme Consciousness is This has been going on for well over

simultaneously everywhere, i.e., It is 4.5 billions years, yet no known energy

omnipresent. source is being converted to support

Since the Supreme Consciousness this tremendous ongoing energy

contains all consciences, it is expected expenditure. Also is the enormous

that It also contain all the knowledge. continuous energy expended by

Therefore, It is also omniscient. Earth’s gravitational field for

Consequently, It knows how to maintaining the Moon in its orbit -

formulate well-defined mental images millennium after millennium. In spite of

with psychic masses sufficient for its the ongoing energy expended by

contents to materialize. In this way, It Earth’s gravitational field to hold

can materialize everything It wishes objects down on surface and the Moon

(omnipotence). in orbit, why the energy of the field

All these characteristics of the never diminishes in strength or drains

Supreme Consciousness (infinite, its energy source? Is this energy

unique, uncreated, eternal, expenditure balanced by a conversion

omnipresent, omniscient and of energy from an unknown energy

omnipotent) coincide with those source?

traditionally ascribed to God by most The energy W necessary to

religions. support the effort expended by the

It was shown in this work that gravitational forces F is well-known

the “virtual” quanta of the gravitational and given by

interaction must have spin 1 and not 2,

and that they are “virtual” photons M g mg

∫

r

(graviphotons) with zero mass outside W = Fdr = −G

∞ r

the coherent matter. Inside the

coherent matter the graviphoton mass

is non-zero. Therefore, the According to the principle of energy

gravitational forces are also gauge conservation, this energy expenditure

forces, because they are yielded by the must be balanced by a conversion of

exchange of "virtual" quanta of spin 1, energy from another energy type.

77

64

The Uncertainty Principle tells us never diminishes in strength or

that, due to the occurrence of drains its energy source.

exchange of graviphotons in a time If an experiment involves a large

interval Δt < h ΔE (where ΔE is the number of identical particles, all

energy of the graviphoton), the energy described by the same wave function

variation ΔE cannot be detected in the Ψ , real density of mass ρ of these

system M g − m g . Since the total energy particles in x, y, z, t is proportional to

W is the sum of the energy of the n the corresponding value Ψ 2 ( Ψ 2 is

graviphotons, i.e., W = ΔE1 + ΔE2 + ...+ ΔEn , known as density of probability. If Ψ is

then the energy W cannot be detected complex then Ψ 2 = ΨΨ* . Thus,

as well. However, as we know it can be ρ ∝ Ψ2 = Ψ.Ψ* ). Similarly, in the case

converted into another type of energy, of psychic particles, the density of

for example, in rotational kinetic psychic mass, ρ Ψ , in x, y, z, will be

energy, as in the hydroelectric plants,

expressed by ρ Ψ ∝ ΨΨ2 = ΨΨ Ψ*Ψ . It is

or in the Gravitational Motor, as shown

in this work. known that ΨΨ2 is always real and

It is known that a quantum of positive while ρ Ψ = mΨ V is an

energy ΔE = hf which varies during a imaginary quantity. Thus, as the

time interval Δt = 1 f = λ c < h ΔE modulus of an imaginary number is

(wave period) cannot be always real and positive, we can

experimentally detected. This is an transform the proportion ρΨ ∝ ΨΨ2 , in

imaginary photon or a “virtual” photon. equality in the following form:

Thus, the graviphotons are imaginary

photons, i.e., the energies ΔEi of the ΨΨ2 = k ρ Ψ (134)

graviphotons are imaginaries energies

and therefore the energy where k is a proportionality constant

W = ΔE1 + ΔE 2 + ... + ΔE n is also an (real and positive) to be determined.

imaginary energy. Consequently, it In Quantum Mechanics we have

belongs to the imaginary space-time. studied the Superpositon Principle,

According to Eq. (131), which affirms that, if a particle (or

imaginary energy is equal to psychic system of particles) is in a dynamic

energy. Consequently, the imaginary state represented by a wave function

space-time is, in fact, the psychic Ψ1 and may also be in another

space-time, which contains the

dynamic state described by Ψ2 then,

Supreme Consciousness. Since the

Supreme Consciousness has infinite the general dynamic state of the

psychic mass, then the psychic space- particle may be described by Ψ ,

time has infinite psychic energy. This is where Ψ is a linear

highly relevant, because it confers to combination(superposition)of Ψ1 and Ψ2 ,

the psychic space-time the i.e.,

characteristic of unlimited source of Ψ = c1 Ψ1 + c 2 Ψ2 (135 )

energy. Complex constants c1 and c2

This can be easily confirmed by

respectively indicates the percentage

the fact that, in spite of the enormous

of dynamic state, represented

amount of energy expended by Earth’s

by Ψ1 and Ψ2 in the formation of the

gravitational field to hold objects down

on the surface of the planet and general dynamic state described by Ψ .

maintain the Moon in its orbit, the In the case of psychic particles

energy of Earth’s gravitational field (psychic bodies, consciousness, etc.),

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65

by analogy, if ΨΨ1 , ΨΨ 2 ,..., ΨΨn refer 2

∇ 2 ΨΨ +

p Ψ

2

ΨΨ = 0 (137 )

to the different dynamic states the h

psychic particle assume, then its

general dynamic state may be Because the wave functions are

described by the wave function ΨΨ , capable of intertwining themselves, the

given by: quantum systems may “penetrate”

each other, thus establishing an

ΨΨ = c1ΨΨ1 + c2 ΨΨ 2 + ... + cn ΨΨn (136) internal relationship where all of them

are affected by the relationship, no

longer being isolated systems but

The state of superposition of wave

becoming an integrated part of a larger

functions is, therefore, common for

system. This type of internal

both psychic and material particles. In

relationship, which exists only in

the case of material particles, it can be

quantum systems, was called

verified, for instance, when an electron

Relational Holism [44].

changes from one orbit to another.

The equation of quantization of

Before effecting the transition to

mass (33), in the generalized form,

another energy level, the electron

leads us to the following expression:

carries out “virtual transitions” [42]. A

kind of relationship with other electrons m i (imaginary ) = n 2 m i 0 (imagynary )(min )

before performing the real transition. Thus, we can also conclude that the

During this relationship period, its wave psychic mass is also quantized, due to

function remains “scattered” by a wide mΨ = mi (imaginary ) (Eq. 131), i.e.,

region of the space [43] thus

superposing the wave functions of the m Ψ = n 2 m Ψ (min ) (138 )

other electrons. In this relationship the

electrons mutually influence one where

another, with the possibility of m Ψ (min ) = − 2

3

(hf min )

c2 i =

intertwining their wave functions ‡‡ .

When this happens, there occurs the =− 2

3

m i 0 (real ) min i (139 )

so-called Phase Relationship

according to quantum-mechanics It was shown that the minimum

concept. quantum of real inertial mass in the

In the electrons “virtual” Universe, mi 0(real ) min , is given by:

transition mentioned before, the

“listing” of all the possibilities of the m i 0 (real ) min = ± h 3 8 cd max =

electrons is described, as we know, by = ± 3 . 9 × 10 − 73 kg (140 )

Schrödinger’s wave equation. By analogy to Eqs. (132) and (133),

Otherwise, it is general for material the expressions of the psychic masses

particles. By analogy, in the case of associated to the proton and the

psychic particles, we may say that the neutron are respectively given by:

“listing” of all the possibilities of the

psyches involved in the relationship will m Ψ proton = m i (imaginary ) proton =

be described by Schrödinger’s

equation – for psychic case, i.e., =+ 2

3

(hf proton c2 i =)

=+ 2

3

m i 0 (real ) proton i (141 )

‡‡

Since the electrons are simultaneously waves and

particles, their wave aspects will interfere with each

other; besides superposition, there is also the

possibility of occurrence of intertwining of their

wave functions.

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66

m Ψneutron = mi (imaginary )neutron =

=− 2 (hf neutron )

c2 i =

F = G M i (imaginary) mi (imaginary) r 2 =

( ΔE ⎞

)

3

⎛

=− 2 mi 0(real )neutron i (142 ) ⎜ me ± m n − m p + 2 ⎟ M

3 ≅⎜ c ⎟G i (real )i mi (real )i

The imaginary gravitational ⎜ ΔE ⎟ r2

⎜ me + m p + m n + 2 ⎟

masses of the atoms must be much ⎝ c ⎠

smaller than their real gravitational Therefore, the total gravity is

masses. On the contrary, the weight of M i (real )

the bodies would be very different of g real + Δg (imaginary ) = −G −

r2

the observed values. This fact shows

that mi (imaginary ) proton and mi (imaginary )neutron

⎛

( ΔE ⎞

)

⎜ me ± m n − m p + 2 ⎟ M

−⎜ c ⎟G i (real )

must have contrary signs. In this way, ⎜ ΔE ⎟ r2

the imaginary gravitational mass of an ⎜ me + m p + m n + 2 ⎟

⎝ c ⎠

atom can be expressed by means of

the following expression Thus, the imaginary gravitational mass

of a body produces an excess of

⎛

(ΔE ⎞

mi (imaginary )atom = N ⎜ me ± m n − m p + 2 ⎟i ) gravity acceleration, Δg , given by

⎝ c ⎠

where, ΔE , is the interaction energy.

By comparing this expression with the

⎛

( )

ΔE ⎞

⎜ me ± mn − m p + 2 ⎟ M

following expression Δg ≅ ⎜ c ⎟G i (real )

⎜ ΔE ⎟ r2

⎛ ΔE ⎞ ⎜ e

m + m + m + ⎟

mi (real )atom = N ⎜ me + m p + mn + 2 ⎟ ⎝

p n

c2 ⎠

⎝ c ⎠

Thus,

In the case of soft atoms we can

mi (imaginary )atom << mi (real )atom

consider ΔE ≅ 2 × 10 −13 joules . Thus, in

Now consider a monatomic body with this case we obtain

real mass M i (real ) and imaginary mass Mi

M i (imaginary ) . Then we have

Δg ≅ 6 ×10 −4 G (143)

r2

In the case of the Sun, for example,

⎛ ΔE i ⎞ there is an excess of gravity

Σ⎜ mi (imaginary )atom + 2a ⎟

M i (imaginary ) acceleration, due to its imaginary

= ⎝

c ⎠

= gravitational mass, given by

M i (real ) ⎛ ΔE a ⎞

Σ⎜ mi (real )atom + 2 ⎟

⎝ c ⎠ (

Δg ≅ 6 × 10 − 4 G ) M iS

r2

ΔE ΔE ⎞

⎛

(

n⎜ me ± m n − m p + 2 + 2a ⎟i ) At a distance from the Sun of

= ⎝

c c ⎠ r = 1.0 × 1013 m the value of Δg is

≅

⎛ ΔE ΔE a ⎞

n⎜ m e + m p + m n + 2 + 2 ⎟

⎝ c c ⎠ Δg ≅ 8 × 10 −10 m.s −2

⎛

(

⎜ me ± mn − m p + 2 ⎟ )

ΔE ⎞

≅⎜ c ⎟i Experiments in the pioneer 10

⎜ ΔE ⎟ spacecraft, at a distance from the Sun

⎜ me + m p + m n + 2 ⎟

⎝ c ⎠ of about 67 AU or r = 1.0 × 1013 m [45],

Since ΔE a << ΔE . measured an excess acceleration

The intensity of the gravitational towards the Sun of

forces between M g (imaginary ) and an

Δg = 8.74 ± 1.33 × 10 −10 m.s −2

imaginary particle with mass

m g (imaginary ) , both at rest, is given by

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67

Note that the general expression for electromagnetic interaction which,

the gravity acceleration of the Sun is as we know, is conveyed by the

exchange of “virtual” photons.

(

g = 1+ ≈ 6 × 10 − 4 G ) M iS If electrons, protons and neutrons

have psychic mass, then we can infer

r2

Therefore, in the case of the that the psychic mass of the atoms are

gravitational deflection of light about Phase Condensates *** . In the case of

the Sun, the new expression for the the molecules the situation is similar.

deflection of the light is More molecular mass means more

(

δ = 1+ ≈ 6 ×10 − 4 ) 4GM iS

(144)

atoms and consequently, more psychic

mass. In this case the phase

c2d

Thus, the increase in δ due to the condensate also becomes more

excess acceleration towards the Sun structured because the great amount

can be considered negligible. of elementary psyches inside the

Similarly to the collapse of the condensate requires, by stability

real wave function, the collapse of the reasons, a better distribution of them.

psychic wave function must suddenly Thus, in the case of molecules with

also express in reality all the very large molecular masses

possibilities described by it. This is, (macromolecules) it is possible that

therefore, a point of decision in which their psychic masses already constitute

there occurs the compelling need of the most organized shape of a Phase

realization of the psychic form. Thus, Condensate, called Bose-Einstein

this is moment in which the content of Condensate ††† .

the psychic form realizes itself in the The fundamental characteristic of

space-time. For an observer in space- a Bose-Einstein condensate is, as we

time, something is real when it is in the know, that the various parts making up

form of matter or radiation. Therefore, the condensed system not only behave

the content of the psychic form may as a whole but also become a whole,

realize itself in space-time exclusively i.e., in the psychic case, the various

under the form of radiation, that is, it consciousnesses of the system

does not materialize. This must occur become a single consciousness with

when the Materialization Condition is psychic mass equal to the sum of the

not satisfied, i.e., when the content of psychic masses of all the

the psychic form is undefined consciousness of the condensate. This

(impossible to be defined by its own obviously, increases the available

psychic) or it does not contain enough knowledge in the system since it is

psychic mass to materialize §§ the proportional to the psychic mass of the

respective psychic contents.

Nevertheless, in both cases, ***

Ice and NaCl crystals are common examples of

there must always be a production of imprecisely-structured phase condensates. Lasers,

“virtual” photons to convey the psychic super fluids, superconductors and magnets are

interaction to the other psychic examples of phase condensates more structured.

†††

particles, according to the quantum Several authors have suggested the possibility of

field theory, only through this type of the Bose-Einstein condensate occurring in the

brain, and that it might be the physical base of

quanta will interaction be conveyed, memory, although they have not been able to find a

since it has an infinite reach and may suitable mechanism to underpin such a hypothesis.

be either attractive or repulsive, just as Evidences of the existence of Bose-Einstein

condensates in living tissues abound (Popp, F.A

Experientia, Vol. 44, p.576-585; Inaba, H., New

§§

By this we mean not only materialization proper Scientist, May89, p.41; Rattermeyer, M and Popp,

but also the movement of matter to realize its F. A. Naturwissenschaften, Vol.68, Nº5, p.577.)

psychic content (including radiation).

81

68

consciousness. This unity confers an correlated to Ψ and Ψ 2

Ψ1 . Only 2

Ψ2

‡‡‡

consciousness. For this reason, from requirements of interchange of the

now on they will be called Individual indices, the product

Material Consciousness.

ΨΨ2 1 .ΨΨ2 2 = ΨΨ2 2 .ΨΨ2 1 =

We can derive from the above

that most bodies do not possess = A1, 2 = A2,1 = A (145 )

individual material consciousness. In In the above expression, A is due to

an iron rod, for instance, the cluster of

elementary psyches in the iron the product ΨΨ2 1 .ΨΨ2 2 will be always

molecules does not constitute Bose- positive. From equations (143) and

Einstein condensate; therefore, the (134) we get

iron rod does not have an individual A = ΨΨ2 1 .ΨΨ2 2 = k 2 ρ Ψ1 ρ Ψ 2 =

consciousness. Its consciousness is

mΨ1 mΨ 2

consequently, much more simple and = k2 (146)

constitutes just a phase condensate V1 V2

imprecisely structured made by the The psychic interaction can be

consciousness of the iron atoms. described starting from the psychic

The existence of consciousnesses mass because the psychic mass is the

in the atoms is revealed in the source of the psychic field. Basically,

molecular formation, where atoms with the psychic mass is gravitational mass,

strong mutual affinity (their m Ψ ≡ m g (imaginary ) . In this way, the

consciousnesses) combine to form equations of the gravitational

molecules. It is the case, for instance interaction are also applied to the

of the water molecules, in which two Psychic Interaction. However, due to

Hydrogen atoms join an Oxygen atom. the psychic mass, m Ψ , to be an

Well, how come the combination

imaginary quantity, it is necessary to

between these atoms is always the

put mΨ into the mentioned equations

same: the same grouping and the

same invariable proportion? In the in order to homogenize them, because

case of molecular combinations the as we know, the module of an

phenomenon repeats itself. Thus, the imaginary number is always real and

chemical substances either mutually positive.

attract or repel themselves, carrying Thus, based on gravity theory,

out specific motions for this reason. It we can write the equation of the

is the so-called Chemical Affinity. This psychic field in nonrelativistic

phenomenon certainly results from a Mechanics.

specific interaction between the ΔΦ = 4πG ρ Ψ (147 )

consciousnesses. From now on, it will

be called Psychic Interaction.

Mutual Affinity is a

dimensionless psychic quantity with ‡‡‡

Quantum Mechanics tells us that Ψ do not have

which we are familiar and of which we a physical interpretation or a simple meaning and

have perfect understanding as to its also it cannot be experimentally observed. However

such restriction does not apply to Ψ

2

meaning. The degree of Mutual , which is

Affinity, A , in the case of two known as density of probability and represents the

consciousnesses, respectively probability of finding the body, described by the

described by ΨΨ1 and ΨΨ 2 , must be wave function Ψ , in the point x, y, z at the

moment t. A large value of Ψ

2

means a strong

possibility to find the body, while a small value of

Ψ 2 means a weak possibility to find the body.

82

69

It is similar to the equation of the attractive, if A is positive

gravitational field, with the difference (expressing positive mutual affinity

that now instead of the density of between the two psychic bodies), and

gravitational mass we have the density repulsive if A is negative (expressing

of psychic mass. Then, we can write negative mutual affinity between the

the general solution of Eq. (147), in the two psychic bodies). Contrary to the

following form: interaction of the matter, where the

ρ Ψ dV opposites attract themselves here, the

Φ = −G ∫ (148) opposites repel themselves.

r2

This equation expresses, with A method and device to obtain

nonrelativistic approximation, the images of psychic bodies have been

potential of the psychic field of any previously proposed [46]. By means of

distribution of psychic mass. this device, whose operation is based

Particularly, for the potential of on the gravitational interaction and the

the field of only one particle with piezoelectric effect, it will be possible

psychic mass mΨ1 , we get: to observe psychic bodies.

Expression (146) can be

G m Ψ1

Φ=− (149 ) rewritten in the following form:

r

Then the force produced by this field

m m

A = k 2 Ψ1 Ψ 2 (153)

V1 V2

upon another particle with psychic

The psychic masses mΨ1 and mΨ 2 are

mass mΨ 2 is

r r imaginary quantities. However, the

∂Φ

FΨ12 = − FΨ 21 = − mΨ 2 = product mΨ1 .mΨ 2 is a real quantity. One

∂r

can then conclude from the previous

m Ψ1 m Ψ 2

= −G (150) expression that the degree of mutual

r2 affinity between two consciousnesses

By comparing equations (150) and depends basically on the densities of

(146) we obtain their psychic masses, and that:

1) If mΨ1 > 0 and mΨ 2 > 0 then

r r A > 0 (positive mutual affinity

VV

FΨ12 = − FΨ 21 = −G A 12 22 (151) between them)

k r

In the vectorial form the above 2) If mΨ1 < 0 and mΨ 2 < 0 then

equation is written as follows A > 0 (positive mutual affinity

r r VV

FΨ 12 = − FΨ 21 = − GA 12 22 μ̂ (152 ) between them)

k r 3) If mΨ1 > 0 and mΨ 2 < 0 then

Versor μ̂ has the direction of the line A < 0 (negative mutual affinity

connecting the mass centers (psychic between them)

mass) of both particles and oriented 4) If mΨ1 < 0 and mΨ 2 > 0 then

from mΨ1 to mΨ 2 . A < 0 (negative mutual affinity

In general, we may distinguish between them)

and quantify two types of mutual In this relationship, as occurs in the

affinity: positive and negative case of material particles (“virtual”

(aversion). The occurrence of the first transition of the electrons previously

type is synonym of psychic attraction, mentioned), the consciousnesses

(as in the case of the atoms in the interact mutually, intertwining or not

water molecule) while the aversion is their wave functions. When this

synonym of repulsion. In fact, Eq. (152) happens, there occurs the so-called

r r

shows that the forces FΨ12 and FΨ 21 are Phase Relationship according to

quantum-mechanics concept.

83

70

Otherwise a Trivial Relationship takes

place.

The psychic forces such as the

gravitational forces, must be very weak

when we consider the interaction

between two particles. However, in

spite of the subtleties, those forces

stimulate the relationship of the

consciousnesses with themselves and

with the Universe (Eq.152).

From all the preceding, we

perceive that Psychic Interaction –

unified with matter interactions,

constitutes a single Law which links

things and beings together and, in a

network of continuous relations and

exchanges, governs the Universe both

in its material and psychic aspects. We

can also observe that in the

interactions the same principle

reappears always identical. This unity

of principle is the most evident

expression of monism in the Universe.

84

71

≅ 1.3 × 10−18 kg.m −3 that can work as a

A Foucault-type pendulum slightly gravitational shielding and explain the

increases its period of oscillation at sites Allais and pendulum effects. Below this

experiencing a solar eclipse, as compared layer, the density of the lunar atmosphere

with any other time. This effect was first increases, making the effect of

observed by Allais [47] over 40 years ago. gravitational shielding negligible.

Also Saxl and Allen [48], using a torsion During the solar eclipses, when the

pendulum, have observed the Moon is between the Sun and the Earth,

phenomenon. Recently, an anomalous two gravitational shieldings Sh1 and Sh2 ,

eclipse effect on gravimeters has become

are established in the top layer of the lunar

well-established [49], while some of the

atmosphere (See Fig. 1A). In order to

pendulum experiments have not. Here,

understand how these gravitational

we will show that the Allais gravity and

shieldings work (the gravitational shielding

pendulum effects during solar eclipses

effect) see Fig. II. Thus, right after Sh1

result from a shielding effect of the Sun’s

gravity when the Moon is between the Sun (inside the system Moon-Lunar

atmosphere), the Sun’s gravity

and the Earth. r r

The interplanetary medium includes acceleration, g S , becomes χ g S where,

interplanetary dust, cosmic rays and hot according to Eq. (57) χ is given by

plasma from the solar wind. Its density is

inversely proportional to the squared

⎧ ⎡ ⎛ ⎞

2 ⎤⎫

⎪ ⎪

distance from the Sun, decreasing as this 2

n D

distance increases. Near the Earth-Moon χ = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ − 1⎥ ⎬

r

(1A)

⎪ ⎢ ⎝ ρc ⎠ ⎥⎪

system, this density is very low, with ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭

(

values about 5 protons/ cm3 8.3×10−21 kg m3 . ) The total density of solar radiation D

However, this density is highly variable. It arriving at the top layer of the lunar

can be increased up to atmosphere is given by

( −19

~ 100 protons / cm 1.7 ×10 k g m [50].

3

)

3

D = σT 4 = 6.32 × 10 7 W / m 2

The atmosphere of the Moon is Since the temperature of the surface of the

very tenuous and insignificant in Sun is T = 5.778 × 10 3 K and

comparison with that of the Earth. The

average daytime abundances of the

σ = 5.67 × 10 −8 W .m −2 .K −4 . The density of

elements known to be present in the lunar the top layer is ρ ≅ 1.3 × 10−18 kg.m−3 then

atmosphere, in atoms per cubic Eq. (1A) gives §§§

centimeter, are as follows: H <17, He 2-

40x103, Na 70,K 17, Air 4x104, yielding χ = − 1 .1

~8x104 total atoms per cubic

( −16

)

−3

centimeter ≅ 10 kg.m [51]. According to The negative sign of χ shows that

Öpik [52], near the Moon surface, the r r

χg S , has opposite direction to g S . As

density of the lunar atmosphere can reach

values up to 10 −12 kg.m −3 .The minimum

previously showed (see Fig. II), after

the second gravitational shielding

possible density of the lunar atmosphere is

in the top of the atmosphere and is §§§

essentially very close to the value of the The text in red in wrong. But the value of

interplanetary medium. χ = −1 .1 is correct. It is not the solar radiation

Since the density of the that produces the phenomenon. The exact

interplanetary medium is very small it description of the phenomenon starting from the

cannot work as gravitational shielding. same equation (1A) is presented in the end of my

However, there is a top layer in the lunar paper: “Scattering of Sunlight in Lunar Exosphere

Caused by Gravitational Microclusters of Lunar Dust”

atmosphere with density (2013).

85

72

(Sh2) the gravity acceleration χgr S g ′ = g ⊕ − (− 0 .4 ) g S − (− 0 .4 )g Moon =

2

r r

becomes χ 2 g S . This means that χ 2 g S ≅ g ⊕ − 9.6 × 10 − 4 m.s − 2 =

r

has the same direction of g S . In (

= 1 − 9.7 × 10 − 5 g ⊕) (4 A )

addition, right after the lunar (Sh2) This decrease in g increases the

r

gravity becomes χg moon . Therefore, the pendulum’s period by about

total gravity acceleration in the Earth g⊕

T′ =T = 1 .000048 T

will be given by ( )

1 − 9 .4 × 10 − 5 g ⊕

r r r r

g ′ = g ⊕ − χ 2 g S − χg moon (2 A) This corresponds to 0.0048% increase

in the pendulum’s period. Jun’s

abstract [53] tells us of a relative

Since g S ≅ 5.9 × 10 −3 m / s 2 and change less than 0.005% in the

−5

g moon ≅ 3.3 × 10 m / s Eq. (2A), gives

2 pendulum’s period associated with the

1990 solar eclipse.

For example, if the density of the

g ′ = g ⊕ − (− 1 .1) g S − (− 1 .1)g Moon =

2

top layer of the lunar atmosphere

≅ g ⊕ − 7 .1 × 10 − 3 m .s − 2 = increase up to 2.0917 × 10−18 k g m 3 , the

(

= 1 − 7 .3 × 10 − 4 g ⊕ ) (3 A ) value for χ becomes

period T = 2π l g of a paraconical

Thus, we obtain

g ′ = g ⊕ − (− 1.5 × 10−3 ) g S − (− 1.5 × 10−3 )g Moon =

pendulum (Allais effect) in about 2

g⊕

T′ = T = 1.00037 T

(

1 − 7.3 × 10 − 4 g ⊕ ) ≅ g ⊕ − 6.3 × 10−8 m.s −2 =

This corresponds to 0.037% increase ( )

= 1 − 6.4 × 10−9 g ⊕ (5 A)

in the period, and is roughly the value So, the total gravity acceleration in the

(0.0372%) obtained by Saxl and Allen Earth will decrease during the solar

during the total solar eclipse in March eclipses by about

1970 [48].

As we have seen, the density of 6.4 × 10 −9 g ⊕

the interplanetary medium near the

Moon is highly variable and can reach The size of the effect, as measured

values up to ~ 100 protons / cm 3 with a gravimeter, during the 1997

(1.7 ×10−19 k g m3 .) eclipse, was roughly (5 − 7 ) × 10 −9 g ⊕

When the density of the [54, 55].

interplanetary medium increases, the The decrease will be even

top layer of the lunar atmosphere can smaller forρ ≳ 2.0917 ×10-18kg.m-3. The

also increase its density, by absorbing lower limit now is set by Lageos

particles from the interplanetary satellites, which suffer an anomalous

medium due to the lunar gravitational

acceleration of only about 3 × 10 −13 g ⊕ ,

attraction. In the case of a density

increase of roughly 30% during “seasons” where the satellite

( )

1.7 × 10 k g m , the value for χ

−18 3 experiences eclipses of the Sun by the

Earth [56].

becomes

χ = − 0 .4

Consequently, we get

86

73

(Gravitational Shielding)

Interplanetary medium

≈ 10 −19 kg m 3

≈10−18 kg.m-3

Solar radiation ≈10−17 kg.m-3

≈10−12 kg.m-3 r

χg Moon

r Sh1 r Moon r Sh2 r r r r Earth

gS χg S g Moon χg Moon χ 2 g S χ 2gS g⊕

Fig. 1A – Schematic diagram of the Gravitational Shielding around the Moon – The top layer of the

Moon’s atmosphere with density of the order of 10-18 kg.m-3 , produces a gravitational shielding

r r

when subjected to the radiation from the Sun. Thus, the solar gravity g S becomes χ g S after the

r r

first shielding Sh1 and χ 2 g S after the second shielding Sh 2 . The Moon gravity becomes χ g Moon

after Sh 2 . Therefore the total gravity acceleration in the Earth will be given by

r r r r

g ′ = g ⊕ − χ 2 g S − χg moon .

87

74

En = = (3B)

In this appendix we will show 8mg L2 8η 2 mi L2

why, in the quantized gravity equation

(Eq.34), n = 0 is excluded from the From this equation we can easily

sequence of possible values of n . conclude that η cannot be

Obviously, the exclusion of n = 0 , zero (E n → ∞ or E n → 0 ) . On the

0

means that the gravity can have only other hand, the Eq. (2B) shows that the

discrete values different of zero. exclusion of η = 0 means the exclusion

Equation (33) shows that the of m g = 0 as a possible value for the

gravitational mass is quantized and

given by gravitational mass. Obviously, this also

means the exclusion of M g = 0

M g = n 2 mg (min ) (Relativistic mass). Equation (33) tells

us that M g = n 2 m g (min ) , thus we can

Since Eq. (43) leads to conclude that the exclusion of Mg = 0

implies in the exclusion of n = 0 since

mg(min) = mio(min)

mg(min) = mi0(min) = finite value (elementary

quantum of mass). Therefore Eq. (3B)

where

is only valid for values of n and η

different of zero. Finally, from the

mi0(min) = ± h 3 8 cdmax = ±3.9×10−73kg

quantized gravity equation (Eq. 34),

GM g ⎛ Gm g (min ) ⎞

is the elementary quantum of inertial g =− = n 2

⎜− ⎟=

r2 ⎜ (r )2 ⎟

mass. Then the equation ⎝ max n ⎠

for M g becomes = n 4 g min

we conclude that the exclusion of n = 0

M g = n 2 mg (min ) = n 2 mi (min ) means that the gravity can have only

discrete values different of zero.

On the other hand, Eq. (44)

shows that

M i = ni2 mi 0(min )

Thus, we can write that

2

Mg ⎛n ⎞

= ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ or M g = η 2 M i (1B)

M i ⎝ ni ⎠

different of n .

By multiplying both members of

Eq. (1B) by 1 − V 2 c 2 we get

mg = η 2 mi (2B)

By substituting (2B) into Eq. (21)

we get

88

75

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Detection of the Gravitomagnetic

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90

Gravity Control by means of Electromagnetic Field

through Gas or Plasma at Ultra-Low Pressure

Fran De Aquino

Maranhao State University, Physics Department, S.Luis/MA, Brazil.

Copyright © 2007-2010 by Fran De Aquino. All Rights Reserved

It is shown that the gravity acceleration just above a chamber filled with gas or plasma at ultra-low

pressure can be strongly reduced by applying an Extra Low-Frequency (ELF) electromagnetic field

across the gas or the plasma. This Gravitational Shielding Effect is related to recent discovery of

quantum correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass. According to the theory samples

hung above the gas or the plasma should exhibit a weight decrease when the frequency of the

electromagnetic field is decreased or when the intensity of the electromagnetic field is increased. This

Gravitational Shielding Effect is unprecedented in the literature and can not be understood in the

framework of the General Relativity. From the technical point of view, there are several applications for

this discovery; possibly it will change the paradigms of energy generation, transportation and

telecommunications.

Vacuum Chambers, Plasmas devices. PACs: 04.60.Bc, 04.80.Cc, 07.30.Kf, 52.75.-d.

CONTENTS

I. INTRODUCTION 02

II. THEORY 02

Gravity Control Cells (GCC) 07

III. CONSEQUENCES 09

Gravitational Motor using GCC 11

Gravitational Spacecraft 12

Decreasing of inertial forces on the Gravitational Spacecraft 13

Gravity Control inside the Gravitational Spacecraft 13

Gravitational Thrusters 14

Artificial Atmosphere surrounds the Gravitational Spacecraft. 15

Gravitational Lifter 15

High Power Electromagnetic Bomb (A new type of E-bomb). 16

Gravitational Press of Ultra-High Pressure 16

Generation and Detection of Gravitational Radiation 17

Quantum Gravitational Antennas. Quantum Transceivers 18

Instantaneous Interstellar Communications 18

Wireless Electric Power Transmission, by using Quantum Gravitational Antennas. 18

Method and Device using GCCs for obtaining images of Imaginary Bodies 19

Energy shieldings 19

Possibility of Controlled Nuclear Fusion by means of Gravity Control 20

IV. CONCLUSION 21

APPENDIX A 42

APPENDIX B 70

References 74

91

2

I. INTRODUCTION

It will be shown that the local In general, the momentum variation

gravity acceleration can be controlled by Δp is expressed by Δp = FΔt where F

means of a device called Gravity Control is the applied force during a time

Cell (GCC) which is basically a recipient interval Δt . Note that there is no

filled with gas or plasma where is applied restriction concerning the nature of the

an electromagnetic field. According to force F , i.e., it can be mechanical,

the theory samples hung above the gas electromagnetic, etc.

or plasma should exhibit a weight For example, we can look on the

decrease when the frequency of the momentum variation Δp as due to

electromagnetic field is decreased or absorption or emission of electromagnetic

when the intensity of the electromagnetic energy by the particle.

field is increased. The electrical In the case of radiation, Δp can be

conductivity and the density of the gas or obtained as follows: It is known that the

plasma are also highly relevant in this radiation pressure, dP , upon an area

process.

dA = dxdy of a volume d V = dxdydz of

With a GCC it is possible to

convert the gravitational energy into a particle ( the incident radiation normal

rotational mechanical energy by means to the surface dA )is equal to the

of the Gravitational Motor. In addition, a energy dU absorbed per unit volume

new concept of spacecraft (the (dU dV ) .i.e.,

Gravitational Spacecraft) and aerospace

dP =

dU

=

dU

=

dU

(2)

flight is presented here based on the dV dxdydz dAdz

possibility of gravity control. We will also

see that the gravity control will be very Substitution of dz = vdt ( v is the speed

important to Telecommunication. of radiation) into the equation above

gives

II. THEORY dU (dU dAdt ) dD

It was shown [1] that the relativistic dP = = = (3)

dV v v

gravitational mass M g = m g 1 − V 2 c2

and the relativistic inertial mass Since dPdA = dF we can write:

M i = mi 0 1 − V 2 c 2 are quantized, and dFdt=

dU

(4)

v

given by M g = n g2 mi 0(min ) , M i = ni2 mi 0(min ) However we know that dF = dp dt , then

where n g and ni are respectively, the

dp =

dU

(5)

gravitational quantum number and the v

inertial quantum number ; From this equation it follows that

mi 0(min ) = ±3.9 × 10 kg is the elementary

−73

U ⎛c⎞ U

Δp = ⎜ ⎟ = nr

quantum of inertial mass. The masses v ⎝c⎠ c

m g and mi 0 are correlated by means of Substitution into Eq. (1) yields

the following expression: ⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫

⎪ ⎛ ⎞ ⎪

⎡ 2 ⎤

⎢ ⎜

mg = ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜

⎢

U

nr ⎟ − 1⎥⎬mi0

⎟

⎥⎪

(6)

⎛ Δp ⎞ ⎪ ⎝

2

⎠

⎢

mg = mi0 − 2 1 + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − 1⎥mi0 . (1) ⎩ ⎣

mi0 c

⎦⎭

⎢ ⎝ mi c ⎠ ⎥

⎣ ⎦ Where U , is the electromagnetic energy

Where Δp is the momentum variation on absorbed by the particle; nr is the index

the particle and mi 0 is the inertial mass of refraction.

at rest.

92

3

Equation (6) can be rewritten in Equation (9) shows that ω κ r = v . Thus,

the following form E B = ω k r = v , i.e., E = vB = vμH .

⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫

⎪ ⎛ W ⎞ ⎪ Then, Eq. (8) can be rewritten in the

⎢

mg = ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜ n ⎟ − 1⎥⎬mi 0 (7) following form:

⎢ ⎜ ρ c2 r ⎟ ⎥

⎪

⎩ ⎣⎢

⎝ ⎠ ⎪

⎦⎥⎭ W = 12 (ε v2μ)μH 2 + 12 μH 2 (12)

Where W = U V is the density of For σ << ωε , Eq. (9) reduces to

electromagnetic energy and ρ = mi 0 V c

v=

is the density of inertial mass. ε r μr

The Eq. (7) is the expression of the Then, Eq. (12) gives

quantum correlation between the ⎡ ⎛ c2 ⎞ ⎤ 2 1 2

gravitational mass and the inertial mass W = 12 ⎢ε ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟μ⎥μH + 2 μH = μH2 (13)

⎢⎣ ⎝ εr μr ⎠ ⎥⎦

as a function of the density of

electromagnetic energy. This is also the This equation can be rewritten in the

expression of correlation between following forms:

B2

gravitation and electromagnetism.

W = (14)

The density of electromagnetic μ

energy in an electromagnetic field can be or

deduced from Maxwell’s equations [2] W = ε E2 (15)

and has the following expression

W = 12 ε E 2 + 12 μH 2 (8) For σ >> ωε , Eq. (9) gives

2ω

It is known that B = μH , E B = ω k r [3] v= (16 )

μσ

and

dz ω Then, from Eq. (12) we get

v= = =

c

(9) ⎡ ⎛ 2ω ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ ωε ⎞

dt κ r ε r μr ⎛ W = 12 ⎢ε⎜⎜ ⎟⎟μ⎥μH2 + 12 μH2 = ⎜ ⎟μH2 + 12 μH2 ≅

⎜ 1 + (σ ωε ) + 1⎞⎟

2

2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ μσ ⎠ ⎦ ⎝σ ⎠

Where kr is the real part of the ≅ 12 μH2 (17)

r

propagation vector k (also called phase Since E = vB = vμH , we can rewrite (17)

r in the following forms:

constant [4]); k = k = k r + iki ; ε , μ and σ,

B2

are the electromagnetic characteristics of W ≅ (18)

2μ

the medium in which the incident (or

emitted) radiation is propagating or

⎛σ ⎞ 2

( ε = ε r ε 0 where ε r is the relative W ≅⎜ ⎟E (19 )

⎝ 4ω ⎠

dielectric permittivity and ε0 = 8.854×10−12F/ m

By comparing equations (14) (15) (18)

; μ = μrμ0 where μ r is the relative and (19) we see that Eq. (19) shows that

magnetic permeability and μ0 = 4π ×10−7 H / m; the better way to obtain a strong value of

W in practice is by applying an Extra

σ is the electrical conductivity). It is

Low-Frequency (ELF) electric field

known that for free-space σ = 0 and

ε r = μ r = 1 then Eq. (9) gives

(w = 2πf << 1Hz ) through a mean with

v=c (10) high electrical conductivity.

Substitution of Eq. (19) into Eq.

From (9) we see that the index of (7), gives

refraction nr = c v will be given by ⎧ ⎡ 3 ⎤⎫

⎪ μ ⎛ σ ⎞ E 4 ⎥⎪

c εμ

= r r ⎛⎜ 1 + (σ ωε) + 1⎞⎟ (11)

⎢

mg = ⎨1 − 2 1 + 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟ − 1 ⎬mi0 (20)

nr = 4c ⎝ 4πf ⎟⎠ ρ 2 ⎥⎪

2

⎪⎩ ⎢

v 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦⎭

This equation shows clearly that if an

93

4

electrical conductor mean has j lamp

ρ << 1 Kg.m −3

and σ >> 1 , then it is

σ Hg plasma = = 3.419 S .m −1 (23)

E lamp

possible obtain strong changes in its Substitution of (22) and (23) into (20)

gravitational mass, with a relatively small yields

ELF electric field. An electrical conductor

mean with ρ << 1 Kg.m−3 is obviously a

mg(Hg plasma) ⎧⎪ ⎡ E 4 ⎤⎫⎪

= ⎨1 − 2 1 + 1.909×10

⎢ −17

−1⎥⎬ (24)

mi(Hg plasma) ⎪ ⎢ f 3 ⎥⎪

plasma. ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭

There is a very simple way to test Thus, if an Extra Low-Frequency electric

Eq. (20). It is known that inside a

field E ELF with the following

fluorescent lamp lit there is low-pressure

Mercury plasma. Consider a 20W characteristics: E ELF ≈ 100V .m −1 and

T-12 fluorescent lamp (80044– f < 1mHZ is applied through the

F20T12/C50/ECO GE, Ecolux® T12), Mercury plasma then a strong decrease

whose characteristics and dimensions in the gravitational mass of the Hg

are well-known [5]. At around plasma will be produced.

T ≅ 318.15 K , an optimum mercury

0

It was shown [1] that there is an

vapor pressure of P = 6 ×10−3Torr= 0.8N.m−2 additional effect of gravitational shielding

is obtained, which is required for produced by a substance under these

maintenance of high luminous efficacy conditions. Above the substance the

throughout life. Under these conditions, gravity acceleration g 1 is reduced at the

the mass density of the Hg plasma can same ratio χ = m g mi 0 , i.e., g1 = χ g ,

be calculated by means of the well-

( g is the gravity acceleration under the

known Equation of State

substance). Therefore, due to the

ρ=

PM 0

(21) gravitational shielding effect produced by

ZRT

the decrease of m g (Hg plasma ) in the region

Where M 0 = 0.2006 kg.mol −1 is the

where the ELF electric field E ELF is

molecular mass of the Hg; Z ≅ 1 is the

compressibility factor for the Hg plasma; applied, the gravity acceleration just

R = 8.314 joule.mol −1 . 0 K −1 is the gases above this region will be given by

m g (Hg plasma)

universal constant. Thus we get g1 = χ (Hg plasma) g = g=

ρ Hg plasma ≅ 6.067 × 10 −5 kg.m −3 (22) mi (Hg plasma)

The electrical conductivity of the Hg ⎧⎪ ⎡ E4 ⎤ ⎫⎪

plasma can be deduced from the = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 1.909 × 10 −17 ELF − 1⎥ ⎬ g (25)

r r ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣

3

f ELF ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭

continuum form of Ohm's Law j = σE ,

since the operating current through the The trajectories of the

lamp and the current density are well- electrons/ions through the lamp are

known and respectively given by determined by the electric field E lamp along

i = 0.35A [5] and jlamp = i S = i π4 φint

2

, where the lamp. If the ELF electric field across

φint = 36.1mm is the inner diameter of the the lamp E ELF is much greater than E lamp ,

lamp. The voltage drop across the the current through the lamp can be

electrodes of the lamp is 57V [5] and the interrupted. However, if EELF <<Elamp, these

distance between them l = 570mm . Then trajectories will be only slightly modified.

the electrical field along the lamp E lamp is Since here Elamp = 100 V .m−1 , then we can

given by Elamp = 57V 0.570m = 100 V.m−1 . max

arbitrarily choose E ELF ≅ 33 V . m −1 . This

Thus, we have means that the maximum voltage drop,

which can be applied across the metallic

94

5

plates, placed at distance d , is equal to mg1(Hg plasma)

the outer diameter (max * ) of the χ1(Hg plasma) = =

max

mi1(Hg plasma)

bulb φlamp of the 20W T-12 Fluorescent

⎧ ⎡ 4 ⎤⎫

lamp, is given by ⎪ EELF ⎪

φlamp ≅ 1.5 V

max max

Vmax = E ELF

= ⎨1 − 2 1 + 1.909×10

⎢ −17 (1)

− 1⎥⎬ (27)

⎪⎩ ⎢ f ELF(1) ⎥⎪

3

⎣ ⎦⎭

max

Since φlamp = 40.3mm [5]. Then, above the second lamp, the

max

Substitution of EELF ≅ 33 V.m−1 into gravity acceleration becomes

(25) yields r r r

mg (Hg plasma) g 2 = χ 2(Hg plasma) g1 = χ 2(Hg plasma) χ1(Hg plasma) g (28)

g1 = χ (Hg plasma) g = g= where

mi (Hg plasma)

mg 2(Hg plasma)

⎧⎪ χ 2(Hg plasma) = =

⎡ 2.264× 10−11 ⎤⎫⎪

= ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 3

− 1⎥⎬g (26) mi 2(Hg plasma)

⎪⎩ ⎢

⎣ f ELF ⎦⎥⎪⎭ ⎧ ⎡ 4 ⎤⎫⎪

⎪ E ELF

Note that, for f < 1mHz = 10 −3 Hz , the = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 1.909 × 10 −17 (2 )

− 1 ⎥⎬ (29)

⎪⎩ ⎢ 3

f ELF ( 2) ⎥⎪

gravity acceleration can be strongly ⎣ ⎦⎭

reduced. These conclusions show that Then, results

the ELF Voltage Source of the set-up

g2 ⎧⎪ ⎡ 4

EELF ⎤⎫⎪

(1)

shown in Fig.1 should have the following = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 1.909×10−17 3 − 1⎥⎬ ×

characteristics: g ⎪ ⎢ f ELF(1) ⎥⎪

⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭

- Voltage range: 0 – 1.5 V ⎧

⎪ ⎡ 4

EELF ⎤⎫⎪

- Frequency range: 10-4Hz – 10-3Hz × ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 1.909×10−17 ( 2)

− 1⎥⎬ (30)

⎪⎩ ⎢ 3

f ELF( 2) ⎥⎪

⎣ ⎦⎭

In the experimental arrangement

shown in Fig.1, an ELF electric field with From Eq. (28), we then conclude that if

intensity E ELF = V d crosses the χ1(Hg plasma ) < 0 and also χ 2(Hg plasma ) < 0 ,

fluorescent lamp; V is the voltage drop then g 2 will have the same direction

across the metallic plates of the

of g . This way it is possible to intensify

capacitor and max

d = φlamp = 40.3mm .

several times the gravity in the direction

When the ELF electric field is applied, r

of g . On the other hand, if χ1(Hg plasma ) < 0

the gravity acceleration just above the r

lamp (inside the dotted box) decreases and χ 2(Hg plasma ) > 0 the direction of g 2 will

according to (25) and the changes can r

be contrary to direction of g . In this case

be measured by means of the system will be possible to intensify and

balance/sphere presented on the top of r r

become g 2 repulsive in respect to g .

Figure 1.

In Fig. 2 is presented an If we put a lamp above the second

experimental arrangement with two lamp, the gravity acceleration above the

fluorescent lamps in order to test the third lamp becomes

r r

gravity acceleration above the second g 3 = χ 3(Hg plasma) g 2 =

r

lamp. Since gravity acceleration above = χ 3(Hg plasma) χ 2(Hg plasma) χ1(Hg plasma) g (31)

the first lamp is given by

r r or

g1 = χ1(Hg plasma ) g , where

*

After heating.

95

6

g3 ⎧⎪ ⎡ ⎤⎫

4 Table1 presents the theoretical

EELF (1) ⎪

= ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 1.909×10−17 3 − 1⎥⎬ × values for g 1 and g 2 , calculated

g ⎪ ⎢ f ELF(1) ⎥⎪

⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ respectively by means of (25) and

(30).They are also plotted on Figures 5,

⎧ ⎡ 4 ⎤⎫

⎪ EELF (2) ⎪ 6 and 7 as a function of the

× ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 1.909×10−17

− 1⎥⎬ ×

⎪⎩ ⎢ f ELF(2) ⎥⎪

3 frequency f ELF .

⎣ ⎦⎭

Now consider a chamber filled

⎧ ⎡ 4 ⎤⎫ with Air at 3 × 10 −12 torr and 300K as

⎪ EELF ⎪

× ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 1.909×10−17 3

(3)

− 1⎥⎬ (32) shown in Figure 8 (a). Under these

⎪⎩ ⎢ f ELF(3) ⎥⎪

⎣ ⎦⎭ circumstances, the mass density of the

If f ELF (1) = f ELF (2 ) = f ELF (3 ) = f and air inside the chamber, according to Eq.

(21) is ρ air ≅ 4.94 × 10 −15 kg.m −3 .

E ELF (1) = E ELF (2 ) = E ELF (3 ) = V φ = If the frequency of the magnetic

= V0 sin ωt 40.3mm = field, B , through the air is f = 60 Hz then

= 24.814V0 sin 2πft. ωε = 2πfε ≅ 3 × 10 −9 S / m . Assuming that

Then, for t = T 4 we get the electric conductivity of the air inside

the chamber, σ (air ) is much less than ωε ,

E ELF (1) = E ELF (2 ) = E ELF (3 ) = 24.814V0 .

Thus, Eq. (32) gives i.e., σ (air ) << ωε (The atmospheric air

3 conductivity is of the order of

g3 ⎧⎪ ⎡ V 4 ⎤⎫⎪

= ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 7.237×10−12 03 − 1⎥⎬ (33) 2 − 100 × 10 −15 S .m −1 [6, 7]) then we can

g ⎪

⎩ ⎢

⎣ f ⎥⎪

⎦⎭ rewritten the Eq. (11) as follows

For V0 = 1.5V and f = 0.2mHz

(t = T 4 = 1250s = 20.83min) the gravity

nr(air) ≅ ε r μr ≅ 1 (34)

r

acceleration g 3 above the third lamp will

From Eqs. (7), (14) and (34) we thus

be given by

r r obtain

g 3 = −5.126 g

⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫

Above the second lamp, the gravity ⎪ ⎢ ⎛ B2 ⎞ ⎪

mg(air) = ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜⎜ nr(air) ⎟⎟ − 1⎥⎬mi(air) =

acceleration given by (30), is

r r ⎪ ⎢ ⎝ μair ρairc

2

⎠ ⎥⎪

g 2 = +2.972g . ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭

According to (27) the gravity acceleration

above the first lamp is

{ [ ]}

= 1 − 2 1 + 3.2 ×106 B4 −1 mi(air) (35)

r r

g1 = -1,724g

Therefore, due to the gravitational

Note that, by this process an

r shielding effect produced by the

acceleration g can be increased several

r decreasing of m g (air ) , the gravity

times in the direction of g or in the

acceleration above the air inside the

opposite direction.

chamber will be given by

In the experiment proposed in Fig.

m g (air )

1, we can start with ELF voltage g ′ = χ air g = g =

sinusoidal wave of amplitude V0 = 1.0V m i (air )

and frequency 1mHz . Next, the frequency

will be progressively decreased down

{ [

= 1 − 2 1 + 3 . 2 × 10 6 B 4 − 1 g ]}

to 0.8mHz , 0.6mHz , 0.4mHz and

Note that the gravity acceleration

0.2mHz . Afterwards, the amplitude of the

above the air becomes negative

voltage wave must be increased to

for B > 2.5 × 10 −2 T .

V0 = 1.5V and the frequency decreased

in the above mentioned sequence.

96

7

For B = 0.1T the gravity nitrogen atoms of the air in the

acceleration above the air becomes ionization chamber (See Fig. 3(c))

increasing the electrical conductivity of

g ′ ≅ −32.8 g the air inside the chamber. The high-

speed alpha particles hit molecules in

Therefore the ultra-low pressure air the air and knock off electrons to form

inside the chamber, such as the Hg ions, according to the following

plasma inside the fluorescent lamp, expressions

works like a Gravitational Shield that in

practice, may be used to build Gravity O2 + H e+ + → O2+ + e − + H e+ +

Control Cells (GCC) for several practical N 2 + H e+ + → N 2+ + e − + H e+ +

applications.

Consider for example the GCCs of

It is known that the electrical

Plasma presented in Fig.3. The

conductivity is proportional to both the

ionization of the plasma can be made of

concentration and the mobility of the ions

several manners. For example, by

and the free electrons, and is expressed

means of an electric field between the

by

electrodes (Fig. 3(a)) or by means of a

RF signal (Fig. 3(b)). In the first case the

σ = ρ e μe + ρi μi

ELF electric field and the ionizing electric Where ρ e and ρ i express respectively

field can be the same. ( )

the concentrations C m 3 of electrons

Figure 3(c) shows a GCC filled

and ions; μ e and μ i are respectively the

with air (at ambient temperature and 1

atm) strongly ionized by means of alpha mobilities of the electrons and the ions.

particles emitted from 36 radioactive ions In order to calculate the electrical

sources (a very small quantity of conductivity of the air inside the

Americium 241 † ). The radioactive ionization chamber, we first need to

element Americium has a half-life of 432 calculate the concentrations ρ e and ρ i .

years, and emits alpha particles and low We start calculating the disintegration

energy gamma rays (≈ 60 KeV ) . In order constant, λ , for the Am 241 :

0.693 0.693

to shield the alpha particles and gamma λ= = = 5.1 × 10 −11 s −1

rays emitted from the Americium 241 it is T

1

2 432 (

3.15 × 10 7

s )

sufficient to encapsulate the GCC with 1

epoxy. The alpha particles generated by Where T = 432 years is the half-life of

2

One kmole of an isotope has mass

† equal to atomic mass of the isotope

The radioactive element Americium (Am-241) is

widely used in ionization smoke detectors. This expressed in kilograms. Therefore, 1g of

type of smoke detector is more common because Am 241 has

it is inexpensive and better at detecting the 10 −3 kg

smaller amounts of smoke produced by flaming = 4.15 × 10 −6 kmoles

fires. Inside an ionization detector there is a small 241 kg kmole

amount (perhaps 1/5000th of a gram) of One kmole of any isotope contains the

americium-241. The Americium is present in

oxide form (AmO2) in the detector. The cost of Avogadro’s number of atoms. Therefore

the AmO2 is US$ 1,500 per gram. The amount of 1g of Am 241 has

radiation in a smoke detector is extremely small.

N = 4.15 × 10−6 kmoles×

It is also predominantly alpha radiation. Alpha

radiation cannot penetrate a sheet of paper, and

it is blocked by several centimeters of air. The × 6.025 × 1026 atoms kmole = 2.50 × 1021 atoms

americium in the smoke detector could only pose

a danger if inhaled.

Thus, the activity [8] of the sample is

97

8

R = λN = 1.3 × 10 disintegrations/s.

11

ρ air = 1.1452kg.m . Thus, for d = 2cm ,

−3

However, we will use 36 ionization

gives

sources each one with 1/5000th of a

mg (air)

gram of Am 241. Therefore we will only χ air = =

use 7.2 × 10 −3 g of Am 241. Thus, R mi(air)

reduces to: ⎧ ⎡ ⎤⎫

μ ⎛ σ air ⎞ Vrms

3

⎪ ⎪

4

⎢

= ⎨1 − 2 1 + 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 4 2 − 1⎥⎬ =

R = λN ≅ 10 9 disintegrations/s ⎪⎩ ⎢ 4c ⎝ 4πf ⎠ d ρair ⎥⎪

⎣ ⎦⎭

This means that at one second, about { [

= 1 − 2 1 + 3.10×10−16Vrms

4

−1 ]}

10 9 α particles hit molecules in the air Note that, for Vrms ≅ 7.96KV , we obtain:

and knock off electrons to form ions χ (air ) ≅ 0 . Therefore, if the voltages

O2+ and N 2+ inside the ionization chamber.

range of this GCC is: 0 − 10KV then it is

Assuming that each alpha particle yields possible to reach χ air ≅ −1 when

one ion at each 1 10 9 second then the

Vrms ≅ 10KV .

total number of ions produced in one

second will be Ni ≅ 1018 ions. This It is interesting to note that σ air can

corresponds to an ions concentration be strongly increased by increasing the

ρ i = eN i V ≈ 0.1 V (C m 3 )

amount of Am 241. For example, by

using 0.1g of Am 241 the value of R

Where V is the volume of the ionization increases to:

chamber. Obviously, the concentration of

electrons will be the same, i.e., ρ e = ρ i . R = λN ≅ 1010 disintegrations/s

For d = 2cm and φ = 20cm (See Fig.3(c))

we obtain This means Ni ≅ 1020 ions that yield

V = π4 (0.20) (2 × 10 −2 ) = 6.28 × 10 −4 m 3 The ρ i = eN i V ≈ 10 V (C m 3 )

2

respectively, to 5mm and to 11.5cm, the

ρ e = ρ i ≈ 10 2 C m 3 volume of the ionization chamber

reduces to:

This corresponds to the minimum V = π4 (0 .115 ) (5 × 10 −3 ) = 5 .19 × 10 −5 m 3

2

conducting materials. For these Consequently, we get:

materials, at temperature of 300K, the

mobilities μ e and μ i vary from 10 up ρ e = ρ i ≈ 10 5 C m 3

to 100 m 2V −1 s −1 [9]. Then we can assume

Assuming that μ e = μi ≈ 10 m 2V −1 s −1 ,

that μe = μi ≈ 10 m2V −1s −1 . (minimum

then the electrical conductivity of the air

mobility level for conducting materials).

inside the ionization chamber becomes

Under these conditions, the electrical

conductivity of the air inside the

ionization chamber is σ air = ρ e μ e + ρ i μ i ≈ 10 6 S .m −1

necessary to yield χ(air) ≅ 0 and reduces

At temperature of 300K, the air

density inside the GCC, is

98

9

to Vrms ≅ 23.5V the voltage necessary to Thus, the local inertia is just the

reach χ air ≅ −1 . gravitational influence of the rest of

matter existing in the Universe.

If the outer surface of a metallic Consequently, if we reduce the

sphere with radius a is covered with a gravitational interactions between a

radioactive element (for example Am spacecraft and the rest of the Universe,

241), then the electrical conductivity of then the inertial properties of the

the air (very close to the sphere) can be spacecraft will be also reduced. This

strongly increased (for example up effect leads to a new concept of

to σ air ≅ 10 6 s.m −1 ). By applying a low- spacecraft and space flight.

frequency electrical potential Vrms to the Since χ air is given by

sphere, in order to produce an electric

field E rms starting from the outer surface ⎧ ⎡ 3 ⎤⎫

mg(air) ⎪ ⎢ μ0 ⎛ σair ⎞ Vrms

4

⎪

of the sphere, then very close to the χair = = ⎨1 − 2 1 + 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 4 2 − 1⎥⎬

sphere the low-frequency electromagnetic mi0(air) ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ 4c ⎝ 4πf ⎠ a ρair ⎥⎪

⎦⎭

field is E rms = Vrms a , and according to

Eq. (20), the gravitational mass of the air Then, for σ air ≅ 106 s.m −1 , f = 6Hz , a = 5m,

in this region expressed by

ρair ≅ 1Kg.m−3 and Vrms = 3.35 KV we get

⎧ ⎡

μ0 ⎛σair ⎞ Vrms

3 ⎤⎫

⎪ ⎢ ⎪

4

mg(air) = ⎨1− 2 1+ 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 4 2 −1⎥⎬mi0(air) ,

⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ 4c ⎝ 4πf ⎠ a ρair ⎥⎪ χ air ≅ 0

⎦⎭

can be easily reduced, making possible Under these conditions, the gravitational

to produce a controlled Gravitational forces upon the spacecraft become

Shielding (similar to a GCC) surround approximately nulls and consequently,

the sphere. the spacecraft practically loses its inertial

This becomes possible to build a properties.

spacecraft to work with a gravitational Out of the terrestrial atmosphere,

shielding as shown in Fig. 4. the gravity acceleration upon the

The gravity accelerations on the spacecraft is negligible and therefore the

spacecraft (due to the rest of the gravitational shielding is not necessary.

Universe. See Fig.4) is given by However, if the spacecraft is in the outer

space and we want to use the

g i′ = χ air g i i = 1, 2, 3 … n gravitational shielding then, χ air must be

replaced by χ vac where

Where χ air = m g (air ) mi 0 (air ) . Thus, the

gravitational forces acting on the

⎧ ⎡ 3

μ0 ⎛ σvac ⎞ Vrms ⎤⎫

⎪ ⎢ ⎪

4

spacecraft are given by mg(vac)

χvac = = ⎨1− 2 1+ 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 4 2 −1⎥⎬

mi0(vac) ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ 4c ⎝ 4πf ⎠ a ρvac ⎥⎪

Fis = M g g i′ = M g (χ air g i ) ⎦⎭

ionized outer space (very close to the

forces can be reduced.

spacecraft) is small; however, its density

According to the Mach’s principle;

(

is remarkably small << 10 −16 Kg.m −3 , in )

“The local inertial forces are such a manner that the smaller value of

determined by the gravitational the factor σ vac3

ρ vac

2

can be easily

interactions of the local system with the compensated by the increase of Vrms .

distribution of the cosmic masses”.

99

10

It was shown that, when the Fgj = M g (imaginary) g ′j =

gravitational mass of a particle is

reduced to ranging between + 0.159 M i

( )

= M g (imaginary) − χGmgj (imaginary) r j2 =

= M g i − χGmgj i r j2 = + χGM g mgj r j2 .

i.e., the gravitational and the inertial Note that these forces are real. Remind

masses of the particle become that, the Mach’s principle says that the

imaginary. Consequently, the particle inertial effects upon a particle are

disappears from our ordinary space-time. consequence of the gravitational

However, the factor interaction of the particle with the rest of

χ = M g (imaginary ) M i (imaginary ) remains real the Universe. Then we can conclude that

the inertial forces upon an imaginary

because spacecraft are also real. Consequently, it

M g (imaginary ) M gi Mg can travel in the imaginary space-time

χ = = = = real

M i (imaginary ) M ii Mi using its thrusters.

Thus, if the gravitational mass of the It was shown that, imaginary

particle is reduced by means of particles can have infinite speed in the

absorption of an amount of imaginary space-time [1] . Therefore, this

electromagnetic energy U , for example, is also the speed upper limit for the

we have spacecraft in the imaginary space-time.

Since the gravitational spacecraft

χ=

Mg ⎧

( ⎫

= ⎨1 − 2⎡⎢ 1 + U mi0 c 2 − 1⎤⎥⎬

2

) can use its thrusters after to becoming

Mi ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ an imaginary body, then if the thrusters

This shows that the energy U of the produce a total thrust F = 1000kN and

electromagnetic field remains acting on the gravitational mass of the spacecraft

the imaginary particle. In practice, this is reduced from M g = M i = 10 5 kg down

means that electromagnetic fields act on

imaginary particles. Therefore, the to M g ≅ 10 −6 kg , the acceleration of the

electromagnetic field of a GCC remains spacecraft will be, a = F Mg ≅ 1012m.s−2 .

acting on the particles inside the GCC

With this acceleration the spacecraft

even when their gravitational masses

crosses the “visible” Universe

reach the gravitational mass ranging

( diameter= d ≈ 10 m ) in a time interval

26

between + 0.159 M i to − 0.159M i and

Δt = 2d a ≅ 1.4 × 107 m.s −1 ≅ 5.5 months

they become imaginary particles. This is

very important because it means that the Since the inertial effects upon the

GCCs of a gravitational spacecraft keep spacecraft are reduced by

−11

on working when the spacecraft M g M i ≅ 10 then, in spite of the

becomes imaginary. effective spacecraft acceleration be

Under these conditions, the gravity a = 1012 m. s −1 , the effects for the crew

accelerations on the imaginary and for the spacecraft will be equivalent

spacecraft particle (due to the rest of the to an acceleration a′ given by

imaginary Universe) are given by Mg

a′ = a ≈ 10m.s −1

g ′j = χ g j j = 1,2,3,..., n. Mi

This is the order of magnitude of the

acceleration upon of a commercial jet

Where χ = M g (imaginary ) M i (imaginary ) aircraft.

and g j = − Gmgj (imaginary) r . 2

j Thus, the On the other hand, the travel in the

gravitational forces acting on the imaginary space-time can be very safe,

spacecraft are given by because there won’t any material body

along the trajectory of the spacecraft.

100

11

Now consider the GCCs presented rotor in order to become negative the

in Fig. 8 (a). Note that below and above acceleration of gravity inside half of the

the air are the bottom and the top of the

chamber. Therefore the choice of the

(

rotor g ′ = (χ steel ) χ air g ≅ χ air g = − ng .

2

)

Obviously this causes a torque

material of the chamber is highly

relevant. If the chamber is made of steel, T = (− F ′ + F )r and the rotor spins with

for example, and the gravity acceleration angular velocity ω . The average

below the chamber is g then at the power, P , of the motor is given by

bottom of the chamber, the gravity

becomes g ′ = χ steel g ; in the air, the P = Tω = [(− F ′ + F )r ]ω (36)

Where

gravity is g′′ = χairg′ = χairχsteelg . At the top

g′′′ = χsteelg′′ = (χsteel) χairg .

2

of the chamber, F ′ = 12 m g g ′ F = 12 m g g

Thus, out of the chamber (close to the

top) the gravity acceleration becomes and m g ≅ mi ( mass of the rotor ). Thus,

g ′′′ . (See Fig. 8 (a)). However, for the

Eq. (36) gives

steel at B < 300T and f = 1 × 10 −6 Hz , we mi gω r

have P = (n + 1) (37)

2

mg (steel) ⎧⎪ ⎡ σ (steel) B 4 ⎤⎫ On the other hand, we have that

⎢ ⎪

χ steel = = ⎨1− 2 1+ −1⎥⎬ ≅ 1 − g′ + g = ω 2r (38)

mi(steel) ⎪ ⎢ 4πfμρ(steel) c

2 2 ⎥⎪

⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ Therefore the angular speed of the rotor

Since ρ steel = 1.1 × 10 6 S .m −1 , μ r = 300 and is given by

ρ (steel ) = 7800k .m −3 . ω=

(n + 1)g (39)

Thus, due to χ steel ≅ 1 it follows r

that By substituting (39) into (37) we obtain

g ′′′ ≅ g ′′ = χ air g ′ ≅ χ air g the expression of the average power of

If instead of one GCC we have the gravitational motor, i.e.,

P = 12 mi (n + 1) g 3 r (40)

three GCC, all with steel box (Fig. 8(b)), 3

then the gravity acceleration above the

second GCC, g 2 will be given by Now consider an electric generator

coupling to the gravitational motor in

g 2 ≅ χ air g1 ≅ χ air χ air g

order to produce electric energy.

and the gravity acceleration above the Since ω = 2πf then for f = 60 Hz

third GCC, g 3 will be expressed by

we have ω = 120 πrad . s − 1 = 3600 rpm .

g 3 ≅ χ air g ′′ ≅ χ air g

3

Therefore for ω = 120πrad .s −1 and

n = 788 (B ≅ 0.22T ) the Eq. (40) tell us

that we must have

III. CONSEQUENCES

r=

(n + 1)g = 0.0545m

These results point to the

2

ω

possibility to convert gravitational energy Since r = R 3 and mi = ρπR 2 h where ρ ,

into rotational mechanical energy. R and h are respectively the mass

Consider for example the system density, the radius and the height of the

presented in Fig. 9. Basically it is a motor rotor then for h = 0.5m and

with massive iron rotor and a box filled −3

ρ = 7800 Kg .m (iron) we obtain

with gas or plasma at ultra-low pressure

(Gravity Control Cell-GCC) as shown in

Fig. 9. The GCC is placed below the mi = 327.05kg

101

12

mg ( Al )

Then Eq. (40) gives g l′ = g l = χ Al g l ≅ −10−9 g l l = 1,2,..,n

mi ( Al )

P ≅ 2.19 × 105 watts ≅ 219 KW ≅ 294HP (41)

This shows that the gravitational motor Where g l is the external gravity in the

can be used to yield electric energy at direction l . We thus conclude that the

large scale. gravity acceleration inside the spacecraft

The possibility of gravity control becomes negligible if g l << 10 9 m .s −2 .

leads to a new concept of spacecraft This means that the aluminum shell,

which is presented in Fig. 10. Due to the under these conditions, works like a

Meissner effect, the magnetic field B is gravity shielding.

expelled from the superconducting shell. Consequently, the gravitational

The Eq. (35) shows that a magnetic forces between anyone point inside the

field, B , through the aluminum shell of spacecraft with gravitational mass, m gj ,

the spacecraft reduces its gravitational

mass according to the following and another external to the spacecraft

expression: (gravitational mass m gk ) are given by

⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫ r r m gj m gk

⎪ ⎢ ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎪ F j = − Fk = −G μ̂

nr ( Al) − 1⎥⎬mi( Al) (42)

⎜ B ⎟

mg ( Al) = ⎨1 − 2 1 + r jk2

⎢ ⎜ μc ρ

2 ⎟ ⎥

⎪ ⎝ ( Al) ⎠ ⎪

⎩ ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥⎭ where m gk ≅ mik and m gj = χ Al mij .

If the frequency of the magnetic field is Therefore we can rewrite equation above

f = 10 −4 Hz then we have that in the following form

σ ( Al ) >> ωε since the electric r r mij mik

F j = − Fk = − χ Al G μˆ

conductivity of the aluminum r jk2

−1

is σ ( Al ) = 3.82 × 10 S .m . In this case, the

7

Note that when B = 0 the initial

Eq. (11) tell us that gravitational forces are

r r mij mik

μc 2σ ( Al ) F j = − Fk = −G μ̂

nr ( Al ) = (43) r jk2

4πf

Substitution of (43) into (42) yields Thus, if χ Al ≅ −10 −9 then the initial

⎧ ⎡ σ ( Al ) B 4 ⎤⎫⎪ gravitational forces are reduced from 109

⎪ ⎥⎬mi ( Al ) (44)

mg ( Al ) = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + − 1 times and become repulsives.

⎪⎩ ⎢ 4πfμρ 2

( ) c 2

⎥⎪

⎣ Al

⎦⎭ According to the new expression

r r

Since the mass density of the Aluminum for the inertial forces [1], F = m g a , we

is ρ ( Al ) = 2700 kg .m −3 then the Eq. (44) see that these forces have origin in the

can be rewritten in the following form: gravitational interaction between a

{ [ ]}

mg( Al) particle and the others of the Universe,

χ Al = = 1 − 2 1 + 3.68×10−8 B4 −1 (45) just as Mach’s principle predicts. Hence

mi( Al) mentioned expression incorporates the

In practice it is possible to adjust B in Mach’s principle into Gravitation Theory,

order to become, for example, and furthermore reveals that the inertial

χ Al ≅ 10 . This occurs to B ≅ 76 .3T .

−9 effects upon a body can be strongly

reduced by means of the decreasing of

(Novel superconducting magnets are

its gravitational mass.

able to produce up to 14.7T [10, 11]).

Then the gravity acceleration in Consequently, we conclude that if

any direction inside the spacecraft, g l′ , the gravitational forces upon the

spacecraft are reduced from 109 times

will be reduced and given by

then also the inertial forces upon the

102

13

spacecraft will be reduced from 109 times radioactive material, it is possible to

when χ Al ≅ −10 −9 . Under these increase the air conductivity inside the

conditions, the inertial effects on the GCC up to σ (air) ≅ 106 S .m−1 . Then

crew would be strongly decreased. for f = 10 Hz ; ρ (air ) = 4.94 × 10−15 kg.m −3

Obviously this leads to a new concept of

(Air at 3 ×10-12 torr, 300K) and we obtain

{[ ] }

aerospace flight.

Inside the spacecraft the χ air = 2 1 + 2.8 × 1021 B 4 − 1 − 1 (57)

gravitational forces between the For B = BGCC = 0.1T (note that, due to

dielectric with gravitational mass, M g

the Meissner effect, the magnetic field

and the man (gravitational mass, m g ), BGCC stay confined inside the

when B = 0 are superconducting box) the Eq. (57) yields

r r M g mg

Fm = − FM = −G μ̂ (46)

r2 χ air ≅ −10 9

or

r Mg

Fm = −G 2 m gˆμ = − m g g M ˆμ (47 ) Since there is no magnetic

r field through the dielectric presented in

r mg Fig.10 then, Mg ≅ Mi . Therefore if

FM = +G 2 M gˆμ = + M g g mˆμ (48)

r M g ≅ Mi =100Kg and r = r0 ≅ 1m the

If the superconducting box under M g

gravity acceleration upon the man,

(Fig. 10) is filled with air at ultra-low according to Eq. (55), is

pressure (3×10-12 torr, 300K for example) a man ≅ 10m .s −1

then, when B ≠ 0 , the gravitational mass

of the air will be reduced according to Consequently it is easy to see that this

(35). Consequently, we have system is ideal to yield artificial gravity

inside the spacecraft in the case of inter-

g ′M = (χ steel ) χ air g M ≅ χ air g M (49)

2

stellar travel, when the gravity

g m′ = (χ steel ) χ air g m ≅ χ air g m (50)

2

acceleration out of the spacecraft - due

r r to the Universe - becomes negligible.

Then the forces Fm and FM become

r The vertical displacement of the

Fm = −m g (χ air g M )ˆμ (51) spacecraft can be produced by means of

r

FM = + M g (χ air g m )ˆμ (52) Gravitational Thrusters. A schematic

diagram of a Gravitational Thruster is

Therefore if χ air = −n we will have shown in Fig.11. The Gravitational

r

Fm = +nmg g M μ̂ (53) Thrusters can also provide the horizontal

r displacement of the spacecraft.

FM = −nM g g m μ̂ (54) The concept of Gravitational

r r Thruster results from the theory of the

Thus, Fm and FM become repulsive.

Gravity Control Battery, showed in Fig. 8

Consequently, the man inside the (b). Note that the number of GCC

spacecraft is subjected to a gravity increases the thrust of the thruster. For

acceleration given by example, if the thruster has three GCCs

r Mg

aman = ngMˆμ = −χ air G 2 ˆμ (55) then the gravity acceleration upon the

r gas sprayed inside the thruster will be

Inside the GCC we have, repulsive in respect to M g (See Fig.

⎧ ⎡ σ B4 ⎤⎫⎪ 11(a)) and given by

m ⎪

χair = g(air) = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + (air)2 2 − 1⎥⎬ (56) Mg

mi(air) ⎪ ⎢⎣ 4πfμρ(air)c ⎥⎦⎪ a gas = (χ air ) (χ steel ) g ≅ −(χ air ) G

3 4 3

⎩ ⎭

r02

By ionizing the air inside the GCC

(Fig. 10), for example, by means of a Thus, if inside the GCCs, χair ≅ −109

103

14

(See Eq. 56 and 57) then the equation Let us now calculate the

above gives gravitational forces between two very

Mi close thin layers of the air around the

a gas ≅ +10 27 G

r02 spacecraft. (See Fig. 13).

The gravitational force dF12 that

For M i ≅ 10kg , r0 ≅ 1m and m gas ≅ 10 −12 kg

dm g1 exerts upon dm g 2 , and the

the thrust is

F = m gas a gas ≅ 10 5 N

gravitational force dF21 that dm g 2 exerts

Thus, the Gravitational Thrusters are upon dm g1 are given by

able to produce strong thrusts. r r dmg2 dmg1

Note that in the case of very dF12 = dF21 = −G μ̂ (58)

r2

strong χ air , for example χ air ≅ −10 9 , the Thus, the gravitational forces between

gravity accelerations upon the boxes of the air layer 1, gravitational mass m g1 ,

the second and third GCCs become very

and the air layer 2, gravitational mass

strong (Fig.11 (a)). Obviously, the walls

m g 2 , around the spacecraft are

of the mentioned boxes cannot to stand

the enormous pressures. However, it is r r G mg1 mg 2

F12 = −F21 = − 2 ∫ ∫ dmg1dmg 2ˆμ =

possible to build a similar system with 3 r 0 0

or more GCCs, without material boxes. mg1mg 2 mi1mi 2

Consider for example, a surface with = −G ˆ

μ = −χ air χ air G ˆμ (59)

several radioactive sources (Am-241, for r2 r2

example). The alpha particles emitted At 100km altitude the air pressure is

from the Am-241 cannot reach besides 5.691×10−3 torr and ρ(air) = 5.998×10−6 kg.m−3 [12].

10cm of air. Due to the trajectory of the By ionizing the air surround the

alpha particles, three or more successive spacecraft, for example, by means of an

layers of air, with different electrical oscillating electric field, E osc , starting

conductivities σ 1 , σ 2 and σ 3 , will be

from the surface of the spacecraft ( See

established in the ionized region (See Fig. 13) it is possible to increase the air

Fig.11 (b)). It is easy to see that the conductivity near the spacecraft up to

gravitational shielding effect produced by σ (air) ≅ 106 S .m−1 . Since f = 1Hz and, in

these three layers is similar to the effect

produced by the 3 GCCs shown in Fig. this case σ (air ) >> ωε , then, according to

11 (a).

Eq. (11), nr = μσ(air)c 2 4πf . From

It is important to note that if F is

force produced by a thruster then the Eq.(56) we thus obtain

spacecraft acquires acceleration ⎧ ⎡ σ B4 ⎤⎫⎪

m ⎪

a spacecraft given by [1] χair = g(air) = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + (air) 2 2 −1⎥⎬ (60)

mi(air) ⎪ ⎢ 4πfμ0ρ(air)c ⎥

F F ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎪⎭

a spacecraft = = Then for B = 763T the Eq. (60) gives

M g (spacecraft) χ Al M i (inside) + mi ( Al )

Therefore if χ Al ≅ 10 −9 ;

and mi ( Al ) = 100 Kg (inertial mass of the

M i(inside) = 104 Kg

{ [ ]}

χ air = 1 − 2 1+ ~ 104 B 4 − 1 ≅ −108 (61)

aluminum shell) then it will be necessary By substitution of χ air ≅ −108 into Eq.,

F = 10kN to produce

(59) we get

a spacecraft = 100m .s −2 r r

Note that the concept of Gravitational

m m

F12 = −F21 = −1016 G i1 2 i 2 μ̂ (62)

r

Thrusters leads directly to the

Gravitational Turbo Motor concept (See

Fig. 12).

104

15

−8

If mi1 ≅ mi 2 = ρ air V1 ≅ ρ air V2 ≅ 10 kg , and aspect of the flight dynamics of a

Gravitational Spacecraft.

r = 10 −3 m we obtain Before starting the flight, the

r r

F12 = −F21 ≅ −10−4 N (63) gravitational mass of the spacecraft, M g ,

These forces are much more intense must be strongly reduced, by means of a

than the inter-atomic forces (the forces gravity control system, in order to

which maintain joined atoms, and r

produce – withr a weak thrust F , a strong

molecules that make the solids and

acceleration, a , given by [1]

liquids) whose intensities, according to r

r F

the Coulomb’s law, is of the order of a=

1-1000×10-8N. Mg

Consequently, the air around the In this way, the spacecraft could be

spacecraft will be strongly compressed strongly accelerated and quickly to reach

upon their surface, making an “air shell” very high speeds near speed of light.

that will accompany the spacecraft If the gravity control system of the

during its displacement and will protect spacecraft is suddenly turned off, the

the aluminum shell of the direct attrition gravitational mass of the spacecraft

with the Earth’s atmosphere. becomes immediately equal to its inertial

In this way, during the flight, the mass, M i , (M g′ = M i ) and the velocity

attrition would occur just between the “air r r

shell” and the atmospheric air around V becomes equal to V ′ . According to

her. Thus, the spacecraft would stay free the Momentum Conservation Principle,

of the thermal effects that would be we have that

produced by the direct attrition of the M gV = M g′ V ′

aluminum shell with the Earth’s Supposing that the spacecraft was

atmosphere. traveling in space with speed V ≈ c , and

Another interesting effect produced that its gravitational mass it was

by the magnetic field B of the M g = 1Kg and M i = 10 4 Kg then the

spacecraft is the possibility of to lift a

velocity of the spacecraft is reduced to

body from the surface of the Earth to the

Mg Mg

spacecraft as shown in Fig. 14. By V′ = V= V ≈ 10−4 c

ionizing the air surround the spacecraft, ′

Mg Mi

by means of an oscillating electric field, Initially, when the velocity of the

E osc , the air conductivity near the r

spacecraft is V , its kinetic energy is

Ek = (Mg −mg )c2. Where Mg = mg 1 − V 2 c2 .

spacecraft can reach, for example,

σ (air ) ≅ 10 6 S .m −1 . Then for f = 1Hz ;

At the instant in which the gravity control

B = 40.8T and ρ(air) ≅ 1.2kg.m−3 (300K and system of the spacecraft is turned off,

1 atm) the Eq. (56) yields the kinetic energy becomes

Ek′ = (Mg′ − m′g )c . Where Mg′ = m′g 1 − V ′2 c2 .

2

χ air = ⎧⎨1 − 2⎡⎢ 1 + 4.9 ×10−7 B4 − 1⎤⎥⎫⎬ ≅ −0.1 We can rewritten the expressions of

⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ E k and E k′ in the following form

Ek = (MgV − mgV )

Thus, the weight of the body becomes c2

Pbody = mg (body) g = χ air mi (body) g = mi(body) g ′ V

Ek′ = (M g′V ′ − m′gV ′)

Consequently, the body will be lifted on c2

the direction of the spacecraft with V′

acceleration Substitution of M gV = M g′ V ′ = p ,

g ′ = χ air g ≅ +0.98m.s −1

Let us now consider an important

105

16

mgV = p 1−V c and m′gV ′ = p 1 − V ′ c into

2 2 2 2 Obviously this electromagnetic

pulse (EMP) will induce heavy currents

the equations of E k and E k′ gives in all electronic equipment that mainly

( ) pcV contains semiconducting and conducting

2

Ek = 1 − 1 − V 2 c 2 materials. This produces immense heat

E ′ = (1 − c )

2 that melts the circuitry inside. As such,

pc

1 − V ′2 2

while not being directly responsible for

V′

k

the loss of lives, these EMP are capable

Since V ≈ c then follows that of disabling electric/electronic systems.

Therefore, we possibly have a new type

E k ≈ pc of electromagnetic bomb. An

electromagnetic bomb or E-bomb is a

On the other hand, since V ′ << c we get well-known weapon designed to disable

( ) pcV ′ electric/electronic systems on a wide

2

E k′ = 1 − 1 − V ′ 2 c 2 = scale with an intense electromagnetic

⎛ ⎞

pulse.

⎜ ⎟ Based on the theory of the GCC it

⎟ pc ≅ ⎛⎜ V ′ ⎞⎟ pc

2

⎜

≅ 1−

1

is also possible to build a Gravitational

⎜ V ′2 ⎟ V′ ⎝ 2c ⎠

⎜ 1 + 2 + ... ⎟ Press of ultra-high pressure as shown in

⎝ 2c ⎠ Fig.15.

Therefore we conclude that E k >> E k′ . The chamber 1 and 2 are GCCs

Consequently, when the gravity control with air at 1×10-4torr, 300K

system of the spacecraft is turned off, (σ (air ) ≈ 10 S .m ; ρ (air ) = 5 × 10 kg .m −3 .

6 −1 −8

)

occurs an abrupt decrease in the kinetic

Thus, for f = 10 Hz and B = 0.107T we

energy of the spacecraft, ΔE k , given by

have

⎧ ⎡ σ (air) B 4 ⎤⎫

ΔEk = Ek − Ek′ ≈ pc ≈ M g c 2 ≈ 1017 J ⎪ ⎢

χ air = ⎨1− 2 1+

⎪

−1⎥⎬ ≅ −118

⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ 4πfμ0 ρ(air) c

2 2 ⎥⎪

⎦⎭

By comparing the energy ΔE k with the

inertial energy of the spacecraft, The gravity acceleration above the

E i = M i c 2 , we conclude that air of the chamber 1 is

r

ΔE k ≈

Mg

Ei ≈ 10 − 4 M i c 2

g1 = χ stellχ air gˆμ ≅ +1.15×103ˆμ (64)

Mi Since, in this case, χ steel ≅ 1 ; μ̂ is an

The energy ΔE k (several megatons) unitary vector in the opposite direction of

r

must be released in very short time g.

interval. It is approximately the same Above the air of the chamber 2 the

amount of energy that would be released gravity acceleration becomes

in the case of collision of the spacecraft ‡ .

r

However, the situation is very different of g2 = (χ stell ) (χair ) gˆμ ≅ −1.4 × 105ˆμ (65)

2 2

equal to M i ), and possibly the energy r

Therefore the resultant force R acting on

ΔE k is converted into a High Power m2 , m1 and m is

Electromagnetic Pulse.

‡

In this case, the collision of the spacecraft would

release ≈1017J (several megatons) and it would be

similar to a powerful kinetic weapon.

106

r r r r

17

r r r

R = F2 + F1 + F = m2 g 2 + m1 g1 + mg = The GCCs can also be applied

on generation and detection of

= −1.4 × 105 m2ˆμ + 1.15 × 103 m1ˆμ − 9.81mˆμ = Gravitational Radiation.

≅ −1.4 × 105 m2ˆμ (66) Consider a cylindrical GCC (GCC

antenna) as shown in Fig.16 (a). The

where gravitational mass of the air inside the

⎛π 2 ⎞ GCC is

m 2 = ρ steel Vdisk 2 = ρ steel ⎜ φ inn H⎟ (67 ) ⎧ ⎡ ⎤⎫⎪

⎝4 ⎠ ⎪ σ (air ) B 4

mg (air ) = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + − 1⎥⎬mi (air ) (68)

Thus, for ρ steel ≅ 10 4 kg .m −3 we can write ⎪⎩ ⎢ 4πfμρ 2

(air ) c 2

⎥⎪

⎣ ⎦⎭

that By varying B one can varies mg (air) and

F2 ≅ 109 φinn 2

H

consequently to vary the gravitational

field generated by mg (air) , producing then

For the steel τ ≅ 105 kg.cm−2 = 109 kg.m−2

gravitational radiation. Then a GCC can

consequently we must have work like a Gravitational Antenna.

−2

F2 Sτ < 10 kg .m ( Sτ = πφinnH see Fig.15).

9

Apparently, Newton’s theory of

This means that gravity had no gravitational waves

10 9 φ inn

2

H because, if a gravitational field changed

< 10 9 kg .m − 2 in some way, that change took place

πφ inn H

instantaneously everywhere in space,

Then we conclude that and one can think that there is not a

φinn < 3.1m wave in this case. However, we have

For φinn = 2m and H = 1m the Eq. (67) gives already seen that the gravitational

interaction can be repulsive, besides

m2 ≅ 3 × 10 4 kg

attractive. Thus, as with electromagnetic

Therefore from the Eq. (66) we obtain interaction, the gravitational interaction

R ≅ 1010 N must be produced by the exchange of

Consequently, in the area S = 10 −4 m 2 of "virtual" quanta of spin 1 and mass null,

the Gravitational Press, the pressure is i.e., the gravitational "virtual" quanta

R (graviphoton) must have spin 1 and not

p = ≅ 1014 N .m − 2 2. Consequently, the fact of a change in

S

a gravitational field reach

This enormous pressure is much

instantaneously everywhere in space

greater than the pressure in the center of

occurs simply due to the speed of the

the Earth ( 3.617 × 1011 N .m −2 ) [13]. It is graviphoton to be infinite. It is known that

near of the gas pressure in the center of there is no speed limit for “virtual”

the sun ( 2 × 1016 N .m −2 ). Under the action photons. On the contrary, the

of such intensities new states of matter electromagnetic quanta (“virtual”

are created and astrophysical photons) could not communicate the

phenomena may be simulated in the lab electromagnetic interaction an infinite

for the first time, e.g. supernova distance.

explosions. Controlled thermonuclear Thus, there are two types of

fusion by inertial confinement, fast gravitational radiation: the real and

nuclear ignition for energy gain, novel virtual, which is constituted of

collective acceleration schemes of graviphotons; the real gravitational

particles and the numerous variants of waves are ripples in the space-time

material processing constitute examples generated by gravitational field changes.

of progressive applications of such According to Einstein’s theory of gravity

Gravitational Press of ultra-high the velocity of propagation of these

pressure. waves is equal to the speed of light (c).

107

18

Unlike the electromagnetic waves the be detectable even if the gravitational

real gravitational waves have low interaction mass of the nuclei of the antennas are not

with matter and consequently low scattering. strongly reduced, then we propose to

Therefore real gravitational waves are replace the gas at the nuclei of the antennas

suitable as a means of transmitting by a thin dielectric lamina. The dielectric

information. However, when the distance lamina with exactly 108 atoms (103atoms ×

between transmitter and receiver is too 103atoms × 102atoms) is placed between the

large, for example of the order of magnitude plates (electrodes) as shown in Fig. 17.

of several light-years, the transmission of When the virtual gravitational radiation

information by means of gravitational waves strikes upon the dielectric lamina, its

becomes impracticable due to the long time gravitational mass varies similarly to the

necessary to receive the information. On the gravitational mass of the dielectric lamina of

other hand, there is no delay during the the transmitter antenna, inducing an

transmissions by means of virtual electromagnetic field ( E , B ) similar to the

gravitational radiation. In addition the transmitter antenna. Thus, the electric

scattering of this radiation is null. Therefore current in the receiver antenna will have the

the virtual gravitational radiation is very same characteristics of the current in the

suitable as a means of transmitting transmitter antenna. In this way, it is then

information at any distances including possible to build two similar antennas whose

astronomical distances. nuclei have the same volumes and the same

As concerns detection of the types and quantities of atoms.

virtual gravitational radiation from GCC Note that the Quantum Gravitational

antenna, there are many options. Due to Antennas can also be used to transmit

Resonance Principle a similar GCC antenna electric power. It is easy to see that the

(receiver) tuned at the same frequency can Transmitter and Receiver (Fig. 17(a)) can

absorb energy from an incident virtual work with strong voltages and electric

gravitational radiation (See Fig.16 (b)). currents. This means that strong electric

Consequently, the gravitational mass of the power can be transmitted among Quantum

air inside the GCC receiver will vary such as Gravitational Antennas. This obviously

the gravitational mass of the air inside the solves the problem of wireless electric power

GCC transmitter. This will induce a magnetic transmission.

field similar to the magnetic field of the GCC The existence of imaginary masses has

transmitter and therefore the current through been predicted in a previous work [1]. Here

the coil inside the GCC receiver will have the we will propose a method and a device using

same characteristics of the current through GCCs for obtaining images of imaginary

the coil inside the GCC transmitter. bodies.

However, the volume and pressure of the air It was shown that the inertial

inside the two GCCs must be exactly the imaginary mass associated to an electron is

same; also the type and the quantity of given by

atoms in the air inside the two GCCs must 2 ⎛ hf ⎞

be exactly the same. Thus, the GCC m ie (ima ) = ⎜ 2 ⎟i =

2

m ( )i (69 )

antennas are simple but they are not easy to 3 ⎝c ⎠ 3 ie real

build. Assuming that the correlation between the

Note that a GCC antenna radiates gravitational mass and the inertial mass

graviphotons and gravitational waves (Eq.6) is the same for both imaginary and

simultaneously (Fig. 16 (a)). Thus, it is not real masses then follows that the

only a gravitational antenna: it is a gravitational imaginary mass associated to

Quantum Gravitational Antenna because it an electron can be written in the following

can also emit and detect gravitational form:

"virtual" quanta (graviphotons), which, in ⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫

⎪ ⎛ U ⎞ ⎪

turn, can transmit information mge(ima) = ⎨1− 2 1+ ⎜⎜ 2 nr ⎟⎟ −1⎥⎬mie(ima)

⎢

⎢ ⎥

(70)

instantaneously from any distance in the ⎪ ⎢⎣ ⎝ mi c ⎠ ⎪

⎥⎦⎭

Universe without scattering. ⎩

Due to the difficulty to build two similar Thus, the gravitational imaginary mass

GCC antennas and, considering that the associated to matter can be reduced, made

electric current in the receiver antenna can

108

19

negative and increased, just as the obtain an image of the imaginary body of

gravitational real mass. mass m g (ima ) placed in front of the board.

It was shown that also photons have

In order to decrease strongly the

imaginary mass. Therefore, the imaginary

gravitational effects produced by bodies

mass can be associated or not to the matter.

placed behind the imaginary body of mass

In a general way, the gravitational

forces between two gravitational imaginary im g , one can put five GCCs making a

masses are then given by Gravitational Shielding as shown in

r r ( )( )

iM g img M g mg Fig.18(c). If the GCCs are filled with air at

F = −F = −G 2

μˆ = +G 2 μˆ (71) 300Kand 3 ×10−12torr.Then ρair = 4.94×10−15kg.m−3

r r

and σair ≅1×10 S.m . Thus, for f = 60 Hz and

−14 −1

Note that these forces are real and

repulsive. B ≅ 0.7T the Eq. (56) gives

Now consider a gravitational

mg (air)

imaginary mass, mg (ima) = img , not associated χ air = = ⎧⎨1− 2⎡ 1+ 5B 4 −1⎤⎫⎬ ≅ −10−2 (73)

mi(air) ⎩ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦⎭

with matter (like the gravitational imaginary

mass associated to the photons) and For χ air ≅ 10 −2 the gravitational shielding

another gravitational imaginary mass presented in Fig.18(c) will reduce any value

M g (ima ) = iM g associated to a material of g to χ air 5

g ≅ 10 −10 g . This will be

body. sufficiently to reduce strongly the

Any material body has an imaginary gravitational effects proceeding from both

mass associated to it, due to the existence sides of the gravitational shielding.

of imaginary masses associated to the Another important consequence of the

electrons. We will choose a quartz crystal correlation between gravitational mass and

(for the material body with gravitational inertial mass expressed by Eq. (1) is the

imaginary mass M g (ima ) = iM g ) because possibility of building Energy Shieldings

quartz crystals are widely used to detect around objects in order to protect them from

forces (piezoelectric effect). high-energy particles and ultra-intense fluxes

By using GCCs as shown in Fig. 18(b) of radiation.

and Fig.18(c), we can increase the In order to explain that possibility, we

r start from the new expression [1] for the

gravitational acceleration, a , produced by

momentum q of a particle with gravitational

the imaginary mass im g upon the crystals.

mass M g and velocity V , which is given by

Then it becomes

mg q = M gV (74)

a = − χ air

3

G (72 )

r2 where Mg = mg 1−V 2 c2 and mg = χ mi [1].

As we have seen, the value of χ air can be Thus, we can write

increased up to χ air ≅ −10 (See Eq.57).

9

mg χ mi

Note that in this case, the gravitational

= (75)

1−V 2 c2 1−V 2 c2

forces become attractive. In addition, if m g

is not small, the gravitational forces between Therefore, we get

the imaginary body of mass im g and the M g = χM i (76 )

crystals can become sufficiently intense to It is known from the Relativistic Mechanics

be easily detectable. that

Due to the piezoelectric effect, the

gravitational force acting on the crystal will

UV

q= 2 (77 )

c

produce a voltage proportional to its

where U is the total energy of the particle.

intensity. Then consider a board with

hundreds micro-crystals behind a set of This expression is valid for any velocity V of

GCCs, as shown in Fig.18(c). By amplifying the particle, including V = c .

the voltages generated in each micro-crystal By comparing Eq. (77) with Eq. (74)

and sending to an appropriated data we obtain

acquisition system, it will be thus possible to

109

20

U = M gc 2

(78) our ordinary space-time. It goes to the

Imaginary Universe. On the other hand,

It is a well-known experimental fact that

when the gravitational mass of the particle

M i c 2 = hf (79) becomes greater than + 0.159 M i , or less

Therefore, by substituting Eq. (79) and Eq.

(76) into Eq. (74), gives than − 0.159M i , i.e., when χ > 0.159 , the

particle return to our Universe.

q=

V h

χ (80) Figure 19 (a) clarifies the

c λ

phenomenon of reduction of the momentum

Note that this expression is valid for any

for χ > 0.159 , and Figure 19 (b) shows the

velocity V of the particle. In the particular

case of V = c , it reduces to effect in the case of χ < 0.159 . In this case,

the particles become imaginary and

q=χ

h

(81) consequently, they go to the imaginary

λ space-time when they penetrate the electric

field E . However, the electric field E stays

By comparing Eq. (80) with Eq. (77), we

at the real space-time. Consequently, the

obtain

particles return immediately to the real

U = χhf (82) space-time in order to return soon after to

the imaginary space-time, due to the action

Note that only for χ = 1 the Eq. (81) and Eq. of the electric field E . Since the particles are

(82) are reduced to the well=known moving at a direction, they appear and

expressions of DeBroglie (q = h λ ) and disappear while they are crossing the region,

Einstein (U = hf ) . up to collide with the plate (See Fig.19) with

⎛V ⎞ h

Equations (80) and (82) show for a momentum, q m = χ ⎜ ⎟ , in the case

example, that any real particle (material ⎝ c ⎠λ

particles, real photons, etc) that penetrates a h

region (with density ρ and electrical of the material particle, and q r = χ in the

λ

conductivity σ ), where there is an ELF case of the photon. Note that by

electric field E , will have its momentum q making χ ≅ 0 , it is possible to block high-

and its energy U reduced by the factor χ , energy particles and ultra-intense fluxes of

given by radiation. These Energy Shieldings can be

⎧ ⎡ 3 ⎤⎫ built around objects in order to protect them

m ⎪ μ ⎛ σ ⎞ E4 ⎥ ⎪

χ = g = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 2 −1 ⎬ (83) from such particles and radiation.

mi ⎪ ⎢ 4c ⎝ 4πf ⎠ ρ ⎥⎪ It is also important to note that the

⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭

gravity control process described here points

The remaining amount of momentum to the possibility of obtaining Controlled

and energy, respectively given by Nuclear Fusion by means of increasing of

(1 − χ ) ⎛⎜ V ⎞⎟ h and (1 − χ ) hf , are

the intensity of the gravitational interaction

⎝ c ⎠λ between the nuclei. When the gravitational

transferred to the imaginary particle forces FG = Gmgm′g r2 become greater than

associated to the real particle § (material

particles or real photons) that penetrated the the electrical forces FE = qq ′ 4πε 0 r 2

mentioned region. between the nuclei, then nuclear fusion

It was previously shown that, when the reactions can occur.

gravitational mass of a particle is reduced to Note that, according to Eq. (83), the

ranging between + 0.159 M i to − 0.159M i , gravitational mass can be strongly

increased. Thus, if E = E m sin ωt , then the

i.e., when χ < 0.159 , it becomes imaginary

[1], i.e., the gravitational and the inertial average value for E 2 is equal to 1

2 E m2 ,

masses of the particle become imaginary. because E varies sinusoidaly ( E m is the

Consequently, the particle disappears from

maximum value for E ). On the other hand,

§

As previously shown, there are imaginary particles

Erms = Em 2 . Consequently, we can replace

associated to each real particle [1].

110

21

4

E for E . In addition, as j = σE (Ohm's

4 with 10μm -diameter, it is necessary that

rms

vectorial Law), then Eq. (83) can be rewritten the current through the wire, i rms , have the

as follows following intensity

mg ⎧⎪ ⎡ μ j4 ⎤⎫

⎪

χ= = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + K r 2rms3 − 1⎥ ⎬ (84) irms > 4.24 k A

mi 0 ⎪ ⎢ σρ f ⎥⎪

⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭

Obviously, this current will explode the

where K = 1.758× 10−27 and j rms = j 2 . carbon wire. However, this explosion

Thus, the gravitational force equation becomes negligible in comparison with the

can be expressed by very strong gravitational implosion, which

occurs simultaneously due to the enormous

FG = Gmgm′g r2 = χ2Gmi0mi′0 r2 = increase in intensities of the gravitational

forces among the carbon nuclei produced by

2

⎧ ⎡ μ j4 ⎤⎫⎪ means of the ELF current through the

⎪

= ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ K r 2rms3 −1⎥⎬ Gmi0mi′0 r2 (85) carbon wire as predicted by Eq. (85). Since,

⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ σρ f ⎥⎪

⎦⎭ in this case, the gravitational forces among

the carbon nuclei become greater than the

repulsive electric forces among them the

In order to obtain FG > FE we must have

result is the production of 12C + 12C fusion

⎧ ⎡ μr jrms

4 ⎤⎫ qq′ 4πε0 reactions.

⎪ ⎢ ⎪

⎨1− 2 1+ K 2 3 −1⎥⎬ > (86) Similar reactions can occur by using a

⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ σρ f ⎥⎪ Gmi0 mi′0

⎦⎭ lithium wire. In addition, it is important to

The carbon fusion is a set of nuclear note that j rms is directly proportional

fusion reactions that take place in massive 3

stars (at least 8M sun at birth). It requires high to f 4 (Eq. 87). Thus, for example,

−8

temperatures ( > 5×108 K ) and densities if f = 10 Hz , the current necessary to

produce the nuclear reactions will be

( > 3 × 10 9 kg .m −3 ). The principal reactions are:

23 i rms = 130 A .

Na + p + 2.24 MeV

12

C + 12C → 20

Ne + α + 4.62 MeV IV.CONCLUSION

24

Mg + γ +13.93 MeV The process described here is clearly

In the case of Carbon nuclei ( C) of a thin 12 the better way in order to control the gravity.

This is because the Gravity Control Cell in

carbon wire ( σ ≅ 4 ×104 S.m−1 ; ρ = 2.2 ×103 S.m−1 ) this case is very easy to be built, the cost is

Eq. (86) becomes low and it works at ambient temperature.

⎧ ⎡ 4 ⎤⎫⎪ e2 The Gravity Control is the starting point for

⎪ ⎢ −39 jrms

⎥⎬ >

⎨1− 2 1+ 9.08×10 −1 the generation of and detection of Virtual

⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ f 3 ⎥⎪ 16πε0Gm2p

⎦⎭ Gravitational Radiation (Quantum

whence we conclude that the condition for Gravitational Transceiver) also for the

the 12C + 12C fusion reactions occur is construction of the Gravitational Motor and

3 the Gravitational Spacecraft which includes

jrms > 1.7 ×1018 f 4 (87) the system for generation of artificial gravity

If the electric current through the carbon wire presented in Fig.10 and the Gravitational

has Extremely-Low Frequency (ELF), for Thruster (Fig.11). While the Gravitational

example, if f = 1μHz , then the current Transceiver leads to a new concept in

Telecommunication, the Gravitational Motor

density, j rms , must have the following value:

changes the paradigm of energy conversion

jrms > 5.4 ×1013 A.m−2 (88) and the Gravitational Spacecraft points to a

Since j rms = i rms S where S = πφ 2 4 is the new concept in aerospace flight.

area of the cross section of the wire, we can

conclude that, for an ultra-thin carbon wire

111

22

g g

g1≅ 0

g1=g acceleration can become different of g

Low-pressure Hg Plasma mg (Hg plasma )

(ρ ≅ 6×10-5Kg.m-3, σ ≅ 3.4 S.m-1@ 6×10-3Torr) g1 = χ Hg plasma g = g

mi (Hg plasma )

(0 – 1.5V, 1mHz – 0.1mHz)

(F20T12/C50/ECO GE, Ecolux® T12)

EELF

Metallic Plate

(1mHz – 0.1mHz)

low- pressure Hg Plasma.

112

23

acceleration above the second lamp

becomes

g 2 = χ 2 Hg plasma g1 =

= χ 2 Hg plasma (χ 1Hg plasma g )

g

g

2 g2

1 χ 2 Hg plasma

fELF(2)

g1

χ1Hg plasma

fELF(1)

113

24

mg (Hg )

g1 =

plasma

g

mi (Hg plasma )

Electrodes

Low-density plasma ~ ELF Voltage Source

Electrodes

(a)

mg (Hg )

g1 =

plasma

g

mi (Hg plasma )

Transmitter

g ~

ELF Voltage Source

(b)

(Americium 241)

φ

Aluminium, 1mm-thickness

(c)

(a) GCC where the ELF electric field and the ionizing electric field can be the same. (b) GCC

where the plasma is ionized by means of a RF signal. (c) GCC filled with air (at ambient

temperature and 1 atm) strongly ionized by means of alpha particles emitted from radioactive

ions sources (Am 241, half-life 432 years). Since the electrical conductivity of the ionized air

depends on the amount of ions then it can be strongly increased by increasing the amount of Am

241 in the GCC. This GCC has 36 radioactive ions sources each one with 1/5000th of gram of

Am 241, conveniently positioned around the ionization chamber, in order to

obtain σ air ≅ 10 3 S.m −1 .

114

25

Gravitational Shielding

Spacecraft

a Mg

g’ = χair g

χair

g = G mg / r2

mg

The gravity accelerations on the spacecraft (due to the rest of the Universe) can be controlled by

means of the gravitational shielding, i.e.,

g’i = χair gi i = 1, 2, 3 … n

Thus,

Fis= Fsi = Mg g’i = Mg (χair gi)

Then the inertial forces acting on the spacecraft (s) can be strongly reduced. According to the Mach’s

principle this effect can reduce the inertial properties of the spacecraft and consequently, leads to a new

concept of spacecraft and aerospace flight.

115

26

(Volts) (s) ( min) (V/m) (mHz) Exp. Teo. (V/m) (mHz) Exp. Teo.

250 4.17 24.81 1 - 0.993 24.81 1 - 0.986

312.5 5.21 24.81 0.8 - 0.986 24.81 0.8 - 0.972

1.0 V 416.6 6.94 24.81 0.6 - 0.967 24.81 0.6 - 0.935

625 10.42 24.81 0.4 - 0.890 24.81 0.4 - 0.792

1250 20.83 24.81 0.2 - 0.240 24.81 0.2 - 0.058

250 4.17 37.22 1 - 0.964 37.22 1 - 0.929

312.5 5.21 37.22 0.8 - 0.930 37.22 0.8 - 0.865

1.5V 416.6 6.94 37.22 0.6 - 0.837 37.22 0.6 - 0.700

625 10.42 37.22 0.4 - 0,492 37.22 0.4 - 0.242

1250 20.83 37.22 0.2 - -1,724 37.22 0.2 - 2.972

116

27

f ELF (mHz)

1,0 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1

3

g1/g 1

g1/g

1.0V

g1/g

-1

1.5V

-2

117

28

f ELF (mHz)

1,0 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1

3

g2/g

1.5V

g2/g 1

g2/g 1.0V

-1

-2

118

29

f ELF (mHz)

1,0 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1

3

g2/g

1.5V

gi/g 1

g1/g

1.5V

-1

-2

119

30

Inductor

Air at ultra-low pressure

Steel Box

2

g ′′ = χ air g ′

g ′ = χ steel g

(a)

g 3 = χ 3 χ 2 χ1 g

χ3 GCC 3

g 2 = χ 2 χ1 g

Steel Boxes χ2 GCC 2

g1 = χ 1 g

χ1 GCC 1

(b)

Fig. 8 – (a) Gravity Control Cell (GCC) filled with air at ultra-low pressure.

(b) Gravity Control Battery (Note that if χ1 = χ 2−1 = −1 then g ′′ = g )

120

31

g’’= g

Gravity Control Cell

(Steel box)

R

g’

r

Massive Rotor

r

g

(Steel box)

Note that 2 therefore for

−1

(2 ) = − n we get

g ′ ≅ − ng and g ′′ = g

121

32

Aluminum Shell Superconducting

Shell

Superconducting

Ring

FM

Mg

Superconducting mg

Box Fm

μ̂

Fig. 10 – The Gravitational Spacecraft – Due to the Meissner effect, the magnetic field

B is expelled from the superconducting shell. Similarly, the magnetic field BGCC, of the

GCC stay confined inside the superconducting box.

122

33

Gas

Mg mg a μ

gas

GCC GCC GCC

FM Fm

Gas

Material boxes

(a)

σ3 <σ2 (χair 3)

σ2 <σ1 (χair 2)

g ’= χair 1 g

σ1 (χair 1)

Am - 241

g

(b)

(a) Using material boxes. (b) Without material boxes

123

34

Gas Helix

HIGH

GAS

Gas

means of the GCCs, propels the helix which movies the motor axis.

124

35

Eosc

dmg2

dF12 r

dF21

Air Layer 1 Air Layer 2

dmg1

Spacecraft

Fig. 13 – Gravitational forces between two layers of the “air shell”. The electric field Eosc

provides the ionization of the air.

125

36

Eosc

Spacecraft

μ̂

r

( )

g ′ = χ air gμˆ ≅ + 0.98m.s −2 μˆ

χair

Eosc

126

37

φinn

m2 H

Sτ B g 2 ≅ −1.4 × 10 6 m .s −2

−2

g m1 g1 ≅ +3 × 10 m .s

3 g

0.20

Chamber 2 Air 0.20

m g = −9.81m .s −2 H

S

P=R/S

127

38

Graviphotons

v=∞

GCC

Coil

i Real Gravitational Waves

v=c

f

GCC GCC

Graviphotons

v=∞

i i

f f

128

39

103atoms

Dielectric 102atoms

103atoms

f Graviphotons f

v=∞

Dielectric

(108 atoms)

Transmitter Receiver

(a)

Conductor Conductor

Microantenna

(b)

Fig. 17 – Quantum Gravitational Microantenna

129

40

(iM )(im ) M g mg

F = −G = +G

g g

v

2

r r2

Crystal

F F

iMg Mg = Mi

Imaginary body

img (Mi = inertial mass)

(a)

Crystal

Imaginary body

img

χair → -109

(b)

M

P Data

L

GCC GCC GCC GCC GCC GCC GCC GCC Y

Acquisition

F System

I

Imaginary body

E

χair5g’ χair5g’ χair4g’ χair3g’ χair2g’ χair g’ g’ img R

χair ≅ 10-2

micro-crystals

⏐ Gravitational Shielding ⏐

Display

(c)

Fig.18 – Method and device using GCCs for obtaining images of imaginary bodies.

130

41

χ > 0.159

⎛V ⎞ h ⎛V ⎞h

qm = χ ⎜ ⎟ qm ≅ ⎜ ⎟

⎝ c ⎠λ ⎝c ⎠λ

material particle

imaginary particle

⎛V ⎞ h associated to the

qi = [1 − χ ] ⎜ ⎟ q i = 0*

material particle

⎝ c ⎠λ

E, f ρ,σ

h h

qr = χ qr ≅

λ λ

real photon

imaginary photon

associated to the

q i = [1 − χ ]

h qi = 0 real photon

λ

(a)

* There are a type of neutrino, called "ghost” neutrino, predicted by General Relativity, with zero mass

and zero momentum. In spite its momentum be zero, it is known that there are wave functions that

describe these neutrinos and that prove that really they exist.

χ < 0.159

⎛V ⎞ h ⎛V ⎞ h

qm = χ ⎜ ⎟ qm ≅ ⎜ ⎟

⎝ c ⎠λ ⎝ c ⎠λ

material particle

imaginary particle

⎛V ⎞ h qi = 0 associated to the

qi = [1 − χ ] ⎜ ⎟

⎝ c ⎠λ material particle

E, f ρ,σ

h h

qr = χ qr ≅

λ λ

real photon

imaginary photon

associated to the

q i = [1 − χ ]

h qi = 0 real photon

λ

(b)

Fig. 19 – The phenomenon of reduction of the momentum. (a) Shows the reduction of

momentum for χ > 0.159 . (b) Shows the effect when χ < 0.159 . Note that in both cases, the

material particles collide with the cowl with the momentum q m = χ (V c )(h λ ) , and the

h

photons with q r = χ . Therefore, that by making χ ≅ 0 , it is possible to block high-energy

λ

particles and ultra-intense fluxes of radiation.

131

42

method to control the gravity.

Consider a body with mass density ρ and

i0

the following electric characteristics: μ r , ε r , σ

(relative permeability, relative permittivity and

electric conductivity, respectively). Through this

body, passes an electric current I , which is the

IDC

sum of a sinusoidal current iosc = i0 sin ωt and

the DC current I DC , i.e., I = I DC + i0 sin ωt

; ω = 2πf . If i0 << I DC then I ≅ I DC . Thus, the I = IDC + iosc

current I varies with the frequency f , but the

variation of its intensity is quite small in

comparison with I DC , i.e., I will be practically

constant (Fig. 1A). This is of fundamental

importance for maintaining the value of the

gravitational mass of the body, m g , sufficiently

stable during all the time. t

The gravitational mass of the body is given

by [1]

Fig. A1 - The electric current I varies with

⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫

⎪ ⎢ ⎛ nrU ⎞ ⎥⎪ frequency f . But the variation of I is quite small

mg = ⎨1− 2 1+

⎢

⎜ ⎟ −1 m

⎜ m c2 ⎟ ⎥⎬ i0

( A1) in comparison with I DC due to io << I DC . In this

⎪ ⎢ ⎝ i0 ⎠ ⎥⎪

⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ way, we can consider I ≅ I DC .

where U , is the electromagnetic energy

dz ω

absorbed by the body and nr is the index of v= = =

c

( A4)

dt κ r ε r μr ⎛

⎜ 1 + (σ ωε ) + 1⎞⎟

refraction of the body. 2

Equation (A1) can also be rewritten in the 2 ⎝ ⎠

following form

where kr is the real part of the propagation

r

⎧ ⎡ ⎛ nrW ⎞

2 ⎤⎫ vector k (also called phase constant );

⎪ ⎟ − 1⎥ ⎪⎬

mg ⎢ r

= ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜

⎢ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎥

( A2 ) k = k = k r + iki ; ε , μ and σ, are the

mi 0 ⎪

⎢

⎣ ⎝ρ c ⎠ ⎪

⎦⎥ ⎭

⎩ electromagnetic characteristics of the medium in

which the incident (or emitted) radiation is

propagating( ε = εrε0 ; ε 0 = 8.854 ×10 F / m

−12

where, W =U V is the density of

electromagnetic energy and ρ = mi 0 V is the ;μ = μr μ0 where μ0 = 4π ×10−7 H / m ). It is

density of inertial mass. known that for free-space

The instantaneous values of the density of σ = 0 and ε r = μ r = 1 . Then Eq. (A4) gives

electromagnetic energy in an electromagnetic

field can be deduced from Maxwell’s equations v=c

and has the following expression From (A4), we see that the index of refraction

nr = c v is given by

W = 12 ε E 2 + 12 μH 2 ( A3)

ε μ

nr = = r r ⎛⎜ 1 + (σ ωε ) + 1⎞⎟ ( A5)

c 2

where E = E m sin ωt and H = H sin ωt are the

v 2 ⎝ ⎠

instantaneous values of the electric field and the

magnetic field respectively.

132

43

that ω κr = v. ⎧ ⎡ ⎫

⎞ E 4 ⎤⎥⎪

Equation (A4) shows 3

⎪ μ ⎛σ

Thus, E B = ω k r = v , i.e., mg = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 2 − 1 ⎬mi0 =

⎪⎩ ⎢ 4c ⎝ 4πf ⎠ ρ ⎥⎪

E = vB = vμH ( A6) ⎣ ⎦⎭

Then, Eq. (A3) can be rewritten in the following ⎧ ⎡ ⎛ μ0 ⎞⎛ μrσ ⎞ 4 ⎤⎫⎪

⎪

3

form:

= ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1+ ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟E − 1⎥⎬mi0 =

( )

W = 12 ε v2μ μH2 + 12 μH2 ( A7) ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣

3 2 ⎜ 2 3⎟

⎝ 256π c ⎠⎝ ρ f ⎠ ⎥⎦⎪

⎭

For σ << ωε , Eq. (A4) reduces to

⎧ ⎡ ⎛ μ σ3 ⎞ ⎤⎫⎪

⎪

c = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 1.758×10−27 ⎜⎜ r2 3 ⎟⎟E 4 − 1⎥⎬mi0

v= ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ ⎝ρ f ⎠ ⎥⎦⎪

⎭

ε r μr

( A14)

Then, Eq. (A7) gives Note that E = E m sin ωt .The average value for

W = 12 ⎢ε ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟μ⎥μH + 2 μH 2 = μH 2 sinusoidaly ( E m is the maximum value for E ).

⎣ ⎝ ε r μr ⎠ ⎦

On the other hand, Erms = Em 2 . Consequently,

This equation can be rewritten in the following

forms:

we can change E 4 by E rms

4

, and the equation

above can be rewritten as follows

B2

W= ( A8) ⎧ ⎡ ⎛ μ σ3 ⎞ 4 ⎤⎫⎪

μ ⎪

mg = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 1.758×10−27 ⎜⎜ r2 3 ⎟⎟Erms − 1⎥⎬mi0

or

⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ ⎝ρ f ⎠ ⎥⎦⎪

⎭

W =ε E2 ( A9 )

Substitution of the well-known equation of the

Ohm's vectorial Law: j = σE into (A14), we get

For σ >> ωε , Eq. (A4) gives

⎧⎪ ⎡ μ j4 ⎤⎫⎪

2ω

v= ( A10) mg = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 +1.758×10−27 r 2 rms3 −1⎥⎬mi0 ( A15)

μσ ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ σρ f ⎥⎦⎪⎭

Then, from Eq. (A7) we get

where j rms = j 2 .

⎡ ⎛ 2ω ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ ωε ⎞ Consider a 15 cm square Aluminum thin

W = 12 ⎢ε ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟μ⎥μH2 + 12 μH2 = ⎜ ⎟μH2 + 12 μH2 ≅ foil of 10.5 microns thickness with the following

⎣ ⎝ μσ ⎠ ⎦ ⎝σ ⎠ characteristics: μr =1 ; σ = 3.82×107 S.m−1 ;

≅ 12 μH2 ( A11) ρ = 2700 Kg .m −3 . Then, (A15) gives

Since E = vB = vμH , we can rewrite (A11) in

⎧⎪ ⎡ j4 ⎤⎫⎪

mg = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 6.313×10−42 rms − 1⎥⎬mi0 ( A16)

⎢ ⎥⎦⎪⎭

the following forms: 3

⎪⎩ ⎣ f

B2

W ≅ ( A12 ) Now, consider that the ELF electric

2μ current I = I DC + i 0 sin ω t , (i0 << I DC )

or

passes through that Aluminum foil. Then, the

⎛ σ ⎞ 2

W ≅⎜ ⎟E ( A13 ) current density is

⎝ 4ω ⎠ I rms I DC

By comparing equations (A8) (A9) (A12) and jrms = ≅ ( A17)

(A13), we can see that Eq. (A13) shows that the

S S

where

best way to obtain a strong value of W in

S = 0.15m(10.5 × 10 −6 m) = 1.57 × 10 −6 m 2

practice is by applying an Extra Low-Frequency

(

(ELF) electric field w = 2πf << 1Hz through a )

medium with high electrical conductivity. If the ELF electric current has

Substitution of Eq. (A13) into Eq. (A2),

frequency f = 2μHz = 2 × 10 Hz ,

−6

gives then, the

gravitational mass of the aluminum foil, given by

(A16), is expressed by

133

44

⎧⎪ ⎡ I4 ⎤ ⎫⎪ known Function Generator HP3325A (Op.002

m g = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 7.89 × 10 − 25 DC4 − 1⎥ ⎬mi 0 = High Voltage Output) that can generate

⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭ sinusoidal voltages with extremely-low

⎪⎩ S

f = 1 × 10 −6 Hz and

{ [ ]}

frequencies down to

= 1 − 2 1 + 0.13I DC

4

− 1 mi 0 ( A18) amplitude up to 20V (40Vpp into 500Ω load). The

Then, maximum output current is 0.08 App ; output

χ=

mg

mi0

{ [

≅ 1−2 1+ 0.13I DC

4

−1 ]} ( A19) impedance <2Ω at ELF.

Figure A4 shows the equivalent electric

circuit for the experimental set-up. The

For I DC = 2.2 A , the equation above gives electromotive forces are: ε1 (HP3325A) and ε 2

⎛ mg ⎞

( A 20 )

(12V DC Battery).The values of the resistors are

χ = ⎜⎜ ⎟ ≅ −1

⎟ : R1 = 500Ω − 2W ; ri1 < 2Ω ; R2 = 4Ω − 40W ;

⎝ i0 ⎠

m

This means that the gravitational shielding ri 2 < 0.1Ω ; R p = 2 .5 × 10 −3 Ω ; Rheostat (0≤

produced by the aluminum foil can change the R ≤10Ω - 90W). The coupling transformer has the

gravity acceleration above the foil down to following characteristics: air core with diameter

g ′ = χ g ≅ −1g ( A21) φ = 10 mm ; area S = πφ 2 4 = 7.8 × 10 −5 m 2 ;

Under these conditions, the Aluminum foil works

basically as a Gravity Control Cell (GCC). wire#12AWG; N1 = N2 = N = 20; l = 42mm;

In order to check these theoretical L1 = L2 = L = μ0 N (S l ) = 9.3 ×10 H .Thus, we

2 −7

get

shown in Fig.A2.

A 15cm square Aluminum foil of 10.5 Z1 = (R1 + ri1 )2 + (ωL )2 ≅ 501Ω

microns thickness with the following composition:

and

Al 98.02%; Fe 0.80%; Si 0.70%; Mn 0.10%; Cu

0.10%; Zn 0.10%; Ti 0.08%; Mg 0.05%; Cr Z2 = (R 2 + ri 2 + R p + R ) + (ωL )

2 2

μr =1; σ = 3.82×107 S.m−1 ; ρ = 2700Kg.m−3 ,is For R = 0 we get Z 2 = Z 2min ≅ 4Ω ; for

**

fixed on a 17 cm square Foam Board plate of R = 10Ω the result is Z 2 = Z 2max ≅ 14Ω . Thus,

6mm thickness as shown in Fig.A3. This device 2

⎛ N1 ⎞

(the simplest Gravity Control Cell GCC) is placed

Z min

1,total = Z1 + Z min

1, reflected = Z1 + Z min

2

⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ≅ 505Ω

on a pan balance shown in Fig.A2.

Above the Aluminum foil, a sample (any

⎝ N2 ⎠

2

type of material, any mass) connected to a ⎛ N1 ⎞

dynamometer will check the decrease of the local Z max

1,total = Z1 + Z max

1, reflected = Z1 + Z max

2

⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ≅ 515Ω

gravity acceleration upon the sample ⎝ N2 ⎠

(g ′ = χ g ) ,due to the gravitational shielding The maxima

following values:

rms currents have the

produced by the decreasing of gravitational mass

( )

of the Aluminum foil χ = m g mi 0 . Initially, the I 1max = 1

2 ,total = 56mA

40V pp Z1min

sample lies 5 cm above the Aluminum foil. As (The maximum output current of the Function

shown in Fig.A2, the board with the dynamometer Generator HP3325A (Op.002 High Voltage

can be displaced up to few meters in height. Output) is 80mApp ≅ 56.5mArms);

Thus, the initial distance between the Aluminum

ε2

foil and the sample can be increased in order to I 2max = = 3A

check the reach of the gravitational shielding Z 2min

produced by the Aluminum foil.

and

In order to generate the ELF electric

current of f = 2 μHz , we can use the widely- I 3max = I 2max + I1max ≅ 3A

**

Foam board is a very strong, lightweight (density: r r

24.03 kg.m-3) and easily cut material used for the (Eq.5) Fi = M g a , shows that the inertial forces

mounting of photographic prints, as backing in picture are proportional to gravitational mass. Only in the

framing, in 3D design, and in painting. It consists of particular case of m g = m i 0 , the expression

three layers — an inner layer of polystyrene clad with

outer facing of either white clay coated paper or brown above reduces to the well-known Newtonian

r r

Kraft paper. expression Fi = m i 0 a . The equivalence

134

45

( )

r r

between gravitational and inertial forces Fi ≡ Fg ⎧⎪ ⎡ j4 ⎤⎫⎪

[1] shows then that a balance measures the mg = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ 6.313×10−42 rms −1⎥⎬mi0 =

⎢ ⎥⎦⎪⎭

3

gravitational mass subjected to ⎪⎩ ⎣ f

acceleration a = g . Here, the decrease in the

⎧⎪ ⎡ I4 ⎤⎫⎪

gravitational mass of the Aluminum foil will be

measured by a pan balance with the following

= ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ 7.89×10−25 DC4 −1⎥⎬mi0 =

characteristics: range 0-200g; readability 0.01g. ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ S ⎥⎦⎪⎭

The mass of the Foam Board plate is:

≅ 4.17 g , the mass of the Aluminum foil is: { [

= 1− 2 1+ 0.13I DC

4

]}

−1 mi0 ( A22)

≅ 0.64 g , the total mass of the ends and the

For I DC ≅ 3 A the equation above gives

electric wires of connection is ≅ 5 g . Thus,

initially the balance will show ≅ 9.81g .

m g ≅ − 3 .8 m i 0

According to (A18), when the electric current

through the Aluminum foil

Note that we can replace the Aluminum foil for

(resistance rp

*

= l σS = 2.5 ×10−3 Ω ) reaches the this wire in the experimental set-up shown in

value: I 3 ≅ 2.2 A , we will get m g ( Al ) ≅ − mi 0 ( Al ) . Fig.A2. It is important also to note that an ELF

electric current that passes through a wire - which

Under these circumstances, the balance will makes a spherical form, as shown in Fig A5 -

show: reduces the gravitational mass of the wire (Eq.

9.81g − 0.64 g − 0.64 g ≅ 8.53g A22), and the gravity inside sphere at the same

and the gravity acceleration g ′ above the proportion, χ =mg mi0 , (Gravitational Shielding

Aluminum foil, becomes g ′ = χ g ≅ −1g . Effect). In this case, that effect can be checked

It was shown [1] that, when the by means of the Experimental set-up 2 (Fig.A6).

gravitational mass of a particle is reduced to the Note that the spherical form can be transformed

into an ellipsoidal form or a disc in order to coat,

gravitational mass ranging between + 0.159 M i for example, a Gravitational Spacecraft. It is also

to − 0.159M i , it becomes imaginary, i.e., the possible to coat with a wire several forms, such

as cylinders, cones, cubes, etc.

gravitational and the inertial masses of the

The circuit shown in Fig.A4 (a) can be

particle become imaginary. Consequently, the

modified in order to produce a new type of

particle disappears from our ordinary space-time.

Gravitational Shielding, as shown in Fig.A4 (b).

This phenomenon can be observed in the

In this case, the Gravitational Shielding will be

proposed experiment, i.e., the Aluminum foil will

produced in the Aluminum plate, with thickness

disappear when its gravitational mass becomes

h , of the parallel plate capacitor connected in the

smaller than + 0.159 M i . It will become visible point P of the circuit (See Fig.A4 (b)). Note that,

again, only when its gravitational mass becomes in this circuit, the Aluminum foil (resistance R p )

smaller than − 0.159M i , or when it becomes (Fig.A4(a)) has been replaced by a Copper wire #

greater than + 0.159M i . 14 AWG with 1cm length ( l = 1cm ) in order to

Equation (A18) shows that the gravitational produce a resistance Rφ = 5.21 × 10 −5 Ω . Thus,

mass of the Aluminum foil, mg ( Al ) , goes close to the voltage in the point P of the circuit will have

zero when I 3 ≅ 1.76 A . Consequently, the the maximum value V pmax = 1.1 × 10 −4 V when

gravity acceleration above the Aluminum foil also the resistance of the rheostat is null (R = 0 ) and

goes close to zero since

g ′ = χ g = m g ( Al ) mi 0 ( Al ) . Under these the minimum value V pmin = 4.03 × 10 −5 V when

circumstances, the Aluminum foil remains R = 10Ω . In this way, the voltage V p (with

invisible. frequency f = 2 μHz ) applied on the capacitor

Now consider a rigid Aluminum wire # 14

AWG. The area of its cross section is will produce an electric field E p with intensity

2

If an ELF electric current with thickness h = 3mm . It is important to note that this

frequency f = 2μHz = 2 × 10 Hz passes through

−6 plate cannot be connected to ground (earth), in

other words, cannot be grounded, because, in

this wire, its gravitational mass, given by (A16),

will be expressed by

135

46

this case, the electric field through it will be null

††

insulation layer with relative permittivity εr

.

According to Eq. A14, when and dielectric strength k . A voltage source is

connected to the Aluminum foil in order to provide

p =Vp

Emax max

h = 0.036 V / m, f = 2μHz and

a voltage V0 (rms) with frequency f . Thus, the

σ Al = 3 . 82 × 10 7 S / m , ρ Al = 2700kg / m3 electric potential V at a distance r , in the

(Aluminum), we get interval from r0 to a , is given by

m ( Al )

χ = ≅ − 0 .9

m i ( Al ) V=

1 q

( A23)

4πε r ε 0 r

Under these conditions, the maximum current

density through the plate with thickness h will be In the interval a < r ≤ b the electric potential is

p = 1.4 ×10 A / m (It is

6 2

V =

1 q

( A24 )

4πε 0 r

well-known that the maximum current density

supported by the Aluminum is ≈ 10 A / m ).

8 2 since for the air we have ε r ≅ 1 .

Since the area of the plate is Thus, on the surface of the metallic

spheres (r = r0 ) we get

A= (0.2) = 4×10 m , then the maximum current is

2 −2 2

1 q

( A25)

current, the maximum dissipated power will be 4πε r ε 0 r0

( )

2

just P max = i max R plate = 6.2W , because the

Consequently, the electric field is

E0 =

1 q

( A26)

resistance of the plate is very small, i.e.,

4πε r ε 0 r02

R plate = h σ Al A ≅ 2 × 10−9 Ω . By comparing (A26) with (A25), we obtain

V0

Note that the area A of the plate (where

the Gravitational Shielding takes place) can have E0 = ( A27)

r0

several geometrical configurations. For example,

it can be the area of the external surface of an Vb at r = b is

The electric potential

ellipsoid, sphere, etc. Thus, it can be the area of

1 q ε r V 0 r0

the external surface of a Gravitational Spacecraft. Vb = = ( A28 )

In this case, if A ≅ 100m , for example, the

2 4πε 0 b b

maximum dissipated power will be Consequently, the electric field Eb is given by

Pmax ≅ 15.4kW , i.e., approximately 154W / m 2 . 1 q ε rV0 r0

All of these systems work with Extra-Low Eb = = ( A29)

4πε 0 b 2 b2

( −3

)

Frequencies f <<10 Hz . Now, we show that,

From r = r0 up to r = b = a + d the electric

by simply changing the geometry of the surface

of the Aluminum foil, it is possible to increase the field is approximately constant (See Fig. A7).

working frequency f up to more than 1Hz. Along the distance d it will be called E air . For

Consider the Aluminum foil, now with r > a + d , the electric field stops being constant.

several semi-spheres stamped on its surface, as Thus, the intensity of the electric field at

shown in Fig. A7 . The semi-spheres have r = b = a + d is approximately equal to E0 ,

radius r0 = 0.9 mm , and are joined one to

i.e., Eb ≅ E 0 . Then, we can write that

another. The Aluminum foil is now coated by an

ε rV0 r0 V0

≅ ( A30)

††

When the voltage Vp is applied on the capacitor, the b2 r0

charge distribution in the dielectric induces positive whence we get

and negative charges, respectively on opposite sides of

the Aluminum plate with thickness h. If the plate is not b ≅ r0 ε r ( A31)

connected to the ground (Earth) this charge Since the intensity of the electric field through the

distribution produces an electric field Ep=Vp/h through air, E air , is Eair ≅ Eb ≅ E0 , then, we can write that

the plate. However, if the plate is connected to the

q ε rV0 r0

ground, the negative charges (electrons) escapes for Eair =

1

= 2 ( A32)

the ground and the positive charges are redistributed 4πε0 b 2 b

along the entire surface of the Aluminum plate making

Note that ε r refers to the relative permittivity of

null the electric field through it.

136

47

the insulation layer, which is covering the 1 3

⎛ Eair ⎞ ⎛b⎞

( A39)

2 2

Aluminum foil. σ air = 2α⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟

If the intensity of this field is greater than ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝a⎠

the dielectric strength of the air 3 × 10 V / m ( 6

) If the insulation layer has thickness

there will occur the well-known Corona effect. Δ = 0.6 mm , ε r ≅ 3.5 (1- 60Hz),

Here, this effect is necessary in order to increase

the electric conductivity of the air at this region k = 17kV / mm (Acrylic sheet 1.5mm thickness),

(layer with thickness d). Thus, we will assume and the semi-spheres stamped on the metallic

ε rV min

r V min surface have r0 = 0.9 mm (See Fig.A7) then

min

Eair = 0 0

= 0

= 3×106 V / m

b 2

r0 a = r0 + Δ = 1.5 mm. Thus, we obtain from Eq.

and (A33) that

ε rV max

r V max

V0min = 2.7kV

max

Eair = 0 0

= = 1×107 V / m ( A33)

0

b 2

r0 V0max = 9kV ( A40)

The electric field E min

air ≤ E air ≤ E max

air will From equation (A31), we obtain the following

produce an electrons flux in a direction and an value for b :

ions flux in an opposite direction. From the b = r0 ε r = 1.68×10−3 m ( A41)

viewpoint of electric current, the ions flux can be

Since b = a + d we get

considered as an “electrons” flux at the same

direction of the real electrons flux. Thus, the d = 1.8 × 10 −4 m

current density through the air, j air , will be the Substitution of a , b , d and A(32) into (A39)

double of the current density expressed by the produces

1 1

well-known equation of Langmuir-Child

3 3 3

σ air = 4.117×10−4 Eair = 1.375×10−2 V0

2 2

4

j = εrε0

2e V 2

= α

V2

= 2.33×10−6 V

2

( A34) Substitution of σ air , E air (rms ) and

9 me d2 d2 d2 ρ air = 1.2 kg .m −3 into (A14) gives

where ε r ≅ 1 for the air; α = 2.33 × 10 −6

is the

mg(air) ⎧⎪ ⎡ σ 3 E4 ⎤⎫⎪

called Child’s constant. = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+1.758×10−27 air2 air3 −1⎥⎬ =

Thus, we have mi0(air) ⎪ ⎢ ρair f ⎥⎦⎪⎭

3 ⎩ ⎣

V2

jair = 2α 2 ( A35) ⎧⎪ ⎡ 5.5 ⎤⎫⎪

−21 V0

d = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ 4.923×10 − 1⎥⎬ ( A42)

where d , in this case, is the thickness of the air ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ f 3 ⎥⎦⎪

⎭

layer where the electric field is approximately

For V0 = V0 = 9kV and f = 2 Hz , the result is

max

constant and V is the voltage drop given by

1 q 1 q mg (air)

V = Va − Vb = − = ≅ −1.2

4πε 0 a 4πε 0 b mi0(air)

⎛ b − a ⎞ ⎛ ε r r0 d ⎞

= V0 r0ε r ⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟V0 ( A36) Note that, by increasing V0 , the values of

⎝ ab ⎠ ⎝ ab ⎠ E air and σ air are increased. Thus, as show

By substituting (A36) into (A35), we get (A42), there are two ways for decrease the value

3 3 3

2α ⎛ ε r r0dV0 ⎞ 2α ⎛ ε r r0V0 ⎞

2 2

⎛b⎞ 2 of m g (air ) : increasing the value of V0 or

jair = ⎜ ⎟ = 1⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ =

d 2 ⎝ ab ⎠ d 2 ⎝ b2 ⎠ ⎝ a⎠ decreasing the value of f .

3 Since E0

max

= 107 V / m = 10kV / mm and

2α ⎛ b ⎞2

( A37)

3

= 1 Eair⎜ ⎟

2

Δ = 0.6 mm then the dielectric strength of the

d2 ⎝ a⎠ insulation must be ≥ 16.7kV / mm . As

According to the equation of the Ohm's vectorial mentioned above, the dielectric strength of the

Law: j = σE , we can write that acrylic is 17kV / mm .

σair =

jair

( A38) It is important to note that, due to the

strong value of E air (Eq. A37) the drift velocity

Eair

Substitution of (A37) into (A38) yields vd , (vd = jair ne = σ air Eair ne) of the free

charges inside the ionized air put them at a

137

48

distance x = vd t = 2 fvd ≅ 0.4m , which is much means of a convenient process, several semi-

−4

spheres can be stamped on its surface. The

greater than the distance d =1.8 ×10 m .

semi-spheres have radius r0 = 0.9 mm , and

Consequently, the number n of free charges

decreases strongly inside the air layer of are joined one to another. Next, take an acrylic

thickness d ‡‡ , except, obviously, in a thin layer, sheet (A4 format) with 1.5mm thickness (See

very close to the dielectric, where the number of Fig.A8 (a)). Put a heater below the Aluminum

free charges remains sufficiently increased, to plate in order to heat the Aluminum (Fig.A8 (b)).

When the Aluminum is sufficiently heated up, the

maintain the air conductivity with σ air ≅ 1.1S / m

acrylic sheet and the Aluminum plate are

(Eq. A39). pressed, one against the other, as shown in Fig.

The thickness h of this thin air layer close A8 (c). The two D devices shown in this figure are

to the dielectric can be easily evaluated starting used in order to impede that the press

from the charge distribution in the neighborhood compresses the acrylic and the aluminum to a

of the dielectric, and of the repulsion forces distance shorter than y + a . After some seconds,

established among them. The result is remove the press and the heater. The device is

h = 0.06e 4πε 0 E ≅ 4 × 10−9 m . This is, therefore, ready to be subjected to a voltage V0 with

the thickness of the Air Gravitational Shielding. If frequency f , as shown in Fig.A9. Note that, in

the area of this Gravitational Shielding is equal to

this case, the balance is not necessary, because

the area of a format A4 sheet of paper,

the substance that produces the gravitational

i.e., A = 0.20 × 0.291= 0.0582m , we obtain the

2

shielding is an air layer with thickness d above

following value for the resistance R air of the the acrylic sheet. This is, therefore, more a type

of Gravity Control Cell (GCC) with external

Gravitational Shielding: Rair = h σair A≅ 6×10−8 Ω.

gravitational shielding.

Since the maximum electrical current through this It is important to note that this GCC can be

air layer is i max = j max A ≅ 400 kA , then the made very thin and as flexible as a fabric. Thus, it

maximum power radiated from the Gravitational can be used to produce anti- gravity clothes.

( ) 2

These clothes can be extremely useful, for

Shielding is Pair max

= Rair iair

max

≅ 10kW . This example, to walk on the surface of high gravity

means that a very strong light will be radiated planets.

from this type of Gravitational Shielding. Note that Figure A11 shows some geometrical

this device can also be used as a lamp, which will forms that can be stamped on a metallic surface

be much more efficient than conventional lamps. in order to produce a Gravitational Shielding

Coating a ceiling with this lighting system effect, similar to the produced by the semi-

enables the entire area of ceiling to produce light. spherical form.

This is a form of lighting very different from those An obvious evolution from the semi-

usually known. spherical form is the semi-cylindrical form shown

in Fig. A11 (b); Fig.A11(c) shows concentric

max

Note that the value Pair ≅ 10kW , defines the metallic rings stamped on the metallic surface, an

power of the transformer shown in Fig.A10. Thus, evolution from Fig.A11 (b). These geometrical

the maximum current in the secondary is forms produce the same effect as the semi-

i smax = 9kV 10 kW = 0.9 A . spherical form, shown in Fig.A11 (a). By using

concentric metallic rings, it is possible to build

Above the Gravitational Shielding, σ air is Gravitational Shieldings around bodies or

reduced to the normal value of conductivity of the spacecrafts with several formats (spheres,

( )

atmospheric air ≈ 10 −14 S / m . Thus, the power ellipsoids, etc); Fig. A11 (d) shows a Gravitational

Shielding around a Spacecraft with ellipsoidal

radiated from this region is

( ) σ A=

form.

= (d − h ) i air

max max 2

Pair air

The previously mentioned Gravitational

= (d − h )Aσ (E ) ≅ 10

Shielding, produced on a thin layer of ionized air,

max 2 −4 has a behavior different from the Gravitational

air air W

Now, we will describe a method to coat the Shielding produced on a rigid substance. When

Aluminum semi-spheres with acrylic in the the gravitational masses of the air molecules,

necessary dimensions (Δ = a − r0 ) , we propose

inside the shielding, are reduced to within the

range + 0.159 mi < m g < −0.159 mi , they go to

the following method. First, take an Aluminum

the imaginary space-time, as previously shown in

plate with 21cm × 29.1cm (A4 format). By

this article. However, the electric field E air stays

‡‡

Reducing therefore, the conductivity σ air , to the at the real space-time. Consequently, the

molecules return immediately to the real space-

normal value of conductivity of the atmospheric air.

138

49

time in order to return soon after to the imaginary since the shielding does not stop to work, due

space-time, due to the action of the electric to its extremely short permanence at the

field E air . imaginary space-time. Under these

circumstances, the gravitational mass of the

In the case of the Gravitational Shielding Gravitational Shielding can be reduced to

produced on a solid substance, when the

molecules of the substance go to the imaginary m g ≅ 0 . For example, m g ≅ 10 −4 kg . Thus, if

space-time, the electric field that produces the the inertial mass of the Gravitational Shielding is

effect, also goes to the imaginary space-time

together with them, since in this case, the

mi 0 ≅ 1kg , then χ = m g mi 0 ≅ 10 −4 . As we

substance of the Gravitational Shielding is rigidly have seen, this means that the inertial effects on

the spacecraft will be reduced by χ ≅ 10 . Then,

connected to the metal that produces the electric −4

field. (See Fig. A12 (b)). This is the fundamental

in spite of the effective acceleration of the

difference between the non-solid and solid −2

spacecraft be, for example, a = 10 m.s , the

5

Gravitational Shieldings.

Now, consider a Gravitational Spacecraft effects on the crew of the spacecraft will be

that is able to produce an Air Gravitational equivalent to an acceleration of only

Shielding and also a Solid Gravitational mg

Shielding, as shown in Fig. A13 (a) §§ . Assuming a′ = a = χ a ≈ 10m.s −1

that the intensity of the electric field, E air ,

mi 0

This is the magnitude of the acceleration upon

necessary to reduce the gravitational mass of

the passengers in a contemporary commercial

the air molecules to within the range

jet.

+ 0.159 mi < m g < −0.159 mi , is much smaller Then, it is noticed that Gravitational

than the intensity of the electric field, E rs , Spacecrafts can be subjected to enormous

accelerations (or decelerations) without imposing

necessary to reduce the gravitational mass of any harmful impacts whatsoever on the

the solid substance to within the range spacecrafts or its crew.

+ 0.159 mi < m g < −0.159 mi , then we Now, imagine that the intensity of the

conclude that the Gravitational Shielding made of electric field that produces the Gravitational

ionized air goes to the imaginary space-time Shielding around the spacecraft is increased up

before the Gravitational Shielding made of solid to reaching the value E rs that reduces the

substance. When this occurs the spacecraft does gravitational mass of the solid Gravitational

not go to the imaginary space-time together with Shielding to within the range

the Gravitational Shielding of air, because the air + 0.159 m i < m g < −0.159 mi . Under these

molecules are not rigidly connected to the

spacecraft. Thus, while the air molecules go into circumstances, the solid Gravitational Shielding

the imaginary space-time, the spacecraft stays in goes to the imaginary space-time and, since it is

the real space-time, and remains subjected to the rigidly connected to the spacecraft, also the

effects of the Gravitational Shielding around it, spacecraft goes to the imaginary space-time

together with the Gravitational Shielding. Thus,

§§ the spacecraft can travel within the imaginary

The solid Gravitational Shielding can also be space-time and make use of the Gravitational

obtained by means of an ELF electric current through Shielding around it.

a metallic lamina placed between the semi-spheres As we have already seen, the maximum

and the Gravitational Shielding of Air (See Fig.A13 velocity of propagation of the interactions in the

(a)). The gravitational mass of the solid Gravitational imaginary space-time is infinite (in the real space-

Shielding will be controlled just by means of the

time this limit is equal to the light velocity c ). This

intensity of the ELF electric current. Recently, it was

means that there are no limits for the velocity of

discovered that Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be

the spacecraft in the imaginary space-time. Thus,

added to Alumina (Al2O3) to convert it into a good

the acceleration of the spacecraft can reach, for

electrical conductor. It was found that the electrical

conductivity increased up to 3375 S/m at 77°C in example, a = 109 m.s −2 , which leads the

samples that were 15% nanotubes by volume [12]. It spacecraft to attain velocities

−1

is known that the density of α-Alumina is 3.98kg.m-3 V ≈ 10 m.s (about 1 million times the speed

14

and that it can withstand 10-20 KV/mm. Thus, these of light) after one day of trip. With this velocity,

values show that the Alumina-CNT can be used to after 1 month of trip the spacecraft would have

make a solid Gravitational Shielding. In this case, the 21

traveled about 10 m . In order to have idea of

electric field produced by means of the semi-spheres

this distance, it is enough to remind that the

will be used to control the gravitational mass of the

diameter of our Universe (visible Universe) is of

Alumina-CNT. 26

the order of 10 m .

139

50

Due to the extremely low density of the then the dielectric strength of the insulation

imaginary bodies, the collision between them must be ≥ 173kV / mm . As shown in the table

cannot have the same consequences of the below *** , 0.1mm - thickness of Mica can

collision between the real bodies. withstand 17.6 kV (that is greater

Thus, for a Gravitational Spacecraft in

than V0max = 15.6kV ), in such way that the

imaginary state, the problem of the collision in

high-speed doesn't exist. Consequently, the dielectric strength is 176 kV/mm.

Gravitational Spacecraft can transit freely in the The Gravitational Thrusters are positioned

imaginary Universe and, in this way, reach easily at the spacecraft, as shown in Fig. A13 (b).

any point of our real Universe once they can Then, when the spacecraft is in the intergalactic

make the transition back to our Universe by only space, the gravity acceleration upon the

increasing the gravitational mass of the gravitational mass m gt of the bottom of the

Gravitational Shielding of the spacecraft in such thruster (See Fig.A13 (c)), is given by [2]

way that it leaves the range of + 0.159 M i Mg

r 10 r

a ≅ (χ air ) g M ≅ −(χ air ) G 2 μˆ

10

to − 0.159M i .

r

The return trip would be done in similar

way. That is to say, the spacecraft would transit where M g is the gravitational mass in front of

in the imaginary Universe back to the departure

the spacecraft.

place where would reappear in our Universe.

For simplicity, let us consider just the effect

Thus, trips through our Universe that would delay

of a hypothetical volume

millions of years, at speeds close to the speed of

light, could be done in just a few months in the V = 10 × 10 × 10 = 10 m

3 3 7 3

of intergalactic

imaginary Universe. (

matter in front of the spacecraft r ≅ 30m . The )

In order to produce the acceleration of average density of matter in the intergalactic

a ≈ 10 9 m.s −2 upon the spacecraft we propose a medium (IGM) is ρig ≈ 10−26 kg.m−3 ) ††† . Thus,

Gravitational Thruster with 10 GCCs (10

for χ air ≅ −1.6 ×10 we get

4

Gravitational Shieldings) of the type with several

semi-spheres stamped on the metallic surface, as

) (6.67 × 10 )⎛⎜⎜ 10 ⎞

−19

previously shown, or with the semi-cylindrical

form shown in Figs. A11 (b) and (c). The 10

(

a = − − 1.6 × 10 4

10 −11

2

⎟⎟ =

GCCs are filled with air at 1 atm and 300K. If the

⎝ 30 ⎠

insulation layer is made with Mica (ε r ≅ 5.4 ) and = −10 9 m.s − 2

has thickness Δ = 0.1 mm , and the semi- In spite of this gigantic acceleration, the inertial

spheres stamped on the metallic surface have effects for the crew of the spacecraft can be

strongly reduced if, for example, the gravitational

r0 = 0.4 mm (See Fig.A7) then mass of the Gravitational Shielding is reduced

a = r0 + Δ = 0.5 mm. Thus, we get

***

b = r0 εr = 9.295×10−4 m The dielectric strength of some dielectrics can have

different values in lower thicknesses. This is, for

and example, the case of the Mica.

d = b − a = 4.295 ×10 −4 m Dielectric Thickness (mm) Dielectric Strength (kV/mm)

Then, from Eq. A42 we obtain Mica 0.01 mm 200

Mica 0.1 mm 176

mg (air) ⎧⎪ ⎡ σ 3 E4 ⎤⎫⎪ Mica 1 mm 61

χair = = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 +1.758×10−27 air2 air3 −1⎥⎬ =

mi0(air) ⎪ ⎢⎣ ρair f ⎥⎦⎪⎭

⎩ †††

Some theories put the average density of the

⎧⎪ ⎡ V 5.5 ⎤⎫⎪

Universe as the equivalent of one hydrogen atom per

= ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 +1.0 ×10−18 0 3 −1⎥⎬ cubic meter [13,14]. The density of the universe,

⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ f ⎥⎦⎪⎭ however, is clearly not uniform. Surrounding and

stretching between galaxies, there is a rarefied plasma

For V0 = V0max = 15.6kV and f = 0.12Hz, the result is [15] that is thought to possess a cosmic filamentary

structure [16] and that is slightly denser than the

mg (air)

χ air = ≅ −1.6 ×104 average density in the universe. This material is called

mi0(air) the intergalactic medium (IGM) and is mostly ionized

hydrogen; i.e. a plasma consisting of equal numbers of

Since E 0max = V0max r0 is now given by electrons and protons. The IGM is thought to exist at a

E0max =15.6kV 0.9mm=17.3kV / mm and Δ = 0.1 mm density of 10 to 100 times the average density of the

Universe (10 to 100 hydrogen atoms per cubic meter,

i.e., ≈ 10 −26 kg.m −3 ).

140

51

−6

down to m g ≅ 10 kg and its inertial mass is Spacecraft can reach about 50000 km/h in a

few seconds. Obviously, the Gravitational

mi 0 ≅ 100kg . Then, we get Shielding of the spacecraft will reduce strongly

the inertial effects upon the crew of the

χ = m g mi 0 ≅ 10 −8

. Therefore, the inertial spacecraft, in such way that the inertial effects of

effects on the spacecraft will be reduced by this strong acceleration will not be felt. In

χ ≅ 10−8 , and consequently, the inertial effects on addition, the artificial atmosphere, which is

possible to build around the spacecraft, by means

the crew of the spacecraft would be equivalent to of gravity control technologies shown in this

an acceleration a′ of only article (See Fig.6) and [2], will protect it from the

mg heating produced by the friction with the Earth’s

a′ = atmosphere. Also, the gravity can be controlled

mi 0 inside of the Gravitational Spacecraft in order to

Note that the Gravitational Thrusters in the maintain a value close to the Earth’s gravity as

spacecraft must have a very small diameter (of shown in Fig.3.

the order of millimeters) since, obviously, the hole Finally, it is important to note that a Micro-

through the Gravitational Shielding cannot be Gravitational Thruster does not work outside a

large. Thus, these thrusters are in fact, Micro- Gravitational Shielding, because, in this case, the

Gravitational Thrusters. As shown in Fig. A13 resultant upon the thruster is null due to the

(b), it is possible to place several micro- symmetry (See Fig. A15 (a)). Figure A15 (b)

gravitational thrusters in the spacecraft. This shows a micro-gravitational thruster inside a

gives to the Gravitational Spacecraft, several Gravitational Shielding. This thruster has 10

degrees of freedom and shows the enormous Gravitational Shieldings, in such way that the

superiority of this spacecraft in relation to the gravitational acceleration upon the bottom of the

contemporaries spacecrafts. thruster, due to a gravitational mass M g in front

The density of matter in the intergalactic

medium (IGM) is about 10 -26 kg.m-3 , which is of the thruster, is a10 = χ air

10

a0 where

very less than the density of matter in the

a 0 = −G M g r 2 is the gravitational acceleration

interstellar medium (~10-21 kg.m-3) that is less

than the density of matter in the interplanetary acting on the front of the micro-gravitational

medium (~10-20 kg.m-3). The density of matter is thruster. In the opposite direction, the

enormously increased inside the Earth’s gravitational acceleration upon the bottom of the

atmosphere (1.2kg.m-3 near to Earth’s surface). thruster, produced by a gravitational mass M g ,

Figure A14 shows the gravitational acceleration is

acquired by a Gravitational Spacecraft, in these

media, using Micro-Gravitational thrusters.

In relation to the Interstellar and (

a 0′ = χ s − GM g r ′ 2 ≅ 0 )

Interplanetary medium, the Intergalactic medium

requires the greatest value of χ air ( χ inside the since χ s ≅ 0 due to the Gravitational Shielding

Micro-Gravitational Thrusters), i.e., around the micro-thruster (See Fig. A15 (b)).

χ air ≅ −1.6 ×10 . This value strongly decreases

4 Similarly, the acceleration in front of the thruster

is

when the spacecraft is within the Earth’s

[ ( )] χ

atmosphere. In this case, it is sufficient

only χ air ≅ −10 in order to obtain:

‡‡‡ ′ = χ air

a10 10

a 0′ = χ air

10

− GM g r ′ 2 s

ρ atmV

a = −(χ air ) G

10

r 2

≅ where [χ (− GM

10

air g )]

r ′ 2 < a10 , since r′ > r .

) ( ) ≅ 10

Thus, for a10 ≅ 10 9 m.s −2 and χ s ≈ 10 −8 we

10

(

≅ −(− 10) 6.67 × 10 −11

1.2 10 7 4

m.s −2 ′ < 10m.s −2

(20)2 conclude that a10 . This means that

With this acceleration the Gravitational ′ << a10 . Therefore, we can write that the

a10

resultant on the micro-thruster can be expressed

‡‡‡

This value is within the range of values of χ by means of the following relation

(χ < − 10 3

)

. See Eq . A15 , which can be produced by

R ≅ F10 = χ air

10

F0

means of ELF electric currents through metals as

Aluminum, etc. This means that, in this case, if

convenient, we can replace air inside the GCCs of the Figure A15 (c) shows a Micro-Gravitational

Gravitational Micro-thrusters by metal laminas with Thruster with 10 Air Gravitational Shieldings (10

ELF electric currents through them. GCCs). Thin Metallic laminas are placed after

141

52

each Air Gravitational Shielding in order to retain 1 3

⎛ Eair

⎞2⎛ b⎞2 1

the electric field E b = V0 x , produced by metallic σair=2α⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ =0.029V02 (A46)

surface behind the semi-spheres. The laminas ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ a⎠

with semi-spheres stamped on its surfaces are Note that b = r0 ε r ( H2O) . Therefore, here the

connected to the ELF voltage source V0 and the

value of b is larger than in the case of the acrylic.

thin laminas in front of the Air Gravitational

Consequently, the electrical conductivity of the air

Shieldings are grounded. The air inside this

layer will be larger here than in the case of

Micro-Gravitational Thruster is at 300K, 1atm.

acrylic.

We have seen that the insulation layer of a

GCC can be made up of Acrylic, Mica, etc. Now, Substitution of σ (air ) , E air (rms) and

we will design a GCC using Water (distilled ρ air = 1.2kg .m −3 into Eq. A14, gives

water, ε r ( H 2O ) = 80 ) and Aluminum semi-

radius r0 = 1 . 3 mm .

mg(air) ⎧⎪ ⎡ V5.5 ⎤⎫⎪

cylinders with Thus,

for Δ = 0.6mm , the new value of a is a = 1.9mm . =⎨1−2⎢ 1+4.54×10−20 03 −1⎥⎬ ( A47)

mi0(air) ⎪ ⎢ f ⎥⎪

Then, we get ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭

b = r0 εr(H2O) = 11.63×10−3m ( A43)

For V0 = V0 = 9kV and f = 2 Hz , the result

max

d = b − a = 9.73×10−3m ( A44)

and is

1 q mg (air)

Eair = = ≅ −8.4

4πεr(air)ε 0 b 2 mi0(air)

V0 r0 This shows that, by using water instead of acrylic,

= ε r( H ) = the result is much better.

2O

ε r(air)b 2 In order to build the GCC based on the

calculations above (See Fig. A16), take an Acrylic

V0 r0 V0

= ≅ = 1111.1 V0 ( A45) plate with 885mm X 885m and 2mm thickness,

ε r(air) r0 then paste on it an Aluminum sheet with

895.2mm X 885mm and 0.5mm thickness(note

Note that

that two edges of the Aluminum sheet are bent as

V0 r0 shown in Figure A16 (b)). Next, take 342

E( H2O) =

ε r ( H2O) Aluminum yarns with 884mm length and

2.588mm diameter (wire # 10 AWG) and insert

and

them side by side on the Aluminum sheet. See in

V0 r0 Fig. A16 (b) the detail of fixing of the yarns on the

E(acrylic) =

ε r (acrylic) Aluminum sheet. Now, paste acrylic strips (with

13.43mm height and 2mm thickness) around the

Therefore, E ( H 2O ) and E (acrylic ) are much Aluminum/Acrylic, making a box. Put distilled

smaller than E air . Note that for V0 ≤ 9kV the water (approximately 1 litter) inside this box, up to

a height of exactly 3.7mm from the edge of the

intensities of E ( H 2O ) and E (acrylic ) are not acrylic base. Afterwards, paste an Acrylic lid

sufficient to produce the ionization effect, which (889mm X 889mm and 2mm thickness) on the

increases the electrical conductivity. box. Note that above the water there is an air

Consequently, the conductivities of the water and layer with 885mm X 885mm and 7.73mm

−1 thickness (See Fig. A16). This thickness plus the

the acrylic remain << 1 S.m . In this way, with

acrylic lid thickness (2mm) is equal to

E ( H 2O ) and E (acrylic ) much smaller than E air ,

d = b − a = 9.73mm where b = r0 ε r(H2O) =11.63mm

and σ ( H 2O ) << 1 , σ (acrylic ) << 1 , the decrease in

and a = r0 + Δ = 1.99 mm , since r0 = 1.3mm ,

both the gravitational mass of the acrylic and the

gravitational mass of water, according to Eq.A14, ε r ( H 2O ) = 80 and Δ = 0.6mm .

is negligible. This means that only in the air layer Note that the gravitational action of the

the decrease in the gravitational mass will be electric field E air , extends itself only up to the

relevant. distance d , which, in this GCC, is given by the

Equation A39 gives the electrical

sum of the Air layer thickness (7.73mm) plus the

conductivity of the air layer, i.e.,

thickness of the Acrylic lid (2mm).

Thus, it is ensured the gravitational effect

on the air layer while it is practically nullified in

142

53

the acrylic sheet above the air layer, since

E (acrylic ) << E air and σ (acrylic ) << 1 .

With this GCC, we can carry out an

experiment where the gravitational mass of the

air layer is progressively reduced when the

voltage applied to the GCC is increased (or when

the frequency is decreased). A precision balance

is placed below the GCC in order to measure the

mentioned mass decrease for comparison with

the values predicted by Eq. A(47). In total, this

GCC weighs about 6kg; the air layer 7.3grams.

The balance has the following characteristics:

range 0-6kg; readability 0.1g. Also, in order to

prove the Gravitational Shielding Effect, we can

put a sample (connected to a dynamometer)

above the GCC in order to check the gravity

acceleration in this region.

In order to prove the exponential effect

produced by the superposition of the

Gravitational Shieldings, we can take three

similar GCCs and put them one above the other,

in such way that above the GCC 1 the gravity

acceleration will be g′ = χ g ; above the GCC2

g ′′ = χ 2 g , and above the GCC3 g ′′′ = χ 3 g .

Where χ is given by Eq. (A47).

It is important to note that the intensity of

the electric field through the air below the GCC is

much smaller than the intensity of the electric

field through the air layer inside the GCC. In

addition, the electrical conductivity of the air

below the GCC is much smaller than the

conductivity of the air layer inside the GCC.

Consequently, the decrease of the gravitational

mass of the air below the GCC, according to

Eq.A14, is negligible. This means that the GCC1,

GCC2 and GCC3 can be simply overlaid, on the

experiment proposed above. However, since it is

necessary to put samples among them in order to

measure the gravity above each GCC, we

suggest a spacing of 30cm or more among them.

143

54

Dynamometer

50 mm

g g

g′ = χ g

Sample

Aluminum foil Foam Board

GCC

# 12 AWG Pan balance

Battery 12V

R ε2 4Ω - 40W

R2

Rheostat

10Ω - 90W Coupling

Transformer

Function Generation

Flexible Copper wire

HP3325A # 12 AWG

ε1

R1

500Ω - 2W

Figure A2 – Experimental Set-up 1.

144

55

# 12 AWG

(10.5 microns thickness)

Gum

(Loctite Super Bonder)

(6mm thickness)

Aluminum foil

Foam Board

145

56

I1 ε2

+ − ri 2

R

I2

GCC

ri1

ε1 ~ Rp

f = 2 μHz

Wire # 12 AWG

Gravitational

R1 Shielding

I 3 = I1 + I 2 R2

(a)

ε 1 = Function Generator HP3325A(Option 002 High Voltage Output)

ri1 < 2Ω; R1 = 500Ω − 2 W ; ε 2 = 12V DC; ri 2 < 0.1Ω (Battery );

R2 = 4Ω − 40W ; R p = 2.5 × 10 −3 Ω; Reostat = 0 ≤ R ≤ 10Ω − 90W

I1max = 56mA (rms ); I 2max = 3 A ; I 3max ≅ 3 A (rms )

Coupling Transformer to isolate the Function Generator from the Battery

• Air core 10 - mm diameter; wire # 12 AWG; N1 = N 2 = 20; l = 42mm

I1 ε2 T

+ − ri 2

I2 R

ri1

−5

ε1 GCC l = 1cm → Rφ = 5.23 × 10 Ω

~ l

0.5 2 h =3mm

f = 2 μHz

d

i

Wire # 12 AWG e

l

e Al 200 mm

R1 c

t

I 3 = I1 + I 2 R2 r

P # 12 AWG i

c

(b)

R = 0 ⇒ V pmax = 1.1 × 10−4V Gravitational

Shielding

R = 10 ⇒ V pmin = 4.0 × 10−5V

146

57

j

ELF electric current Wire

⎧⎪ ⎡ ⎤ ⎫⎪

− 27 μr j

4

mg = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 1.758 ×10 − 1⎥ ⎬mi 0

⎪⎩ ⎣⎢ σρ 2 f 3 ⎥⎦ ⎪

⎭

Figure A5 – An ELF electric current through a wire, that makes a spherical form as shown above,

reduces the gravitational mass of the wire and the gravity inside sphere at the same proportion

χ = m g mi 0 (Gravitational Shielding Effect). Note that this spherical form can be transformed into

an ellipsoidal form or a disc in order to coat, for example, a Gravitational Spacecraft. It is also

possible to coat with a wire several forms, such as cylinders, cones, cubes, etc. The characteristics

of the wire are expressed by: μ r , σ , ρ ; j is the electric current density and f is the frequency.

147

58

Dynamometer

# 14 AWG

Length = 28.6 m

RS= 0.36 Ω

# 12 AWG

Battery 12V

R ε2 4Ω - 40W

R2

Rheostat

Coupling

Transformer

Function Generation

HP3325A Flexible Copper wire

# 12 AWG

ε1

R1

Figure A6 – Experimental set-up 2.

148

59

d

Eair ,σair

b

Insulation Δ

εr

a

r0

Aluminum Foil

~ V0 , f

foil - By simply changing the geometry of the surface of the Aluminum foil it is possible to

increase the working frequency f up to more than 1Hz.

149

60

r0 =0.9 mm

y Aluminum Plate

(a)

Heater

(b)

Press

D D

y+a

(c)

Δ=0.6 mm

r0 =0.9 mm a = 1.5 mm

(d)

(a)Acrylic sheet (A4 format) with 1.5mm thickness and an Aluminum plate (A4) with several

semi-spheres (radius r0 = 0.9 mm ) stamped on its surface. (b)A heater is placed below the

Aluminum plate in order to heat the Aluminum. (c)When the Aluminum is sufficiently heated

up, the acrylic sheet and the Aluminum plate are pressed, one against the other (The two D

devices shown in this figure are used in order to impede that the press compresses the acrylic

and the aluminum besides distance y + a ). (d)After some seconds, the press and the heater are

removed, and the device is ready to be used.

150

61

Dynamometer

50 mm

g g

GCC

g′ = χ g

Sample

Acrylic/Aluminum

# 12 AWG

High-voltage V0

Rheostat Oscillator

Transformer f > 1Hz

f > 1Hz . Note that in this case, the pan balance is not necessary because the substance of the

Gravitational Shielding is an air layer with thickness d above the acrylic sheet. This is therefore,

more a type of Gravity Control Cell (GCC) with external gravitational shielding.

151

62

Gravitational Shielding

d

R

V0

GCC

Acrylic /Aluminum

V0max = 9 kV

Oscillator

V0min = 2.7 kV ~ f > 1Hz

(a)

Acrylic

Pin wire

Aluminum

Connector

(High-voltage)

(b)

10kV

Figure A10 – (a) Equivalent Electric Circuit. (b) Details of the electrical connection with the

Aluminum plate. Note that others connection modes (by the top of the device) can produce

destructible interference on the electric lines of the E air field.

152

63

(a) (b)

Metallic Rings

Metallic base

(c)

Eair

Gravitational Shielding εr

Metallic Rings

Oscillator f

Transformer

V0

Dielectric layer

Ionized air (d)

Figure A11 – Geometrical forms with similar effects as those produced by the semi-spherical form – (a)

shows the semi-spherical form stamped on the metallic surface; (b) shows the semi-cylindrical form (an

obvious evolution from the semi-spherical form); (c) shows concentric metallic rings stamped on

the metallic surface, an evolution from semi-cylindrical form. These geometrical forms produce

the same effect as that of the semi-spherical form, shown in Fig.A11 (a). By using concentric

metallic rings, it is possible to build Gravitational Shieldings around bodies or spacecrafts with

several formats (spheres, ellipsoids, etc); (d) shows a Gravitational Shielding around a Spacecraft

with ellipsoidal form.

153

64

Dielectric

Metal Dielectric Metal (rigidly connected to the spacecraft)

Spacecraft E

Spacecraft E

(rigidly connected to the dielectric)

(a) (b)

Figure A12 – Non-solid and Solid Gravitational Shieldings - In the case of the Gravitational

Shielding produced on a solid substance (b), when its molecules go to the imaginary space-time,

the electric field that produces the effect also goes to the imaginary space-time together with

them, because in this case, the substance of the Gravitational Shielding is rigidly connected (by

means of the dielectric) to the metal that produces the electric field. This does not occur in the

case of Air Gravitational Shielding.

154

65

A

l

u

Spacecraft Spacecraft m

Ers Eair i

n

u

m

(a)

Micro-Gravitational Thruster

(b)

Volume V

of the

Micro-Gravitational Thruster with 10 gravitational shieldings Intergallactic

medium

(IGM)

Gravitational Spacecraft a

m gt r

Mg

Mg ρ igmV

a = χ 10 G = χ 10 G

r2 r2

Gravitational Shielding

ρ igm∼10-26kg.m-3

(c)

Figure A13 – Double Gravitational Shielding and Micro-thrusters – (a) Shows a double

gravitational shielding that makes possible to decrease the inertial effects upon the spacecraft

when it is traveling both in the imaginary space-time and in the real space-time. The solid

Gravitational Shielding also can be obtained by means of an ELF electric current through a metallic

lamina placed between the semi-spheres and the Gravitational Shielding of Air as shown above. (b)

Shows 6 micro-thrusters placed inside a Gravitational Spacecraft, in order to propel the

spacecraft in the directions x, y and z. Note that the Gravitational Thrusters in the spacecraft

must have a very small diameter (of the order of millimeters) because the hole through the

Gravitational Shielding of the spacecraft cannot be large. Thus, these thrusters are in fact Micro-

thrusters. (c) Shows a micro-thruster inside a spacecraft, and in front of a volume V of the

intergalactic medium (IGM). Under these conditions, the spacecraft acquires an acceleration a in

the direction of the volume V.

155

66

Volume V

of the

Micro-Gravitational Thruster with 10 gravitational shieldings Interstellar

medium

(ISM)

Gravitational Spacecraft a

r

Mg

Mg ρ ismV

a = χ 10 G 2

= χ 10 G

r r2

Gravitational Shielding

ρ ism∼10-21kg.m-3

(a)

Volume V

of the

Interplanetary

Micro-Gravitational Thruster with 10 gravitational shieldings medium

(IPM)

Gravitational Spacecraft a

r

Mg

Mg ρ ipmV

a=χ G 10

=χ G10

Gravitational Shielding r2 r2

ρ ipm∼10-20kg.m-3

(b)

Volume V

of the

Earth’s

Micro-Gravitational Thruster with 10 gravitational shieldings

atmospheric

Gravitational Spacecraft a

r

Mg

Mg ρ atmV

a = χ 10 G = χ 10 G

Gravitational Shielding r2 r2

ρ atm∼1.2kg.m-3

(c)

Figure A14 – Gravitational Propulsion using Micro-Gravitational Thruster – (a) Gravitational

acceleration produced by a gravitational mass Mg of the Interstellar Medium. The density of the

Interstellar Medium is about 105 times greater than the density of the Intergalactic Medium (b)

Gravitational acceleration produced in the Interplanetary Medium. (c) Gravitational acceleration

produced in the Earth’s atmosphere. Note that, in this case, ρatm (near to the Earth’s surface)is about

1026 times greater than the density of the Intergalactic Medium.

156

67

r

F’0 F2 =χair2F0 F’2=χair2F’0 F0 r

F1 =χairF0 F’1 =χairF’0

Mg Mg

S2 S1

F’0 = F0 => R = (F’0 – F2) + (F1 – F’1 ) + (F’2 – F0) = 0

(a)

Micro-Gravitational Thruster

with 10 gravitational shieldings

Gravitational Shielding

r’ χ s ≅ −10 −8 a’0 r

a’0 =χs(-GMg /r’2) a10=χair10a0 a0 = - GMg/r2

Mg Mg

R ≅ F10 = χ 10

air F0

Metal

Mica

(b) Grounded Metallic laminas

1 GCC

Air Gravitational Shielding

x

10mm

ELF

~

V0 ~ 400 mm

(c)

Figure A15 – Dynamics and Structure of the Micro-Gravitational Thrusters - (a) The Micro-Gravitational

Thrusters do not work outside the Gravitational Shielding, because, in this case, the resultant upon the thruster is

( )

null due to the symmetry. (b) The Gravitational Shielding χ s ≅ 10 −8 reduces strongly the intensities of the

gravitational forces acting on the micro-gravitational thruster, except obviously, through the hole in the

gravitational shielding. (c) Micro-Gravitational Thruster with 10 Air Gravitational Shieldings (10GCCs). The

grounded metallic laminas are placed so as to retain the electric field produced by metallic surface behind the

semi-spheres.

157

68

0.885 m

Sample

Any type of material; any mass

Acrylic Box

(2mm thickness) g’= χ g

2 mm

d = 9.73 mm Air layer mg (air) = χ mi (air) 7.73 mm

Distilled Water a = 1.9 mm

3.2 mm

1.8 mm

2 mm

Aluminum sheet

(0.5 mm thickness) V0max = 9 kV

342 Aluminum yarns (# 10 AWG) Balance

(2.558 mm diameter; 0.884 mm length) ~ 2 Hz

Transformer

g

(a)

0.885 m

0.884 m

1mm 1mm

Aluminum sheet

(0.5 mm thickness)

Balance

342 Aluminum yarns (# 10 AWG) 1.5mm

(2.558 mm diameter; 0.884 mm length) 0.5 mm

3.6mm

0.885 m

(b)

In total this GCC weighs about 6kg; the air layer 7.3 grams. The balance has the

following characteristics: Range 0 – 6kg; readability 0.1g. The yarns are inserted

side by side on the Aluminum sheet. Note the detail of fixing of the yarns on the

Aluminum sheet.

158

69

140 cm

70

cm Sample 5Kg

mg Any type of material; any mass

g ′′′ = χ 3 g

GCC 3 Balance

70

cm 5Kg

mg

g ′′ = χ 2 g

GCC 2 Balance

70

cm 5Kg

mg

g′ = χ g

GCC 1 Balance

Fig. A17 – Experimental set-up. In order to prove the exponential effect produced by the

superposition of the Gravitational Shieldings, we can take three similar GCCs and put them one above

the other, in such way that above the GCC 1 the gravity acceleration will be g′ = χ g ; above the

GCC2 g ′′ = χ 2 g , and above the GCC3 g ′′′ = χ 3 g . Where χ is given by Eq. (A47). The arrangement

above has been designed for values of mg < 13g and χ up to -9 or mg < 1kg and χ up to -2 .

159

70

be built with materials and equipments that also can E max = 5 . 3 × 10 10 V / m

be obtained with easiness.

Consider a battery of n parallel plate

Therefore, if the frequency of the wave voltage

capacitors with capacitances C1 , C2 , C 3 ,…, C n ,

(

is f = 60 Hz , ω = 2πf , we ) have that

connected in parallel. The voltage applied is V ; A

ωεair = 3.3 ×10 S.m . It is known that the electric

−9 −1

is the area of each plate of the capacitors and d is

the distance between the plates; ε r ( water ) is the conductivity of the air, σ air , at 10-4 Torr and 300K,

is much smaller than this value, i.e.,

relative permittivity of the dielectric (water). Then the

electric charge q on the plates of the capacitors is σ air << ωε air

given by (

Under this circumstance σ << ωε , we can )

substitute Eq. 15 and 34 into Eq. 7. Thus, we get

q = (C1 + C2 + C3 +...+ Cn )V = n(εr(water)ε0 ) V (B1)

A

d ⎧⎪ ⎡ μ ε 3 E4 ⎤ ⎫⎪

m g (air ) = ⎨1 − 2 ⎢ 1 + air 2 air 2 − 1⎥ ⎬mi 0 (air )

⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ c ρ air ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭

In Fig. I we show a GCC with two capacitors

connected in parallel. It is easy to see that the ⎧⎪ ⎡ E4 ⎤ ⎫⎪

electric charge density σ 0 on each area A0 = az

= ⎨1 − 2 ⎢ 1 + 9.68 × 10 − 57 2 − 1⎥ ⎬mi 0 (air ) (B 5 )

⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ ρ air ⎥⎦ ⎭⎪

of the edges B of the thin laminas (z is the thickness

of the edges B and a is the length of them, see

Fig.B2) is given by The density of the air at 10-4 Torr and 300K is

ρ air = 1 . 5 × 10 − 7 kg . m − 3

= n (ε r ( water )ε 0 ) (B 2 )

q A

σ0 = V

A0 azd Thus, we can write

Thus, the electric field E between the edges B is

m g (air )

2σ 0 ⎛ ε r ( water ) ⎞ A χ = =

E= = 2 n⎜ ⎟

⎜ ε r (air ) ⎟ azd

V (B 3) m i (air )

ε r (air )ε 0 ⎝ ⎠

Since A = L x L y , we can write that = ⎧⎨1 − 2 ⎡ 1 + 4 . 3 × 10 − 43 E 4 − 1⎤ ⎫⎬ (B 6 )

⎩ ⎢⎣ ⎦⎥ ⎭

10

E = 2n⎜ ⎟

⎜ ε r (air ) ⎟ azd

V (B 4 ) this equation gives

⎝ ⎠

χ max ≅ − 1 . 2

Assuming ε r ( water ) = 81 ****

(bidistilled

water); ε r (air ) ≅ 1 (vacuum 10-4 Torr; 300K); n = 2; This means that, in this case, the gravitational

Lx = L y = 0.30m ; a = 0.12m ; z = 0.1mm and shielding produced in the vacuum between the

edges B of the thin laminas can reduce the local

d = 10mm we obtain gravitational acceleration g down to

g 1 ≅ − 1 .2 g

E = 2 . 43 × 10 8 V Under these circumstances, the weight, P = + m g g ,

of any body just above the gravitational shielding

For Vmax = 220V , the electric field is becomes

P = m g g 1 = −1.2m g g

****

It is easy to see that by substituting the water for

Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) the dimensions L x , L y of the

capacitors can be strongly reduced due to

ε r (BaTiO3) = 1200 .

160

71

Lamina

Edge B of the

Gravitational

Thin Lamina

Shielding (0.1mm thickness)

εr (air) g1 = χ g χ<1

Vacuum Chamber

(INOX) E Encapsulating

(10- 4 Torr, 300K) (EPOXI)

B B

g

Parallel plate

Capacitors Insulating holder

Dielectric:

Bidistilled Water

εr (water) = 81 d = 10 mm

V (60Hz)

Vmax=220V

Lx

q = (C1+C2+...+Cn) V =

= n [εr (water) / εr (air)] [A/A0] V / d

εr (water) = 81 ; εr (air) ≅ 1

cross section area of the edges B of the thin laminas (z is

the thickness of the edges).

Figure B1 – Gravity Control Cell (GCC) using a battery of capacitors. According to Eq. 7 , the

electric field, E, through the air at 10-4 Torr; 300K, in the vacuum chamber, produces a gravitational

shielding effect. The gravity acceleration above this gravitational shielding is reduced to χg where χ

< 1.

161

72

Gravitational Shielding Lx

Ly E a

Lamina Lamina

Vacuum Chamber

EPOXI

Thin laminas

Thickness = z

Length = a

Top view

A0 = a z ; A = Lx Ly

162

73

+P

Sample −P

Any type of material

Any mass

Gravitational g1 = χ g χ<1

Shielding

GCC

↓g

mgg1 = -χ g mg

Elementar Motor

GCC

Figure B3 – Experimental arrangement with a GCC using battery of capacitors. By means of this

set-up it is possible to check the weight of the sample even when it becomes negative.

163

74

REFERENCES

1. DeAquino, F. 2010. Mathematical Foundations

15. Zhan, G.D et al. (2003) Appl. Phys. Lett.

of the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity.

83, 1228.

Pacific Journal of Science and Technology.

11(1), pp.173-232.

16. Davidson, K. & Smoot, G. (2008)

Wrinkles in Time. N. Y: Avon, 158-163.

2. Freire, G. F. O and Diniz, A. B. (1973)

Ondas Eletromagnéticas, Ed. USP,p.26.

17. Silk, Joseph. (1977) Big Bang. N.Y,

Freeman, 299.

3. Halliday, D. and Resnick, R. (1968)

Physics, J. Willey & Sons, Portuguese

18. Jafelice, L.C. and Opher, R. (1992). The

Version, Ed. USP, p.1118.

origin of intergalactic magnetic fields

due to extragalactic jets. RAS.

4. Quevedo, C. P. (1977) Eletromagnetismo,

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-

McGraw-Hill, p.255 and 269.

bib query? Bib code = 1992 MNRAS.

257. 135J. Retrieved 2009-06-19.

5. GE Technical Publications (2007),

80044 – F20T12/C50/ECO, GE Ecolux ®T12. 19. Wadsley, J., et al. (2002). The Universe

in Hot Gas. NASA.

6. Aplin, K. L. (2000) PhD thesis, The http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap

University of Reading, UK 020820. html. Retrieved 2009-06-19.

7. Aplin K. L (2005) Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76,

104501.

Physics, McGraw-Hill,Portuguese version

(1969) Ed. Polígono, S.Paulo, p.362-363.

Electromagnetics, McGraw-Hill.

Portuguese version (1978) Ed. Livros

Técnicos e Científicos Editora S.A, RJ,

Brasil. P.146.

of the 2001Particle Accelerator Conference,

Chicago.

http://epaper.kek.jp/p01/PAPERS/TOAB009.PDF

and Test of a 14T, Nb3Sn

Superconducting Racetrack Dipole

Magnetic, IEE Trans on Applied

Superconductivity, p.294.

Conditions Calculator.

http://bpesoft.com/s/wleizero/xhac/?M=p

77th ed.1996.

Physics, J. Willey & Sons,

Portuguese Version, Ed. USP, p.1118.

164

Physical Foundations of Quantum Psychology

Fran De Aquino

Maranhao State University, Physics Department, S.Luis/MA, Brazil.

Copyright © 2007 by Fran De Aquino. All Rights Reserved.

Abstract: The existence of imaginary mass associated to the neutrino is already well-known.

Although its imaginary mass is not physically observable, its square is. This amount is found

experimentally to be negative. Recently, it was shown that quanta of imaginary mass exist

associated to the electron and the photon too. These imaginary masses have unusual

properties that violate the Parity Conservation Principle. The non-conservation of the parity is

also found in the weak interactions, and possibly can be explained by means of the existence of

the imaginary masses. Also protons and neutrons would have imaginary masses associated to

them and, in this way, atoms and molecules would also have imaginary masses directly

proportional to their atomic and molecular masses. The Parity Conservation Principle holds that

the material particles are not able to distinguish their right from their left. The non-conservation

of the parity would necessarily imply capability of "choice". Thus, as the particles with imaginary

mass don't conserve the parity, they would have the elementary capability of “choosing between

their right or left”. Where there is “choice” isn’t there also psychism, by definition? This

fundamental discovery shows that, in some way, the consciousnesses are related to the

imaginary masses. This fact, make it possible to redefine Psychology on a Quantum Physics

basis.

Key words: Quantum Psychology, Quantized Fields, Unification and Mass Relations,

Quantum Mechanics, Bose-Einstein Condensation, Origin of the Universe.

PACs: 03.70.+k; 12.10.Kt; 14.80.Cp; 03.65.-w; 03.75.Nt; 98.80.Bp.

1. INTRODUCTION

In the last decades it has become evident that the theoretical foundations of

Natural Sciences are based on Physics. Today’s Chemistry is completely based on

Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Statistics, Thermodynamics and Kinetic Physics. Also

Biology becomes progressively based on Physics, as more and more biological

phenomena are being described on the basis of Quantum Physics. Modern Biophysics

is now considered a branch of Physics and no longer a secondary part of Biology and

Physiology. As regards Psychology, there are recently several authors making use of

Quantum Physics in order to explain psychic phenomena [1,2].

The idea of psyche associated with matter dates back to the pre-Socratic period

and is usually called panpsychism. Remnants of organized panpsychism may be found

in the Uno of Parmenides or in Heracleitus’s Divine Flux. Scholars of Miletus’s school

were called hylozoists, that is, “those who believe that matter is alive”. More recently,

we will find the panpsychistic thought in Spinoza, Whitehead and Teilhard de Chardin,

among others. The latter one admitted the existence of proto-conscious properties at

level of elementary particles.

Generally, the people believe that there is some type of psyche associated to the

animals, and some biologists agree that even very simple animals like the ameba and

the sea anemone are endowed with psychism. This led several authors to consider the

possibility of the psychic phenomena to be described in a theory based on Physics

[3,4,5,6].

This work presents a possible theoretical foundation for Psychology based on

Quantum Physics, starting from discoveries published in a recent article [7], where it is

shown that there is a quantum of imaginary mass associated to the electron, which

would be equivalent to an elementary particle that does not conserves the parity. Thus,

besides its inertial mass the electron would have an imaginary mass that would have

elementary capacity of “choice”. The theory here presented describes the structures

165

2

and the interaction between these imaginary particles and also explain their relations

with the matter on all levels, from the atom to man. In addition, it gives us a better

understanding of life and a more complete cosmological view, which lead us to

understand our relationship with ourselves, with others, with the Universe and with

God.

2. THEORY

It was shown [7] that quanta of imaginary mass exist associated to the

electron and the photon and that these imaginary masses would have psychic

properties (elementary capacity of “choice”). Thus, we can say that, besides its

inertial mass, the electron would have a psychic mass, given by

⎛ hf electron ⎞

mΨelectron = mg (imaginary)electron =

⎜ 4

⎟ i = 43 mi (real)electron i (01)

⎝ c ⎠

23

Where mi (real )electron = 9.11 × 10 −31 kg is the real inertial mass of the electron. In the

case of the photons, it was shown that the imaginary gravitational mass of the

4 ⎛ hf ⎞

photon is: m g (imaginary ) photon =

⎜ 2 ⎟ i . Therefore, the psychic mass associated

3 ⎝c ⎠

to a photon with frequency f is expressed by the following equation:

4 ⎛ hf ⎞

m Ψ photon = m g (imaginary ) photon =

⎜ 2⎟ i (02 )

3⎝c ⎠

The equation of quantization of mass [7], in the generalized form is expressed

by: m g (imaginary ) = n 2 m g (imagynary )(min ) . Thus, we can also conclude that the psychic

mass is also quantized, due to m Ψ = m g (imaginary ) , i.e.,

m Ψ = n 2 m Ψ (min ) (03)

Where

mΨ (min ) = 4

3

(hf min )

c2 i = 4

3

mi (real )min i (04)

The minimum quantum of real inertial mass in the Universe, mi (real )min , is given

by [7]:

mi (real )min = ± h 3 8 cdmax = ±3.9 × 10 −73 kg (05)

By analogy to Eq. (01), the expressions of the psychic masses associated to the

proton and the neutron are respectively given by:

3

(hf proton )

c2 i = 4

3

mi (real ) proton i (06 )

3

(hf neutron )

c2 i = 4

3

mi (real )neutron i (07)

166

3

Where f proton and f neutron are respectively the frequencies of the DeBroglie’s

waves associated to the proton and the neutron.

Thus, from a quantum viewpoint, the psychic particles are similar to the

material particles, so that we can use the Quantum Mechanics to describe the

psychic particles. In this case, by analogy to the material particles, a particle

with psychic mass mΨ will be described by the following expressions:

r r

pψ = hkψ (08)

Eψ = hωψ (09)

r r

Where pψ = mΨV is the momentum carried by the wave and Eψ its energy;

r

kψ = 2π λψ is the propagation number and λψ = h m Ψ V the wavelength and

ωψ = 2πfψ its cyclic frequency.

The variable quantity that characterizes DeBroglie’s waves is called Wave

Function, usually indicated by Ψ . The wave function associated to a material

particle describes the dynamic state of the particle: its value at a particular point

x, y, z, t is related to the probability of finding the particle in that place and

instant. Although Ψ does not have a physical interpretation, its square Ψ 2

or Ψ Ψ * ) calculated for a particular point x, y, z, t is proportional to the

probability of experimentally finding the particle in that place and instant.

described by Ψ , the integral of Ψ 2 on the whole space must be finite –

inasmuch as the particle is someplace. Therefore, if

(10)

+∞

∫−∞

Ψ 2 dV = 0

The interpretation is that the particle does not exist. However, if

(11)

+∞

∫−∞

Ψ 2 dV = ∞

the particle will be everywhere simultaneously (Omnipresence).

The wave function Ψ corresponds, as we know, to the displacement y

of the undulatory motion of a rope. However, Ψ as opposed to y , is not a

measurable quantity and can, hence, be a complex quantity. For this reason, it

is admitted that Ψ is described in the x -direction by

− (2π i h )( Et − px )

Ψ = Be (12 )

This equation is the mathematical description of the wave associated with a free

material particle, with total energy E and momentum p , moving in the direction

+ x.

As concerns the psychic particle, the variable quantity characterizing

psyche waves will also be called wave function, denoted by ΨΨ ( to differentiate

it from the material particle wave function), and, by analogy with equation Eq.

(12), expressed by:

167

4

( )

ΨΨ = Ψ0 e Ψ Ψ

(13)

− 2π i h ( E t − p x )

the same wave function Ψ , real density of mass ρ of these particles in x, y, z,

t is proportional to the corresponding value Ψ 2 ( Ψ 2 is known as density of

probability. If Ψ is complex then Ψ 2 = ΨΨ* . Thus, ρ ∝ Ψ 2 = Ψ.Ψ* ). Similarly,

in the case of psychic particles, the density of psychic mass, ρ Ψ , in x, y, z, will

be expressed by ρ Ψ ∝ ΨΨ2 = ΨΨ Ψ*Ψ . It is known that ΨΨ2 is always real and

positive while ρ Ψ = mΨ V is an imaginary quantity. Thus, as the modulus of an

imaginary number is always real and positive, we can transform the proportion

ρ Ψ ∝ ΨΨ2 , in equality in the following form:

ΨΨ2 = k ρ Ψ (14)

Where k is a proportionality constant (real and positive) to be determined.

In Quantum Mechanics we have studied the Superpositon Principle,

which affirms that, if a particle (or system of particles) is in a dynamic state

represented by a wave function Ψ1 and may also be in another dynamic state

described by Ψ2 then, the general dynamic state of the particle may be

described by Ψ , where Ψ is a linear combination (superposition) of Ψ1 and

Ψ2 , i.e.,

Ψ = c1Ψ1 + c2 Ψ2 (15)

Complex constants c1 e c2 respectively indicate the percentage of dynamic

state, represented by Ψ1 e Ψ2 in the formation of the general dynamic state

described by Ψ .

In the case of psychic particles (psychic bodies, consciousness, etc.), by

analogy, if ΨΨ1 , ΨΨ 2 ,..., ΨΨn refer to the different dynamic states the psychic

particle assume, then its general dynamic state may be described by the wave

function ΨΨ , given by:

ΨΨ = c1ΨΨ1 + c2 ΨΨ 2 + ... + cn ΨΨn (16)

The state of superposition of wave functions is, therefore, common for both

psychic and material particles. In the case of material particles, it can be

verified, for instance, when an electron changes from one orbit to another.

Before effecting the transition to another energy level, the electron carries out

“virtual transitions” [8]. A kind of relationship with other electrons before

performing the real transition. During this relationship period, its wave function

remains “scattered” by a wide region of the space [9] thus superposing the

wave functions of the other electrons. In this relationship the electrons mutually

influence each other, with the possibility of intertwining their wave functions 1 .

When this happens, there occurs the so-called Phase Relationship according to

quantum-mechanics concept.

1

Since the electrons are simultaneously waves and particles, their wave aspects will interfere with each

other; besides superposition, there is also the possibility of occurrence of intertwining of their wave

functions.

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In the electrons “virtual” transition mentioned before, the “listing” of all the

possibilities of the electrons is described, as we know, by Schrödinger’s wave equation.

Otherwise, it is general for material particles. By analogy, in the case of psychic

particles, we may say that the “listing” of all the possibilities of the psyches involved in

the relationship will be described by Schrödinger’s equation – for psychic case, i.e.,

p Ψ2

∇ 2 ΨΨ + ΨΨ = 0

h2

Because the wave functions are capable of intertwining themselves, the quantum

systems may “penetrate” each other, thus establishing an internal relationship where all

of them are affected by the relationship, no longer being isolated systems but

becoming an integrated part of a larger system. This type of internal relationship, which

exists only in quantum systems, was called Relational Holism [10].

It is a proven quantum fact that a wave function may collapse, and that, at this

moment, all the possibilities that it describes are suddenly expressed in reality. This

means that, through this process, particles can be suddenly materialized. Similarly, the

collapse of the psychic wave function must suddenly also express in reality all the

possibilities described by it. This is, therefore, a point of decision in which there occurs

the compelling need of realization of the psychic form. Thus, this is moment in which

the content of the psychic form realizes itself in the space-time. For an observer in

space-time, something is real when it is under a matter or radiation form. Therefore, the

content of the psychic form may realize itself in space-time exclusively under the form

of radiation, that is, it does not materialize. This must occur when the Materialization

Condition is not satisfied, i.e., when the content of the psychic form is undefined

(impossible to be defined by its own psychic) or it does not contain enough psychic

mass to materialize 2 the respective psychic contents.

Nevertheless, in both cases, there must always be a production of “virtual”

photons to convey the psychic interaction to the other psychic particles, according to

the quantum field theory, only through this type of quanta will interaction be conveyed,

since it has an infinite reach and may be either attractive or repulsive, just as

electromagnetic interaction which, as we know, is conveyed by the exchange of

“virtual” photons.

If electrons, protons and neutrons have psychic mass, then we can infer that the

psychic mass of the atoms are Phase Condensates 3 . In the case of the molecules the

situation is similar. More molecular mass means more atoms and consequently, more

psychic mass. In this case the phase condensate also becomes more structured

because the great amount of elementary psyches inside the condensate requires, by

stability reasons, a better distribution of them. Thus, in the case of molecules with very

large molecular masses (macromolecules) it is possible that their psychic masses

already constitute the most organized shape of a Phase Condensate, called Bose-

Einstein Condensate 4 .

2

By this we mean not only materialization proper but also the movement of matter to realize its psychic

content (including radiation).

3

Ice and NaCl crystals are common examples of imprecisely-structured phase condensates. Lasers, super

fluids, superconductors and magnets are examples of phase condensates more structured.

4

Several authors have suggested the possibility of the Bose-Einstein condensate occurring in the brain,

and that it might be the physical base of memory, although they have not been able to find a suitable

mechanism to underpin such a hypothesis. Evidences of the existence of Bose-Einstein condensates in

living tissues abound (Popp, F.A Experientia, Vol. 44, p.576-585; Inaba, H., New Scientist, May89, p.41;

Rattermeyer, M and Popp, F. A. Naturwissenschaften, Vol.68, Nº5, p.577.)

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know, that the various parts making up the condensed system not only behave

as a whole but also become a whole, i.e., in the psychic case, the various

consciousnesses of the system become a single consciousness with psychic

mass equal to the sum of the psychic masses of all the consciousness of the

condensate. This obviously, increases the available knowledge in the system

since it is proportional to the psychic mass of the consciousness. This unity

confers an individual character to this type of consciousness. For this reason,

from now on they will be called Individual Material Consciousness.

It derives from the above that most bodies do not possess individual

material consciousness. In an iron rod, for instance, the cluster of elementary

psyches in the iron molecules does not constitute Bose-Einstein condensate;

therefore, the iron rod does not have an individual consciousness. Its

consciousness is consequently, much more simple and constitutes just a phase

condensate imprecisely structured made by the consciousness of the iron

atoms.

The existence of consciousnesses in the atoms is revealed in the

molecular formation, where atoms with strong mutual affinity (their

consciousnesses) combine to form molecules. It is the case, for instance of the

water molecules, in which two Hydrogen atoms join an Oxygen atom. Well, how

come the combination between these atoms is always the same: the same

grouping and the same invariable proportion? In the case of molecular

combinations the phenomenon repeats itself. Thus, the chemical substances

either mutually attract or repel themselves, carrying out specific motions for this

reason. It is the so-called Chemical Affinity. This phenomenon certainly results

from a specific interaction between the consciousnesses. From now on, it will

be called Psychic Interaction.

Mutual Affinity is a dimensionless psychic quantity with which we are

familiar and of which we have perfect understanding as to its meaning. The

degree of Mutual Affinity, A , in the case of two consciousnesses, respectively

described by ΨΨ1 e ΨΨ 2 , must be correlated to ΨΨ2 1 e ΨΨ2 2 5 . Only a simple

algebraic form fills the requirements of interchange of the indices, the product

In the above expression, A is due to the product ΨΨ2 1 .ΨΨ2 2 will be always

positive. From equations (17) and (14) we get

m Ψ1 m Ψ 2

A = ΨΨ2 1 .ΨΨ2 2 = k 2 ρ Ψ1 ρ Ψ 2 = k 2 (18)

V1 V2

5

Quantum Mechanics tells us thatΨ does not have a physical interpretation nor a simple meaning and

also it cannot be experimentally observed. However such restriction does not apply to Ψ , which is

2

known as density of probability and represents the probability of finding the body, described by the wave

function Ψ , in the point x, y, z at the moment t. A large value of Ψ 2 means a strong possibility to find

the body, while a small value of Ψ means a weak possibility to find the body.

2

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The psychic interaction can be described starting from the psychic mass

because the psychic mass is the source of the psychic field. Basically, the

psychic mass is gravitational mass, since m Ψ = m g (imaginary ) . In this way, the

equations of the gravitational interaction are also applied to the Psychic

Interaction. That is, we can use Einstein’s General Relativity equations, given

by:

8πG

(

Rik = 4 Ti k − 12 δ ik T ) (19)

c

in order to describe the Psychic Interaction. In this case, the expression of the

energy-momentum tensor, Ti k , must have the following form [11]:

Ti k = ρ Ψ c 2 μ i μ k (20 )

The psychic mass density, ρ Ψ , is a imaginary quantity. Thus, in order to

homogenize the above equation it is necessary to put ρ Ψ because, as we

know, the module of an imaginary number is always real and positive.

Making on the transition to Classical Mechanics [12] one can verify that

Eqs. (19) are reduced to:

ΔΦ = 4πG ρ Ψ (21)

This is, therefore, the equation of the psychic field in nonrelativistic Mechanics.

With respect to its form, it is similar to the equation of the gravitational field, with

the difference that now, instead of the density of gravitational mass we have the

density of psychic mass. Then, we can write the general solution of Eq. (21), in

the following form:

ρ Ψ dV

Φ = −G ∫ (22)

r2

This equation expresses, with nonrelativistic approximation, the potential of the

psychic field of any distribution of psychic mass.

Particularly, for the potential of the field of only one particle with psychic

mass mΨ1 , we get:

G mΨ1

Φ=− (23)

r

Then the force produced by this field upon another particle with psychic mass

mΨ 2 is

r r ∂Φ mΨ1 mΨ 2

FΨ12 = − FΨ 21 = − mΨ 2 = −G (24)

∂r r2

By comparing equations (24) and (18) we obtain

r r VV

FΨ12 = − FΨ 21 = −G A 12 22 (25)

k r

In the vectorial form the above equation is written as follows

r r VV

FΨ12 = − FΨ 21 = −GA 12 22 μ̂ (26 )

k r

Versor μ̂ has the direction of the line connecting the mass centers (psychic

mass) of both particles and oriented from mΨ1 to mΨ 2 .

In general, we may distinguish and quantify two types of mutual affinity:

positive and negative (aversion). The occurrence of the first type is synonym of

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psychic attraction, (as in the case of the atoms in the water molecule) while the

aversion is synonym of repulsion. In fact, Eq. (26) shows that the forces

r r

FΨ12 and FΨ 21 are attractive, if A is positive (expressing positive mutual affinity

between the two psychic bodies), and repulsive if A is negative (expressing

negative mutual affinity between the two psychic bodies). Contrary to the

interaction of the matter, where the opposites attract themselves here, the

opposites repel themselves.

A method and device to obtain images of psychic bodies have been

previously proposed [13]. By means of this device, whose operation is based on

the gravitational interaction and the piezoelectric effect, it will be possible to

observe psychic bodies.

Expression (18) can be rewritten in the following form:

m m

A = k 2 Ψ1 Ψ 2 (27)

V1 V2

The psychic masses mΨ1 and mΨ 2 are imaginary quantities. However, the product

mΨ1 .mΨ 2 is a real quantity. One can then conclude from the previous expression

that the degree of mutual affinity between two consciousnesses depends

basically on the densities of their psychic masses, and that:

1) If mΨ1 > 0 and mΨ 2 > 0 then A > 0 (positive mutual affinity between them)

2) If mΨ1 < 0 and mΨ 2 < 0 then A > 0 (positive mutual affinity between them)

3) If mΨ1 > 0 and mΨ 2 < 0 then A < 0 (negative mutual affinity between them)

4) If mΨ1 < 0 and mΨ 2 > 0 then A < 0 (negative mutual affinity between them)

transition of the electrons previously mentioned), the consciousnesses interact

mutually, intertwining or not their wave functions. When this happens, there

occurs the so-called Phase Relationship according to quantum-mechanics

concept. Otherwise a Trivial Relationship takes place.

The psychic forces such as the gravitational forces, must be very weak

when we consider the interaction between two particles. However, in spite of

the subtleties, those forces stimulate the relationship of the consciousnesses

with themselves and with the Universe (Eq.26).

From all the preceding, we perceive that Psychic Interaction – unified with

matter interactions, constitutes a single Law which links things and beings

together and, in a network of continuous relations and exchanges, governs the

Universe both in its material and psychic aspects. We can also observe that in

the interactions the same principle reappears always identical. This unity of

principle is the most evident expression of monism in the Universe.

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3. UNIFIED COSMOLOGY

where everything that exists would be initially concentrated in a minuscule

particle with the size of a proton and with a gigantic mass equal to the mass of

the Universe. However, the origin this tiny particle is not explained, nor is the

reason for its critical volume.

This critical volume denotes knowledge of what would happen with the

Universe starting from that initial condition, a fact that points towards the

existence of a Creator.

It was shown that a wave function may collapse and, at this moment, all

the possibilities that it describes are suddenly expressed in reality. This means

that, through this process, particles can be suddenly materialized. This is a

materialization process which can explain the materialization of the Universe.

That is, the Primordial Universe would have arisen at the exact moment in

which the Primordial Wave Function collapsed (Initial Instant) realizing the

content of the psychic form generated at the consciousness of the Creator when

He thought to create the Universe.

The psychic form described by this primordial wave function must have

been generated in a consciousness with a psychic mass much greater than that

needed to materialize the Universe (material and psychic).

This giant consciousness, in its turn, would not only be the greatest of all

consciousnesses in the Universe but also the substratum of everything that

exists and, obviously, everything that exists would be entirely contained within

it, including all the spacetime.

Based on General Theory of Relativity and recent cosmological

observations, it is known today that the Universe occupies a space of positive

curvature. This space, as we known, is “closed in itself”, its volume is finite but,

clearly understood, the space has no frontiers, it is unlimited. Thus, if the

consciousness we refer to contains all the space, its volume is necessarily

infinite, consequently having an infinite psychic mass.

This means that It contains all the existing psychic mass and, therefore,

any other consciousness that may exist will contained in It. Hence, we may

conclude that It is the Supreme Consciousness and that there no other equal to

It: It is unique.

The manifestation of the knowledge or auto-accessible knowledge in a

consciousness should be related to its quantity of psychic mass. In the

Supreme Consciousness, whose psychic mass is infinite, the manifestation of

the knowledge is total, and as such, necessarily, It should be omniscient. In the

elementary psyche (m Ψ (min ) ) most of the knowledge should be in latent state.

Being omniscient, the Supreme Conscience knows evidently, how to formulate

well-defined mental images and with sufficiently psychic masses in order to

materialize their contents (Materialization Condition). Consequently, It can

materialize everything which It wants (Omnipotence).

Since the Supreme Consciousness occupies all the space, we can

conclude that It cannot be displaced by another consciousness, not even by

Itself. Therefore, the Supreme Consciousness is immovable.

As Augustine says (Gen. Ad lit viii, 20), "The Creator Spirit moves Himself

neither by time, nor by place."

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necessary:

“From this we infer that it is necessary that the God that moves everything is

immovable.” (Summa Theologica).

On the other hand, since the Supreme Consciousness contains all the

space-time, It should contain obviously, all the time. More explicit, for the

Supreme Consciousness, past, present and future are an eternal present, and

the time does not flow as it flows for us.

Within this framework, when we talk about the Creation of the Universe,

the use of the verb “to create” means that something that was not came into

being, thus presupposing the concept of time flow. For the Supreme

Consciousness, however, the instant of Creation is mixed up with all other

times, consequently there being no “before” or “after” the Creation and, thus,

the following questions like “What did the Supreme Consciousness do before

Creation?

We can also infer from the above that the existence of the Supreme

Consciousness has no defined limit (beginning and end), which confers upon It

the unique characteristic of uncreated and eternal.

Being eternal, Its wave function ΨSC shall never collapse. On the other

hand, for having an infinite psychic mass, the value of ΨSC will always be infinite

and, hence, in agreement with Eq. (11), the Supreme Consciousness is

simultaneously everywhere, that is, It is omnipresent.

All these characteristics of the Supreme Consciousness (infinite, unique,

uncreated, eternal, omnipresent, omniscient and omnipotent) coincide with

those traditionally ascribed to God by most religions.

The option of the Supreme Consciousness to materialize the primordial

Universe into a critical volume denotes the knowledge of what was would

happen in the Universe starting from that initial condition. Therefore, It knew

how the Universe would behave under already existing laws. Consequently, the

laws were not created for the Universe and, hence, are not “Nature’s laws” or

“laws placed on Nature by God”, as written by Descartes. They already existed

as an intrinsic part of the Supreme Consciousness; Thomas Aquinas had a very

clear understanding about this. He talks about the Eternal Law “…which exists

in God’s mind and governs the whole Universe”.

The Supreme Consciousness had all freedom to choose the initial

conditions of the Universe, but opted for the concentration in a critical volume

so that the evolution of the Universe would proceed in the most convenient form

for the purpose It had in mind and in accordance with the laws inherent in Its

own nature. This reasoning then answers Einstein’s famous question: “What

level of choice would God have had when building the Universe?”

Apparently, Newton was the first one to notice the Divine option. In his

book Optiks, he gives us a perfect view of how he imagined the creation of the

Universe:

“ It seems possible to me that God, in the beginning, gave form to matter in

solid, compacted particles[…] in the best manner possible to contribute to the

purpose He had in mind…”

With what purpose did the Supreme Consciousness create the Universe?

This question seems to be difficult to answer. Nevertheless, if we admit the

Supreme Consciousness’s primordial desire to procreate, i.e., to generate

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individual consciousnesses from Itself so that the latter could evolve and

manifest Its same creating attributes, then we can infer that, in order for them to

evolve, such consciousness would need a Universe, and this might have been

the main reason for its creation. Therefore, the origin of the Universe would be

related to the generation of said consciousness and, consequently, the

materialization of the primordial Universe must have taken place at the same

epoch when the Supreme Consciousness decided to individualize the

postulated consciousness, hereinafter called Primordial Consciousness.

For having been directly individualized from the Supreme Consciousness,

the primordial consciousness certainly contained in themselves, although in a

latent state, all the possibilities of the Supreme Consciousness, including the

germ of independent will, which enables original starting points to be

established. However, in spite of the similarity to Supreme Consciousness, the

primordial consciousness could not have the understanding of themselves. This

self-understanding only arises with the creative mental state that such

consciousnesses can only reach by evolution.

Thus, in the first evolutionary period, the primordial consciousness must

have remained in total unconscious state, this being then the beginning of an

evolutionary pilgrimage from unconsciousness to superconsciousness.

The evolution of the primordial consciousness in this unconsciousness

period takes place basically through psychic relationship among them

(superposition of psychic wave functions, having or not intertwining). Thus, the

speed at which they evolved was determined by what they obtained in these

relationships.

After the origin of the first planets, some of them came to develop

favorable conditions for the appearance of macromolecules. These

macromolecules, as we have shown, may have a special type of consciousness

formed by a Bose-Einstein condensate (Individual Material Consciousness). In

this case, since the molecular masses of the macromolecules are very large,

they will have individual material consciousness of large psychic mass and,

therefore, access to a considerable amount of information in its own

consciousness. Consequently, macromolecules with individual material

consciousness are potentially very capable and some certainly already can

carry out autonomous motions, thus being considered as “living” entities.

However, if we decompose one of these molecules so as to destroy its

individual consciousness, its parts will no longer have access to the information

which “instructed” said molecule and, hence, will not be able to carry out the

autonomous motions it previously did. Thus, the “life” of the molecule

disappears – as we can see, Delbrück’s Paradox is then solved 6 .

The appearance of “living” molecules in a planet marks the beginning of

the most important evolutionary stage for the psyche of matter, for it is from the

combination of these molecules that there appear living beings with individual

material consciousness with even larger psychic masses.

Biologists have shown that all living organisms existing on Earth come

from two types of molecules – aminoacids and nucleotides – which make up the

fundamental building blocks of living beings. That is, the nucleotides and

6

This paradox ascribed to Max Delbrück (Delbrück, Max., (1978) Mind from Matter? American Scholar,

47. pp.339-53.) remained unsolved and was posed as follows: How come the same matter studied by

Physics, when incorporated into a living organism, assumes an unexpected behavior, although not

contradicting physical laws?

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aminoacids are identical in all living beings, whether they are bacteria, mollusks

or men. There are twenty different species of aminoacids and five of

nucleotides.

In 1952, Stanley Miller and Harold Urey proved that aminoacids could be

produced from inert chemical products present in the atmosphere and oceans in

the first years of existence of the Earth. Later, in 1962, nucleotides were created

in laboratory under similar conditions. Thus, it was proved that the molecular

units making up the living beings could have formed during the Earth’s primitive

history.

Therefore, we can imagine what happened from the moment said

molecules appeared. The concentration of aminoacids and nucleotides in the

oceans gradually increased. After a long period of time, when the amount of

nucleotides was already large enough, they began to group themselves by

mutual psychic attraction, forming the molecules that in the future will become

DNA molecules.

When the molecular masses of these molecules became large enough,

the distribution of elementary psyches in their consciousnesses took the most

orderly possible form of phase condensate (Bose-Einstein condensate) and

such consciousnesses became the individual material consciousness.

Since the psychic mass of the consciousnesses of these molecules is

very large (as compared with the psychic mass of the atoms), the amount of

self-accessible knowledge became considerable in such consciousnesses and

thus, they became apt to instruct the joining of aminoacids in the formation of

the first proteins (origin of the Genetic Code). Consequently, the DNA’s

capability to serve as guide for the joining of aminoacids in the formation of

proteins is fundamentally a result of their psychism.

In the psychic of DNA molecules, the formation of proteins certainly had a

definite objective: the construction of cells.

During the cellular construction, the most important function played by the

consciousnesses of the DNA molecules may have been that of organizing the

distribution of the new molecules incorporated to the system so that the

consciousnesses of these molecules jointly formed with the consciousness of

the system a Bose-Einstein condensate. In this manner, more knowledge would

be available to the system and, after the cell is completed, the latter would also

have an individual material consciousness.

Afterwards, under the action of psychic interaction, the cells began to

group themselves according to different degrees of positive mutual affinity, in an

organized manner so that the distribution of their consciousnesses would also

form Bose-Einstein condensates. Hence, collective cell units began to appear

with individual consciousnesses of larger psychic masses and, therefore, with

access to more knowledge. With greater knowledge available, these groups of

cells began to perform specialized functions to obtain food, assimilation, etc.

That is when the first multi-celled beings appeared.

Upon forming the tissues, the cells gather structurally together in an

organized manner. Thus, the tissues and, hence, the organs and the organisms

themselves also possess individual material consciousnesses.

The existence of the material consciousness of the organisms is proved

in a well-known experiment by Karl Lashley, a pioneer in neurophysiology.

Lashley initially taught guinea pigs to run through a maze, an ability they

remember and keep in their memories in the same way as we acquire new

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skills. He then systematically removed small portions of the brain tissue of said

guinea pigs. He thought that, if the guinea pigs still remembered how to run

through the maze, the memory centers would still be intact.

Little by little he removed the brain mass; the guinea pigs, curiously

enough, kept remembering how to run through the maze. Finally, with more

than90% of their cortex removed, the guinea pigs still kept remembering how to

run through the maze. Well, as we have seen, the consciousness of an

organism is formed by the concretion of all its cellular consciousnesses.

Therefore, the removal of a portion of the organism cells does not make it

disappear. Their cells, or better saying, the consciousnesses of their cells

contribute to the formation of the consciousness of the organism just as the

others, and it is exactly due to this that, even when we remove almost all of the

guinea pigs’ cortex, they were still able to remember from the memories of their

individual material consciousnesses. In this manner, what Lashley’s experiment

proved was precisely the existence of individual material consciousnesses in

the guinea pigs.

Another proof of the existence of the individual material

consciousnesses in organisms is given by the regeneration phenomenon, so

frequent in animals of simple structure: sponges, isolated coelenterates, worms

of various groups, mollusks, echinoderms and tunicates. The arthropods

regenerate their pods. Lizards may regenerate only their tail after autoctomy.

Some starfish may regenerate so easily that a simple detached arm may, for

example, give origin to a wholly new animal.

The organization of the psychic parts in the composition of an organism’s

individual material consciousness is directly related to the organization of the

material parts of the organism, as we have already seen. Thus, due to this

interrelationship between body and consciousness, any disturbance of a

material (physiological) nature in the body of the being will affect its individual

material consciousness, and any psychic disturbance imposed upon its

consciousness affects the physiology of its body.

When a consciousness is strongly affected to the extent of unmaking the

Bose-Einstein’s condensate, which gives it the status of individual

consciousness, there also occurs the simultaneous disappearance of the

knowledge made accessible by said condensation. Therefore, when a cell’s

consciousness no longer constitutes a Bose-Einstein condensate, there is also

the simultaneous disappearance of the knowledge that instructs and maintains

the cellular metabolism. Consequently, the cell no longer functions thus

initiating its decomposition (molecular disaggregation).

Similarly, when the consciousness of an animal (or plant) no longer

constitutes a Bose-Einstein condensate, the knowledge that instructs and

maintains its body functioning also disappears, and it dies. In this process, after

the unmaking of the being’s individual consciousness, there follows the

unmaking of the individual consciousnesses of the organs; next will be the

consciousnesses of their own cells which no longer exit. At the end there will

remain the isolated psyches of the molecules and atoms. Death, indeed,

destroys nothing, neither what makes up matter nor what makes up psyche.

As we have seen, all the information available in the consciousnesses of

the beings is also accessible by the consciousnesses of their organs up to their

molecules’. Thus, when an individual undergoes a certain experience, the

information concerning it not only is recorded somewhere in this consciousness

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but also pervades all the individual consciousnesses that make up its total

consciousness. Consequently, psychic disturbances imposed to a being reflect

up to the level of their individual molecular consciousnesses, perhaps even

structurally affecting said molecules, due to the interrelationship between body

and consciousness already mentioned here.

Therefore, one can expect that there may occur modifications in the

sequences of nucleotides of DNA molecules when the psychism of the

organism to which they are incorporated is sufficiently affected.

It is known that such modifications in the structure of DNA molecules may

also occur because of the chemical products in the blood stream ( as in the

case of the mustard gas used in chemical warface) or by the action of radiation

sufficiently energetic.

Modifications in the sequences of nucleotides in DNA molecules are

called mutations. Mutations as we know, determine hereditary variations which

make up the basis of Darwin’s theory of evolution.

There may occur “favorable” and unfavorable” mutation to the individuals;

the former enhances the individuals’ possibility of survival, whereas the latter

decrease such possibility.

The theory of evolution is established as a consequence of individuals’

efforts to survive in the environment where they live. This means that their

descendants may become different from their ancestors. This is the mechanism

that leads to the frequent appearance of new species. Darwin believed that the

mutation process was slow and gradual. Nevertheless, it is known today that

this is not the general rule, for there are evidences of the appearance of new

species in a relatively short period of time [14]. We also know that the

characteristics are transmitted from parents to offsprings by means of genes

and that the recombination of the parents’ genes, when genetic instructions are

transmitted by such genes.

However, it was shown that the genetic instructions are basically

associated with the psychism of DNA molecules. Consequently, the genes

transmit not only physiological but also psychic differences.

Thus, as a consequence of genetic transmission, besides the great

physiological difference between individuals of the same species, there is also a

great psychic dissimilarity.

Such psychic dissimilarity associated with the progressive enhancement

of the individual’s psychic quantities may have given rise, in immemorial time, to

a variety of individuals (most probably among anthropoid primates) which

unconsciously established a positive mutual affinity with primordial

consciousnesses must have been attracted to the Earth. Thus, the relationship

established among them and the consciousnesses of said individuals is

enhanced.

In the course of evolutionary transformation, there was a time when the

fetuses of said variety already presented such a high degree of mutual affinity

with the primordial consciousnesses attracted to the Earth that, during

pregnancy, the incorporation of primordial consciousnesses may have occurred

in said fetuses.

In spite of absolute psychic mass of the fetus’s material consciousness

being much smaller than that of the mother’s consciousness, the degree of

positive mutual affinity between the fetus’s consciousness and the primordial

consciousness that is going to be incorporated is much greater than that

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between the latter and the mother’s, which makes the psychic attraction

between the fetus’s consciousness and primordial consciousness much

stronger than the attraction between the latter and the mother’s. That is the

reason why primordial consciousness incorporates the fetus. Thus, when these

new individuals are born, they bring along, besides their individual material

consciousness, an individualized consciousness of the Supreme

Consciousness. This is how the first hominids were born.

Having been directly individualized from Supreme Consciousness, the

primordial consciousnesses constitutes as perfect individualities and not as

phase condensates as the consciousnesses of matter. In this manner, they do

not dissociate upon the death of those that incorporated them. Afterwards, upon

the action of psychic attraction, they were again able to incorporate into other

fetuses to proceed with their evolution.

These consciousnesses (hereinafter called human consciousness)

constitutes individualities and, therefore, the larger their psychic mass the more

available knowledge they will have and, consequently, greater ability to evolve.

Just as the human race evolves biologically, human consciousnesses

have also been evolving. When they are incorporated, the difficulties of the

material world provide them with more and better opportunities to acquire

psychic mass (later on we will see how said consciousnesses may gain or lose

psychic mass). That is why they need to perform successive reincorporations.

Each reincorporation arises as a new opportunity for said consciousnesses to

increase their psychic mass and thus evolve.

The belief in the reincarnation is millenary and well known, although it has

not yet been scientifically recognized, due to its antecedent probability being

very small. In other words, there is small amount of data contributing to its

confirmation. This, however, does not mean that the phenomenon is not true,

but only that there is the need for a considerable amount of experiments to

establish a significant degree of antecedent probability.

The rational acceptance of reincarnation entails deep modifications in

the general philosophy of the human being. For instance, it frees him from

negative feelings, such as nationalistic or racial prejudices and other response

patterns based on the naive conception that we are simply what we appear to

be.

Darwin’s lucid perception upon affirming that not only the individual’s

corporeal qualities but also his psychic qualities tend to improve made implicit in

his “natural selection” one of the most important rules of evolution: the psychic

selection, which basically consists in the survival of the most apt

consciousnesses. Psychic aptitude means, in the case of human

consciousnesses, mental quality, i.e., quality of thinking.

Further on, we will see that the human consciousnesses may gain or lose

psychic mass from the Supreme consciousness, respectively due to the mode

of resonance (quality) of their thoughts. This means that the consciousnesses

that cultivate a greater amount of bad-quality thoughts will have a lesser chance

of psychic survival than the others. A human consciousness that permanently

cultivates bad-quality thoughts progressively loses psychic mass and may even

be extinguished.

With the progressive disappearance of psychically less apt

consciousnesses, it will be increasingly easy for the more apt consciousnesses

to increase their psychic masses during reincorporation periods. There will be a

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psychic mass and, therefore, highly evolved. It may happen that such time will

precede the critical time from which material life will no longer be possible in the

Universe.

the individualization of a quantum of psychic mass ΔmΨ in the very

consciousness where the thought originated. Consequently, the wave function

ΨΨ associated with this psychic body must collapse after a time interval Δt ,

expressing in the space-time its psychic content when it contains sufficiently

psychic mass for that, or otherwise transforming itself in radiation (psychic

radiation). In both cases, there is also production of “virtual” photons (“virtual’

psychic radiation) to convey the psychic interaction.

According to the Uncertainty Principle, “virtual” quanta cannot be

observed experimentally. However, since they are interaction quanta, their

effects may be verified in the very particles or bodies subjected to the

interactions.

Obviously, only one specific type of interaction occurs between two

particles if each one absorbs the quanta of said interaction emitted by the other;

otherwise, the interaction will be null. Thus, the null interaction between psychic

bodies particularly means that there is no mutual absorption of the “virtual”

psychic photons (psychic interaction quanta) emitted by them. That is, the

emission spectrum of each one of them does not coincide with the absorption

spectrum of the other.

By analogy with material bodies, whose emission spectra are, as we

know, identical with the absorption ones, also the psychic bodies must absorb

within the spectrum they emit. Specifically, in the case of human

consciousness, their thoughts cause them to become emitters of psychic

radiation in certain frequency spectra and, consequently, receivers in the same

spectra. Thus, when a human consciousness, by its thoughts, is receptive

coming from a certain thought, said radiation will be absorbed by the

consciousness (resonance absorption). Under these circumstances, the

radiation absorbed must stimulate – through the Resonance Principle – said

consciousness to emit in the same spectrum, just as it happens with matter.

Nevertheless, in order for that emission to occur in a human

consciousness, it must be preceded by the individualization of thoughts identical

with that which originated the radiation absorbed because obviously only

identical thoughts will be able to reproduce, when they collapse, the spectrum of

“virtual” psychic radiations absorbed.

These induced thoughts – such as the thoughts of consciousnesses

themselves – must remain individualized for a period of time Δt (lifetime of the

thought) after which its wave function will collapse, thus producing the “virtual”

psychic radiation in the same spectrum of frequencies absorbed.

The Supreme Consciousness, just as the other consciousnesses, has Its

own spectrum of absorption determined by Its thoughts – which make up the

standard of a good-quality thought is hereby established. That is, they are

resonant thoughts in Supreme Consciousness. Thus, only thoughts of this kind,

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thoughts in Supreme Consciousness.

In this context, a system of judgment is established in which the good and

the evil are psychic values, with their origin in free thought. The good is related

to the good-quality thoughts, which are thoughts resonant in Supreme

Consciousness. The evil, in turn, is related to the bad-quality thoughts, non-

resonant in the Supreme Consciousness.

Consequently, the moral derived thereof results from the Law itself,

inherent in the Supreme Consciousness and, therefore, this psychic moral must

be the fundamental moral. Thus, fundamental ethics is neither biological nor

located in the aggressive action, as thought by Nietzsche. It is psychic and

located in the good-quality thoughts. It has a theological basis and in it the

creation of the Universe by a pre-existing God is of an essential nature,

opposed, for instance, to Spinoza’s “geometrical ethics”, which eliminated the

ideas of the Creation of the Universe by a pre-existing God the main

underpinning of Christian theology and philosophy. However, it is very close to

Aristotle’s ethics, to the extent that, from it, we understand that we are what we

repeatedly do (think) and that excellence is not an act, but a habit (Ethics, II, 4).

According to Aristotle: ‘” the goodness of a man is a work of the soul towards

excellence in a complete lifetime: … it is not a day or a short period that makes

a man fortunate and happy. “ (Ibid, I, 7).

The “virtual” psychic radiation coming from a thought may induce several

similar thoughts in the consciousness absorbing it, because each photon of

radiation absorbed carries in itself the electromagnetic expression of the

thought which produced it and, consequently, each one of them stimulates the

individualization of a similar thought. However, the amount of thoughts induced

is, of course, limited by the amount of psychic mass of the consciousness

proper.

In the specific case of the Supreme Consciousness, the “virtual” psychic

radiation coming from a good-quality thought must induce many similar

thoughts. On the other hand, since Supreme Consciousness involves human

consciousness the induced thoughts appear in the surroundings of the very

consciousness which induced them. These thoughts are then strongly attracted

by said consciousness and fuse therewith, for just as the thoughts generated in

a consciousness have a high degree of positive mutual affinity with it, they will

also have the thoughts induced by it.

The fusion of these thoughts in the consciousness obviously determines

an increase in its psychic mass. We then conclude that the cultivation of good-

quality thoughts is highly beneficial to the individual. On the contrary, the

cultivation of bad-quality thoughts makes consciousness lose psychic mass.

When bad-quality thoughts are generated in a consciousness, they do not

induce identical thoughts in Supreme Consciousness, because the absorption

spectrum of Supreme Consciousness excludes psychic radiations coming from

bad-quality thoughts. Thus, such radiation directs itself to other

consciousnesses; however, it will only induce identical thoughts in those that

are receptive in the same frequency spectrum. When this happens and right

after the wave functions corresponding to these induced thoughts collapse and

materialize said thoughts or changing them into radiation, the receptive

consciousness will lose psychic mass, similarly to what happens in the

consciousness which first produced the thought. Consequently, both the

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consciousness which gave rise to the bad-quality thought and those receptive to

the psychic radiations coming from this type of thoughts will lose psychic mass.

We must observe, however, that our thoughts are not limited only to

harming or benefiting ourselves, since they also can, as we have already seen,

induce similar thoughts in other consciousnesses, thus affecting them. In this

case, it is important to observe that the psychic radiation produced by the

induced thoughts may return to the consciousness which initially produced the

bad-quality thought, inducing other similar thoughts in it, which evidently cause

more loss of psychic mass in said consciousness.

The fact of our thoughts not being restricted to influencing ourselves is

highly relevant because it leads us to understand we have a great responsibility

towards the others as regards what we think.

Let us now approach the intensity of thoughts. If two thoughts have the

same psychic form and equal psychic masses, they have the same psychic

density and, consequently, the same intensity, from the psychic viewpoint.

However, if one of them has more psychic mass than the other, it will evidently

have a larger psychic density and, thus, will be more intense.

The same thought repeated with different intensities in a consciousness –

in a time period much shorter than the lifetime of thought – has its psychic mass

increased due to the fusion of the psychic masses corresponding to each

repetition. The fusion is caused by a strong psychic attraction between them,

because the inertial thought and the repeated ones have high degree of positive

mutual affinity.

It is then possible by this process that the thought may appear with

enough psychic mass to materialize when its wave function collapses.

If the process is jointly shared with other consciousnesses, the thoughts

in these consciousnesses evidently correspond to different dynamics states in

the same thought. Thus, if ΨΨ1 , ΨΨ 2 ,..., ΨΨn refer to the different dynamic

states that the same thought may assume, then its general dynamic state,

according to the superposition principle, may be described by a single wave

function ΨΨ , given by:

ΨΨ = c1ΨΨ1 + c2 ΨΨ 2 + ... + cn ΨΨn

Therefore, everything happens as if there were only a single thought

described by ΨΨ , with psychic mass determined by the set of psychic masses

of all the similar thoughts repeated in the various consciousnesses. In this

manner, it is possible that in this process the thought materializes even faster

than in the case of a single consciousness.

It was shown that the consciousnesses may increase their psychic

masses by cultivating good-quality thoughts and avoiding the bad-quality

thoughts ones. However, both the cultivation of good thoughts and the ability to

instantly perceive nature in our thoughts to quickly repel the bad-quality

thoughts result in a slow and difficult process.

The fact of intense enough mental images being capable of materializing

suggests that we must be careful with mental images of fear. Thus more than

anything else, it is imperative to avoid their repetition in our consciousnesses,

because at each repetition they acquire more psychic mass.

Great are the possibilities encompassed in the consciousnesses, just as

many are the effects of psychic interaction. At cellular level, the intervention of

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interesting.

Despite the recent advances in Embryology, embryologists cannot

understand how the cells of the internal cellular mass 7 migrate to defined

places in the embryo in order to form the organs of the future child.

We will show that this is a typical biological phenomenon which is

fundamentally derived from the psychic interaction between the cells’

consciousnesses.

Just as the consciousnesses of the children have a high degree of

positive mutual affinity with the consciousnesses of their parents, and among

themselves (principle of familiar formation), the embryo cells, by having

originated from cellular duplication, have a high degree of positive mutual

affinity. The embryo cells result, as we know, from the cellular duplication of a

single cell containing the paternal and maternal genes and, hence, have a high

degree of positive mutual affinity.

Thus, under the action of psychic interaction the cells of the internal

cellular mass start gathering into small groups, according to the different

degrees of mutual affinity.

When there is a positive mutual affinity between two consciousnesses

there occurs the intertwining between their wave functions, and a Phase

Relationship is established among them. Consequently, since the degree of

positive mutual affinity among the embryo cells is high, also the relationship

among them will be intense, and it is exactly this what enables the construction

of the organs of the future child. In other words, when a cell is attracted by

certain group in the embryo, it is through the cell-group relationship that

determines where the cell is to aggregate to the group. In this manner, each cell

finds its correct place in the embryo; that is why observers frequently say that,

”the cells appear to know where to go”, when experimentally observed.

The cells of the internal cellular mass are capable of originating any

organ, and are hence called totipotents; thus, the organs begin to appear. In the

endoderm, there appear the urinary organs, the respiratory system, and part of

the digestive system; in the mesoderm are formed the muscles, bones,

cartilages, blood, vessels, heart, kidneys; in the ectoderm there appear the skin,

the nervous system, etc.

Thus, it is the mutual affinity among the consciousnesses of the cells that

determines the formation of the body organs and keeps their own physical

integrity. For this reason, every body rejects cells from other bodies, unless the

latter have positive mutual affinity with their own cells. The higher the degree of

cellular positive mutual affinity, the faster the integration of the transplanted

cells and, therefore, the less problematic the transplant. In the case of cells from

identical twins, this integration takes place practically with no problems, since

said degree of mutual affinity is very high.

7

When a spermatozoon penetrates the ovum, an egg is formed. Roughly twelve to

fourteen hours later, the egg divides into two identical cells. This is the beginning of the

phase where the embryo is called morula. Six days later, in the blastula phase, the

external cells fix the embryo to the uterus. The cells inside the blastula remain equal to

each other and are known as internal cellular mass.

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In eight weeks of life, all organs are practically formed in the embryo.

From there on, it begins to be called fetus.

The embryo’s material individual consciousness is formed by the

consciousnesses of its cells united in a Bose-Einstein condensate. As more

cells become incorporated into the embryo, its material consciousness acquires

more psychic mass. This means that this type of consciousness will be greater

in the fetus than in the embryo and even greater in the child.

Thus, the psychic mass of the mother-fetus consciousness progressively

increases during pregnancy, consequently increasing the psychic attraction

between this consciousness and that new one about to incorporate. In normal

pregnancies, this psychic attraction also increases due to the habitual increase

in the degree of positive mutual affinity between said consciousnesses.

Since the embryo's consciousness has greater degree of positive mutual

affinity with the consciousness that is going to incorporate, then the embryo's

consciousness becomes the center of psychic attraction to where the human

consciousness destined to the fetus will go.

When the psychic attraction becomes intense enough, human

consciousness penetrates the mother-fetus consciousness, forming with it a

new Bose–Einstein condensate. From that instant on, the fetus begins to have

two consciousnesses: the individual material one and the human consciousness

attracted to it.

It easy to see that the psychic attraction upon this human consciousness

tends to continue, being progressively compressed until effectively incorporating

the fetus. When this takes place, it will be ready to be born.

It is probably due to this psychic compression process that the

incorporated consciousness suffers amnesia of its preceding history. Upon

death, after the psychic decompression that arises from the definitive

disincorporation of the consciousness, the preceding memory must return.

It was shown that particles of matter perform transitions to the imaginary

space-time when their gravitational masses reach the gravitational mass

ranging between + 0.159 M i to − 0.159M i [7]. Under these circumstances, the

total energy of the particle becomes imaginary and consequently it disappears

from our ordinary space-time. Since imaginary mass is equal to psychic mass

we can infer that the particle makes a transition to the psychic space-time.

The consciousnesses are in the psychic space-time. Therefore, if material

bodies can become psychic bodies and to interact with others psychic bodies in

this space-time, then they reach a new part of the Universe where the

consciousnesses live and from where they come in order to incorporate the

human fetus, and to where they should return, after the death of the material

bodies. Consequently, the transition to the psychic space-time is a door for us

to visit the spiritual Universe.

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REFERENCES

University Press.

[4] Young, A.M. (1976) The Geometry of Meaning, Delacorte Press, N.Y;

Young, A.M. The Reflexive Universe: Evolution of Consciousness, Delacorte

Press, N.Y.

Boulder Creek, Cal: C -Life Institute.

[6] Bohm, D. (1980) A New Theory of Relation of Mind and Matter, The Journal

of the American Society of Psychical Research, Vol. 80, Nº 2, p.129.

of Quantum Gravity, preprint, physics/0212033.

241,128.

[10] Teller, P. Relational Holism and Quantum Mechanics, British Journal for the

Philosophy of Science, 37, 71-81.

Portuguese version (1974) Ed. Hemus, S.Paulo, pp.116 and 363.

Portuguese version (1974) Ed. Hemus, S.Paulo, pp.363-364.

Field through Gas at Ultra-Low Pressure”, physics/0701091.

[14] Grant, P.R., and Grant, B.R. (1995). Predicting microevolutionary responses

to directional selection on heritable variation. Evolution 49:241-251.

185

The Gravitational Spacecraft

Fran De Aquino

Maranhao State University, Physics Department, S.Luis/MA, Brazil.

Copyright © 1997-2010 by Fran De Aquino. All Rights Reserved

There is an electromagnetic factor of correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass,

which in specific electromagnetic conditions, can be reduced, made negative and increased in

numerical value. This means that gravitational forces can be reduced, inverted and intensified

by means of electromagnetic fields. Such control of the gravitational interaction can have a lot

of practical applications. For example, a new concept of spacecraft and aerospace flight arises

from the possibility of the electromagnetic control of the gravitational mass. The novel

spacecraft called Gravitational Spacecraft possibly will change the paradigm of space flight

and transportation in general. Here, its operation principles and flight possibilities, it will be

described. Also it will be shown that other devices based on gravity control, such as the

Gravitational Motor and the Quantum Transceivers, can be used in the spacecraft,

respectively, for Energy Generation and Telecommunications.

CONTENTS

1. Introduction 02

2. Gravitational Shielding 02

Appendix A 26

Appendix B 34

Appendix C 39

References 42

186

2

1. Introduction

between gravitational mass and inertial it has been clearly noticed that there

mass [1] has shown that the gravity was something unsatisfactory about

can be reduced, nullified and inverted. the whole notion of quantization and

Starting from this discovery several that the quantization process had many

ways were proposed in order to obtain ambiguities. Then, a new approach has

experimentally the local gravity been proposed starting from the

control [2]. Consequently, new generalization of the action function * .

concepts of spacecraft and aerospace The result has been the derivation of a

flight have arisen. This novel theoretical background, which finally

spacecraft, called Gravitational led to the so-sought quantization of the

Spacecraft, can be equipped with other gravity and of the space-time.

devices also based on gravity control, Published under the title:

such as the Gravitational Motor and “Mathematical Foundations of the

the Quantum Transceiver that can be Relativistic Theory of Quantum

used, respectively, for energy Gravity” † , this theory predicts a

generation and telecommunications. consistent unification of Gravity with

Based on the theoretical background Electromagnetism. It shows that the

which led to the gravity control, the strong equivalence principle is

operation principles of the reaffirmed and, consequently

Gravitational Spacecraft and of the Einstein’s equations are preserved. In

devices above mentioned, will be fact, Einstein’s equations can be

described in this work. deduced directly from the Relativistic

Theory of Quantum Gravity. This

2. Gravitational Shielding shows, therefore, that the General

Relativity is a particularization of this

The contemporary greatest new theory, just as the Newton’s

challenge of the Theoretical Physics theory is a particular case from the

was to prove that, Gravity is a General Relativity. Besides, it was

quantum phenomenon. Since the deduced from the new theory an

General Relativity describes gravity as important correlation between the

related to the curvature of the space- gravitational mass and the inertial

time then, the quantization of the mass, which shows that the

gravity implies the quantization of the gravitational mass of a particle can be

proper space-time. Until the end of the decreased and even made negative,

century XX, several attempts to independently of its inertial mass, i.e.,

quantify gravity were accomplished. while the gravitational mass is

However, all of them resulted fruitless

*

[3, 4]. The formulation of the action in Classical Mechanics

extends to the Quantum Mechanics and it has been the

basis for the development of the Strings Theory.

†

http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0212033

187

3

progressively reduced, the inertial kinetic momentum; c is the speed of

mass does not vary. This is highly light.

relevant because it means that the This equation shows that only

weight of a body can also be reduced for Δp = 0 the gravitational mass is

and even inverted in certain equal to the inertial mass. Instances in

circumstances, since Newton’s gravity which Δp is produced by

law defines the weight P of a body as electromagnetic radiation, Eq. (3) can

the product of its gravitational mass be rewritten as follows:

m g by the local gravity acceleration g , ⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫

⎪ ⎛ nr2 D ⎞

⎟ − 1⎥⎪⎬

mg ⎢

i.e., = ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜

⎢ ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎥

(4)

mi 0 ⎪ ρc ⎠

⎩ ⎢

⎣ ⎝ ⎥⎦⎪⎭

P = mg g (1)

Where nr is the refraction index of the

It arises from the mentioned law

particle; D is the power density of the

that the gravity acceleration (or simply

electromagnetic radiation absorbed by

the gravity) produced by a body with

the particle; and ρ its density of

gravitational mass M g is given by

inertial mass.

It was shown [1] that there is an

GM g

g= (2 ) additional effect of gravitational

r2 shielding produced by a substance

whose gravitational mass was reduced

The physical property of mass or made negative. This effect shows

has two distinct aspects: gravitational that just above the substance the

mass mg and inertial mass mi. The gravity acceleration g1 will be reduced

gravitational mass produces and

at the same proportion χ = m g mi 0 ,

responds to gravitational fields. It

supplies the mass factors in Newton's i.e., g1 = χ g , ( g is the gravity

famous inverse-square law of acceleration bellow the substance).

gravity (F = GM g m g r ) . The inertial

2 Equation (4) shows, for

example, that, in the case of a gas at

mass is the mass factor in Newton's

ultra-low pressure (very low density of

2nd Law of Motion (F = mi a ) . These

inertial mass), the gravitational mass

two masses are not equivalent but of the gas can be strongly reduced or

correlated by means of the following made negative by means of the

factor [1]: incidence of electromagnetic radiation

with power density relatively low.

⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫

mg ⎪ ⎛ Δ ⎞ ⎪ Thus, it is possible to use this

= ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜⎜

p

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