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Fran De Aquino

Gravitational
Energy
Control

January
2020
Gravitational Energy Control
Fran De Aquino

Gravitational Energy Control

January
2020
Gravitational Energy Control

This book is a intellectual property of Professor Fran De Aquino.

Copyright © 2020 by Fran De Aquino


All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, translated, stored in a
retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, electrostatic,
magnetic, tape, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise without the
permission from Professor Fran De Aquino.
PREFACE

This is a set of 82 selected articles published by Dr. Fran


De Aquino along 20 years; all of them developed starting from the
Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity (first article). Together they
provide the theoretical foundations for the Technology of Control of
the Gravitational Energy. The author is Professor Emeritus of
Physics of Maranhao State University, UEMA, and Titular
Researcher (R) of National Institute for Space Research, INPE.
To my sons and grandsons.
xi

CONTENTS
Page Number
(at bottom center)

1. Mathematical Foundations of the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity ……………………………… 15

2. Gravity Control by means of Electromagnetic Field through Gas or Plasma at Ultra-Low Pressure ……. 91

3. Physical Foundations of Quantum Psychology …………………………………………………………… 165

4. The Gravitational Spacecraft ……………………………………………………………………………… 186

5. Possibility of controlled nuclear fusion by means of Gravity Control ……………………………………. 228

6. High-power ELF radiation generated by modulated HF heating of the ionosphere can cause
Earthquakes, Cyclones and localized heating …………………………………………………………….. 231

7. The Universal Quantum Fluid …………………………………………………………………………….. 248

8. The Gravitational Mass of a Charged Supercapacitor …………………………………………………….. 256

9. Beyond the Material Universe …………………………………………………………………………….. 260

10. On the Cosmological Variation of the Fine Structure Constant …………………………………………. 285

11. The velocity of neutrinos ………………………………………………………………………………… 289

12. Proca Equations and the Photon Imaginary Mass ……………………………………………………….. 292

13. Gravity Control by means of Modified Electromagnetic Radiation …………………………………….. 295

14. Transmission of DNA Genetic Information into Water by means of


Electromagnetic Fields of Extremely-low Frequencies …………………………………………………. 302

15. A Possible Explanation for Anomalous Heat Production in Ni-H Systems ……………………………... 308

16. Engineering the Ni-H Bomb ……………………………………………………………………………... 316

17. Gravitational Shockwave Weapons ……………………………………………………………………… 319

18. A System to convert Gravitational Energy directly into Electrical Energy ……………………………… 326

19. Superconducting State generated by Cooper Pairs bound by Intensified Gravitational Interaction ………343

20. Gravitational Separator of Isotopes ……………………………………………………………………….353

21. Gravitational Atomic Synthesis at Room Temperature …………………………………………………..365

22. Ultrafast Conversion of Graphite to Diamond in Gravitational Pressure Apparatus ………………….….373

23. Artificial Gravitational Lenses …………………………………………………………………………… 382

24. Gravitational Blueshift and Redshift generated at Laboratory Scale……………………………………... 391


xii

25. Quantum Reversal of Soul Energy ………………………………………………………………………..399

26. Gravitational Ejection of Earth’s Clouds ………………………………………………………………… 410

27. New Gravitational Effects from Rotating Masses ……………………………………………………….. 416

28. Gravitational Holographic Teleportation ………………………………………………………………… 424

29. Scattering of Sunlight in Lunar Exosphere Caused by Gravitational Microclusters of Lunar Dust …….. 429

30. Correlation between the Earth’s Magnetic Field and the Gravitational Mass of the Outer Core ……….. 435

31. Electromagnetic Method for blocking the action of Neutrons, apha-particles, beta-particles and
gamma-rays upon Atomic Nuclei. ……………………………………………………………………….. 440

32. Relativistic Kinetic Projectiles …………………………………………………………………………... 448

33. Repulsive Gravitational Force Field …………………………………………………………………....... 452

34. Bose-Einstein Condensate and Gravitational Shielding …………………………………………………. 458

35. The Gravitational Mass of the Millisecond Pulsars ……………………………………………………… 461

36. The Bipolar Linear Momentum transported by the Electromagnetic Waves:


Origin of the Gravitational Interaction………………………………………………………….. 464

37. On the Existence of Black Holes ………………………………………………………………………… 471

38. A New Form of Matter-Antimatter Transformation …………………………………………………….. 474

39. How Masers can remove the Geostationary Satellites …………………………………………………... 478

40. Divergence in the Stefan-Boltzmann law at High Energy Density Conditions …………………………. 482

41. Gravitational Tunneling Machine ……………………………………………………………………….. 487

42. How the Thrust of Shawyer’s Thruster can be Strongly Increased ……………………………………… 494

43. Quantum Gravitational Shielding ………………………………………………………………………... 499

44. A Solution for Reducing the Pollution of the Atmospheric Air …………………………………………. 506

45. How a Strong Solar Coronal Mass Ejection can Eject Dust from the Earth’s Surface to the Atmosphere .511

46. A New Approach on the Photoelectric Effect …………………………………………………………… 515

47. The Origin of Water on the Earth, and the Reason why there is More Water on the Earth
than on the other Terrestrial Planets .......................................................................................................... 522

48. How a Planet with Earth’s size can have a Gravitational Field Much Stronger than
the Neptune .……………………………………………………………………………………………… 529

49. Gravitational Condensation of Atmospheric Water Vapor ………………………………………………. 534


xiii

50. The Intrinsic Magnetic Field of Magnetic Materials and Gravitomagnetization ………………………... 538

51. The Genesis of the Earth’s Moon ………………………………………………………………………... 543

52. The Gravitational Heat Exchanger ………………………………………………………………………. 550

53. The Gravitational Scanner ……………………………………………………………………………….. 555

54. Gravitational Generation of Rain ……………………………………………………………………........ 558

55. A System to Generate Intense Fluxes of Extremely-Low Frequency Radiation ……………………….... 562

56. The Beginning and End of Time in our Universe ……………………………………………………….. 565

57. Improvements in the Design of the Gravitational Motor ………………………………………………... 570

58. Method for Obtaining Quantum Vacuum ……………………………………………………………….. 574

59. The Gravitational Invisibility ……………………………………………………………………………. 579

60. Control of the Gravitational Energy by means of Sonic Waves....……………………………………….. 586

61. Nuclear Fission by means of Terahertz Sonic Waves……………………………………………………..590

62. Electromagnetic Radiation can affect the Lift Force………………………………………………………593

63. How a Massive Planet can affect Human Consciousnesses when Passing Nearby the Sun ………………599

64. Quantum Controller of Gravity ....................................................................................................................609

65. Transforming a Quantum Controller of Gravity into a Gravitational Spacecraft ………………………….616

66. Gravitational Motor: Using the Quantum Controller of Gravity……………………………………………620

67. The Gravelectric Generator: Conversion of Gravitational Energy directly into Electrical Energy…………624

68. Asteroid Redirect ............................................................................................................................................632

69. Activation of Autophagy Process in Cancerous Cells at Quasi-Zero Gravity Environments ……………....635

70. Conversion of Kinetic Energy into an Electromagnetic Pulse


by means of Control of the Gravitational Mass ……………………………………………………………..640

71. Searching for the Gravific Photons ……………………………………………………………………….... 643

72. Directional Control of Weight Forces in Rotating Bodies …………………………………………………. 646

73. Negative Gravitational Mass in a Superfluid Bose-Einstein Condensate ……………………………………653

74. Gravitational Interaction between Photons and Unification of All the Fundamental Interactions ………......657

75. Controlling the Gravitational Mass of a Metallic Lamina and the Gravity Acceleration above it…………...664

76. Electromagnetic Control of the Gravitational Mass of a Ferrite Lamina


and the Gravity Acceleration above it……………………………………………………………………......671
xiiii

77. The origin of the Ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray particles ……………………………………………… 676

78. An Experiment to show that there is Gravitational Interaction among photons, because
they have non-null Imaginary Gravitational Mass ……..…………………………………………….. 678

79. Gravitational Micro-Thrusters …………………………………………………………………………...681

80. Gravity Control: The Greatest Challenge in Contemporary Physics ……………………………………688

81. The Observed Magnitude of Cosmological Constant directly derived from the
Quantization Theory of Gravity ………………………………………………………………………...693

82. Experimental set-up to check the decreasing of the Gravitational Mass in Metallic Discs subjected to an
alternating voltage of extremely low frequency………………………………………………………….696
Mathematical Foundations of the
Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity
Fran De Aquino
Maranhao State University, Physics Department, S.Luis/MA, Brazil.
Copyright © 2008-2011 by Fran De Aquino. All Rights Reserved

Abstract: Starting from the action function, we have derived a theoretical background that leads to
the quantization of gravity and the deduction of a correlation between the gravitational and the inertial
masses, which depends on the kinetic momentum of the particle. We show that the strong equivalence
principle is reaffirmed and, consequently, Einstein's equations are preserved. In fact, such equations
are deduced here directly from this new approach to Gravitation. Moreover, we have obtained a
generalized equation for the inertial forces, which incorporates the Mach's principle into Gravitation.
Also, we have deduced the equation of Entropy; the Hamiltonian for a particle in an electromagnetic
field and the reciprocal fine structure constant directly from this new approach. It was also possible to
deduce the expression of the Casimir force and to explain the Inflation Period and the Missing Matter,
without assuming existence of vacuum fluctuations. This new approach to Gravitation will allow us to
understand some crucial matters in Cosmology.

Key words: Quantum Gravity, Quantum Cosmology, Unified Field.


PACs: 04.60.-m; 98.80.Qc; 04.50. +h

Contents

1. Introduction 3

2. Theory 3

Generalization of Relativistic Time 4

Quantization of Space, Mass and Gravity 6

Quantization of Velocity 7

Quantization of Time 7

Correlation Between Gravitational and Inertial Masses 8

Generalization of Lorentz's Force 12

Gravity Control by means of the Angular Velocity 13

Gravitoelectromagnetic fields and gravitational shielding effect 14

Gravitational Effects produced by ELF radiation upon electric current 26

Magnetic Fields affect gravitational mass and the momentum 27

Gravitational Motor 28

Gravitational mass and Earthquakes 28

The Strong Equivalence Principle 30

15
2

Incorporation of the Mach's Principle into Gravitation Theory 30

Deduction of the Equations of General Relativity 30

Gravitons: Gravitational Forces are also Gauge forces 31

Deduction of Entropy Equation starting from the Gravity Theory 31

Unification of the Electromagnetic and Gravitational Fields 32

Elementary Quantum of Matter and Continuous Universal Fluid 34

The Casimir Force is a gravitational effect related to the Uncertainty Principle 35

The Shape of the Universe and Maximum speed of Tachyons 36

The expanding Universe is accelerating and not slowing down 38

Gravitational and Inertial Masses of the Photon 39

What causes the fundamental particles to have masses? 40

Electron’s Imaginary Masses 41

Transitions to the Imaginary space-time 44

Explanation for red-shift anomalies 50

Superparticles (hypermassive Higgs bosons) and Big-Bang 51

Deduction of Reciprocal Fine Structure Constant and the Uncertainty Principle 53

Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Inflation Period 53

The Origin of the Universe 59

Solution for the Black Hole Information Paradox 61

A Creator’s need 63

The Origin of Gravity and Genesis of the Gravitational Energy 64

Explanation for the anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10 66

New type of interaction 68

Appendix A 71

Allais effect explained 71

Appendix B 74

References 75

16
3

1. INTRODUCTION
b
S = −α ∫a ds
Quantum Gravity was originally
studied, by Dirac and others, as the where α is a quantity which
problem of quantizing General characterizes the particle.
Relativity. This approach presents In Relativistic Mechanics, the
many difficulties, detailed by Isham action can be written in the following
[1]. In the 1970's, physicists tried an form [3]:
t2 t2
even more conventional approach: S = ∫ Ldt = − ∫ αc 1 − V 2 c 2 dt
t1 t1
simplifying Einstein's equations by
assuming that they are almost linear, where
and then applying the standard L = −αc 1 − V 2 c 2
methods of quantum field theory to is the Lagrange's function.
the thus oversimplified equations. But In Classical Mechanics, the
this method, too, failed. In the 1980's Lagrange's function for a free-particle
a very different approach, known as is, as we know, given by: L = aV 2
string theory, became popular. Thus where V is the speed of the particle
far, there are many enthusiasts of
and a is a quantity hypothetically [4]
string theory. But the mathematical
given by:
difficulties in string theory are
formidable, and it is far from clear that
a=m 2
they will be resolved any time soon. where m is the mass of the particle.
At the end of 1997, Isham [2] pointed However, there is no distinction about
out several "Structural Problems the kind of mass (if gravitational
Facing Quantum Gravity Theory". At mass, m g , or inertial mass mi ) neither
the beginning of this new century, about its sign (±) .
the problem of quantizing the The correlation between a and
gravitational field was still open. α can be established based on the
In this work, we propose a new
fact that, on the limit c → ∞ , the
approach to Quantum Gravity.
relativistic expression for L must be
Starting from the generalization of the
reduced to the classic expression
action function we have derived a
theoretical background that leads to L = aV 2 .The result [5] is: L = αV 2 2c .
the quantization of gravity. Einstein's Therefore, if α = 2 ac = mc , we obtain
General Relativity equations are L = aV 2 . Now, we must decide if
deduced directly from this theory of m = mg or m = mi . We will see in this
Quantum Gravity. Also, this theory work that the definition of m g includes
leads to a complete description of the
Electromagnetic Field, providing a mi . Thus, the right option is m g , i.e.,
consistent unification of gravity with a = mg 2 .
electromagnetism.
Consequently, α = m g c and the
2. THEORY generalized expression for the action
of a free-particle will have the
We start with the action for a following form:
(1)
b
free-particle that, as we know, is S = −m g c ∫ ds
a
given by
or

17
4

t2
S = − ∫ mg c 2 1 − V 2 c 2 dt (2) sign if m g < 0 . Consequently, we will
t1 r
express the momentum p in the
where the Lagrange's function is
following form
L = −mg c 2 1 − V 2 c 2 . (3) r
r
m gV r
t2 p = = M gV (4)
The integral S = ∫t m g c 2 1 − V 2 c 2 dt , 1−V 2 c2
1
r
preceded by the plus sign, cannot The derivative dp dt is the
have a minimum. Thus, the integrand inertial force Fi which acts on the
of Eq.(2) must be always positive.
Therefore, if m g > 0 , then necessarily particle. If the force is perpendicular
to the speed, we have r
t > 0 ; if m g < 0 , then t < 0 . The r mg
possibility of t < 0 is based on the Fi =
dV
(5)
1 − V 2 c 2 dt
well-known equation t = ± t0 1 − V 2 c 2
However, if the force and the speed
of Einstein's Theory. have the same direction, we rfind that
Thus if the gravitational mass r mg
of a particle is positive, then t is also Fi =
dV
(6)
(1 − V c )
3
2 2
2
dt
positive and, therefore, given by
t = +t0 1−V 2 c2 . This leads to the From Mechanics [6], we know that
r r
well-known relativistic prediction that p ⋅ V − L denotes the energy of the
the particle goes to the future, if particle. Thus, we can write
V → c . However, if the gravitational r r mg c 2
mass of the particle is negative, then Eg = p ⋅ V − L = = M g c2 (7)
t is negative and given by 1 −V 2 c2
t = − t0 1 −V 2 c2 . In this case, the Note that Eg is not null for V =0, but
prediction is that the particle goes to that it has the finite value
the past, if V → c . Consequently,
m g < 0 is the necessary condition for E g 0 = mg 0 c 2 (8)
the particle to go to the past. Further Equation (7) can be rewritten in
on, a correlation between the the following form:
gravitational and the inertial masses mg c 2
will be derived, which contains the E g = mg c −
2
− mg c 2 =
possibility of m g < 0 . 1−V c 2 2

The Lorentz's transforms follow ⎡ ⎤


⎢ ⎞⎥
the same rule for m g > 0 and m g < 0 , mg ⎢ 2 ⎛⎜ mi c 2 2 ⎟⎥
= mi c + − mi c =
i.e., the sign before 1 − V 2 c 2 will be mi ⎢ ⎜ 1−V 2 c2 ⎟⎥
⎢ ⎝144424443⎠⎥
(+ ) when m g > 0 and (− ) if m g < 0 . ⎢⎣ EKi ⎥⎦
The momentum, as we know, mg m
r r = (Ei 0 + EKi ) = g Ei (9)
is the vector p = ∂L ∂V .Thus, from mi mi
Eq.(3) we obtain r By analogy to Eq. (8), Ei 0 = mi 0 c 2 into
r mgV r the equation above, is the
p = = M gV
± 1−V 2 c2 inertial energy at rest. Thus,
Ei = Ei 0 + EKi is the total inertial
The (+ ) sign in the equation above
will be used when m g > 0 and the (− )
energy, where E Ki is the kinetic

18
5

inertial energy. From Eqs. (7) and (9) ∂Φ Gm g


we thus obtain =
∂r r 2 1 − V 2 c 2
mi 0 c 2
Ei = = M ic2. (10) By definition, the gravitational
1−V c 2 2
potential energy per unit of
For small velocities (V <<c) , we gravitational mass of a particle inside
obtain a gravitational field is equal to the
Ei ≈ mi 0 c 2 + 12 miV 2 (11) gravitational potential Φ of the field.
Thus, we can write that
where we recognize the classical U (r )
expression for the inertial kinetic Φ=
m′g
energy of the particle.
The expression for the Then, it follows that
gravitational kinetic energy, E Kg , is
∂U (r ) ∂Φ m g m ′g
easily deduced by comparing Eq.(7) Fg = − = − m ′g = −G
with Eq.(9). The result is ∂r ∂r r 2 1 −V 2 c2
mg
EKg = EKi . (12)
mi If m g > 0 and m ′g < 0 , or m g < 0 and
In the presented picture, we
r m ′g > 0 the force will be repulsive; the
can say that the gravity, g , in a force will never be null due to the
gravitational field produced by a existence of a minimum value for m g
particle of gravitational mass M g ,
(see Eq. (24)). However, if m g < 0
depends on the particle's gravitational
and m ′g < 0 , or m g > 0 and m ′g > 0
energy, E g (given by Eq.(7)), because
the force will be attractive. Just
we can write
for m g = mi and m ′g = mi′ we obtain
Eg Mg c2
g = −G = −G 2 2 (13) the Newton's attraction law.
r 2c2 rc On the other hand, as we
Due to g = ∂Φ ∂r , the expression of know, the gravitational force is
the relativistic gravitational potential, conservative. Thus, gravitational
Φ , is given by energy, in agreement with the energy
GM g Gm g conservation law, can be expressed
Φ=− =− by the decrease of the inertial energy,
r r 1−V 2 c2 i.e.,
Then, it follows that ΔE g = −ΔEi (14)
This equation expresses the fact that
GM g Gmg φ
Φ=− =− = a decrease of gravitational energy
r r 1−V 2 c2 1−V 2 c2 corresponds to an increase of the
inertial energy.
where φ = − Gm g r . Therefore, a variation ΔEi in
Then we get E i yields a variation ΔEg = −ΔEi in E g .
∂Φ ∂φ Gm g Thus Ei = Ei0 + ΔEi ; Eg = Eg0 + ΔEg = Eg0 −ΔEi
= =
∂r ∂r 1 − V 2 c 2 r 2 1 − V 2 c 2 and
whence we conclude that
Eg + Ei = Eg 0 + Ei 0 (15)
Comparison between (7) and (10)
shows that Eg0 = Ei0 , i.e., m g 0 = mi 0 .
Consequently, we have

19
6

The minimum energy of a particle


Eg + Ei = Eg 0 + Ei 0 = 2 Ei 0 (16) is obviously its inertial energy at rest
However Ei =Ei0 +EKi.Thus, (16) becomes m g c 2 = mi c 2 . Therefore we can write
E g = Ei 0 − EKi . (17 ) n2h2
= mg c 2
Note the symmetry in the equations of 8m g L2max
Ei and E g .Substitution of Ei0 = Ei − EKi Then from the equation above it follows
into (17) yields that
E i − E g = 2 E Ki (18) mg = ±
nh
(23)
Squaring the Eqs.(4) and (7) and cLmax 8
comparing the result, we find the whence we see that there is a minimum
following correlation between value for m g given by
gravitational energy and momentum :
E g2 mg (min) = ±
h
(24)
= p + mg c .
2 2 2
(19) cLmax 8
c2 The relativistic gravitational mass
The energy expressed as a function of
the momentum is, as we know, called (
M g = mg 1 − V 2 c )
2 − 2
1
, defined in the
Hamiltonian or Hamilton's function: Eqs.(4), shows that
H g = c p + mg c .
2 2 2
(20 ) M g (min) = mg (min) (25)
Let us now consider the problem The box normalization leads to the
of quantization of gravity. Clearly there is conclusion that the propagation number
r
something unsatisfactory about the k = k = 2π λ is restricted to the
whole notion of quantization. It is
important to bear in mind that the values k = 2π n L . This is deduced
quantization process is a series of rules- assuming an arbitrarily large but finite
of-thumb rather than a well-defined 3
cubical box of volume L [8]. Thus, we
algorithm, and contains many
ambiguities. In fact, for electromagnetism have
we find that there are (at least) two L = nλ
different approaches to quantization and From this equation, we conclude that
that while they appear to give the same Lmax
theory they may lead us to very different nmax =
quantum theories of gravity. Here we will λmin
follow a new theoretical strategy: It is and
known that starting from the Schrödinger Lmin = nmin λ min = λ min
equation we may obtain the well-known
Since nmin = 1. Therefore, we can write
expression for the energy of a particle in
periodic motion inside a cubical box of that
edge length L [ 7 ]. The result now is Lmax = nmax Lmin (26)
n2h2 From this equation, we thus conclude
En = n = 1,2,3,... (21) that
8m g L2
2 2
L = nLmin (27 )
Note that the term h 8m g L (energy) or
will be minimum for L = Lmax where Lmax Lmax
is the maximum edge length of a cubical
L= (28)
n
box whose maximum diameter
Multiplying (27) and (28) by 3 and
d max = Lmax 3 (22) reminding that d = L 3 , we obtain
is equal to the maximum length scale of
the Universe.

20
7

d max From this equation one concludes


d = nd min or d= (29) that we can have V = Vmax or
n
Equations above show that the length V = Vmax 2 , but there is nothing in
(and therefore the space) is quantized.
between. This shows clearly that Vmax
By analogy to (23) we can also
conclude that cannot be equal to c (speed of light in
vacuum). Thus, it follows that
M g (max) =
nmax h
(30) n =1 V = Vmax
cLmin 8
n=2 V = Vmax 2
since the relativistic gravitational mass,
(
M g = mg 1 − V 2 c 2 )− 12
, is just a
n=3 V = Vmax 3 Tachyons
........ ..................
multiple of m g .
n = nx − 1 V = Vmax (nx − 1)
Equation (26) tells us that
Lmin = Lmax nmax . Thus, Eq.(30) can be −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
rewritten as follows n = nx V = Vmax nx = c ←
2 n = nx + 1 V = Vmax (nx + 1) Tardyons
M g (max ) =
n max h
(31)
cLmax 8 n = nx + 2 V = Vmax (nx + 2)
Comparison of (31) with (24) shows that ...............
...........................
M g (max ) = n 2
max m g (min ) (32 ) where nx is a big number.
which leads to following conclusion that Then c is the speed upper limit of
M g = n 2 m g (min ) (33) the Tardyons and also the speed lower
This equation shows that the limit of the Tachyons. Obviously, this limit
gravitational mass is quantized. is always the same in all inertial frames.
Substitution of (33) into (13) leads Therefore c can be used as a reference
to quantization of gravity, i.e., speed, to which we may compare any
speed V , as occurs for the relativistic
GM g ⎛ Gm g (min ) ⎞
g= = n 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟=
⎟ factor 1 −V 2 c2 . Thus, in this factor, c
r2 ⎝ (rmax n )
2

= n 4 g min (34 ) does not refer to maximum propagation
speed of the interactions such as some
From the Hubble's law, it follows that authors suggest; c is just a speed limit
Vmax = Hlmax = H (d max 2)
~ ~
which remains the same in any inertial
Vmin = Hl min = H (d min 2)
~ ~ frame.
The temporal coordinate x 0 of
whence
space-time is now x 0 = Vmax t ( x 0 = ct
Vmax d max
= is then obtained Vmax →c ).
when
Vmin d min
Equations (29) tell us that
~
Substitution of Vmax = nV = n Hl into this ( )
d max d min = nmax . Thus the equation ~ 0
equation yields t = x Vmax = 1 nH x l .
0
( )( )
above gives ~
On the other hand, since V = H l and
V max
V min = (35 ) V = Vmax n we can write that
( )
n max
l = Vmax H −1 n .Thus x 0 l = H (nt) = Ht max .
~ ~ ~
which leads to following conclusion
V max Therefore, we can finally write
V = (36 )
n
this equation shows that velocity is also (~
)( )
t = 1 nH x 0 l = t max n (37)
quantized.
which shows the quantization of time.

21
8

From Eqs. (27) and (37) we can


easily conclude that the spacetime is not Δp =
(m g − Δm g ) V
1 − (V c )
2
continuous it is quantized.
Now, let us go back to Eq. (20) From the Eq.(16) we obtain:
Eg = 2Ei 0 − Ei = 2Ei 0 − (Ei 0 + ΔEi ) = Ei 0 − ΔEi
which will be called the gravitational
Hamiltonian to distinguish it from the
inertial Hamiltonian H i : However, Eq.(14) tells us that −ΔEi = ΔEg ;
what leads to Eg = Ei0 + ΔEg or mg = mi0 + Δmg .
H i = c p 2 + mi 0 c 2 .
2
(38)
Thus, in the expression of Δ p we
( )
Consequently, Eq. (18) can be rewritten
in the following form: can replace m g − Δm g for mi 0 , i.e,
H i − H g = 2ΔH i (39) mi0 V
Δp =
where Δ H i is the variation on the
1 − (V c )
2

inertial Hamiltonian or inertial kinetic We can therefore write


energy. A momentum variation Δp yields
Δp
a variation Δ H given by: =
V c
(42)
mi 0 c 1 − (V c )
i 2

ΔHi = ( p + Δp) c2 + mi0 c4 − p2c2 + mi0 c4 (40)


2 2 2
By substitution of the expression above
By considering that the particle is into Eq. (41), we thus obtain:
initially at rest ( p = 0) . Then, Eqs. (20),
(38) and (39) give respectively: Hg = mgc , 2
⎢⎣
(
mg = mi 0 − 2⎡ 1 − V 2 c 2 ) − 12
− 1⎤mi 0
⎥⎦
(43)
Hi = mi0c2 and
For V = 0 we obtain mg = mi0 .Then,
⎡ 2 ⎤
⎢ ⎛ Δp ⎞
ΔH i = 1 + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − 1⎥ mi 0 c 2 mg (min) = mi0(min)
⎢ ⎝ mi 0 c ⎠ ⎥
⎣ ⎦ Substitution of m g (min ) into the quantized
By substituting H g , H i and ΔH i into expression of M g (Eq. (33)) gives
Eq.(39), we get
M g = n 2 mi 0(min )
⎡ 2 ⎤
⎛ Δp ⎞

mg = mi0 − 2 1 + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − 1⎥mi0. (41) where mi 0 (min ) is the elementary
⎢ ⎝ i0 ⎠
m c ⎥
⎣ ⎦ quantum of inertial mass to be
determined.
This is the general expression of the For V = 0 , the relativistic
correlation between the gravitational and
inertial mass. Note that expression M g = mg 1 −V 2 c2 becomes
for Δ p > m i 0 c ( )
5 2 , the value of m g Mg = Mg0 = mg0 . However, Eq. (43) shows
becomes negative. that m g 0 = mi 0 . Thus, the quantized
Equation (41) shows that mg expression of M g reduces to
decreases of Δm g for an increase of
mi 0 = n 2 mi 0 (min )
Δp . Thus, starting from (4) we In order to define the inertial quantum
obtain number, we will change n in the

p + Δp =
(m g − Δm g ) V expression above for ni . Thus we have

1 − (V c )
2

m i 0 = n i2 m i 0 (min ) (44 )
By considering that the particle is initially
at rest ( p = 0) , the equation above gives

22
9

which shows the quantization of accuracy of one part in 10 7 .


inertial mass; ni is the inertial Posteriorly, Eötvos experiment has
quantum number. been repeated with accuracy of one
We will change n in the quantized part in 10 9 . In 1963, the experiment
expression of M g for n g in order to was repeated with an even greater
define the gravitational quantum accuracy, one part in 1011 . The result
number. Thus, we have was the same previously obtained.
In all these experiments, the
M g = n g2 mi 0(min ) (44a ) ratio V 2 2c 2 is less than 10 −17 , which
is much smaller than the accuracy of
Finally, by substituting mg 10 −11 obtained in the previous more
given by Eq. (43) into the relativistic precise experiment.
expression of M g , we readily obtain Then, we arrive at the
conclusion that all these experiments
mg
Mg = = say nothing in regard to the relativistic
1−V 2 c2 behavior of masses in relative motion.

⎢⎣
(
= M i − 2⎡ 1 − V 2 c 2 )
− 12
− 1⎤ M i
⎥⎦
(45 ) Let us now consider a planet in
the Sun’s gravitational field to which,
in the absence of external forces, we
By expanding in power series apply Lagrange’s equations. We
and neglecting infinitesimals, we arrive at the well-known equation:
2 2
2 ⎛ dϕ ⎞
arrive at: ⎛ dr ⎞ 2GM i
⎜ ⎟ +r ⎜ ⎟ − =E
⎝ dt ⎠ ⎝ dt ⎠ r
⎛ V2 ⎞
M g = ⎜1 − 2

⎟M i

(46) r2

=h
⎝ c ⎠ dt
where M i is the inertial mass of the
Thus, the well-known expression for Sun. The term E = − GM i a , as we
the simple pendulum know, is called the energy constant;
period, T =2π (Mi Mg )(l g) , can be rewritten a is the semiaxis major of the Kepler-
in the following form: ellipse described by the planet
l ⎛⎜ V2 ⎞ around the Sun.
T = 2π 1+ 2 ⎟ for V << c By replacing M i into the
g ⎜⎝ 2c ⎟

differential equation above for the
Now, it is possible to learn why expression given by Eq. (46), and
Newton’s experiments using simple expanding in power series, neglecting
penduli do not find any difference infinitesimals, we arrive, at:
between M g and M i . The reason is
due to the fact that, in the case of ⎛ dr ⎞
2
2 ⎛ dϕ ⎞
2
2GM g 2GM g ⎛ V 2 ⎞
⎜ ⎟ +r ⎜ ⎟ − =E + ⎜ ⎟
penduli, the ratio V 2 2c 2 is less than ⎝ dt ⎠ ⎝ dt ⎠ r r ⎜⎝ c 2 ⎟⎠
10 −17 , which is much smaller than the
accuracy of the mentioned Since V = ωr = r (dϕ dt ) , we get
experiments.
Newton’s experiments have 2 2 2
⎛ dr ⎞ 2 ⎛ dϕ ⎞ 2GM g 2GM g r ⎛ dϕ ⎞
been improved upon (one part in ⎜ ⎟ +r ⎜ ⎟ − =E + ⎜ ⎟
⎝ dt ⎠ ⎝ dt ⎠ r c 2 ⎝ dt ⎠
60,000) by Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel
which is the Einsteinian equation of the
(1784–1846). In 1890, Eötvos planetary motion.
confirmed Newton’s results with

23
10

Multiplying this equation by Gmg


(dt dϕ )2 and remembering that g =−
r 2 1 − V 2 c2
(dt dϕ ) = r
2 4 2
h , we obtain
⎛ dr ⎞
2
⎛ r 4 ⎞ 2GMg r3 2GMg r
⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + r 2 = E⎜ 2 ⎟ + + where V is the velocity of the mass
⎝ dϕ ⎠ ⎜h ⎟ h2 c2
⎝ ⎠ mg , in respect to the observer. V is
Making r = 1 u and multiplying both
also the velocity with which the
members of the equation by u 4 , we
get observer moves away from mg . If
2 3
⎛ du ⎞ E 2GMgu 2GMgu the observer is inside the gravitational
⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + u2 = 2 + +
⎝ dϕ ⎠ h h2 c2 mg , then, V
field produced by is the
This leads to the following expression
GMg ⎛ 3 u2h 2 ⎞
velocity with which the observer
d 2u ⎜1 + ⎟
+ u =
dϕ 2 h 2 ⎜⎝ c2 ⎟⎠ escapes from mg (or the escape
In the absence of term 3h 2 u 2 c 2 , the velocity from the gravitational field of
integration of the equation should be mg ). Since the gravitational field is
immediate, leading to 2π period. In
created by a particle with non-null
order to obtain the value of the
gravitational mass, then obviously,
perturbation we can use any of the
V < c . If V << c the escape velocity is
well-known methods, which lead to
given by
an angle ϕ , for two successive
perihelions, given by mg M g′
6G 2 M g2 1
M g′ V 2 = G
2π +
2
r
c 2h 2
Calculating per century, in the case of whence we obtain
Mercury, we arrive at an angle of 43”
for the perihelion advance. 2Gmg
This result is the best V2 =
theoretical proof of the accuracy of r
Eq. (45).
Now consider a relativistic By substituting this expression into
particle inside a gravitational field. the equation of g , above obtained,
The condition for it to escape from the the result is
gravitational field is that its inertial
kinetic energy becomes equal to the ∂Φ Gmg
absolute value of the gravitational g= =
∂r r 2 1− 2 Gm rc2
energy of the field, which is given g

GM g M ′g
U (r ) = − = whence we recognize the
r
Schwzarzschilds’ equation. Note in
Gmg M g′ this equation the presence of m g ,
=−
r 1−V 2 c2 whose value, according to Eq. (41)
can be reduced or made negative. In
Since Φ = U (r ) M g′ and g = ∂Φ ∂r
then, we get

24
11

this case * , the singularity g → ∞ , frequency of a wave, measured in units


produced by Schwzarzschilds’ radius of universal time, remains constant
r = 2Gmg c2 , (m g = m i ), obviously
during its propagation, and that it can be
expressed by
does not occur. Consequently, Black ∂ψ
ω0 =
Hole does not exist. ∂t
For V << c we get 1−V c ≅1+V 2c .
2 2 2 2 where dψ dt is the derivative of the
eikonal ψ with respect to the time.
Since V =2Gmg r , then we can write that
2
On the other hand, the frequency
Gmg φ of the wave measured in units of own
1−V 2 c2 ≅ 1+ 2
= 1+ time is given by
rc c2 ∂ψ
ω=
Substitution of 1−V 2 c2 =1+ φ c2 into the ∂T
well-known expression below Thus, we conclude that
ω ∂t
T = t 1− V 2 c2 =
ω 0 ∂T
which expresses the relativistic
whence we obtain
correlation between own time (T) and
ω t 1
universal time (t), gives = =
⎛ φ ⎞ ω0 T ⎛ φ ⎞
T = t ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ ⎜1 + 2 ⎟
⎝ c ⎠ ⎝ c ⎠
It is known from the Optics that the By expanding in power series, neglecting
infinitesimals, we arrive at:
⎛ φ ⎞
*
This can occur, for example, in a stage of ω = ω 0 ⎜1 − 2 ⎟
gravitational contraction of a neutron star (mass > ⎝ c ⎠
2.4M~), when the gravitational masses of the In this way, if a light ray with a frequency
neutrons, in the core of star, are progressively ω 0 is emitted from a point where the
turned negative, as a consequence of the increase gravitational potential is φ1 , it will have a
of the density of magnetic energy inside the
neutrons, Wn = 12 μ0 Hn2 , reciprocally produced by frequency ω1 . Upon reaching a point
the spin magnetic fields of the own neutrons, where the gravitational potential is φ 2 its
( ) ( )
r r r frequency will be ω 2 . Then, according to
Hn = 12 μ0 Mn 2π rn3 = γ n eSn 4πmnrn3 due to the
equation above, it follows that
decrease of the neutrons radii, rn , along the very
⎛ φ ⎞ ⎛ φ ⎞
strong compression at which they are subjected. ω1 = ω 0 ⎜1 − 12 ⎟ and ω 2 = ω 0 ⎜1 − 22 ⎟
⎝ c ⎠ ⎝ c ⎠
−6
Since Wn ∝ rn , and ρ n ∝ rn−3 , then Wn
Thus, from point 1 to point 2 the
increases much more rapidly – with the decrease frequency will be shifted in the
of rn – than ρ n . Consequently, the ratio interval Δω = ω1 − ω 2 , given by
Wn ρ n increases progressively with the ⎛φ −φ ⎞
Δω = ω 0 ⎜ 2 2 1 ⎟
compression of the neutrons star. According to ⎝ c ⎠
If Δω < 0 , (φ1 > φ 2 ) , the shift occurs in the
Eq. (41), the gravitational masses of the neutrons
can be turned negative at given stage of the
compression. Thus, due to the difference of direction of the decreasing frequencies
pressure, the value of Wn ρ n in the crust is (red-shift). If Δω > 0 , (φ1 < φ 2 ) the blue-
smaller than the value in the core. This means shift occurs.
that, the gravitational mass of the core becomes Let us now consider another
negative before of the gravitational mass of the consequence of the existence of
crust. This makes the gravitational contraction correlation between M g and M i .
culminates with an explosion, due to the repulsive
gravitational forces between the core and the Lorentz's force is usually written in
crust. Therefore, the contraction has a limit and, the following form:
consequently, the singularity does not occur.

25
12
r r r r
d p dt = qE + qV × B surface dA )is equal to the energy dU
r r absorbed per unit volume (dU dV ) .i.e.,
where p = mi 0V 1 − V 2 c 2 . However,
r
Eq.(4) tells us that p = mgV 1 − V c .
dP =
dU
=
dU
=
dU
(47)
dV dxdydz dAdz
2 2

Therefore, the expressions above must Substitution of dz = vdt ( v is the speed


be corrected by multiplying its members of radiation) into the equation above
by m g mi 0 ,i.e., gives
r r dU (dU dAdt ) dD
r mg
p =
mg mi 0V
=
mgV r
= p
dP = = = (48)
dV v v
mi 0 mi 0 1 − V 2 c2 1 − V 2 c2 Since dPdA = dF we can write:
and
r
dp d ⎛ r m g ⎞
dFdt =
dU
(49)
= ⎜⎜ p
r r r m
⎟ = qE + qV × B g
dt dt ⎝ mi 0 ⎟⎠ mi 0
( ) v
However we know that dF= dp dt , then
That is now the general expression for
Lorentz's force. Note that it depends on dp =
dU
(50)
v
mg . From Eq. (48), it follows that
When the force is perpendicular to dVdD
the speed, Eq. (5) gives dU = dPd V = (51)
v
( )
r r
dp dt = mg dV dt 1−V2 c2 .By comparing Substitution into (50) yields
dVdD
with Eq.(46), we thus obtain dp = (52 )
(mi0 1−V 2
c 2
)(r r
)
r r
dV dt = qE + qV × B
or
v2
Note that this equation is the expression Δp 1 D V
of an inertial force. ∫0 dp = ∫0 ∫0 dVdD
Starting from this equation, well- v2
known experiments have been carried whence
VD
out in order to verify the relativistic Δp = (53)
expression: m i 1−V
c . In general, 2 2 v2
This expression is general for all types of
the momentum variation Δp is waves including non-electromagnetic
expressed by Δp = FΔt where F is the waves such as sound waves. In this
applied force during a time interval Δt . case, v in Eq.(53), will be the speed of
Note that there is no restriction sound in the medium and D the intensity
concerning the nature of the force F , of the sound radiation.
i.e., it can be mechanical, In the case of electromagnetic
electromagnetic, etc. waves, the Electrodynamics tells us that
For example, we can look on the v will be given by
momentum variation Δp as due to dz ω c
v= = =
absorption or emission of dt κ r ε r μr ⎛ ⎞
⎜ 1 + (σ ωε ) + 1⎟
2
electromagnetic energy by the particle 2 ⎝ ⎠
(by means of radiation and/or by means
of Lorentz's force upon the charge of the where kr is the real part of the
r r
particle). propagation vector k ; k = k = k r + iki ;
In the case of radiation (any
type), Δp can be obtained as follows. It ε , μ and σ, are the electromagnetic
is known that the radiation pressure , characteristics of the medium in which
dP , upon an area dA = dxdy of a the incident (or emitted) radiation is
propagating ( ε = ε r ε 0 where ε r is the
volume d V = dxdydz of a particle( the
relative dielectric permittivity and
incident radiation normal to the
ε0 = 8.854×10−12 F / m ; μ = μ r μ 0 where

26
13

μ r is the relative magnetic permeability ⎧


⎪ ⎡ R4ω 4 ⎤ ⎫⎪
mg (disk ) ≅ ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 1.12 ×10−13 − 1⎥ ⎬mi 0(disk )
and μ 0 = 4π × 10 −7 H / m ; σ is the ⎪⎩ ⎢ f ⎥⎪
⎣ ⎦⎭
electrical conductivity). For an atom Note that the effect of the
inside a body, the incident (or emitted) electromagnetic radiation applied upon
radiation on this atom will be propagating the disk is highly relevant, because in the
inside the body, and consequently, absence of this radiation the index of
σ=σbody, ε=εbody, μ=μbody. refraction, present in equations above,
It is then evident that the index of becomes equal to 1. Under these
refraction nr = c v will be given by circumstances, the possibility of strongly
reducing the gravitational mass of the
εμ
= r r ⎛⎜ 1 + (σ ωε ) + 1⎞⎟ (54)
c
nr =
2
disk practically disappears. In addition,
v 2 ⎝ ⎠ the equation above shows that, in
On the other hand, from Eq. (50) follows practice, the frequency f of the
that radiation cannot be high, and that
U ⎛c⎞ U extremely-low frequencies (ELF) are
Δp = ⎜ ⎟ = nr most appropriated. Thus, if the frequency
v ⎝c⎠ c
of the electromagnetic radiation applied
Substitution into Eq. (41) yields
upon the disk is f = 0.1Hz (See Fig. I (a))
⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫
⎪ ⎛ U ⎞ ⎪ and the radius of the disk is R = 0.15m ,

mg = ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜⎜ n ⎟ − 1⎥⎬mi0
2 r⎟
(55)
⎢ ⎥⎪ and its angular speed

⎩ ⎣
⎝ mi0c ⎠
⎦⎭ (
ω = 1.05×10 rad / s ~ 100,000 rpm ,
4
) the
If the body is also rotating, with an result is
angular speed ω around its central axis, m g (disk ) ≅ −2.6mi 0(disk )
then it acquires an additional energy
This shows that the gravitational mass of
equal to its rotational energy
(E )
= 1 2 Iω 2 . Since this is an increase
k
a body can also be controlled by means
of its angular velocity.
in the internal energy of the body, and In order to satisfy the condition
this energy is basically electromagnetic, U << ΔU , we must have dU dt <<dΔU dt ,
we can assume that E k , such as U , where Pr = dU dt is the radiation power.
corresponds to an amount of By integrating this expression, we
electromagnetic energy absorbed by the get U = Pr 2 f . Thus we can conclude
body. Thus, we can consider E k as an
that, for U << ΔU , we must have
increase ΔU = E k in the electromagnetic
Pr 2 f << 12 Iω 2 , i.e.,
energy U absorbed by the body.
Consequently, in this case, we must Pr << Iω 2 f
replace U in Eq. (55) for (U + ΔU ) . If By dividing both members of the
U << ΔU , the Eq. (55) reduces to expression above by the area S = 4πr 2 ,
⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫ we obtain
⎪ ⎛ Iω 2 n r ⎞

m g ≅ ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥ ⎪⎬mi 0 Iω 2 f
⎜ 2m c 2 ⎟ ⎥ Dr <<
⎪ ⎢ ⎝ i0 ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭ 4πr 2
⎩ ⎣
For σ << ωε , Eq. (54) shows that Therefore, this is the necessary condition
in order to obtain U << ΔU . In the case
n r = c v = ε r μ r and n r = μσc 2 4πf in of the Mumetal disk, we must have
the case of σ >> ωε . In this case, if the D r << 10 5 r 2 watts / m 2( )
body is a Mumetal disk
( )
From Electrodynamics, we know
μ r = 105,000 at 100gauss; σ = 2.1 × 10 S.m −1
7
that a radiation with frequency f
( )
with radius R , I = 1 2 mi 0 R 2 , the equation
propagating within a material with
electromagnetic characteristics ε, μ and
above shows that the gravitational mass σ has the amplitudes of its waves
of the disk is

27
14

attenuated by e−1=0.37 (37%) when it ∇.DG = − ρ


penetrates a distance z, given by †
∂BG
z=
1 ∇ × EG = −
∂t
ω 1 2 εμ ⎛⎜ 1 + (σ ωε )2 − 1⎞⎟ ∇.BG = 0
⎝ ⎠
For σ >>ωε , equation above reduces to ∂DG
∇ × H G = − jG +
z=
1 ∂t
πμfσ where DG = 4ε rG ε 0G E G is the
In the case of the Mumetal subjected to gravitodisplacement field ( ε rG is the
an ELF radiation with frequency
gravitoelectric relative permittivity of the
f = 0.1Hz , the value is z = 1.07 mm .
medium; ε 0G is the gravitoelectric
Obviously, the thickness of the Mumetal
disk must be less than this value. permittivity for free space and E G = g
Equation (55) is general for all is the gravitoelectric field intensity); ρ is
types of electromagnetic fields including the density of local rest mass in the local
gravitoelectromagnetic fields (See Fig. I rest frame of the matter;
(b)).
BG = μ rG μ 0G H G is the gravitomagnetic
Transmitter field ( μ rG is the gravitomagnetic relative
ELF electromagnetic radiation

permeability, μ 0G is the gravitomagnetic


permeability for free space and H G is
Mumetal disk the gravitomagnetic field intensity;
Motor
jG = −σ G E G is the local rest-mass
current density in this frame ( σ G is the
gravitoelectric conductivity of the
Balance medium).
Then, for free space we can write
(a)
that
⎛ GM ⎞
DG = 4ε 0G EG = 4ε 0G g = 4ε 0G ⎜ 2 ⎟
⎝ r ⎠
Gravitoelectric
Field But from the electrodynamics we know
that
q
D = εE =
Acceleration
4πr 2
By analogy we can write that
Mg
DG =
Gravitomagnetic 4πr 2
Field
By comparing this expression with the
(b) previous expression of DG , we get
Fig. I – (a) Experimental set-up in order to measure the 1
gravitational mass decreasing in the rotating Mumetal ε 0G = = 2.98 × 10 8 kg 2 .N −1 .m − 2
disk. A sample connected to a dynamometer can measure 16πG
the decreasing of gravity above the disk. (b) which is the expression of the
Gravitoelectromagnetic Field.
gravitoelectric permittivity for free
space.
The Maxwell-like equations for The gravitomagnetic permeability
weak gravitational fields are [9] for free space [10,11] is
16πG
† μ 0G = 2
= 3.73 × 10 −26 m kg
Quevedo, C. P. (1978) Eletromagnetismo c
McGraw-Hill, p.269-270.
We then convert Maxwell-like equations

28
15

for weak gravity into a wave equation for ⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫


⎪ ⎢ ⎛ W ⎞ ⎥⎪
mg = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜ G 2 ⎟ − 1⎥⎬mi0
free space in the standard way. We
conclude that the speed of Gravitational ⎜ρ c ⎟
⎪ ⎢ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎪
Waves in free space is ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭
1
v= =c ⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫
ε 0G μ 0G ⎪ ⎛ BG2 ⎞

= ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥⎪⎬mi 0 (55a)
⎢ 2 ⎟ ⎥⎪
This means that both electromagnetic ⎪ ⎢⎣ ⎝ μ0G ρ c ⎠ ⎥⎦⎭
and gravitational plane waves propagate ⎩
at the free space with the same speed. where ρ = mi 0 V .
Thus, the impedance for free space is This equation shows how the
EG 16πG gravitational mass of a particle is altered
ZG = = μ0G ε 0G = μ0G c = by a gravitomagnetic field.
HG c
A gravitomagnetic field, according
and the Poynting-like vector is
r r r to Einstein's theory of general relativity,
S = EG × H G arises from moving matter (matter
For a plane wave propagating in the current) just as an ordinary magnetic
vacuum, we have E G = Z G H G . Then, it field arises from moving charges. The
Earth rotation is the source of a very
follows that
weak gravitomagnetic field given by
r 1 r 2 ω 2 r 2 c 2ω 2
S = EG = h = h0i
2
μ 0G ⎛ Mω ⎞
2Z G 2Z G 32πG BG ,Earth = − ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 10 −14 rad .s −1
16π ⎝ r ⎠ Earth
which is the power per unit area of a
harmonic plane wave of angular Perhaps ultra-fast rotating stars can
frequency ω . generate very strong gravitomagnetic
In classical electrodynamics the fields, which can make the gravitational
density of energy in an electromagnetic mass of particles inside and near the star
negative. According to (55a) this will
field, We , has the following expression
occur if BG > 1.06c μ 0G ρ . Usually,
We = 12 ε r ε 0 E 2 + 12 μ r μ 0 H 2
however, gravitomagnetic fields
In analogy with this expression we produced by normal matter are very
define the energy density in a weak.
gravitoelectromagnetic field, WG , as Recently Tajmar, M. et al., [12]
follows have proposed that in addition to
WG = 12 ε rG ε 0G EG2 + 12 μ rG μ 0G H G2 the London moment, B L ,
For free space we obtain ( )
( BL = − 2m* e* ω ≅ 1.1×10−11ω ; m and
*

μ rG = ε rG = 1 e* are the Cooper-pair mass and charge


ε 0G = 1 μ 0G c 2 respectively), a rotating superconductor
E G H G = μ 0G c should exhibit also a large
gravitomagnetic field, BG , to explain an
and
BG = μ 0 G H G apparent mass increase of Niobium
Cooper-pairs discovered by Tate et
Thus, we can rewrite the equation of WG al[13,14]. According to Tajmar and Matos
as follows [15], in the case of coherent matter, BG
2
⎛ 1⎞ 2 2 1 ⎛B ⎞ B2 is given by: BG = −2ωρc μ0G λ2gr where ρ c
WG = 1⎜ ⎟c BG + μ0G ⎜ G ⎟ = G
2⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ μ0G ⎟
⎝ μ0G c ⎠
2
⎝ ⎠ μ0G is the mass density of coherent matter
and λ gr is the graviphoton wavelength.
Since U G = WGV , (V is the volume of the By choosing λ gr proportional to the local
particle) and nr = 1 for free space we density of coherent matter, ρ c . i.e.,
can write (55) in the following form

29
16

1 ⎛ m gr c ⎞ By means of (55c) it is possible to


= ⎜⎜ ⎟ = μ 0G ρ c
⎟ check the changes in the gravitational
λ2gr ⎝ h ⎠ mass of the coherent part of a given
we obtain material (e.g. the Cooper-pair fluid). Thus
⎛ 1 ⎞ for the electrons of the Cooper-pairs we
BG = −2ωρc μ0G λ2gr = −2ωρc μ0G ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = have
⎝ μ0G ρ c ⎠
= −2ω ⎡ 2⎤
⎛ 2 ⎞
= mie + 2⎢1 − 1 − ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎥m =
BG
and the graviphoton mass, m gr , is m ge 2 ⎟ ⎥ ie
⎢ μ ρ
⎢⎣ ⎝ 0G e ⎠ ⎥
c
m gr = μ 0 G ρ c h c ⎦
Note that if we take the case of no ⎡ 2⎤
⎛ 4ω 2 ⎞ ⎥
local sources of coherent matter (ρ c = 0 ) , ⎢
= mie + 2 1 − 1 − ⎜⎜ ⎟ m =
⎢ 2 ⎟ ⎥ ie
the graviphoton mass will be zero. μ ρ
⎝ 0G e ⎠ ⎥
c
⎣⎢ ⎦
However, graviphoton will have non-zero
mass inside coherent matter (ρ c ≠ 0 ) . = mie + χ e mie
This can be interpreted as a
consequence of the graviphoton gaining where ρ e is the mass density of the
mass inside the superconductor via the electrons.
Higgs mechanism due to the breaking of In order to check the changes in
gauge symmetry. the gravitational mass of neutrons and
It is important to note that the protons (non-coherent part) inside the
minus sign in the expression for BG superconductor, we must use Eq. (55a)
can be understood as due to the and BG = −2ωρμ 0G λ2gr [Tajmar and
change from the normal to the
coherent state of matter, i.e., a switch Matos, op.cit.]. Due to μ 0G ρ c λ2gr = 1 ,
between real and imaginary values that expression of BG can be rewritten in
for the particles inside the material the following form
BG = −2ωρμ 0G λ2gr = −2ω (ρ ρ c )
when going from the normal to the
coherent state of matter. Consequently,
in this case the variable U in (55) Thus we have
must be replaced by iU G and not by U G ⎡ 2 ⎤
⎢ ⎛ BG2 ⎞
only. Thus we obtain mgn = min − 2 1+ ⎜ ⎟ −1⎥min =
⎢ ⎜ μ ρ c2 ⎟ ⎥
⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫ ⎢⎣ ⎝ 0G n ⎠ ⎥⎦
⎪ ⎢ ⎛ UG ⎞ ⎪
mg = ⎨1− 2 1− ⎜⎜ n ⎟ −1⎥⎬mi0 (55b)
2 r⎟
⎢ ⎥ ⎡ ⎤
⎛ 4ω2 (ρn ρc )2 ⎞
2
⎪ ⎣ ⎝ mi0c ⎠ ⎦⎪⎭ ⎢
⎩ = min − 2⎢ 1+ ⎜ ⎟ −1⎥min =
⎜ μ ρ c2 ⎟ ⎥
Since U G = WGV , we can write (55b) ⎢⎣ ⎝ 0G n ⎠ ⎥⎦
for nr = 1 , in the following form
= min − χnmin
⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫
⎪ ⎛ WG ⎞ ⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎟ − 1⎥⎪⎬mi 0
2
mg = ⎨1 − 2 1 − ⎜⎜ ⎢ ⎛ B2 ⎞
⎪ ⎢ ⎝ ρc c ⎠
2 ⎟ ⎥⎪ mgp = mip − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜ G ⎟ −1⎥m =
⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ ⎜ μ0G ρ p c ⎟
2 ⎥ ip
⎢⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦
⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫
⎪ ⎛ B 2
⎞ ⎥⎪⎬m (55c)
= ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 − ⎜⎜ ⎟ − ⎡ ⎤
( )2 ⎞⎟
G
2 ⎟
1 2
⎪ ⎢ ⎝ μ 0G ρ c c ⎠ ⎥⎪ i 0 ⎢ ⎛ 4ω 2 ρ p ρc ⎥
⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ = mip − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜ − 1⎥mip =
⎜ μ ρ c2 ⎟
where ρ c = mi 0 V is the local density ⎢ ⎝ 0G p ⎠ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
of coherent matter. = mip − χ p mip
Note the different sign (inside
the square root) with respect to (55a).

30
17

where ρ n and ρ p are the mass density Δm g = m g − m i 0 = − χ p m i 0


of neutrons and protons respectively.
In Tajmar’s experiment, induced By comparing this expression with
accelerations fields outside the Δm g ≈ 1 × 10 −4 mi which has been
superconductor in the order of 100 μg , at
obtained from Tajmar’s experiment, we
−1
angular velocities of about 500rad .s conclude that at angular velocities
were observed. ω ≈ 500rad .s −1 we have
Starting from g = Gm g (initial ) r we
χ p ≈ 1 × 10 −4
(
can write that g + Δg = G mg(initial) + Δmg r . ) From the expression of m gp we get
Then we get Δg = GΔmg r . For
⎡ 2 ⎤
⎢ ⎛ B G2 ⎞ ⎥
Δg =ηg =ηGmg(initial) r it follows that χ p = 2⎢ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥ =
⎜ μ 0G ρ p c ⎟
2
Δ m g = η m g (initial ) = η m i . Therefore a ⎢⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦
variation of Δg = ηg corresponds to a ⎡ ⎤
( )
2
⎢ ⎛ 4ω 2 ρ p ρ c 2 ⎞ ⎥
gravitational mass variation Δmg = ηmi0 . = 2⎢ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥
⎜ μ ρ c2 ⎟
Thus Δg ≈ 100μg = 1×10−4 g corresponds ⎢

⎝ 0G p ⎠ ⎥

to where ρ p = m p V p is the mass density
Δm g ≈ 1 × 10 −4 mi 0 of the protons.
On the other hand, the total In order to calculate V p we need
gravitational mass of a particle can be
expressed by to know the type of space (metric) inside
the proton. It is known that there are just
mg = Nnmgn + N pmgp + Nemge + N p ΔE c2 = 3 types of space: the space of positive
Nn (min − χnmin ) + N p (mip − χ pmip ) + curvature, the space of negative
curvature and the space of null
+ Ne (mie − χemie ) + N pΔE c2 = curvature. The negative type is
= (Nnmin + N pmip + Nemie ) + N pΔE c2 − obviously excluded since the volume of

− (Nn χnmin + N p χ pmip + Ne χemie ) + N p ΔE c2 =


the proton is finite. On the other hand,
the space of null curvature is also
= mi − (Nn χnmin + N p χ pmip + Ne χemie ) + N pΔE c2 excluded since the space inside the
proton is strongly curved by its enormous
where ΔE is the interaction mass density. Thus we can conclude that
energy; N n , N p , N e are the number of inside the proton the space has positive
neutrons, protons and electrons curvature. Consequently, the volume of
respectively. Since min ≅ mip and the proton, V p , will be expressed by the
ρ n ≅ ρ p it follows that χn ≅ χ p and 3-dimensional space that corresponds to
a hypersphere in a 4-dimentional space,
consequently the expression of mg i.e., V p will be the space of positive
reduces to curvature the volume of which is [16]
2ππ π
mg ≅ mi0 − (2Npχpmip + Neχemie ) + NpΔE c2 (55d ) Vp = ∫ ∫ ∫ rp sin
3 2
χ sin θdχdθdφ = 2π 2 r p3
000

Assuming that Ne χemie <<2Np χ pmip and In the case of Earth, for example,
ρ Earth << ρ p . Consequently the
Np ΔE c2 <<2Npχpmip Eq. (55d) reduces to
curvature of the space inside the Earth is
approximately null (space approximately
mg ≅ mi0 − 2Npχpmip = mi − χpmi (55e) flat). Then V Earth ≅ 3 π r Earth .
4 3

or
For rp = 1.4 ×10−15 m we then get

31
18

mp ⎡ 2⎤
ρp = ≅ 3 × 1016 kg / m 3 ⎛ ω 2 ⎞
Vp χ = 2⎢1 − 1 − ⎜⎜
* 4 ⎟ ⎥ = 0.84 × 10−4
⎢ * 2 ⎟ ⎥
⎢⎣ ⎝ μ 0G ρ c ⎠ ⎥
Starting from the London moment ⎦
it is easy to see that by precisely From this equation we then obtain
measuring the magnetic field and the
angular velocity of the
superconductor, one can calculate the
ρ * ≅ 3 × 1016 kg / m 3
mass of the Cooper-pairs. This has Note that ρ p ≅ ρ * .
been done for both classical and high-Tc Now we can calculate the
superconductors [17-20]. In the
graviphoton mass, m gr , inside the
experiment with the highest precision to
date, Tate et al, op.cit., reported a Cooper-pairs fluid (coherent part of the
disagreement between the theoretically superconductor) as
predicted Cooper-pair mass in Niobium
of m* 2me = 0.999992 and its m gr = μ 0G ρ * h c ≅ 4 × 10 −52 kg
experimental value of 1.000084(21) ,
Outside the coherent matter (ρ c = 0 ) the
where me is the electron mass. This
graviphoton mass will be zero
anomaly was actively discussed in the
literature without any apparent solution (m gr = μ 0 G ρ c h c = 0 . )
−1
[21-24]. Substitution of ρp, ρc =ρ and ω ≈ 500rad.s
*
If we consider that the apparent
mass increase from Tate’s into the expression of χ p gives
measurements results from an increase
in the gravitational mass m*g of the χ p ≈ 1 × 10 −4
Cooper-pairs due to BG , then we can
write Compare this value with that one
obtained from the Tajmar experiment.
m *g m *g
= * = 1.000084 Therefore, the decrease in the
2m e mi gravitational mass of the superconductor,
expressed by (55e), is
Δm *g = m *g − m *g (initial ) = m *g − m i* =
m g ,SC ≅ mi ,SC − χ p mi ,SC
= 1.000084 m i* − mi* =
≅ mi ,SC − 10 − 4 mi ,SC
−4
= +0.84 × 10 mi* =χ *
m i* This corresponds to a decrease of the
−4
where χ = 0.84 × 10 .
* −2
order of 10 % in respect to the initial
From (55c) we can write that gravitational mass of the superconductor.
However, we must also consider the
⎡ 2⎤ gravitational shielding effect, produced
⎢ ⎛ 4ω 2 ⎞ ⎥ * −2
m*g = mi* + 2 1− 1− ⎜ ⎟ mi = by this decrease of ≈ 10 % in the
⎢ ⎜ μ ρ*c2 ⎟ ⎥
⎢⎣ ⎝ 0G ⎠ ⎥ gravitational mass of the particles inside
⎦ the superconductor (see Fig. II).
= mi* + χ * mi* Therefore, the total weight decrease in
the superconductor will be much greater
−2
than 10 % . According to Podkletnov
where ρ * is the Cooper-pair mass
experiment [25] it can reach up to 1% of
density. the total weight of the superconductor
(5000rpm) . In this
Consequently we can write −1
at 523.6rad .s
experiment a slight decrease (up to
≈ 1% ) in the weight of samples hung
above the disk (rotating at 5000rpm) was

32
19

observed. A smaller effect on the order acceleration, g ′ , upon the particle m ′g ,


of 0.1% has been observed when the
r GM g
disk is not rotating. The percentage of is g ′ = − g = + μ̂ . This means that
weight decrease is the same for samples R2
of different masses and chemical in this case, the gravitational flux, φ g′ ,
compounds. The effect does not seem to
diminish with increases in elevation through the particle m ′g will be given by
above the disk. There appears to be a φ g′ = g ′S = − gS = −φ g , i.e., it will be
“shielding cylinder” over the disk that symmetric in respect to the flux when
extends upwards for at least 3 meters.
No weight reduction has been observed
m′g = mi′0 (third case). In the second case
under the disk. (m′g ≅ 0) , the intensity of the
It is easy to see that the decrease
gravitational force between m ′g and M g
in the weight of samples hung above the
disk (inside the “shielding cylinder” over will be very close to zero. This is
the disk) in the Podkletnov experiment, equivalent to say that the gravity
is also a consequence of the acceleration upon the particle with mass
Gravitational Shielding Effect showed in m ′g will be g ′ ≅ 0 . Consequently we can
Fig. II.
write that φ g′ = g ′S ≅ 0 . It is easy to see
In order to explain the
Gravitational Shielding Effect, we start that there is a correlation between
with the gravitational field, m ′g m i′0 and φ g′ φ g , i.e.,
r GM g
g=− μ̂ , produced by a particle
R2 _ If m ′g mi′0 = −1 ⇒ φ g′ φ g = −1
with gravitational mass, M g . The
gravitational flux, φ g , through a spherical _ If m ′g m i′0 = 1 ⇒ φ g′ φ g = 1
surface, with area S and radius R ,
concentric with the mass M g , is given _ If m ′g m i′0 ≅ 0 ⇒ φ g′ φ g ≅ 0
by
r r Just a simple algebraic form contains the
φ g = ∫ gdS = g ∫ dS = g S = requisites mentioned above, the
S S
correlation
=
GM g
2
(4πR ) = 4πGM
2
g
φ g′
=
m ′g
R
φ g mi′0
Note that the flux φ g does not depend on
By making m ′g mi′0 = χ we get
the radius R of the surface S , i.e., it is
the same through any surface concentric
with the mass M g . φ g′ = χ φ g
Now consider a particle with
gravitational mass, m ′g , placed into the This is the expression of the gravitational
flux through m ′g . It explains the
gravitational field produced by Mg.
Gravitational Shielding Effect presented
According to Eq. (41), we can in Fig. II.
have m′g mi′0 = −1, m′g mi′0 ≅ 0 ‡ , m′g mi′0 = 1, As φg = gS and φ g′ = g ′S , we obtain
etc. In the first case, the gravity

‡ g′ = χ g
The quantization of the gravitational mass
(Eq.(33)) shows that for n = 1 the gravitational This is the gravity acceleration inside m ′g .
mass is not zero but equal to mg(min).Although the Figure II (b) shows the gravitational
gravitational mass of a particle is never null,
shielding effect produced by two particles
Eq.(41) shows that it can be turned very close to
zero.
at the same direction. In this case, the

33
20

gravity acceleration inside and above the flux on the surface α returns from O′ to
second particle will be χ 2 g if m g 2 = m i1 . O and is detected by the
These particles are representative galvanometer G . That is, there is no
of any material particles or material deflection for the cathodic rays. Then it
r r
substance (solid, liquid, gas, plasma, follows that eVB = eEy since FB = FE .
electrons flux, etc.), whose gravitational
mass have been reduced by the Then, we get
factor χ . Thus, above the substance, the Ey
V =
gravity acceleration g ′ is reduced at the B
same proportion χ = m g mi 0 , and, This gives a measure of the velocity of
the electrons.
consequently, g ′ = χ g , where g is the Thus, by means of the
gravity acceleration below the substance. experimental set-up, shown in Fig. III, we
Figure III shows an experimental can easily obtain the velocity V of the
set-up in order to check the factor χ electrons below the body β , in order to
above a high-speed electrons flux. As we calculate the theoretical value of χ . The
have shown (Eq. 43), the gravitational experimental value of χ can be obtained
mass of a particle decreases with the
by dividing the weight, Pβ′ = m gβ g ′ of
increase of the velocity V of the particle.
~
Since the theory says that the the body β for a voltage drop V across
factor χ is given by the correlation the anode and cathode, by its
m g mi 0 then, in the case of an electrons weight, Pβ = m gβ g , when the voltage
flux, we will have that χ = mge mie where ~
V is zero, i.e.,
m ge as function of the velocity V is Pβ′ g′
χ = =
given by Eq. (43). Thus, we can write Pβ g
that
According to Eq. (4), the gravitational
mass, M g , is defined by
m ge ⎧⎪ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎫⎪
χ= = ⎨1 − 2 ⎢ − 1⎥ ⎬ mg
mie ⎪⎩ ⎢
⎣ 1−V c
2 2
⎥⎦ ⎪⎭ Mg =
1 − V 2 c2
Therefore, if we know the velocity V of
the electrons we can calculate χ . ( mie is While Eq. (43) defines m g by means of
the electron mass at rest). the following expression
When an electron penetrates the ⎧⎪ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎫⎪
electric field E y (see Fig. III) an electric m g = ⎨1 − 2 ⎢ − 1⎥ ⎬mi 0
r r ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ 1 − V 2 c 2 ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭
force, FE = −eE y , will act upon the
r In order to check the gravitational mass
electron. The direction of FE will be of the electrons it is necessary to know
r the pressure P produced by the
contrary to the direction of E y . The
r electrons flux. Thus, we have put a
magnetic force FB which acts upon the piezoelectric sensor in the bottom of the
r glass tube as shown in Fig. III. The
electron, due to the magnetic field B , is electrons flux radiated from the cathode
r r
FB = eVBμ̂ and will be opposite to FE is accelerated by the anode1 and strikes
because the electron charge is negative. on the piezoelectric sensor yielding a
By adjusting conveniently B we pressure P which is measured by
r r means of the sensor.
can make FB = FE . Under these
circumstances in which the total force is
zero, the spot produced by the electrons

34
21

g g′ < g g′ < 0

mg = mi mg < mi mg < 0

g g g

(a)

Particle 2 P2 = mg 2 g′ = mg 2 ( x g )
mg 2
g′ < g due to the gravitational
g′ shielding effect produced by mg 1

mg 1 = x mi 1 ; x < 1
Particle 1
mg 1 P1 = mg 1 g = x mi 1 g
g

(b)

Fig. I I – The Gravitational Shielding effect.

35
22

Let us now deduce the correlation piezoelectric sensor is the resultant of


between P and M ge . all the forces Fφ produced by each
When the electrons flux strikes electrons flux that passes through
the sensor, the electrons transfer to it each hole of area S φ in the grid of the
a momentum Q = neqe = ne MgeV . anode 1, and is given by
Since Q = FΔt = 2Fd V , we conclude that ⎛ αnSφ ⎞ ~ 32
F = nFφ = n(PSφ ) = ⎜⎜ ⎟
2 ⎟
M VV
⎛F⎞
2d ⎝ 2ed ⎠
ge

M ge = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
V2
⎝ ne ⎠ where n is the number of holes in the
The amount of electrons, ne , is given grid. By means of the piezoelectric
sensor we can measure F and
by ne = ρSd where ρ is the amount of
consequently obtain M ge .
electrons per unit of volume
We can use the equation
(electrons/m3); S is the cross-section
above to evaluate the magnitude of
of the electrons flux and d the
the force F to be measured by the
distance between cathode and
piezoelectric sensor. First, we will find
anode.
the expression of V as a function of
In order to calculate ne we will ~
V since the electrons speed V
start from the Langmuir-Child law and ~
the Ohm vectorial law, respectively depends on the voltage V .
given by We will start from Eq. (46)
~ 3 which is the general expression for
and J = ρ cV , (ρ c = ρ e )
V2
J =α Lorentz’s force, i.e.,
r
( )
d dp r r r mg
where J is the thermoionic current = qE + qV × B
− 32
dt mi 0
density; α = 2.33 × 10 − 6 A.m −1 .V is
~ When the force and the speed
the called Child’s constant; V is the have the same direction Eq.
r r (6) gives
voltage drop across the anode and dp mg dV
=
cathode electrodes, and V is the dt (1 − V 2 c 2 )2 dt
3

velocity of the electrons.


By comparing the Langmuir- By comparing these expressions we
Child law with the Ohm vectorial law obtain r
we obtain mi 0 dV r r r
~ = q E + q V ×B
( )
3

αV
3

1 − V 2 c 2 2 dt
2

ρ= 2
ed V In the case of electrons accelerated
Thus, we can write that by a sole electric field (B = 0) , the
~ 3

αV S 2
equation above gives
ne = r r ~
( )
edV r dV eE 2eV
and a= = 1−V c
2 2

dt mie mie
⎛ 2ed 2 ⎞
M ge = ⎜⎜ ~ 3 ⎟⎟ P Therefore, the velocity V of the
⎝ α VV 2 ⎠ electrons in the experimental set-up
Where P = F S , is the pressure to be is
~
measured by the piezoelectric
( 2eV
)
3

V = 2ad = 1 − V 2 c 2 4
sensor. mie
In the experimental set-up the
From Eq. (43) we conclude that
total force F acting on the

36
23

Dynamometer (D)

d
~
Collimators g’= χ g ↓g + Vy
Grid d Collimators B
O’ +
α γ
F
e V
y Ey O⋅ e

Anode 1 Filaments Cathode Anode 2


Piezoelectric − G ↓iG
sensor
- +

~
V

+ −

Fig. III – Experimental set-up in order to check the factor χ above a high-speed electrons flux.
The set-up may also check the velocities and the gravitational masses of the electrons.

37
24

mge ≅ 0 when V ≅ 0.745c . Substitution If we have nSφ ≅ 0.16m 2 and


of this value of V into equation above d = 0.08m in the experimental set-up
~
gives V ≅ 479.1KV . This is the then it follows that
~
F = 1.82 × 1014 M geVV
3
voltage drop necessary to be applied 2

across the anode and cathode ~


electrodes in order to obtain mge ≅ 0 . By varying V from 10KV up to 500KV
we note that the maximum value for
Since the equation above can ~
be used to evaluate the velocity V of F occurs when V ≅ 344.7 KV . Under
~ these circumstances, V ≅ 0.7c and
the electrons flux for a given V , then
M ge ≅ 0.28mie . Thus the maximum
we can use the obtained value of V to
r value for F is
evaluate the intensity of B in order to
produce eVB = eE y in the Fmax ≅ 1.9 N ≅ 190 gf
~
experimental set-up. Then by Consequently, for Vmax = 500 KV , the
adjusting B we can check when the piezoelectric sensor must satisfy the
electrons flux is detected by the following characteristics:
galvanometer G . In this case, as we
have already seen, eVB = eE y , and − Capacity 200gf
the velocity of the electrons flux is − Readability 0.001gf
calculated by means of the
expression V = E y B . Substitution of Let us now return to the
explanation for the findings of
V into the expressions of m ge and
Podkletnov’s experiment. Next, we
M ge , respectively given by will explain the decrease of 0.1% in
⎧⎪ ⎡ ⎤ ⎫⎪ the weight of the superconductor
1
mge = ⎨1 − 2⎢ − 1⎥ ⎬mie when the disk is only levitating but not
⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ 1 − V 2 c 2 ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭ rotating.
Equation (55) shows how the
and gravitational mass is altered by
m ge electromagnetic fields.
M ge = The expression of nr for
1−V 2 c2 σ >> ωε can be obtained from (54),
yields the corresponding values of in the form
m ge and M ge which can be compared μσ c 2
nr =
c
= (56 )
with the values obtained in the v 4πf
experimental set-up:
Substitution of (56) into (55) leads to
(
m ge = χmie = Pβ′ Pβ mie ) ⎧


μσ ⎛ U ⎞
2 ⎤⎫


mg = ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − 1⎥⎬mi 0
F ⎛ 2ed 2 ⎞ ⎪ ⎢ 4πf ⎝ mi c ⎠ ⎥⎪
M ge = ⎜ ⎟ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭
~3 ⎜ αnS φ ⎟
VV 2 ⎝ ⎠ This equation shows that atoms of
ferromagnetic materials with very-
where Pβ′ and Pβ are measured by high μ can have gravitational
the dynamometer D and F is masses strongly reduced by means
measured by the piezoelectric of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF)
sensor. electromagnetic radiation. It also
shows that atoms of superconducting

38
25

materials (due to very-high σ ) can other hand the transition temperature,


also have its gravitational masses for high critical temperature (HTC)
strongly reduced by means of ELF superconducting materials, is in the
electromagnetic radiation. order of 10 2 K . Thus (58a) gives
Alternatively, we may put ⎧ ⎡ ⎫
⎪ ~ 10−9 ⎤⎪
Eq.(55) as a function of the power mg,CPfluid = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ 2 −1⎥⎬mi,CPfluid (58b)
density ( or intensity ), D , of the ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ ρCPfluid ⎥⎦⎪

radiation. The integration of (51)
Assuming that the number of Copper-
gives U =VD v . Thus, we can write
pairs per unit volume is N ≈ 10 26 m −3
(55) in the following form:
[27] we can write that
⎧ ⎡ ⎤⎫
ρ CPfluid = Nm* ≈ 10 −4 kg / m 3
2
⎪ ⎛ nr2 D ⎞ ⎪
mg = ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ − 1⎥⎬mi 0
⎢ (57)
⎪ ⎢ ⎝ ρc ⎠ ⎥⎪ Substitution of this value into (58b)
⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ yields
where ρ = mi 0 V .
For σ >> ωε , nr will be given by mg,CPfluid = m − 0.1 mi,CPfluid
i,CPfluid
(56) and consequently (57) becomes
⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫ This means that the gravitational
⎪ ⎛ μσ ⎞ ⎪
⎟⎟ − 1⎥ ⎬mi 0 (58)
D
mg = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜⎜ masses of the electrons are
⎪⎩ ⎢ ⎝ 4πfρc ⎠ ⎥⎪ decreased of ~10%. This
⎣ ⎦⎭
corresponds to a decrease in the
In the case of Thermal gravitational mass of the
radiation, it is common to relate superconductor given by
m g ,SC N (m ge + m gp + m gn + ΔE c 2 )
the energy of photons to
temperature, T, through the = =
relation, mi , SC N (mie + mip + min + ΔE c 2 )
hf ≈ κT ⎛ m ge + m gp + m gn + ΔE c 2 ⎞
=⎜ ⎟=
where κ = 1.38 × 10 −23 J / °K is the ⎜ m + m + m + ΔE c 2 ⎟
⎝ ie ip in ⎠
Boltzmann’s constant. On the other
hand it is known that ⎛ 0.9mie + mip + min + ΔE c 2 ⎞
=⎜ ⎟=
D = σ BT 4 ⎜ m + m + m + ΔE c 2 ⎟
⎝ ie ip in ⎠
where σ B = 5.67 × 10 −8 watts / m 2 ° K 4 = 0.999976
is the Stefan-Boltzmann’s constant. Where ΔE is the interaction energy.
Thus we can rewrite (58) in the Therefore, a decrease of
following form (1 − 0.999976) ≈ 10 , i.e., approximately
−5

⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫
⎪ ⎛ μσσ 3
⎞ ⎪ 10 −3% in respect to the initial
⎢ − 1⎥⎬mi0 (58a)
⎜ hT ⎟
mg = ⎨1 − 2 1 + B
⎢ ⎜ 4πκρ c ⎟ ⎥ gravitational mass of the

⎩ ⎢⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦⎪⎭ superconductor, due to the local
Starting from this equation, we can thermal radiation only. However, here
evaluate the effect of the thermal we must also consider the
radiation upon the gravitational mass gravitational shielding effect
of the Copper-pair fluid, m g ,CPfluid . produced, in this case, by the
Below the transition temperature, Tc , decrease of ≈ 10 − 3% in the
gravitational mass of the particles
(T Tc < 0.5) the conductivity of the inside the superconductor (see Fig.
superconducting materials is usually II). Therefore the total weight
larger than 10 22 S / m [26]. On the decrease in the superconductor will

39
26
r r
be much greater than ≈ 10 − 3% . This J = Δ eVd
can explain the smaller effect on the where Δe is the density of the
order of 0.1% observed in the
free electric charges ( For cooper
Podkletnov measurements when the
disk is not rotating. conductors Δe = 1.3 × 1010 C / m 3 ).
Let us now consider an electric Therefore increasing Vd produces an
current I through a conductor increase in the electric current I .
subjected to electromagnetic Thus if mge is reduced 10 times
radiation with power density D and
frequency f .
(m ge ≈ 0.1me ) the drift velocity Vd is
Under these circumstances the increased 10 times as well as the
gravitational mass mge of the electric current. Thus we conclude
that strong fluxes of ELF radiation
electrons of the conductor, according upon electric/electronic circuits can
to Eq. (58), is given by suddenly increase the electric
⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫ currents and consequently damage
⎪ ⎢ ⎛ μσD ⎞ ⎪
m ge = ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − 1⎥ ⎬m e these circuits.
⎪ ⎢ ⎝ 4πfρc ⎠ ⎥⎪ Since the orbital electrons
⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭
−31 moment of inertia is given
where me = 9.11 × 10 kg .
by I i = Σ (mi ) j rj , where mi refers to
2

Note that if the radiation upon


the conductor has extremely-low inertial mass and not to gravitational
frequency (ELF radiation) then mge mass, then the momentum L = I iω of
can be strongly reduced. For the conductor orbital electrons are not
affected by the ELF radiation.
example, if f ≈ 10−6 Hz , D ≈ 10 5 W / m 2
Consequently, this radiation just
and the conductor is made of copper affects the conductor’s free electrons
( μ ≅ μ0 ; σ = 5.8×107 S / mand velocities. Similarly, in the case of
ρ = 8900kg / m3 ) then superconducting materials, the
⎛ μσD ⎞ momentum, L = I iω , of the orbital
⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ≈ 1 electrons are not affected by the
⎝ 4πfρc ⎠
gravitomagnetic fields.
and consequently mge ≈ 0.1me . r r
The vector D = (U V )v , which we
According to Eq. (6) the force
may define from (48), has the same
upon each free electron is given by r
direction of the propagation vector k
r and evidently corresponds to the
r m ge dV r r
Fe = = eE
(1 − V c2 ) 2
Poynting vector. Then D can be
2
3
dt r r
replaced by E× H .Thus we can write
D = 12 EH = 12 E(B μ) = 12 E[(E v) μ] = 12 (1 vμ)E2 .
where E is the applied electric field.
For σ >> ωε Eq. (54) tells us that
Therefore, the decrease of mge
v = 4πf μσ . Consequently, we obtain
produces an increase in the velocity
V of the free electrons and σ
D = 12 E 2
consequently the drift velocity Vd is 4πfμ
also increased. It is known that the This expression refers to the
density of electric current J through instantaneous values of D and E .
a conductor [28] is given by The average value for E 2 is equal to
1 E 2 because E varies sinusoidaly
2 m

40
27

( E m is the maximum value for E ). penetrates the magnetic field, its


Substitution of the expression of D negative inertial mass increases, but
into (58) gives its total inertial mass decreases, i.e.,
⎧ although there is an increase of
⎡ 3 ⎤⎫
μ ⎛σ ⎞ E
2
⎪ ⎪
⎟⎟ 2 − 1⎥⎬mi0 (59a)
inertial mass, the total inertial mass
mg = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 2 ⎜⎜
⎪⎩ ⎢ 4c ⎝ 4πf ⎠ ρ ⎥⎪ (which is equivalent to gravitational
⎣ ⎦⎭ mass) will be reduced.
Since E rms = E m 2 and E = 12 E m2 we 2
On the other hand, Eq.(4)
can write the equation above in the shows that the velocity of the body
following form must increase as consequence of
⎧ ⎡ the gravitational mass decreasing
3 ⎤⎫
⎪ ⎢ μ ⎛ σ ⎞ Erms 2

−1⎥⎬mi0 (59a)
since the momentum is conserved.
mg = ⎨1− 2 1+ 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ 4c ⎝ 4πf ⎠ ρ 2
⎥⎪ Consider for example a spacecraft
⎦⎭ with velocity Vs and gravitational
Note that for extremely-low
mass M g . If M g is reduced to m g
frequencies the value of f − 3 in this
then the velocity becomes
V s′ = (M g m g )V s
equation becomes highly expressive.
Since E = vB equation (59a)
can also be put as a function of B , In addition, Eqs. 5 and 6 tell us that
i.e., the inertial forces depend on m g .
⎧⎪ ⎡ ⎛ σ ⎞ B4 ⎤⎫⎪ Only in the particular case of
mg = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜⎜ ⎟
2 ⎟ 2
− 1⎥⎬mi 0 (59b) m g = m i 0 the expressions (5) and
⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ ⎝ 4πfμc ⎠ ρ ⎥⎦⎪⎭
(6) reduce to the well-known
For conducting materials with Newtonian expression F = mi 0 a .
σ ≈ 10 S / m ; μ r = 1 ; ρ ≈ 10 kg / m3
7 3
Consequently, one can conclude that
the expression (59b) gives the inertial effects on the spacecraft
⎧⎪ ⎡ ⎛ ≈ 10 −12 ⎞ 4 ⎤ ⎫⎪ will also be reduced due to the
mg = ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜⎜
⎢ ⎟⎟ B − 1⎥ ⎬mi 0 decreasing of its gravitational mass.
⎪⎩ ⎢
⎣ ⎝ f ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭
Obviously this leads to a new
This equation shows that the concept of aerospace flight.
decreasing in the gravitational mass Now consider an electric
of these conductors can become current i = i0 sin2πft through a
experimentally detectable for
conductor. Since the current density,
example, starting from 100Teslas at r r r r
10mHz. J , is expressed by J = di dS = σE ,
One can then conclude that an then we can write that
interesting situation arises when a E = i σS = (i0 σS ) sin 2πft . Substitution
body penetrates a magnetic field in of this equation into (59a) gives
the direction of its center. The ⎧⎪ ⎡ ⎤⎫⎪
i4μ
gravitational mass of the body mg = ⎨1−2⎢ 1+ 3 20 2 4 3 sin4 2πft −1⎥⎬mi0 (59c)
decreases progressively. This is due ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ 64π c ρ S f σ ⎥⎦⎪⎭
to the intensity increase of the If the conductor is a supermalloy rod
magnetic field upon the body while it
penetrates the field. In order to
(1 × 1 × 400mm) then μr = 100,000
understand this phenomenon we (initial); ρ = 8770kg / m 3 ; σ = 1.6 ×106 S / m
might, based on (43), think of the and S = 1 × 10 −6 m 2 . Substitution of
inertial mass as being formed by two these values into the equation above
parts: one positive and another yields the following expression for the
negative. Thus, when the body

41
28

gravitational mass of the supermalloy Δp P2


rod =
m i 0 c 2 ρ 2 cv 3

⎩ ⎢⎣
( )
mg(sm) =⎧⎨1−2⎡ 1+ 5.71×10−12i04 f 3 sin42πft −1⎤⎫⎬mi(sm)
⎥⎦⎭
Substitution of this expression into
(41) gives
Some oscillators like the HP3325A ⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫
⎪ ⎢ ⎛ P2 ⎞ ⎪
(Op.002 High Voltage Output) can mg = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜ 2 3 ⎟ −1⎥⎥⎬mi 0 (60)
generate sinusoidal voltages with ⎜ 2ρ cv ⎟
⎪ ⎢⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦⎪⎭
extremely-low frequencies down to ⎩
f = 1 × 10 −6 Hz and amplitude up to This expression shows that in the
case of sound waves the decreasing
20V (into 50Ω load). The maximum
of gravitational mass is relevant for
output current is 0.08 App . very strong pressures only.
Thus, for i0 = 0.04 A (0.08 A pp ) It is known that in the nucleus
and f < 2.25 × 10 −6 Hz the equation of the Earth the pressure can reach
values greater than 1013 N / m 2 . The
above shows that the gravitational
mass of the rod becomes negative at equation above tells us that sound
waves produced by pressure
2πft = π 2 ; for f ≅ 1.7 × 10−6 Hz at
variations of this magnitude can
t = 1 4 f = 1.47 × 10 5 s ≅ 40.8h it shows cause strong decreasing of the
that m g ( sm ) ≅ − mi ( sm ) . gravitational mass at the
This leads to the idea of the surroundings of the point where the
Gravitational Motor. See in Fig. IV a sound waves were generated. This
type of gravitational motor (Rotational obviously must cause an abrupt
Gravitational Motor) based on the decreasing of the pressure at this
possibility of gravity control on a place since pressure = weight /area =
ferromagnetic wire. mgg/area). Consequently a local
It is important to realize that instability will be produced due to the
this is not the unique way of opposite internal pressure. The
decreasing the gravitational mass of conclusion is that this effect may
a body. It was noted earlier that the cause Earthquakes.
expression (53) is general for all Consider a sphere of radius r
types of waves including non- around the point where the sound
electromagnetic waves like sound waves were generated (at ≈ 1,000km
waves for example. In this case, the depth; the Earth's radius is 6 ,378km ).
velocity v in (53) will be the speed of If the maximum pressure, at the
sound in the body and D the intensity explosion place ( sphere of radius r0 ),
of the sound radiation. Thus from (53) is Pmax ≈ 1013 N / m 2 and the pressure
we can write that
at the distance r = 10km is
Δp V D D
= = Pmin = (r0 r ) Pmax ≈ 10 N / m then we can
2 9 2
mi c mi c ρcv 2
consider that in the sphere
It can easily be shown that
D = 2π 2 ρf 2 A 2 v where A = λP 2πρv 2 ; P = PmaxPmin ≈ 10 N / m .Thus assuming
11 2

A and P are respectively the v ≈ 103 m / s and ρ ≈103 kg/ m3 we can


amplitude and maximum pressure calculate the variation of gravitational
variation of the sound wave. mass in the sphere by means of the
Therefore we readily obtain equation of m g , i.e.,

42
29

⎧ ⎡ i4μ ⎤⎫
⎪ ⎢ ⎪
α = ⎨1 − 2 1 + − 1⎥ ⎬
⎪⎩ ⎢ 64π c ρ S f σ
3 2 2 4 3
⎥⎪
⎣ ⎦⎭
Axis
of the
Rotor
Ferromagnetic wire F = mg g = α mi g

P = mi g

~ One plate of ferromagnetic wire


of the Rotor
ELF current
source

Several plates of
ferromagnetic wire

Rotor of the Motor

Fig. IV - Rotational Gravitational Motor

43
30

r
force, Fi , is given by Eq.(6), and from
Δmg = mg (initial) − mg = Eq.(13) we can obtain the
r r r
⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫ gravitational force, Fg . Thus, Fi ≡ Fg
⎪ ⎛ P2 ⎞ ⎪
= mi 0 − ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜⎜ 2 3 ⎟⎟ − 1⎥⎬mi 0 = leads to

⎪⎩ ⎢ ⎝ 2ρ cv ⎠ ⎥⎪
⎣ ⎦⎭ mg r m′g mg
a ≡G ≡

⎛ P2 ⎞
2 ⎤ 1−V c
2 2 2
3
( ⎛ )
⎜ r′ 1−V c ⎟
2 2 ⎞
2
1 −V 2 2
c
= 2⎢ 1 + ⎜⎜ 2 3 ⎟⎟ − 1⎥ ρV ≈ 1011 kg ⎝ ⎠
⎢ ⎝ 2 ρ cv ⎠ ⎥ ⎛ m′g ⎞ mg mg
⎣ ⎦ r
≡ ⎜⎜G 2 ⎟⎟ ≡g (61)
The transitory loss of this great ( )
⎝ r′ ⎠ 1−V 2 c2 2
3
( 3
)
1−V 2 c2 2
amount of gravitational mass may whence results
r r
evidently produce a strong pressure a≡g (62 )
variation and consequently a strong
Consequently, the equivalence is
Earthquake.
evident, and therefore Einstein's
Finally, we can evaluate the
equations from the General Relativity
energy necessary to generate those
continue obviously valid.
sound waves. From (48) we can write
The new expression for Fi
D max = Pmax v ≈ 10 16 W / m 2 . Thus, the
released power is P0 = Dmax(4πr02 ) ≈ 1021W
(Eqs. (5) and (6)) shows that the
inertial forces are proportional to the
and the energy ΔE released at the gravitational mass, m g . This means
time interval Δt must be ΔE = P0 Δt . that these forces result from the
Assuming Δt ≈ 10 s we readily obtain
−3
gravitational interaction between the
ΔE = P0 Δt ≈ 1018 joules ≈ 10 4 Megatons particle and the other gravitational
This is the amount of energy released masses of the Universe, just as
by an earthquake of magnitude 9 Mach’s principle predicts. Therefore
(Ms =9) , i.e., E = 1.74×10(5+1.44Ms ) ≅ 1018 joules. the new expression for the inertial
forces incorporates the Mach’s
The maximum magnitude in the principle into Gravitation Theory, and
Richter scale is 12. Note that the sole furthermore reveals that the inertial
releasing of this energy at 1000km effects upon a particle can be
depth (without the effect of reduced because, as we have seen,
gravitational mass decreasing) the gravitational mass may be
cannot produce an Earthquake, since reduced. When m g = mi 0 the
the sound waves reach 1km depth
with pressures less than 10N/cm2. nonrelativistic equation for inertial
r r
Let us now return to the Theory. forces, Fi = mg a , reduces to
The equivalence between r r
Fi = mi 0 a . This is the well-known
frames of non-inertial reference and
gravitational fields assumed m g ≡ mi Newton's second law for motion.
In Einstein's Special Relativity
because the inertial forces were given Theory the motion of a free-particle is
r r
by Fi = mi a , while the equivalent described by means of δS = 0 [29].
r r Now based on Eq. (1), δS = 0 will be
gravitational forces, by Fg = mg g .
given by the following expression
Thus, to satisfy the equivalence
r r r δS = − m g cδ ∫ ds = 0. (63 )
( a ≡ g and Fi ≡ Fg ) it was necessary
which also describes the motion of
that m g ≡ mi . Now, the inertial the particle inside the gravitational

44
31

field. Thus, Einstein's equations from number n is very large (Classical


the General Relativity can be derived limit). Therefore, just under these
starting from δ (S m + S g ) = 0 , where circumstances the Einstein's
S g and S m refer to the action of the equations from the General Relativity
can be used in order to “classicalize”
gravitational field and the action of the quantum theory by means of
the matter, respectively [30]. approximated description of the
The variations δS g and δS m can spacetime.
be written as follows [31]: Later on we will show that the

∫( )
c3 length d min of Eq. (29) is given by
δSg = Rik − 12 gik R δg ik − g dΩ (64)
16πG ( )
1
≈ 10 −34 m (70)
~ ~
d min = k l planck = k Gh c 3 2
1
(65 )
2c ∫
δS m =− Tik δg ik − g dΩ (See Eq. (100)). On the other hand,
where Rik is the Ricci's tensor; g ik the we will find in the Eq. (129) the length
scale of the initial Universe, i.e.,
metric tensor and Tik the matter's dinitial ≈10−14m. Thus, from the Eq. (29)
energy-momentum tensor:
we get: n = dinitial dmin = 10−14 10−34 ≈ 1020
Tik = (P + ε g )μ i μ k + Pg ik (66 )
this is the quantum number of the
where P is the pressure and εg = ρgc2 spacetime at initial instant. That
is now, the density of gravitational quantum number is sufficiently large
energy, E g , of the particle; ρ g is then for the spacetime to be considered
the density of gravitational mass of approximately “continuous” starting
the particle, i.e., M g at the volume from the beginning of the Universe.
Therefore Einstein's equations can be
unit. used even at the Initial Universe.
Substitution of (64) and (65) into Now, it is easy to conclude why
δS m + δS g = 0 yields the attempt to quantize gravity
c3
16πG
( 8πG
)
∫ Rik − 2 gik R − c 4 Tik δg − g dΩ = 0
1 ik
starting from the General Relativity
was a bad theoretical strategy.
Since the gravitational
whence,
interaction can be repulsive, besides
⎛⎜ R − 1 g R − 8πG T ⎞⎟ = 0 (67)
⎝ ik 2 ik c4
ik

attractive, such as the
electromagnetic interaction, then the
because the δg ik are arbitrary.
graviton must have spin 1 (called
Equations (67) in the following form graviphoton) and not 2.
Rik − 12 g ik R = 8π4G Tik (68) Consequently, the gravitational forces
c
are also gauge forces because they
or
are yielded by the exchange of the
Rik − 12 gδ ik R = 8π4G Tik . (69) so-called "virtual" quanta of spin 1,
c
are the Einstein's equations from the such as the electromagnetic forces
General Relativity. and the weak and strong nuclear
It is known that these equations forces.
are only valid if the spacetime is Let us now deduce the Entropy
continuous. We have shown at the Differential Equation starting from Eq.
beginning of this work that the (55). Comparison of Eqs. (55) and
spacetime is not continuous it is (41) shows that Unr = Δpc . For small
quantized. However, the spacetime velocities, i.e., (V << c ) , we have
can be considered approximately
Unr << mi 0 c 2 . Under these
“continuous” when the quantum

45
32

circumstances, the development of T (∂Ei ∂T ) = 2EKi (77)


( )
Eq. (55) in power of Unr mi 0 c 2 gives However, Eq.(18) shows that
⎛ Unr ⎞
2 2EKi =Ei −Eg .Therefore Eq.(77) becomes
mg = mi 0 − ⎜⎜ ⎟ mi 0
2 ⎟
(71) Eg = Ei − T (∂Ei ∂T ) (78)
⎝ i0 ⎠
m c
In the particular case of thermal Here, we can identify the energy E i
radiation, it is usual to relate the with the free-energy of the system-F
energy of the photons to the and E g with the internal energy of
temperature, through the relationship the system-U. Thus we can write the
hν ≈ kT where k = 1.38×10−23 J K is Eq.(78) in the following form:
the Boltzmann's constant. Thus, in U = F − T (∂F ∂T ) (79)
that case, the energy absorbed by the This is the well-known equation of
particle will be U = η hν ≈ ηkT , Thermodynamics. On the other hand,
where η is a particle-dependent remembering that ∂Q = ∂τ +∂U (1st
absorption/emission coefficient. principle of Thermodynamics) and
Therefore, Eq.(71) may be rewritten F = U − TS (80)
in the following form: (Helmholtz's function), we can easily
⎡⎛ nrηk ⎞2 T 2 ⎤ obtain from (79), the following
mg = mi0 − ⎢⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎥mi0 (72) equation
⎢⎣⎝ c ⎠ mi0 ⎥⎦ (81)
2
∂Q = ∂τ + T∂S .
For electrons at T=300K, we have For isolated systems, ∂τ = 0 , we have
⎛ nrηk ⎞ T 2
2
∂Q = T∂S (82)
⎜ 2 ⎟ ≈ 10 −17
⎝ c ⎠ me which is the well-known Entropy
2

Comparing (72) with (18), we obtain Differential Equation.


Let us now consider the
1 ⎛ nrηk ⎞ T 2
2

EKi = ⎜ ⎟ . (73) Eq.(55) in the ultra-relativistic case


2 ⎝ c ⎠ mi 0 where the inertial energy of the
The derivative of E Ki with respect to particle E i = M i c 2 is much larger than
temperature T is its inertial energy at rest mi 0 c 2 .
∂E Ki
= (nrηk c ) (T mi 0 ) (74) Comparison of (4) and (10) leads to
2

∂T Δp = EiV c 2 which, in the ultra-


Thus, relativistic case, gives
∂E
T Ki = r 2
(n ηkT)2 (75) Δp = EiV c ≅ Ei c ≅ Mi c . On the other
2

∂T mi0 c hand, comparison of (55) and (41)


Substitution of EKi = Ei − Ei0 into (75) shows that Unr = Δpc . Thus
gives Unr = Δpc ≅ Mi c2 >> mi0c2 . Consequently,
⎛ ∂Ei ∂Ei 0 ⎞ (nrηkT )
2

T⎜ + ⎟= (76) Eq.(55) reduces to


⎝ ∂T ∂T ⎠ mi 0 c 2
By comparing the Eqs.(76) and (73) m g = mi 0 − 2 Un r c 2 (83 )
and considering that ∂Ei0 ∂T = 0
because E i 0 does not depend on T , Therefore, the action for such
particle, in agreement with the Eq.(2),
the Eq.(76) reduces to is

46
33

t2
S = −∫t mgc2 1 − V 2 c2 dt = complete description of the
1 electromagnetic field. This means
t2
( )
= ∫t − mi + 2Unr c2 c2 1 −V 2 c2 dt = that from the present theory for

[ ]
1
gravity we can also derive the
= ∫t − mic2 1 − V 2 c2 + 2Unr 1 − V 2 c2 dt. (84)
t2
equations of the electromagnetic
1
field.
The integrant function is the Due to Un r = Δpc ≅ M i c 2 the
Lagrangean, i.e.,
second term on the right hand side of
L = −mi0c2 1−V 2 c2 + 2Unr 1−V 2 c2 (85) Eq.(86) can be written as follows
Starting from the Lagrangean we can
find the Hamiltonian of the particle, by Δpc⎢
(
⎡ 4V 2 c 2 − 2 ⎤
⎥=
)
means of the well-known general ⎢⎣ 1 − V 2 c 2 ⎥⎦
formula:
H = V (∂L ∂V ) − L.
=⎢
( )
⎡ 4V 2 c 2 − 2 ⎤
⎥M i c 2 =
The result is ⎢⎣ 1 − V c ⎥⎦
2 2

H=
mi0c2
+ Unr ⎢
(
⎡ 4V 2 c2 − 2 ⎤
⎥.
)
(86) = Qϕ =
QQ′
=
QQ′
1−V c2 2

⎣ 1−V c ⎦
2 2
⎥ 4πε0 R 4πε0 r 1 − V 2 c 2
The second term on the right hand whence
QQ ′
side of Eq.(86) results from the
particle's interaction with the (4V 2
)
c 2 − 2 M ic 2 =
4πε 0 r
electromagnetic field. Note the
similarity between the obtained (
The factor 4V 2 c 2 − 2 becomes )
Hamiltonian and the well-known equal to 2 in the ultra-relativistic case,
Hamiltonian for the particle in an then it follows that
QQ ′
electromagnetic field [32]: 2M i c 2 = (88 )
4πε 0 r
H = mi0c2 1 − V 2 c2 + Qϕ. (87) From (44), we know that there is a
minimum value for M i given by
in which Q is the electric charge and M i (min) = mi (min) . Eq.(43) shows that
ϕ , the field's scalar potential. The mg (min) = mi0(min) and Eq.(23) gives
quantity Q ϕ expresses, as we mg (min) = ± h cLmax 8 = ± h 3 8 cdmax .
know, the particle's interaction with
Thus we can write
the electromagnetic field in the same
way as the second term on the right Mi(min) = mi0(min) = ± h 3 8 cdmax (89)
hand side of the Eq. (86). According to (88) the value 2M i (min )c 2
It is therefore evident that it is
the same quantity, expressed by is correlated to (QQ′ 4πε0r)min =Qmin2
4πε0 rmax,
different variables. i.e.,
2
Thus, we can conclude that, in Q min
= 2 M i (min )c 2 (90 )
ultra-high energy conditions 4πε 0 rmax
( 2 2
)
Unr ≅ M i c > mi 0 c , the gravitational where Qmin is the minimum electric
and electromagnetic fields can charge in the Universe ( therefore
be described by the same equal to minimum electric charge of
Hamiltonian, i.e., in these
the quarks, i.e., 13 e ); rmax is the
circumstances they are unified !
It is known that starting from maximum distance between Q and
that Hamiltonian we may obtain a Q ′ , which should be equal to the so-

47
34

called "diameter", dc , of the visible matter in the


Universe is
nU VU ≅ 10 particles/ m
46
we can 3
conclude
Universe ( d c = 2lc where l c is obtained
that these particles fill all space in the
from the Hubble's law for V = c , i.e., Universe, by forming a Continuous 4
~
l c = cH −1 ). Thus, from (90) we readily Universal Medium or Continuous
obtain Universal Fluid (CUF), the density of
which is
Qmin = πε 0 hc 24 (dc d max ) = nU m i 0(min )
ρ CUF = ≅ 10 − 27 kg / m 3
( ~
= πε 0 hc 2 96H −1 d max = ) VU
Note that this density is much smaller
= 13 e (91) than the density of the Intergalactic
whence we find (
Medium ρ IGM ≅ 10 −26 kg / m 3 . )
d max = 3 .4 × 10 30 m The extremely-low density of the
This will be the maximum "diameter" that Continuous Universal Fluid shows that its
the Universe will reach. Consequently, local gravitational mass can be strongly
Eq.(89) tells us that the elementary affected by electromagnetic fields
quantum of matter is (including gravitoelectromagnetic fields),
pressure, etc. (See Eqs. 57, 58, 59a,
mi 0(min) = ± h 3 8 cdmax = ±3.9 × 10−73 kg 59b, 55a, 55c and 60). The density of
this fluid is clearly not uniform along the
Universe, since it can be strongly
This is, therefore, the smallest indivisible compressed in several regions (galaxies,
particle of matter. stars, blackholes, planets, etc). At the
Considering that, the inertial mass normal state (free space), the mentioned
of the Observable Universe is fluid is invisible. However, at super
MU = c 2H0G ≅10 kg and that its volume
3 53 compressed state it can become visible
by giving origin to the known matter
is V U = 4
3
π R U3 = 4
3
π (c H 0 )3 ≅ 10 79 m 3 , since matter, as we have seen, is
where H 0 = 1.75 × 10 −18 s −1 is the Hubble quantized and consequently, formed by
an integer number of elementary
constant, we can conclude that the
number of these particles in the quantum of matter with mass mi 0(min ) .
Observable Universe is Inside the proton, for example, there are
nU =
MU
≅ 10125 particles n p = m p mi0(min) ≅ 1045 elementary quanta
mi 0(min ) of matter at supercompressed state, with
By dividing this number by VU , we get volume V proton n p and “radius”
nU
≅ 10 46 particles / m 3 Rp 3 n p ≅ 10 −30 m .
VU
Therefore, the solidification of the
Obviously, the dimensions of the
matter is just a transitory state of this
smallest indivisible particle of matter
Universal Fluid, which can back to the
depend on its state of compression. In
primitive state when the cohesion
free space, for example, its volume is
conditions disappear.
VU nU . Consequently, its “radius” is
Let us now study another aspect
RU 3 nU ≅ 10 −15 m . of the present theory. By combination of
If N particles with diameter φ fill gravity and the uncertainty principle we
will derive the expression for the Casimir
all space of 1m 3 then Nφ 3 = 1 . Thus, if force.
φ ≅ 10 −15 m then the number of particles, An uncertainty Δmi in mi
with this diameter, necessary to fill produces an uncertainty Δp in p and
all 1m 3 is N ≅ 10 45 particles . Since the
number of smallest indivisible particles of 4
At very small scale.

48
35

therefore an uncertainty Δmg in m g , ⎛ 2 ⎞ hc


ΔF = −⎜ ⎟ l2 =
⎝ π ⎠ (Δr )
4 planck
which according to Eq.(41) , is given
by
⎛ π ⎞ hc ⎡⎛ 960 ⎞ 2 ⎤
⎡ ⎤ = −⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ π 2 ⎟l planck ⎥ =
⎝ 480 ⎠ (Δr )
2
⎛ Δp ⎞ 4
⎣⎝ ⎠ ⎦

Δmg = Δmi − 2 1 + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − 1⎥ Δmi (92)
⎢ Δ
⎝ i ⎠
m c ⎥ ⎛ πA ⎞ hc
⎣ ⎦ = −⎜ 0 ⎟ (97 )
⎝ 480 ⎠ (Δr )
4
From the uncertainty principle for
position and momentum, we know or
that the product of the uncertainties of ⎛ πA ⎞ hc
the simultaneously measurable F0 = −⎜ 0 ⎟ 4 (98)
⎝ 480 ⎠ r
values of the corresponding position which is the expression of the Casimir
and momentum components is at
least of the magnitude order of h , (
force for A = A0 = 960 π 2 l planck
2
. )
i.e., This suggests that A0 is an
Δ p Δr ~ h elementary area related to the
Substitution of Δp ~ h Δr into (92) yields existence of a minimum length
~
⎡ ⎤ d min = k l planck what is in accordance
h Δmi c ⎞
2

Δmg = Δmi − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥Δmi (93) with the quantization of space (29)

⎣ ⎝ Δr ⎠ ⎥
⎦ and which points out to the existence
Therefore if of d min .
h
Δr << (94 ) It can be easily shown that the
Δmi c minimum area related to d min is the
then the expression (93) reduces to: area of an equilateral triangle of side
2h
Δm g ≅ − (95) length d min ,i.e.,
Δrc
Note that Δmg does not depend on
( )
Amin = 43 d min
2 ~ 2
( )
= 43 k 2 l planck
On the other hand, the maximum
mg . area related to d min is the area of a
Consequently, the uncertainty sphere of radius d min ,i.e.,
ΔF in the gravitational ~ 2
Amax = πd min
2
= πk 2 l planck
force F = − Gmg m′g r , will be given by
2

Thus, the elementary area


Δmg Δm′g A0 = δ A d min
2 ~ 2
= δ A k 2l planck (99)
ΔF = −G =
(Δr )2 must have a value between Amin and
Amax , i.e.,
⎡ 2 ⎤ hc ⎛ Gh ⎞
= −⎢ 2⎥ 2 ⎜ 3 ⎟
(96) <δA <π
3

⎣π (Δr ) ⎦ (Δr ) ⎝ c ⎠
4
The previous assumption that
(
A 0 = 960 π l planck
2 2
) shows that
( ) 1
The amount Gh c 3 2 = 1.61 × 10 −35 m ~2
δ A k = 960 π 2 what means that
is called the Planck length, l planck ,( the ~
5 .6 < k < 14 .9
length scale on which quantum
fluctuations of the metric of the space Therefore we conclude that
time are expected to be of order
~
d min = k l planck ≈ 10 −34 m. (100 )
unity). Thus, we can write the The n − esimal area after A0 is
expression of ΔF as follows

49
36

A = δ A (ndmin ) = n 2 A0 (101) we conclude that Lmax ≅ 1030 m . From


2

It can also be easily shown that the Hubble's law and (22) we have
the minimum volume related to d min that

( )
is the volume of a regular tetrahedron
Vmax = Hlmax = H (d max 2 ) =
~ ~ ~
of edge length d min , i.e., 3 2 HLmax
( )
Ω min = 122 d min3
( ) ~
= 122 k 3 l 3planck ~
where H = 1.7 × 10−18 s −1 . Therefore we
The maximum volume is the volume
obtain
of a sphere of radius d min , i.e.,
Vmax ≅ 1012 m / s .
Ω max = ( 43π )d min = ( 43π )k 3l 3planck
3 ~

Thus, the elementary volume This is the speed upper limit imposed
~3 3
Ω 0 = δ V d min = δ V k l planck must have a
3
by the quantization of velocity (Eq.
36). It is known that the speed upper
value between Ω min and Ω max , i.e.,
( )< δ
limit for real particles is equal to c .
2
12< 43π V However, also it is known that
On the other hand, the n − esimal imaginary particles can have
volume after Ω 0 is velocities greater than c
(Tachyons). Thus, we conclude that
Ω = δ V (ndmin )3 = n3Ω0 n = 1,2,3,...,nmax . Vmax is the speed upper limit for
The existence of nmax given by imaginary particles in our ordinary
(26), i.e., space-time. Later on, we will see that
nmax = Lmax Lmin = d max d min = also exists a speed upper limit to the
= (3.4 × 1030 ) k l planck ≈ 1064
~ imaginary particles in the imaginary
space-time.
shows that the Universe must have a Now, multiplying Eq. (98) (the
finite volume whose value at the expression of F 0 ) by n 2 we obtain
present stage is
Ω 0 = (d p d min )3 δ V d min
⎛ πn2 A0 ⎞ hc ⎛ πA ⎞ hc
Ω Up = nUp = δ V d 3p F = n2 F0 = −⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 4 = −⎜ ⎟ 4 (102)
3 3

⎝ 480 ⎠ r ⎝ 480 ⎠ r
where d p is the present length scale
This is the general expression of the
of the Universe. In addition as
( )
Casimir force.
12 < δ V < 3
2 4π
we conclude that the Thus, we conclude that the
Universe must have a polyhedral Casimir effect is just a gravitational
space topology with volume between effect related to the uncertainty
the volume of a regular tetrahedron principle.
of edge length d p and the volume of Note that Eq. (102) arises only
the sphere of diameter d p . when Δmi and Δmi′ satisfy Eq.(94). If
A recent analysis of only Δ m i satisfies Eq.(94), i.e.,
astronomical data suggests not only Δmi <<h Δrc but Δmi′ >> h Δrc then
that the Universe is finite, but also Δm g and Δm′g will be respectively
that it has a dodecahedral space
given by
topology [33,34], what is in strong
accordance with the previous
Δ m g ≅ − 2 h Δ rc and Δ m ′g ≅ Δ mi
theoretical predictions.
From (22) and (26) we have
that Lmax = dmax 3 = nmaxdmin 3 . Since Consequently, the expression (96)
becomes
(100) gives dmin ≅ 10−34 m and nmax ≅ 10 64

50
37

hc ⎛ GΔmi′ ⎞ hc ⎛ GΔmi′c 2 ⎞ Δmi >> h Δrc


ΔF = ⎜ ⎟= ⎜ ⎟=
(Δr )3 ⎝ πc 2 ⎠ (Δr )3 ⎜⎝ πc 4 ⎟⎠ Δmi′ >> h Δrc
hc ⎛ GΔE ′ ⎞ In this case, Δmg ≅ Δmi and
= ⎜ ⎟ (103)
(Δr )3 ⎝ πc 4 ⎠ Δm ′g ≅ Δmi′ . Thus,
However, from the uncertainty
ΔF = −G
Δmi Δmi′
= − G
(ΔE c 2 )(ΔE ′ c 2 ) =
principle for energy and time we know (Δr )2 (Δr )2
that
⎛ G ⎞ (h Δt ) ⎛ Gh ⎞ hc ⎛ 1 ⎞
2
ΔE ~ h Δt (104) = −⎜ 4 ⎟ = −⎜ 3 ⎟ 2 ⎜ 2 2 ⎟
=
⎝ c ⎠ (Δr ) ⎝ c ⎠ (Δr ) ⎝ c Δt ⎠
2
Therefore, we can write the
expression (103) in the following ⎛ 1 ⎞ hc 2
= −⎜ ⎟ l =
⎝ 2π ⎠ (Δr )
4 planck
form:
hc ⎛ Gh ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ hc ⎛ 960 2 ⎞ ⎛ πA ⎞ hc
ΔF = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟= = −⎜ ⎟ 4 ⎜ 2 planck ⎟
l = −⎜ 0 ⎟
(Δr )3 ⎝ c 3 ⎠⎝ πΔt ′c ⎠ ⎝ 1920 ⎠ (Δr ) ⎝ π ⎠ ⎝ 1920 ⎠ (Δr )
4

⎛ 1 ⎞ whence
=
hc
3 planck ⎜
l2 ⎟ (105) ⎛ πA ⎞ hc
(Δr ) ⎝ πΔt ′c ⎠
F = −⎜⎜ ⎟ 4 (107)
From the General Relativity Theory ⎟r
⎝ 1920⎠
we know that dr = cdt − g 00 . If the The force will be attractive and its
field is weak then g 00 = −1 − 2φ c and 2 intensity will be the fourth part of the
dr = cdt (1 + φ c 2 ) = cdt (1 − Gm r 2c 2 ) .
intensity given by the first expression
(102) for the Casimir force.
For Gm r 2 c 2 <<1 we obtain dr ≅ cdt . We can also use this theory to
Thus, if dr = dr′ then dt = dt ′ . This explain some relevant cosmological
means that we can change (Δt ′c ) by phenomena. For example, the recent
(Δr ) into (105). The result is discovery that the cosmic expansion
of the Universe may be accelerating,
hc ⎛ 1 2 ⎞ and not decelerating as many
ΔF = 4 ⎜
l planck ⎟ =
(Δ r ) ⎝ π ⎠ cosmologists had anticipated [35].
We start from Eq. (6) which
⎛ π ⎞ hc ⎛ 480 2 ⎞ r
= ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 l planck ⎟ =
⎝ 480 ⎠ (Δ r )
shows that the inertial forces, Fi ,
⎝1π4 2 4 3⎠
4

1
A0
whose action on a particle, in the
2
case of force and speed with same
⎛ π A 0 ⎞ hc direction, is given by
= ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 960 ⎠ (Δ r ) r
4
mg r
Fi = a
or (1 − V 2 c 2 )3
2

⎛ π A 0 ⎞ hc
F0 = ⎜ ⎟ 4 Substitution of m g given by (43) into
⎝ 960 ⎠ r
the expression above gives
whence
r ⎛ ⎞
⎛ πA ⎞ hc Fi = ⎜
3

2 ⎟ m ar
F = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 4 (106) ⎝ (
⎜ 1−V 2 c2 )3
2
(1 − V 2
c )
2 2 ⎟ i0

⎝ 960⎠ r
Now, the Casimir force is repulsive, whence we conclude that a particle
and its intensity is half of the intensity with rest inertial mass, mi 0 , subjected
r
previously obtained (102). to a force, Fi , acquires an
Consider the case when both Δmi r
acceleration a given by
and Δmi′ do not satisfy Eq.(94), and

51
38
r
r Fi
a =
⎛ 3 2 ⎞
⎜ − ⎟m
⎝ (
⎜ 1−V 2 c2 )
3
2
(1 − V 2
c2 )
2 ⎟ i0

δ
By substituting the well-known
β
expression of Hubble’s law for
~ ~ S C β
velocity, V = Hl , ( H = 1.7 × 10 −18 s −1 is
the Hubble constant) into the Photons
r
expression of a , we get the
acceleration for any particle in the
expanding Universe, i.e., Fig. V – Gravitational deflection of light about
r
r Fi the Sun.
a= Since δ and β are very small we can
⎛ ⎞
⎜ 3

2 ⎟ write that
~ 2 2 2 2 ⎟mi 0
⎝(
⎜ 1− H l c ) (
~ 2 2 2 32
1− H l c ⎠ ) δ = 2β and β =
Vy
Obviously, the distance l increases c
with the expansion of the Universe. Then
Under these circumstances, it is easy 2V y
to see that the term δ=
c
⎛ ⎞
⎜ 3

2 ⎟ Consider the motion of the
⎝ (
⎜ 1− H~2 2 2 2
l c
3

) ( ~2 2 2 2 ⎟
1− H l c ⎠ ) photons at some time t after it has
passed the point of closest approach.
decreases, increasing the acceleration of We impose Cartesian Co-ordinates
the expanding Universe. with the origin at the point of closest
Let us now consider the approach, the x axis pointing along its
phenomenon of gravitational path and the y axis towards the Sun.
deflection of light. The gravitational pull of the Sun is
A distant star’s light ray, M gS M gp
under the Sun’s gravitational force P = −G
field describes the usual central force r2
hyperbolic orbit. The deflection of the where M gp is the relativistic
light ray is illustrated in Fig. V, with gravitational mass of the photon and
the bending greatly exaggerated for a M gS the relativistic gravitational mass
better view of the angle of deflection.
The distance CS is the of the Sun. Thus, the component in a
distance d of closest approach. The perpendicular direction is
angle of deflection of the light ray, δ , F y = −G
M gS M gp
sin β =
is shown in the Figure V and is r2
δ = π − 2β . M gS M gp d
where β is the angle of the = −G
d +c t
2 2 2
d + c 2t 2
2
asymptote to the hyperbole. Then, it
follows that According to Eq. (6) the expression of
tan δ = tan(π − 2 β ) = − tan 2 β the force Fy is
From the Figure V we obtain ⎛ ⎞ dV
⎜ m gp ⎟ y
Vy Fy = ⎜ ⎟⎟ dt
tan β = ⎜ (1 − V 2 c 2 )2
3
.
c ⎝ y ⎠
By substituting Eq. (43) into this
expression, we get

52
39

⎛ ⎞ m gp = +
4 ⎛ hf ⎞
⎜ 3 2 ⎟ dV y ⎜ ⎟i
Fy = ⎜ −
⎜ (1 − V y c ) (1 − V 2 c 2 )2 ⎟
2 2 3
⎟ M ip 3 ⎝ c2 ⎠
dt
⎝ y ⎠ This means that the gravitational and
For V y << c , we can write this inertial masses of the photon are
imaginaries, and invariants with
expression in the following form
F y = M ip (dV y dt ). This force acts on
respect to speed of photon, i.e.
M ip = mip and M gp = m gp .On the other
the photons for a time t causing an
hand, we can write that
increase in the transverse velocity
2 ⎛ hf ⎞
Fy mip = mip (real ) + mip (imaginary ) = ⎜ ⎟i
dV y = dt 3 ⎝ c2 ⎠
M ip
and
Thus the component of transverse 4 ⎛ hf ⎞
velocity acquired after passing the mgp = mgp(real ) + mgp(imaginary) = ⎜ ⎟i
3 ⎝ c2 ⎠
point of closest approach is
M gp (
d − GM gS ) This means that we must have
Vy = ∫ dt = mip (real ) = m gp (real ) = 0
(d )
3
M ip 2
+ c 2t 2 2 The phenomenon of gravitational
− GM gS ⎛ M gp ⎞ − GM gS ⎛ m gp ⎞ deflection of light about the Sun
= ⎜ ⎟= ⎜ ⎟ shows that the gravitational
dc ⎜⎝ M ip ⎟ dc ⎜ mip ⎟
⎠ ⎝ ⎠ interaction between the Sun and the
Since the angle of deflection δ photons is attractive. Thus, due to the
is given by gravitational force between the Sun
2V y and a photon can be expressed by
δ = 2β =
c F = −G M g (Sun ) m gp (imaginary ) r 2 , where
we readily obtain m gp (imaginary ) is a quantity positive and
2V y − 2GM gS ⎛ m gp ⎞
δ= = ⎜ ⎟ imaginary, we conclude that the
c 2 ⎜ m ⎟
c d ⎝ ip ⎠ force F will only be attractive if the
If m gp mip = 2 , the expression above matter ( M g (Sun ) ) has negative
gives imaginary gravitational mass.
4GM gS The Eq. (41) shows that if the
δ =− inertial mass of a particle is null then its
c2d gravitational mass is given by
As we know, this is the correct m g = ± 2Δp c
formula indicated by the experimental where Δp is the momentum variation due
results.
to the energy absorbed by the particle. If
Equation (4) says that
the energy of the particle is invariant,
⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫ then Δp = 0 and, consequently, its
⎛ Δp ⎞
m gp
⎪ ⎢
= ⎨1 − 2 ⎢ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥ ⎪⎬mip
⎜ mip c ⎟ ⎥ gravitational mass will also be null. This

⎩ ⎢

⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭ is the case of the photons, i.e., they have
Since m gp mip = 2 then, by making an invariant energy hf and a momentum

Δp = h λ into the equation above we h λ . As they cannot absorb additional


energy, the variation in the momentum
get
will be null (Δp = 0) and, therefore, their
2 ⎛ hf ⎞
mip = + ⎜ ⎟i gravitational masses will also be null.
3 ⎝ c2 ⎠ However, if the energy of the
Due to m gp mip = 2 we get particle is not invariant (it is able to
absorb energy) then the absorbed
energy will transfer the amount of motion

53
40

(momentum) to the particle, and making the vortex (particle) gain or lose
consequently its gravitational mass will mass. If real motion is what makes real
be increased. This means that the mass then, by analogy, we can say that
motion generates gravitational mass. imaginary mass is made by imaginary
On the other hand, if the motion. This is not only a simple
gravitational mass of a particle is null generalization of the process based on
then its inertial mass, according to Eq. the theory of the imaginary functions, but
(41), will be given by also a fundamental conclusion related to
2 Δp the concept of imaginary mass that, as it
mi = ± will be shown, provides a coherent
5 c explanation for the materialization of the
From Eqs. (4) and (7) we get fundamental particles, in the beginning of
⎛ Eg ⎞ ⎛p ⎞ the Universe.
Δp = ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ΔV = ⎜ 0 ⎟ΔV
It is known that the simultaneous
⎝c ⎠ ⎝ c ⎠
disappearance of a pair
Thus we have (electron/positron) liberates an amount of
⎛ 2p ⎞ 2 ⎛p ⎞ energy, 2mi 0e(real )c 2 , under the form of
mg = ±⎜ 20 ⎟ΔV and mi = ± ⎜⎜ 20 ⎟⎟ΔV
⎝ c ⎠ 5⎝c ⎠ two photons with frequency f , in such a
Note that, like the gravitational mass, the way that
inertial mass is also directly related to the
motion, i.e., it is also generated by the
motion. 2mi 0e(real )c 2 = 2hf
Thus, we can conclude that is the Since the photon has imaginary masses
motion, or rather, the velocity is what associated to it, the phenomenon of
makes the two types of mass. transformation of the energy 2mi 0e(real )c 2
In this picture, the fundamental
particles can be considered as into 2hf suggests that the imaginary
immaterial vortex of velocity; it is the energy of the photon, mip (imaginary )c 2 ,
velocity of these vortexes that causes the
fundamental particles to have masses. comes from the transformation of
That is, there exists not matter in the imaginary energy of the electron,
usual sense; but just motion. Thus, the mi 0e(imaginary )c 2 , just as the real energy of
difference between matter and energy the photon, hf , results from the
just consists of the diversity of the motion
transformation of real energy of the
direction; rotating, closed in itself, in the
electron, i.e.,
matter; ondulatory, with open cycle, in
the energy (See Fig. VI).
Under this context, the Higgs 2m i 0 e (imaginary )c 2 + 2m i 0 e (real )c 2 =
mechanism † appears as a process, by
= 2m i 0 p (imaginary )c 2 + 2 hf
which the velocity of an immaterial vortex
can be increased or decreased by

Then, it follows that



The Standard Model is the name given to
the current theory of fundamental particles and mi 0e(imaginary ) = − mip (imaginary )
how they interact. This theory includes: Strong
interaction and a combined theory of weak and
electromagnetic interaction, known as The sign (-) in the equation above, is due
electroweak theory. One part of the Standard to the imaginary mass of the photon to
Model is not yet well established. What causes be positive, on the contrary of the
the fundamental particles to have masses? The imaginary gravitational mass of the
simplest idea is called the Higgs mechanism. This matter, which is negative, as we have
mechanism involves one additional particle, already seen.
called the Higgs boson, and one additional force
type, mediated by exchanges of this boson.

54
41

Real Particles Imaginary Particles


(Tardyons) (Tachyons)

Real Inertial Mass Imaginary Inertial Mass

Non-null Null Non-null Null

V<c c < V ≤ Vmax*


v=∞
**
v=c
V 0≤v<c V 0≤v<c V 0≤v<Vmax V 0≤v<Vmax

Vortex Anti-vortex Vortex Anti-vortex


(Particle) (Anti-Particle) Real Photons (Particle) (Anti-particle) Imaginary Photons
( “virtual” photons )

(Real Bodies) (Real Radiation) (Imaginary Bodies) (Imaginary Radiation)

* Vmax is the speed upper limit for Tachyons with non-null imaginary inertial mass. It has been previously
~
(
obtained starting from the Hubble's law and Eq.(22). The result is: Vmax = 3 2 HLmax ≅ 10 12 m. s −1 . )
**
In order to communicate instantaneously the interactions at infinite distance the velocity of the quanta
(“virtual” photons) must be infinity and consequently their imaginary masses must be null .

Fig. VI - Real and Imaginary Particles.

Thus, we then conclude that Thus, the electron, the neutron


and the proton have respectively,
mi0e(imaginary) = −mip(imaginary) = the following masses:
Electron
=− 2
3
(hf c ) i =
e
2
mi 0e(real) = 9.11×10−31 kg

=− 2 (h λec) i = − 23 mi0e(real)i
3 mi 0e(im) = − 2 mi 0e(real)i
3

where λe = h mi0e(real) c is the Broglies’


⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫
wavelength for the electron. ⎪ ⎢ ⎛ U e(real) ⎞ ⎥⎪
mge(real) = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ −
By analogy, we can write for
⎜m 2⎟
1⎥⎬mi 0e(real) =
the neutron and the proton the ⎪ ⎢ ⎝ i 0e(real) ⎠
c ⎥⎪
⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭
following masses:
= χ e mi 0e(real)
mi 0neutron(imaginary ) = − 2 mi 0 neutron(real ) i
3

mi 0 proton(imaginary ) = + 2 mi 0 proton(real ) i
3 ⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫
⎪ ⎢ ⎛ U e(im) ⎞ ⎥⎪
The sign (+) in the expression of mge(im) = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ −
mi 0 proton (imaginary ) is due to the fact ⎜m 2⎟
1⎥⎬mi 0e(im) =
⎪ ⎢ ⎝ i 0e(im) ⎠
c ⎥⎪
that mi 0 neutron(imaginary ) and ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭
= χ e mi 0e(im)
mi 0 proton (imaginary ) must have contrary
signs, as will be shown later on.

55
42

where η n , η pr and η e are the


Neutron absorption factors respectively, for the
mi0n(real) = 1.6747×10−27 kg neutrons, protons and electrons;
k = 1.38 × 10 −23 J /º K is the Boltzmann
constant; Tn , T pr and Te are the
mi0n(im) = − 2 m
3 i0n(real)
i
temperatures of the Universe,
respectively when neutrons, protons
⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫ and electrons were created.
⎪ ⎢ ⎛ Un(real) ⎞
mgn(real) = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ ⎜ ⎟ −1⎥⎪m In the case of the electrons, it
⎜m 2⎟ ⎥⎬ i0n(real) = was previously shown that η e ≅ 0.1 .
⎪ ⎢ ⎝ i 0n( )
real c ⎠ ⎥⎪
⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ Thus, by considering that
= χn mi0n(real) Te ≅ 6.2 ×10 K , we get
31

U e(im ) = η e kTe i = 8.5 × 10 7 i


⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫ It is known that the protons were
⎪ ⎢ ⎛ Un(im) ⎞ ⎥⎪
mgn(im) = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ ⎜ ⎟ − created at the same epoch. Thus, we
⎜m 2⎟
1⎥⎬mi0n(im) = will assume that
⎪ ⎢ ⎝ i0n(im) ⎠
c ⎥⎪
⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ U pr (im ) = η pr kT pr i = 8.5 × 10 7 i
= χn mi0n(im) Then, it follows that
Proton χ e = −1.8 × 10 21
mi0pr(real) =1.6723×10−27kg
χ pr = −9.7 × 1017
mi0pr(im) = + 2
3 i0 pr(real)
m i Now, consider the gravitational forces,
due to the imaginary masses of two
⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫
⎪ ⎢ ⎛⎜ U pr(real) ⎞⎟ ⎥⎪ electrons, Fee , two protons, F prpr , and
mgpr(real) = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ −1⎥⎬mi0pr(real) =
⎜ 2⎟ one electron and one proton, Fepr , all at
⎪ ⎢ ⎝ mi0pr(real)c ⎠ ⎥⎪
⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ rest.
= χ prmi0pr(real) 2
m ge (im )
(− 2 mi 0e(real )i )
2

−Gχ e2
3
Fee = −G = =
⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫ r2 r2
⎪ ⎢ ⎛⎜ U pr(im) ⎞⎟ ⎥⎪
mgpr(im) = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ −1⎥⎬mi0pr(im) = mi20e(real ) + 2.3 ×10 −28
⎜ 2⎟ 4
= + Gχ e2 =
⎪ ⎢ ⎝ mi0pr(im)c ⎠ ⎥⎪ ( repulsion)
⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ 3 r2 r2
= χ prmi0pr(im) 2
2 ⎛⎜ + 2
mi0 pr(real)i ⎞⎟
mgpr(im) 2 ⎝ ⎠
= −Gχ pr
3
where U (real ) and U (im ) are Fprpr = −G 2 2
=
r r
respectively, the real and imaginary 4 mi0 pr(real) + 2.3 ×10−28
2

energies absorbed by the particles. = + Gχ 2pr = (repulsion)


3 r2 r2
When neutrons, protons and
electrons were created after the Big-
mge(im)mgpr(im)
bang, they absorbed quantities of Fepr = −G =
electromagnetic energy, respectively r2
given by ⎛⎜ − 2
i ⎞⎟ ⎛⎜ + 2
i ⎞⎟
3 i0e(real) ⎠ 3 i 0 pr(real) ⎠
m m
U n(real ) = η n kTn U n(imaginary) = η n kTn i = −Gχe χ pr ⎝ ⎝ =
r2
U pr (real ) = η pr kT pr U pr (imaginary) = η pr kT pr i
4 mi0e(real)mi0 pr(real) − 2.3×10−28
= − Gχe χ pr =
U e(real ) = η e kTe U e(imaginary) = η e kTe i 3 r2 r2
(atraction)

56
43

Note that charge of the neutron is null. Thus, it is


−28
e 2
2.3 × 10 necessary to assume that
Felectric = =
4πε 0 r r2 2
qn = qn+ + qn− = 4πε0 G mgn
+
(imaginary) i +
Therefore, we can conclude that
e2 −
Fee = F prpr ≡ Felectric = + (repulsion) + 4πε0 G mgn(imaginary) i =
4πε 0 r 2
and = 4πε 0 G ⎛⎜ χ n mi+0n(imaginary) i ⎞⎟ +
⎝ ⎠
Fep ≡ Felectric = −
e2
4πε0r 2
(atraction) (
+ 4πε0 G χ n mi−0n(imaginary) i = )
These correlations permit to define the = 4πε G [χ (+
0 n
2
mi0n i )+ χ (−
2
n
2 )]
mi0n i 2 = 0
3 3
electric charge by means of the
following relation:
We then conclude that in the neutron,
half of the total amount of elementary
q= 4πε 0 G m g (imaginary ) i quanta of electric charge, q min , is negative,
while the other half is positive.
For example, in the case of the In order to obtain the value of
electron, we have the elementary quantum of electric
charge, q min , we start with the
qe = 4πε 0 G m ge(imaginary) i = expression obtained here for the
electric charge, where we
(
= 4πε 0 G χ e mi 0e(imaginary)i = ) change mg (imaginary) by its quantized
(
= 4πε 0 G − χ e 2
mi 0e(real)i 2 = ) expression mg (imaginary) = n 2 mi0(imaginary)(min) ,

4πε G (χ )
3

= 0 e
2 mi 0e(real) = −1.6 ×10−19 C derived from Eq. (44a). Thus, we get
3
In the case of the proton, we get q = 4 πε 0 G m g (imaginary ) i =

q pr = 4πε 0 G mgpr(imaginary) i = = 4 πε 0 G n 2 m i 0 (imaginary )(min )i =

(
= 4πε 0 G χ pr mi 0 pr(imaginary)i = ) = 4 πε 0 G [n (±2 2 m i 0 (min )i )] i =
( )
3

= 4πε 0 G + χ pr 2 mi 0 pr(real)i 2 = = m 2 4 πε 0 G n 2 m i 0 (min )


4πε G (− χ )
3 3
= 0 pr
2 mi 0 pr(real) = +1.6 ×10−19 C
3
This is the quantized expression of the
electric charge.
For the neutron, it follows that For n = 1 we obtain the value of
q n = 4πε 0 G m gn (imaginary ) i = the elementary quantum of electric
(
= 4πε 0 G χ n m i 0 n (imaginary )i = ) charge, q min , i.e.,

(
= 4πε 0 G − χ n 2 m i 0 n (real )i 2 = ) q min = m 2 4πε 0 G mi 0(min ) = m3.8 × 10 −83 C
4πε G (χ )
3 3
= 0 n
2 m i 0 n (real )
3
where mi0(min) is the elementary
However, based on the quantization of
the mass (Eq. 44), we can write that quantum of matter, whose value
previously calculated, is
χ n 2 mi0n(real) = n 2 mi0(min) n≠0 −73
3 mi0(min) = ±3.9 ×10 kg .
Since n can have only discrete values
The existence of imaginary mass
different of zero (See Appendix B), we
associated to a real particle suggests
conclude that χ n cannot be null. the possible existence of imaginary
However, it is known that the electric

57
44

particles with imaginary masses in the whole space must be finite −


Nature. inasmuch as the particle is somewhere.
In this case, the concept of wave On the other hand, if
associated to a particle (De Broglie’s +∞
waves) would also be applied to the ∫−∞ Ψ
2
dV = 0
imaginary particles. Then, by analogy, the interpretation is that the particle will
the imaginary wave associated to an not exist. However, if
imaginary particle with imaginary +∞
masses miψ and m gψ would be ∫−∞ Ψ
2
dV = ∞ (108)
described by the following expressions The particle will be everywhere
r r simultaneously.
pψ = hkψ In Quantum Mechanics, the wave
Eψ = hωψ function Ψ corresponds, as we know,
to the displacement y of the
Henceforth, for the sake of simplicity,
we will use the Greek letterψ to stand undulatory motion of a rope.
r However, Ψ , as opposed to y , is not a
for the word imaginary; pψ is the
measurable quantity and can, hence,
momentum carried by the ψ wave and be a complex quantity. For this reason,
r
Eψ its energy; kψ = 2π λψ is the it is assumed that Ψ is described in the
x − direction by
propagation number and λψ the −(2π i h )( Et − px )
Ψ = Ψ0 e
wavelength of the ψ wave; ωψ = 2πfψ This is the expression of the wave
is the cyclical frequency. function for a free particle, with total
r
According to Eq. (4), the energy E and momentum p , moving in
r
momentum pψ is the direction + x .
r r As to the imaginary particle, the
pψ = M gψ V
imaginary particle wave function will be
where V is the velocity of the ψ denoted by Ψψ and, by analogy the
particle. expression of Ψ , will be expressed by:
By comparing the expressions of
r
pψ we get − (2π i h )(Eψ t − pψ x )
Ψψ = Ψ0ψ e
h
λψ =
M gψ V Therefore, the general expression of
It is known that the variable the wave function for a free particle can
quantity which characterizes the De be written in the following form
Broglie’s waves is called wave function,
−(2π i h )(E( real )t − p( real ) x )
usually indicated by symbol Ψ . The Ψ = Ψ0(real )e +
wave function associated with a
− (2π i h )(Eψ t − pψ x )
material particle describes the dynamic + Ψ0ψ e
state of the particle: its value at a
particular point x, y, z, t is related to the It is known that the uncertainty
probability of finding the particle in that principle can also be written as a
place and instant. Although Ψ does function of ΔE (uncertainty in the
not have a physical interpretation, its
energy) and Δt (uncertainty in the
square Ψ 2 (or Ψ Ψ * ) calculated for a time), i.e.,
particular point x, y, z, t is proportional
to the probability of finding the particle ΔE.Δt ≥ h
in that place and instant.
Since Ψ 2 is proportional to the This expression shows that a
probability P of finding the particle
variation of energy ΔE , during a
described by Ψ , the integral of Ψ 2 on

58
45

time interval Δt , can only be


χ = ⎧⎨1 − 2⎡ 1 + (Δp mi 0 c ) − 1⎤ ⎫⎬
2
detected if Δt ≥ h ΔE . Consequently, ⎩ ⎢ ⎣ ⎥ ⎦⎭
a variation of energy ΔE , during a
time interval Δt < h ΔE , cannot be Since the condition to make
experimentally detected. This is a the particle imaginary is
limitation imposed by Nature and not
by our equipments. λg
λi <
Thus, a quantum of energy 2π
ΔE = hf that varies during a time and
interval Δt = 1 f = λ c < h ΔE (wave
period) cannot be experimentally λg h h λ
= = = i
detected. This is an imaginary 2π M g c χM i c 2πχ
photon or a “virtual” photon.
Now, consider a particle with Then we get
energy M g c 2 . The DeBroglie’s
gravitational and inertial wavelengths 1
χ< = 0.159
are respectively λ g = h M g c and 2π
λi = h M i c . In Quantum Mechanics,
However, χ can be positive or
particles of matter and quanta of
negative ( χ < +0.159 or χ > −0.159).This
radiation are described by means of
wave packet (DeBroglie’s waves) means that when
with average wavelength λi .
− 0.159 < χ < +0.159
Therefore, we can say that during a
time interval Δt = λi c , a quantum of
the particle becomes imaginary.
energy ΔE = Mgc2 varies. According Under these circumstances, we can
to the uncertainty principle, the say that the particle made a
particle will be detected if Δt ≥ h ΔE , transition to the imaginary space-
time.
i.e., if λi c ≥ h M g c 2 or λi ≥ λ g 2π .
Note that, when a particle
This condition is usually satisfied becomes imaginary, its gravitational
when M g = M i . In this case, λ g = λi and inertial masses also become
and obviously, λi > λi 2π . However, imaginary. However, the factor
χ = M g (imaginary ) M i (imaginary ) remains
when M g decreases λ g increases
real because
and λ g 2π can become bigger than
λi , making the particle non- M g (imaginary ) M gi Mg
χ = = = = real
detectable or imaginary. M i (imaginary ) M ii Mi
According to Eqs. (7) and (41)
we can write M g in the following
form:

mg χ mi
Mg = = = χM i
1−V 2
c 2
1−V 2
c 2

where

59
46

Body
χ Ordinary Space-time
0≤V < c
+0.159
0≤V ≤ ∞

Imaginary Body

0 Imaginary Space-time

“Virtual” Photons ( V = ∞ )
−0.159
Ordinary Space-time

Real Photons ( V = c )

Fig. VII – Travel in the imaginary space-time. Similarly to the “virtual” photons,
imaginary bodies can have infinite speed in the imaginary space-time.

60
47

Real particle Real particle


Δt1 ΔE

Δt2 c (speed upper limit)

Δt3

(a)

Imaginary Space-time Ordinary Space-time

Δt3

Δt2 Vmax
(speed upper limit)

ΔE
Δt1
Imaginary particle Imaginary particle
(b)
Fig. VIII – “Virtual” Transitions – (a) “Virtual” Transitions of a real particle to the imaginary
space-time. The speed upper limit for real particle in the imaginary space-time is c.
(b) - “Virtual” Transitions of an imaginary particle to the ordinary space-time. The
speed upper limit for imaginary particle in the ordinary space-time is Vmax ≈ 1012m.s−1
Note that to occur a “virtual” transition it is necessary thatΔt=Δt1+ Δt2+ Δt3 <ℏ/ΔE
Thus, even at principle, it will be impossible to determine any variation of energy in
the particle (uncertainty principle).

61
48

Thus, if the gravitational mass of the mg (imaginary)


particle is reduced by means of the M g (imaginary) = =
absorption of an amount of 1−V 2 c2
mg i mg i
electromagnetic energy U , for = =
example, we have i V 2 c2 −1 V 2 c2 −1
This expression shows that
χ=
Mg ⎧
= ⎨1 − 2⎡⎢ 1 + U mi0 c 2 ( )2 ⎫
− 1⎤⎥⎬ imaginary particles can have
Mi ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ velocities V greater than c in our
ordinary space-time (Tachyons).
This shows that the energy U of the The quantization of velocity (Eq. 36)
electromagnetic field remains acting shows that there is a speed upper
on the imaginary particle. In limit Vmax > c . As we have already
practice, this means that calculated previously, Vmax ≈ 1012m.s−1 ,
electromagnetic fields act on (Eq.102).
imaginary particles. Note that this is the speed
The gravity acceleration on a upper limit for imaginary particles in
imaginary particle (due to the rest of our ordinary space-time not in the
the imaginary Universe) are given imaginary space-time (Fig.7)
by because the infinite speed of the
“virtual” quanta of the interactions
g ′j = χ g j j = 1,2,3,..., n. shows that imaginary particles can
have infinite speed in the imaginary
where χ = M g (imaginary ) M i (imaginary ) space-time.
While the speed upper limit
and g j = − Gm gj (imaginary ) r . 2
j Thus, for imaginary particles in the
the gravitational forces acting on the ordinary space-time is
particle are given by Vmax ≈ 10 m.s , the speed upper limit
12 −1

for real particles in the imaginary


Fgj = M g (imaginary) g ′j =
space-time is c , because the
(
= M g (imaginary) − χGmgj (imaginary) r j2 = ) relativistic expression of the mass
( )
= M g i − χGmgj i r j2 = + χGM g mgj r j2 .
shows that the velocity of real
particles cannot be larger than c in
any space-time. The uncertainty
Note that these forces are real. principle permits that particles make
Remind that, the Mach’s principle “virtual” transitions, during a time
says that the inertial effects upon a interval Δt , if Δt < h ΔE . The
particle are consequence of the “virtual” transition of mesons emitted
gravitational interaction of the from nucleons that do not change of
particle with the rest of the Universe. mass, during a time interval
Then we can conclude that the
Δt < h mπ c 2 , is a well-known
inertial forces upon an imaginary
particle are also real. example of “virtual” transition of
Equation (7) shows that , in particles. During a “virtual”
the case of imaginary particles, the transition of a real particle, the
relativistic mass is speed upper limit in the imaginary
space-time is c , while the speed
upper limit for an imaginary particle

62
49

in the our ordinary space-time is of the bodies ;


Vmax ≈ 1012m.s−1 . (See Fig. 8). M i 2 = mi 2 1 − V2 c and mi 2 is the
2 2

There is a crucial total inertial mass of the bodies of


cosmological problem to be solved: region 2.
the problem of the hidden mass. Now consider that from
Most theories predict that the Eq.(7), we can write
amount of known matter, detectable Eg M gc2
and available in the universe, is only ξ = = = ρgc2
about 1/100 to 1/10 of the amount V V
needed to close the universe. That where ξ is the energy density of
is, to achieve the density sufficient matter.
to close-up the universe by Note that the expression of ξ
maintaining the gravitational only reduces to the well-known
curvature (escape velocity equal to expression ρc 2 , where ρ is the
the speed of light) at the outer sum of the inertial masses per
boundary. volume unit, when m g = mi .
Eq. (43) may solve this
problem. We will start by substituting Therefore, in the derivation of the
the expression of Hubble's law for well-known difference
~ 8πGρU ~ 2
velocity, V = Hl , into Eq.(43). The −H
expression obtained shows that 3
particles which are at distances which gives the sign of the curvature
( )( ) ~
l = l0 = 5 3 c H =1.3×1026 m have
of the Universe [36], we must use
ξ = ρ gU c 2 instead of ξ = ρ U c 2 .The
quasi null gravitational mass
m g = m g (min ) ; beyond this distance, result obviously is
8πGρ gU
the particles have negative ~
− H2 (109)
gravitational mass. Therefore, there 3
are two well-defined regions in the where
M gU M g1 + M g 2
Universe; the region of the bodies
ρ gU = = (110)
with positive gravitational masses VU VU
and the region of the bodies with
M gU and VU are respectively the
negative gravitational mass. The
total gravitational mass of the first total gravitational mass and the
region, in accordance with Eq.(45), volume of the Universe.
will be given by Substitution of M g 1 and M g 2
mi1 into expression (110) gives
M g1 ≅ M i1 = ≅ mi1
1 − V1 2 c 2 ⎡ ⎤
3 2
miU + ⎢ − m − m ⎥
⎢ ⎥
i2 i2
where mi1 is the total inertial mass 1−V22 c2 1−V22 c2
ρgU = ⎣ ⎦
of the bodies of the mentioned VU
region; V1 << c is the average
velocity of the bodies at region 1. where miU = mi1 + mi 2 is the total
The total gravitational mass of the
inertial mass of the Universe.
second region is
The volume V1 of the region 1
⎛ ⎞
M g 2 = 1 − 2⎜
1
− 1⎟ M i 2 and the volume V 2 of the region 2,
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 1 − V2 c
2 2
⎠ are respectively given by
where V2 is the average velocity

63
50

V 1 = 2π 2 l 03 and V 2 = 2π 2 l c3 −V 1 the anomalies in the spectral red-


shift of certain galaxies and stars.
~ Several observers have
where l c = c H = 1.8 × 10 26 m is the noticed red-shift values that cannot
so-called "radius" of the visible be explained by the Doppler-
Universe. Moreover, ρ i1 = mi1 V1 and Fizeau effect or by the Einstein
ρi 2 = mi 2 V 2 . Due to the hypothesis effect (the gravitational spectrum
shift, supplied by Einstein's theory).
of the uniform distribution of matter
This is the case of the so-
in the space, it follows that
called Stefan's quintet (a set of five
ρi1 = ρi2 .Thus, we can write
galaxies which were discovered in
m i1 V 1 ⎛ l 0 ⎞
3
1877), whose galaxies are located
= = ⎜ ⎟ = 0.38
mi 2 V 2 ⎜⎝ l c ⎟⎠ at approximately the same distance
from the Earth, according to very
Similarly, reliable and precise measuring
miU mi 2 mi1 methods. But, when the velocities of
= =
VU V 2 V1 the galaxies are measured by its
Therefore, red-shifts, the velocity of one of
⎡ ⎛ l ⎞3 ⎤ them is much larger than the
V2
mi 2 = m iU = ⎢1 − ⎜⎜ 0 ⎟⎟ ⎥ m iU = 0.62 m iU velocity of the others.
VU ⎢⎣ ⎝ l c ⎠ ⎥⎦ Similar observations have
and mi1 = 0.38miU . been made on the Virgo
constellation and spiral galaxies.
Substitution of mi 2 into the Also the Sun presents a red-shift
expression of ρ gU yields greater than the predicted value by
the Einstein effect.
It seems that some of these
1.86 1.24 anomalies can be explained if we
miU + − − 0.62 miU
1 −V22 c2 1 −V22 c2 consider the Eq.(45) in the
ρgU = calculation of the gravitational mass
VU of the point of emission.
The expression of the
Due to V 2 ≅ c , we conclude that the gravitational spectrum shift was
term between bracket is much larger previously obtained in this work. It is
than 10miU . The amount miU is the the same supplied by Einstein's
mass of matter in the universe (1/10 theory [37], and is given by
φ −φ
to 1/100 of the amount needed to Δω = ω1 − ω2 = 2 2 1 ω0 =
close the Universe). c
Consequently, the total − Gmg2 r2 + Gmg1 r1
mass = ω0 (111)
c2
1.86 1.24 where ω1 is the frequency of the
miU + − − 0.62 miU
1 − V22 c 2 1 − V22 c 2 light at the point of emission ; ω 2 is
the frequency at the point of
must be sufficient to close observation; φ1 and φ 2 are
the Universe. respectively, the Newtonian
There is another cosmological gravitational potentials at the point
problem to be solved: the problem of of emission and at the point of
observation.

64
51

In Einstein theory, this been fully defined as yet, but it is


expression has been deduced from known that it is located between
T = t − g 00 [38] which correlates 1.8M~ and 2.4M~. Thus, if the mass
own time (real time), t , with the of the star exceeds 2.4M~ , the
temporal coordinate x0 of the space- contraction will continue.
According to Hawking [40]
time ( t = x 0 c ). collapsed objects cannot have mass
When the gravitational field is
less than hc 4G = 1.1 × 10 −8 kg . This
weak, the temporal component g 00
means that, with the progressing of
of the metric tensor is given by the compression, the neutrons
goo =−1−2φ/ c2 [39].Thus, we readily cluster must become a cluster of
obtain superparticles where the minimal
T = t 1 − 2Gm g rc 2 (112 ) inertial mass of the superparticle is
This is the same equation that we
have obtained previously in this mi(sp) =1.1×10−8 kg. (113)
work.
Curiously, this equation tell us Symmetry is a fundamental
that we can have T < t when m g > 0 attribute of the Universe that
enables an investigator to study
; and T > t for m g < 0 . In addition, if
particular aspects of physical
m g = c 2 r 2G , i.e., if r = 2Gm g c 2 systems by themselves. For
(Schwarzschild radius) we obtain T =0. example, the assumption that space
Let us now consider the well- is homogeneous and isotropic is
known process of stars' gravitational based on Symmetry Principle. Also
contraction. It is known that the here, by symmetry, we can assume
destination of the star is directly that there are only superparticles
correlated to its mass. If the star's with mass mi ( sp) = 1.1 × 10−8 kg in the
mass is less than 1.4M~ cluster of superparticles.
(Schemberg-Chandrasekhar's limit), Based on the mass-energy of
it becomes a white dwarf. If its mass the superparticles ( ~1018 GeV ) we
exceeds that limit, the pressure can say that they belong to a
produced by the degenerate state of putative class of particles with mass-
the matter no longer energy beyond the supermassive
counterbalances the gravitational Higgs bosons ( the so-called X
pressure, and the star's contraction bosons). It is known that the GUT's
continues. Afterwards there occurs theories predict an entirely new
the reactions between protons and force mediated by a new type of
electrons (capture of electrons), boson, called simply X (or X boson
where neutrons and anti-neutrinos ). The X bosons carry both
are produced. electromagnetic and color charge, in
The contraction continues order to ensure proper conservation
until the system regains stability of those charges in any interactions.
(when the pressure produced by the The X bosons must be extremely
neutrons is sufficient to stop the massive, with mass-energy in the
gravitational collapse). Such systems unification range of about 1016 GeV.
are called neutron stars. If we assume the
There is also a critical mass superparticles are not hypermassive
for the stable configuration of Higgs bosons then the possibility of
neutron stars. This limit has not the neutrons cluster become a

65
52

Higgs bosons cluster before the superparticles' relativistic inertial


becoming a superparticles cluster mass M i ( sp ) is
must be considered. On the other
Unr ηnr kT
hand, the fact that superparticles
must be so massive also means that
= 2 ≈ 10−8 kg
M i( sp) ≅ (115)
c2 c
it is not possible to create them in Comparing with the superparticles'
any conceivable particle accelerator inertial mass at rest (113), we
that could be built. They can exist as conclude that
free particles only at a very early
stage of the Big Bang from which
the universe emerged. Mi( sp) ≈ mi(sp) =1.1×10−8 kg (116)
Let us now imagine the
Universe coming back to the past.
There will be an instant in which it From Eqs.(83) and (115), we obtain
will be similar to a neutrons cluster, the superparticle's gravitational
such as the stars at the final state of mass at rest:
gravitational contraction. Thus, with m g ( sp ) = mi ( sp ) − 2 M i ( sp ) ≅
the progressing of the compression,
ηn r kT
the neutrons cluster becomes a (117 )
≅ − M i ( sp ) ≅ −
superparticles cluster. Obviously, c2
this only can occur before 10-23s Consequently, the superparticle's
(after the Big-Bang). relativistic gravitational mass, is
The temperature T of the
mg ( sp)
Universe at the 10-43s< t < 10-23s M g (sp) = =
period can be calculated by means 1−V 2 c 2
of the well-known expression[41]: ηnr kT
= (118)
T ≈ 10 (t 10 ) − 23 − 2
(114) c 2 1−V 2 c 2
1
22

− 43
Thus at t ≅ 10 s (at the first Thus, the gravitational forces
spontaneous breaking of symmetry) between two superparticles ,
according to (13), is given by:
the temperature was T ≈ 10 32 K
(∼1019GeV).Therefore, we can r r M g(sp) M 'g(sp)
assume that the absorbed F12 = −F21 = −G μˆ 21 =
r2
electromagnetic energy by each
⎡⎛ M ⎞ 2 G ⎤
superparticle, before t ≅ 10 −43 s , was ⎟ ⎛⎜ ⎞ 2 hc
= ⎢⎜
i ( sp)
⎟( ηn κT ) ⎥ μˆ 21 (119)
⎢⎜⎝ mi(sp) ⎟⎠ ⎝ c5 h ⎠ ⎥ r2
r
U =ηkT >1×109 J (see Eqs.(71) and ⎣ ⎦
(72)). By comparing with
mi(sp)c ≅ 9×10 J , we conclude that
2 8
Due to the unification of the
U > m i ( sp )c . Therefore, the gravitational and electromagnetic
(
unification condition Unr ≅ Mi c > mi c
2 2
) interactions at that period, we have
is satisfied. This means that, before
t ≅ 10 −43 s ,the gravitational and
electromagnetic interactions were
unified.
From the unification condition
( )
Unr ≅ Mi c2 , we may conclude that

66
53

r r M g ( sp) M 'g ( sp) component of its position at that


F12 = −F21 = G μˆ 21 = time ,i.e., a particle cannot be
r2
precisely located in a particular
⎡⎛ M ⎞ 2 G ⎤
⎟ ⎛⎜ ⎞ 2 hc direction without loss of all
= ⎢⎜
i ( sp)
⎟(ηκ T ) ⎥ μˆ 21 =
⎢⎜⎝ mi( sp) ⎟⎠ ⎝ c5 h ⎠ ⎥ r2 knowledge of its momentum
⎣ ⎦ component in that direction . This
2
means that in intermediate cases
=
e
(120)
4πε0 r 2 the product of the uncertainties of
From the equation above we can the simultaneously measurable
write values of corresponding position
and momentum components is at
⎡⎛ M ⎞2 G ⎤ least of the magnitude order of h ,
⎢⎜ i(sp) ⎟ ⎛⎜ ⎞⎟(ηκT )2 hc⎥ = e
2
(121)
⎢⎜⎝ mi(sp) ⎟⎠ ⎝ c5h ⎠ ⎥ 4πε0 Δp.Δr ≥ h (127)
⎣ ⎦
Now assuming that
2 This relation, directly obtained here
⎛ M i ( sp ) ⎞ ⎛ G ⎞

⎜m
⎟ ⎜
⎟ ⎝ c 5 h ⎟⎠
(ηκT )2 = ψ (122) from the Unified Theory, is the well-
⎝ i ( sp ) ⎠ known relation of the Uncertainty
the Eq. (121) can be rewritten in the Principle for position and
following form: momentum.
According to Eq.(83), the
e2
ψ= =
1
(123) gravitational mass of the
4πε0 hc 137 superparticles at the center of the
which is the well-known reciprocal cluster becomes negative when
fine structure constant. 2η n r kT c > m i ( sp ) , i.e., when
2

For T = 10 32 K the Eq.(122)


gives mi(sp)c2
T > Tcritical= ≈1032K.
2
2ηnr k
⎛ M i ( sp ) ⎞ ⎛ G ⎞
ψ = ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜
⎟ 5 ⎟
(η n r κ T )2 ≈ 1 (124 )
⎝ m i ( sp ) ⎠ ⎝ c h ⎠ 100
According to Eq. (114) this
temperature corresponds to tc ≈10−43s .
This value has the same order of
magnitude as the exact value(1/137) With the progressing of the
of the reciprocal fine structure compression, more superparticles
constant. into the center will have negative
From equation (120) we can gravitational mass. Consequently,
write: there will be a critical point in which
the repulsive gravitational forces
⎛ M g ( sp ) M 'g ( sp ) ⎞ r
⎜G
⎜ r ⎟r = h

(125 ) between the superparticles with
⎝ ψ c r ⎠ negative gravitational masses and
The term between parentheses has the superparticles with positive
the same dimensions as the linear gravitational masses will be so
r strong that an explosion will occur.
momentum p . Thus, (125) tells us
that This is the event that we call the Big
r r
p ⋅ r = h. (126) Bang.
A component of the momentum of a Now, starting from the Big
particle cannot be precisely Bang to the present time.
specified without loss of all Immediately after the Big Bang, the
knowledge of the corresponding superparticles' decompression

67
54

begins. The gravitational mass of during a period of time tc ≈10−43s


the most central superparticle will .Thus,
only be positive when the
temperature becomes smaller than dcr − dinitial = 12 g(tc ) = χ
2
( )
GMi(U )
dcr dinitial
(tc )2 (130)
the critical temperature, Tcritical ≈ 1032 K .
At the maximum state of The Eq.(83), gives
compression (exactly at the Big
Bang) the volumes of the mg (sp) 2Unr 2ηnr kT
χ= = 1− = 1−
superparticles were equal to mi(sp) mi(sp) c 2 mi(sp) c 2
the elementary volume Ω 0 = δ V d min 3

and the volume of the Universe was Calculations by Carr, B.J


Ω = δ V (ndmin )3 = δ V d initial
3
where d initial [41], indicate that it would seem
reasonable to suppose that the
was the initial length scale of the fraction of initial primordial black
Universe. At this very moment the hole mass ultimately converted into
average density of the Universe was photons is about 0.11 . This means
equal to the average density of the that we can take
superparticles, thus we can write η = 0.11
Thus, the amount η M iU c 2 ,
3
⎛ dinitial⎞ Mi(U)

⎜d ⎟ =m
⎟ (128) where M iU is the total inertial mass
⎝ min ⎠ i( sp)
of the Universe, expresses the total
where M i (U ) ≈ 10 53 kg is the inertial
amount of inertial energy converted
mass of the Universe. It has already into photons at the initial instant of
been shown that the Universe(Primordial Photons).
~ −34
d min = k l planck ≈ 10 m. Then, from It was previously shown that
Eq.(128), we obtain: photons and also the matter have
imaginary gravitational masses
dinitial ≈ 10−14 m (129) associated to them. The matter has
After the Big Bang the negative imaginary gravitational
Universe expands itself from d initial mass, while the photons have
positive imaginary gravitational
up to d cr (when the temperature
mass, given by
decrease reaches the critical
temperature Tcritical ≈ 10 32 K , and the 4 ⎛ hf ⎞
M gp (imaginary ) = 2M ip (imaginary ) = + ⎜ ⎟i
gravity becomes attractive). Thus, it 3 ⎝ c2 ⎠
expands by d cr − d initial , under
effect of the repulsive gravity where M ip (imaginary) is the imaginary
inertial mass of the photons.
g = gmaxgmin = Then, from the above we can

[ (12 dinitial)2 ] [G ( 12 dcr )2 ]


conclude that, at the initial instant of
= G(12 Mg(U ) ) 1
2
Mi(U ) = the Universe, an amount of
imaginary gravitational mass,
=
2G Mg(U )Mi(U )
=
2G ∑m ( g sp) Mi(U )
=
total
M gm (imaginary ) , which was associated
dcrdinitial dcrdinitial to the fraction of the matter
2G χ∑mi(sp)Mi(U ) 2GMi(U ) χ transformed into photons, has been
= = converted into imaginary
dcrdinitial dcrdinitial
gravitational mass of the primordial

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55

total
photons, M gp (imaginary ) , while an where m gp (imaginary ) (the imaginary
amount of real inertial mass of the gravitational mass of the photon) is
a quantity positive and imaginary,
(real) =η MiU c , has been
total 2
matter, Mim
and M gSun (imaginary ) (the imaginary
converted into real energy of the
N gravitational mass associated to the
primordial photons, E p = ∑ hf j , i.e., matter of the Sun) is a quantity
j =1 negative and imaginary.
The fact of the gravitational
interaction between the imaginary
gravitational masses of the
(imaginary) + M im( real) =
total total
M gm
primordial photons and the
= M gp (imaginary) + M ip( real)
total total
imaginary gravitational mass of the
1424 3
Ep matter be attractive is highly
c2 relevant, because it shows that it is
necessary to consider the effect of
this gravitational interaction, which is
(imaginary ) = M gp (imaginary ) and
total total
where M gm
equivalent to the gravitational effect
produced by the amount of real
(real) = M im(real) = ηM iU ≅ 0.11M iU
E p c 2 ≡ M iptotal total
(real) ≅ 0.22M iU ,
total
gravitational mass, M gp
sprayed by all the Universe.
It was previously shown that, for the This means that this amount,
photons equation: M gp = 2 M ip , is which corresponds to 22% of the
valid. This means that total inertial mass of the Universe,
must be added to the overall
M gp(imagimary) + M gp(real) = computation of the total mass of the
14444244443 matter (stars, galaxies, etc., gas and
M gp
dust of interstellar and intergalactic
(
= 2 M ip(imagimary) + M ip(real)
14444244443
) media). Therefore, this additional
portion corresponds to what has
M ip
been called Dark Matter (See Fig.
By substituting M gp(imaginary) = 2Mip(imaginary) IX).
into the equation above, we get On the other hand, the total
amount of gravitational mass at the
M gp (real ) = 2M ip (real ) initial instant, M gtotal , according to
Eq.(41), can be expressed by
Therefore we can write that M gtotal = χ M iU
(real ) = 2 M ip (real ) = 0.22 M iU
total total
M gp This mass includes the total
The phenomenon of negative gravitational mass of the
total
gravitational deflection of light about matter, M gm (− ) , plus the total
the Sun shows that the gravitational gravitational mass, total
M gp ( real ) ,
interaction between the Sun and the
photons is attractive. This is due to converted into primordial photons.
the gravitational force between the This tells us that we can put
Sun and a photon, which is given by
M gtotal = M gm ( − ) + M gp ( real ) = χ M iU
total total

F = −G M gSun (imaginary ) m gp (imaginary ) r 2 ,


whence

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56

At the Initial Instant

M iU

Imaginary spacetime

Real spacetime
(imaginary) + Mip( real) ) + Mim(real)
total total total total
Mgp Mgm (imaginary

Primordial Photons
total
M gp (imaginary) + M iptotal
( real )
1
42 43
Ep
c2

∼ 10-14 m

Fig. IX – Conversion of part of the Real Gravitational Mass of the Primordial Universe into
Primordial Photons. The gravitational effect caused by the gravitational interaction of imaginary
gravitational masses of the primordial photons with the imaginary gravitational mass associated to
the matter is equivalent to the effect produced by the amount of real gravitational mass,
(real ) ≅ 0.22 M iU , sprayed by all Universe. This additional portion of mass corresponds to what
total
M gp
has been called Dark Matter.

70
57

( −) = χ M iU − 0.22M iU (
M g ( sp ) = ⎛⎜1 − 2⎡ 1 − V 2 c 2 ) ⎤ ⎞M
total − 12
M gm
⎝ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎟⎠ i ( sp )
In order to calculate the value
of χ we can start from the By comparing this expression with
expression previously obtained for the equation above, we obtain
χ , i.e.,
1
m g ( sp ) 2η n r kT T ≅ 1 .5
χ= =1− =1− 1− V 2 c2
mi ( sp ) mi ( sp ) c 2 Tcritical
where Substitution of this value into the
expressions of χ and M gmtotal
(− ) results
mi ( sp ) c 2
Tcritical = = 3.3 × 10 32 K in
2ηn r k
χ = −0.5
and
and
⎛ m ⎞
⎜ i(sp) ⎟ 2
2 ⎜ ⎟c
Mi(sp)c ⎜⎝ 1 −V c ⎟⎠
2 2
T
T= = = critical ( − ) ≅ −0.72 M iU
total
M gm
2ηnr k 2ηnr k 1 − V 2 c2
This means that 72% of the total
We thus obtain energy of the Universe ( M iU c 2 ) is
due to negative gravitational mass
1
χ =1− of the matter created at the initial
1 − V 2 c2 instant.
Since the gravitational mass
By substitution of this expression is correlated to the inertial mass (Eq.
total
into the equation of M gm (41)), the energy related to the
(− ) , we get
negative gravitational mass is where
there is inertial energy (inertial
⎛ ⎞ mass). In this way, this negative
⎜ 1 ⎟
total
M gm = ⎜⎜ 0 . 78 − M iU
2 ⎟
(−) gravitational energy permeates all
1 − V 2
c ⎟
⎝ ⎠ space and tends to increase the rate
of expansion of the Universe due to
On the other hand, the Unification produce a strong gravitational
condition ( Unr ≅ Δpc= MiUc2 ) previously repulsion between the material
shown and Eq. (41) show that at the particles. Thus, this energy
initial instant of the Universe, corresponds to what has been
M g (sp ) has the following value: called Dark Energy (See Fig. X).
The value of χ = −0.5 at the
initial instant of the Universe shows
⎧ ⎡ ⎛ Un ⎞ ⎤⎫⎪ that the gravitational interaction was

Mg(sp) = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ ⎜ r ⎟ −1⎥⎬Mi(sp) ≅ 0.1Mi(sp)
⎜ Mi(sp) ⎟ ⎥ repulsive at the Big-Bang. It remains
⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦⎪⎭ repulsive until the temperature of the
Universe is reduced down to the
Similarly, Eq.(45) tells us that critical limit, Tcritical . Below this
temperature limit,

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58

Negative
Gravitational Mass of Matter

72%
22%

6% Positive Gravitational Mass


carried by the primordial photons
Positive
Gravitational M ass of
M atter

Fig. X - Distribution of Gravitational Masses in the Universe. The total


energy related to negative gravitational mass of all the matter in the
Universe corresponds to what has been called Dark Energy. While
the Dark Matter corresponds to the total gravitational mass carried by the
primordial photons, which is manifested in the interaction of the
imaginary gravitational masses of the primordial photons with the
imaginary mass of matter.

72
59

the attractive component of the imaginary bodies. Just as the real


gravitational interaction became particles constitute the real bodies.
greater than the repulsive The idea that we make about
component, making attractive the a consciousness is basically that of
resultant gravitational interaction. an imaginary body containing
Therefore, at the beginning of the psychic energy and intrinsic
Universe – before the temperature knowledge. We can relate psychic
decreased down to Tcritical , there energy with psychic mass (psychic
occurred an expansion of the mass= psychic energy/c2). Thus, by
Universe that was exponential in analogy with the real bodies the
time rather than a normal power-law psychic bodies would be constituted
expansion. Thus, there was an by psychic particles with psychic
evident Inflation Period during the mass. Consequently, the psychic
beginning of the expansion of the particles that constitute a
Universe (See Fig. XI). consciousness would be equivalent
With the progressing of the to imaginary particles, and the
decompression the superparticles psychic mass , mΨ ,of the psychic
cluster becomes a neutrons cluster. particles would be equivalent to the
This means that the neutrons are imaginary mass, i.e.,
created without its antiparticle, the
antineutron. Thus, this solves the mΨ = mi(imaginary) (131)
matter/antimatter dilemma that is
unresolved in many cosmologies.
Now a question: How did the Thus, the imaginary masses
primordial superparticles appear at associated to the photons and
the beginning of the Universe? electrons would be elementary
It is a proven quantum fact psyche actually, i.e.,
that a wave function may collapse,
and that, at this moment, all the m Ψ photon = m i (imaginary ) photon =
possibilities that it describes are
2 ⎛ hf ⎞
suddenly expressed in reality. This = ⎜ ⎟ i (132 )
means that, through this process, 3 ⎝ c2 ⎠
particles can be suddenly
materialized. mΨelectron = mi(imaginary)electron =
The materialization of the
primordial superparticles into a ⎛ hf electron ⎞
=− 2
⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ i =
critical volume denotes knowledge 3
⎝ c2 ⎠
of what would happen with the =− 2 mi0(real)electron i (133)
Universe starting from that initial 3

condition, a fact that points towards


the existence of a Creator. The idea that electrons have
It was shown previously the elementary psyche associated to
possible existence of imaginary themselves is not new. It comes
particles with imaginary masses in from the pre-Socratic period.
Nature. These particles can be By proposing the existence of
associated with real particles, such as psyche associated with matter, we
in case of the photons and electrons, as
are adopting what is called
we have shown, or they can be
associated with others imaginary
panpsychic posture. Panpsychism
dates back to the pre-Socratic period;
particles by constituting the

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60

χ ≅ − 0 .5
t =0 t ≈ 15 billion years
t ≈ 10 −43 s

T = Tcritical = 3.3 ×1032 K T = 2 .7 K


Inflation Period

Fig. XI – Inflation Period. The value of χ ≅ −0.5 at the Initial Instant of the Universe shows that the
gravitational interaction was repulsive at the Big-Bang. It remains repulsive until the temperature of
the Universe is reduced down to the critical limit, Tcritical . Below this temperature limit, the
attractive component of the gravitational interaction became greater than the repulsive component,
making attractive the resultant gravitational interaction. Therefore, at beginning of the Universe −
before the temperature to be decreased down to Tcritical , there occurred an expansion of the Universe
that was exponential in time rather than a normal power-law expansion. Thus, there was an evident
inflation period during the beginning of the expansion of the Universe.

74
61

remnants of organized panpsychism function must have been generated


may be found in the Uno of in a consciousness with a psychic
Parmenides or in Heracleitus’s mass much greater than that
Divine Flow. The scholars of needed to materialize the Universe
Miletus’s school were called (material and psychic).
hylozoists, that is, “those who This giant consciousness, in
believe that matter is alive”. More its turn, would not only be the
recently, we will find the greatest of all consciences in the
panpsychistic thought in Spinoza, Universe but also the substratum of
Whitehead and Teilhard de Chardin, everything that exists and,
among others. The latter one obviously, everything that exists
admitted the existence of proto- would be entirely contained within it,
conscious properties at the including all the spacetime.
elementary particles’ level. Thus, if the consciousness we
We can find experimental refer to contains all the space, its
evidences of the existence of volume is necessarily infinite,
psyche associated to electron in an consequently having an infinite
experiment similar to that commonly psychic mass.
used to show the wave duality of This means that it contains all
light. (Fig. XII). One merely the existing psychic mass and,
substitutes an electron ray (fine therefore, any other consciousness
electron beam) for the light ray. Just that exists will be contained in it.
as in the experiment mentioned Hence, we may conclude that It is
above, the ray which goes through the Supreme Consciousness and
the holes is detected as a wave if a that there is no other equal to It: It is
wave detector is used (it is then unique.
observed that the interference Since the Supreme
pattern left on the detector screen is Consciousness also contains all time;
analogous with that produced by the past, present and future, then, for It
light ray), and as a particle if a the time does not flow as it flows for
particle detector is used. us.
Since the electrons are Within this framework, when
detected on the other side of the we talk about the Creation of the
metal sheet, it becomes obvious Universe, the use of the verb “to
then that they passed through the create” means that “something that
holes. On the other hand, it is also was not” came into being, thus
evident that when they approached presupposing the concept of time
the holes, they had to decide which flow. For the Supreme
one of them to go through. Consciousness, however, the
How can an electron “decide” instant of Creation is mixed up with
which hole to go through? Where all other times, consequently there
there is “choice”, isn’t there also being no “before” or “after” the
psyche, by definition? Creation and, thus, the following
If the primordial superparticles question is not justifiable: “What did
that have been materialized at the the Supreme Consciousness do before
beginning of the Universe came Creation?”
from the collapse of a primordial On the other hand, we may
wave function, then the also infer, from the above that the
psychic form described by this wave

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62

Light

(a)

Dw

Light

(b)

Dp

Electrons ?
(c)

Fig. XII – A light ray, after going through the holes in the metal sheet, will be detected as a
wave(a) by a wave detector Dw or as a particle if the wave detector is substituted for the wave
detector Dp. Electron ray (c) has similar behavior as that of a light ray. However, before going
through the holes, the electrons must “decide” which one to go through.

76
63

existence of the Supreme such as the electromagnetic forces and


Consciousness has no defined limit the weak and strong nuclear forces.
(beginning and end), what confers Thus, the gravitational forces are
upon It the unique characteristic of produced by the exchange of “virtual”
uncreated and eternal. photons. Consequently, this is
If the Supreme Consciousness is precisely the origin of the gravity.
eternal, Its wave function ΨSC shall Newton’s theory of gravity does
never collapse (will never be null). not explain why objects attract one
Thus, for having an infinite psychic another; it simply models this
observation. Also Einstein’s theory
mass, the value of ΨSC 2
will be always
does not explain the origin of gravity.
infinite and, hence, we may write that Einstein’s theory of gravity only
describes gravity with more precision
+∞
∫−∞ ΨSC dV = ∞ than Newton’s theory does.
2
Besides, there is nothing in both
theories explaining the origin of the
By comparing this equation with Eq. energy that produces the gravitational
(108) derived from Quantum forces. Earth’s gravity attracts all
Mechanics, we conclude that the objects on the surface of our planet.
Supreme Consciousness is This has been going on for well over
simultaneously everywhere, i.e., It is 4.5 billions years, yet no known energy
omnipresent. source is being converted to support
Since the Supreme Consciousness this tremendous ongoing energy
contains all consciences, it is expected expenditure. Also is the enormous
that It also contain all the knowledge. continuous energy expended by
Therefore, It is also omniscient. Earth’s gravitational field for
Consequently, It knows how to maintaining the Moon in its orbit -
formulate well-defined mental images millennium after millennium. In spite of
with psychic masses sufficient for its the ongoing energy expended by
contents to materialize. In this way, It Earth’s gravitational field to hold
can materialize everything It wishes objects down on surface and the Moon
(omnipotence). in orbit, why the energy of the field
All these characteristics of the never diminishes in strength or drains
Supreme Consciousness (infinite, its energy source? Is this energy
unique, uncreated, eternal, expenditure balanced by a conversion
omnipresent, omniscient and of energy from an unknown energy
omnipotent) coincide with those source?
traditionally ascribed to God by most The energy W necessary to
religions. support the effort expended by the
It was shown in this work that gravitational forces F is well-known
the “virtual” quanta of the gravitational and given by
interaction must have spin 1 and not 2,
and that they are “virtual” photons M g mg

r
(graviphotons) with zero mass outside W = Fdr = −G
∞ r
the coherent matter. Inside the
coherent matter the graviphoton mass
is non-zero. Therefore, the According to the principle of energy
gravitational forces are also gauge conservation, this energy expenditure
forces, because they are yielded by the must be balanced by a conversion of
exchange of "virtual" quanta of spin 1, energy from another energy type.

77
64
The Uncertainty Principle tells us never diminishes in strength or
that, due to the occurrence of drains its energy source.
exchange of graviphotons in a time If an experiment involves a large
interval Δt < h ΔE (where ΔE is the number of identical particles, all
energy of the graviphoton), the energy described by the same wave function
variation ΔE cannot be detected in the Ψ , real density of mass ρ of these
system M g − m g . Since the total energy particles in x, y, z, t is proportional to
W is the sum of the energy of the n the corresponding value Ψ 2 ( Ψ 2 is
graviphotons, i.e., W = ΔE1 + ΔE2 + ...+ ΔEn , known as density of probability. If Ψ is
then the energy W cannot be detected complex then Ψ 2 = ΨΨ* . Thus,
as well. However, as we know it can be ρ ∝ Ψ2 = Ψ.Ψ* ). Similarly, in the case
converted into another type of energy, of psychic particles, the density of
for example, in rotational kinetic psychic mass, ρ Ψ , in x, y, z, will be
energy, as in the hydroelectric plants,
expressed by ρ Ψ ∝ ΨΨ2 = ΨΨ Ψ*Ψ . It is
or in the Gravitational Motor, as shown
in this work. known that ΨΨ2 is always real and
It is known that a quantum of positive while ρ Ψ = mΨ V is an
energy ΔE = hf which varies during a imaginary quantity. Thus, as the
time interval Δt = 1 f = λ c < h ΔE modulus of an imaginary number is
(wave period) cannot be always real and positive, we can
experimentally detected. This is an transform the proportion ρΨ ∝ ΨΨ2 , in
imaginary photon or a “virtual” photon. equality in the following form:
Thus, the graviphotons are imaginary
photons, i.e., the energies ΔEi of the ΨΨ2 = k ρ Ψ (134)
graviphotons are imaginaries energies
and therefore the energy where k is a proportionality constant
W = ΔE1 + ΔE 2 + ... + ΔE n is also an (real and positive) to be determined.
imaginary energy. Consequently, it In Quantum Mechanics we have
belongs to the imaginary space-time. studied the Superpositon Principle,
According to Eq. (131), which affirms that, if a particle (or
imaginary energy is equal to psychic system of particles) is in a dynamic
energy. Consequently, the imaginary state represented by a wave function
space-time is, in fact, the psychic Ψ1 and may also be in another
space-time, which contains the
dynamic state described by Ψ2 then,
Supreme Consciousness. Since the
Supreme Consciousness has infinite the general dynamic state of the
psychic mass, then the psychic space- particle may be described by Ψ ,
time has infinite psychic energy. This is where Ψ is a linear
highly relevant, because it confers to combination(superposition)of Ψ1 and Ψ2 ,
the psychic space-time the i.e.,
characteristic of unlimited source of Ψ = c1 Ψ1 + c 2 Ψ2 (135 )
energy. Complex constants c1 and c2
This can be easily confirmed by
respectively indicates the percentage
the fact that, in spite of the enormous
of dynamic state, represented
amount of energy expended by Earth’s
by Ψ1 and Ψ2 in the formation of the
gravitational field to hold objects down
on the surface of the planet and general dynamic state described by Ψ .
maintain the Moon in its orbit, the In the case of psychic particles
energy of Earth’s gravitational field (psychic bodies, consciousness, etc.),

78
65
by analogy, if ΨΨ1 , ΨΨ 2 ,..., ΨΨn refer 2
∇ 2 ΨΨ +
p Ψ
2
ΨΨ = 0 (137 )
to the different dynamic states the h
psychic particle assume, then its
general dynamic state may be Because the wave functions are
described by the wave function ΨΨ , capable of intertwining themselves, the
given by: quantum systems may “penetrate”
each other, thus establishing an
ΨΨ = c1ΨΨ1 + c2 ΨΨ 2 + ... + cn ΨΨn (136) internal relationship where all of them
are affected by the relationship, no
longer being isolated systems but
The state of superposition of wave
becoming an integrated part of a larger
functions is, therefore, common for
system. This type of internal
both psychic and material particles. In
relationship, which exists only in
the case of material particles, it can be
quantum systems, was called
verified, for instance, when an electron
Relational Holism [44].
changes from one orbit to another.
The equation of quantization of
Before effecting the transition to
mass (33), in the generalized form,
another energy level, the electron
leads us to the following expression:
carries out “virtual transitions” [42]. A
kind of relationship with other electrons m i (imaginary ) = n 2 m i 0 (imagynary )(min )
before performing the real transition. Thus, we can also conclude that the
During this relationship period, its wave psychic mass is also quantized, due to
function remains “scattered” by a wide mΨ = mi (imaginary ) (Eq. 131), i.e.,
region of the space [43] thus
superposing the wave functions of the m Ψ = n 2 m Ψ (min ) (138 )
other electrons. In this relationship the
electrons mutually influence one where
another, with the possibility of m Ψ (min ) = − 2
3
(hf min )
c2 i =
intertwining their wave functions ‡‡ .
When this happens, there occurs the =− 2
3
m i 0 (real ) min i (139 )
so-called Phase Relationship
according to quantum-mechanics It was shown that the minimum
concept. quantum of real inertial mass in the
In the electrons “virtual” Universe, mi 0(real ) min , is given by:
transition mentioned before, the
“listing” of all the possibilities of the m i 0 (real ) min = ± h 3 8 cd max =
electrons is described, as we know, by = ± 3 . 9 × 10 − 73 kg (140 )
Schrödinger’s wave equation. By analogy to Eqs. (132) and (133),
Otherwise, it is general for material the expressions of the psychic masses
particles. By analogy, in the case of associated to the proton and the
psychic particles, we may say that the neutron are respectively given by:
“listing” of all the possibilities of the
psyches involved in the relationship will m Ψ proton = m i (imaginary ) proton =
be described by Schrödinger’s
equation – for psychic case, i.e., =+ 2
3
(hf proton c2 i =)
=+ 2
3
m i 0 (real ) proton i (141 )
‡‡
Since the electrons are simultaneously waves and
particles, their wave aspects will interfere with each
other; besides superposition, there is also the
possibility of occurrence of intertwining of their
wave functions.
79
66
m Ψneutron = mi (imaginary )neutron =

=− 2 (hf neutron )
c2 i =
F = G M i (imaginary) mi (imaginary) r 2 =

( ΔE ⎞
)
3

=− 2 mi 0(real )neutron i (142 ) ⎜ me ± m n − m p + 2 ⎟ M
3 ≅⎜ c ⎟G i (real )i mi (real )i
The imaginary gravitational ⎜ ΔE ⎟ r2
⎜ me + m p + m n + 2 ⎟
masses of the atoms must be much ⎝ c ⎠
smaller than their real gravitational Therefore, the total gravity is
masses. On the contrary, the weight of M i (real )
the bodies would be very different of g real + Δg (imaginary ) = −G −
r2
the observed values. This fact shows
that mi (imaginary ) proton and mi (imaginary )neutron

( ΔE ⎞
)
⎜ me ± m n − m p + 2 ⎟ M
−⎜ c ⎟G i (real )
must have contrary signs. In this way, ⎜ ΔE ⎟ r2
the imaginary gravitational mass of an ⎜ me + m p + m n + 2 ⎟
⎝ c ⎠
atom can be expressed by means of
the following expression Thus, the imaginary gravitational mass
of a body produces an excess of

(ΔE ⎞
mi (imaginary )atom = N ⎜ me ± m n − m p + 2 ⎟i ) gravity acceleration, Δg , given by
⎝ c ⎠
where, ΔE , is the interaction energy.
By comparing this expression with the

( )
ΔE ⎞
⎜ me ± mn − m p + 2 ⎟ M
following expression Δg ≅ ⎜ c ⎟G i (real )
⎜ ΔE ⎟ r2
⎛ ΔE ⎞ ⎜ e
m + m + m + ⎟
mi (real )atom = N ⎜ me + m p + mn + 2 ⎟ ⎝
p n
c2 ⎠
⎝ c ⎠
Thus,
In the case of soft atoms we can
mi (imaginary )atom << mi (real )atom
consider ΔE ≅ 2 × 10 −13 joules . Thus, in
Now consider a monatomic body with this case we obtain
real mass M i (real ) and imaginary mass Mi
M i (imaginary ) . Then we have
Δg ≅ 6 ×10 −4 G (143)
r2
In the case of the Sun, for example,
⎛ ΔE i ⎞ there is an excess of gravity
Σ⎜ mi (imaginary )atom + 2a ⎟
M i (imaginary ) acceleration, due to its imaginary
= ⎝
c ⎠
= gravitational mass, given by
M i (real ) ⎛ ΔE a ⎞
Σ⎜ mi (real )atom + 2 ⎟
⎝ c ⎠ (
Δg ≅ 6 × 10 − 4 G ) M iS
r2
ΔE ΔE ⎞

(
n⎜ me ± m n − m p + 2 + 2a ⎟i ) At a distance from the Sun of
= ⎝
c c ⎠ r = 1.0 × 1013 m the value of Δg is

⎛ ΔE ΔE a ⎞
n⎜ m e + m p + m n + 2 + 2 ⎟
⎝ c c ⎠ Δg ≅ 8 × 10 −10 m.s −2

(
⎜ me ± mn − m p + 2 ⎟ )
ΔE ⎞
≅⎜ c ⎟i Experiments in the pioneer 10
⎜ ΔE ⎟ spacecraft, at a distance from the Sun
⎜ me + m p + m n + 2 ⎟
⎝ c ⎠ of about 67 AU or r = 1.0 × 1013 m [45],
Since ΔE a << ΔE . measured an excess acceleration
The intensity of the gravitational towards the Sun of
forces between M g (imaginary ) and an
Δg = 8.74 ± 1.33 × 10 −10 m.s −2
imaginary particle with mass
m g (imaginary ) , both at rest, is given by

80
67
Note that the general expression for electromagnetic interaction which,
the gravity acceleration of the Sun is as we know, is conveyed by the
exchange of “virtual” photons.
(
g = 1+ ≈ 6 × 10 − 4 G ) M iS If electrons, protons and neutrons
have psychic mass, then we can infer
r2
Therefore, in the case of the that the psychic mass of the atoms are
gravitational deflection of light about Phase Condensates *** . In the case of
the Sun, the new expression for the the molecules the situation is similar.
deflection of the light is More molecular mass means more
(
δ = 1+ ≈ 6 ×10 − 4 ) 4GM iS
(144)
atoms and consequently, more psychic
mass. In this case the phase
c2d
Thus, the increase in δ due to the condensate also becomes more
excess acceleration towards the Sun structured because the great amount
can be considered negligible. of elementary psyches inside the
Similarly to the collapse of the condensate requires, by stability
real wave function, the collapse of the reasons, a better distribution of them.
psychic wave function must suddenly Thus, in the case of molecules with
also express in reality all the very large molecular masses
possibilities described by it. This is, (macromolecules) it is possible that
therefore, a point of decision in which their psychic masses already constitute
there occurs the compelling need of the most organized shape of a Phase
realization of the psychic form. Thus, Condensate, called Bose-Einstein
this is moment in which the content of Condensate ††† .
the psychic form realizes itself in the The fundamental characteristic of
space-time. For an observer in space- a Bose-Einstein condensate is, as we
time, something is real when it is in the know, that the various parts making up
form of matter or radiation. Therefore, the condensed system not only behave
the content of the psychic form may as a whole but also become a whole,
realize itself in space-time exclusively i.e., in the psychic case, the various
under the form of radiation, that is, it consciousnesses of the system
does not materialize. This must occur become a single consciousness with
when the Materialization Condition is psychic mass equal to the sum of the
not satisfied, i.e., when the content of psychic masses of all the
the psychic form is undefined consciousness of the condensate. This
(impossible to be defined by its own obviously, increases the available
psychic) or it does not contain enough knowledge in the system since it is
psychic mass to materialize §§ the proportional to the psychic mass of the
respective psychic contents.
Nevertheless, in both cases, ***
Ice and NaCl crystals are common examples of
there must always be a production of imprecisely-structured phase condensates. Lasers,
“virtual” photons to convey the psychic super fluids, superconductors and magnets are
interaction to the other psychic examples of phase condensates more structured.
†††
particles, according to the quantum Several authors have suggested the possibility of
field theory, only through this type of the Bose-Einstein condensate occurring in the
brain, and that it might be the physical base of
quanta will interaction be conveyed, memory, although they have not been able to find a
since it has an infinite reach and may suitable mechanism to underpin such a hypothesis.
be either attractive or repulsive, just as Evidences of the existence of Bose-Einstein
condensates in living tissues abound (Popp, F.A
Experientia, Vol. 44, p.576-585; Inaba, H., New
§§
By this we mean not only materialization proper Scientist, May89, p.41; Rattermeyer, M and Popp,
but also the movement of matter to realize its F. A. Naturwissenschaften, Vol.68, Nº5, p.577.)
psychic content (including radiation).
81
68
consciousness. This unity confers an correlated to Ψ and Ψ 2
Ψ1 . Only 2
Ψ2
‡‡‡

individual character to this type of a simple algebraic form fills the


consciousness. For this reason, from requirements of interchange of the
now on they will be called Individual indices, the product
Material Consciousness.
ΨΨ2 1 .ΨΨ2 2 = ΨΨ2 2 .ΨΨ2 1 =
We can derive from the above
that most bodies do not possess = A1, 2 = A2,1 = A (145 )
individual material consciousness. In In the above expression, A is due to
an iron rod, for instance, the cluster of
elementary psyches in the iron the product ΨΨ2 1 .ΨΨ2 2 will be always
molecules does not constitute Bose- positive. From equations (143) and
Einstein condensate; therefore, the (134) we get
iron rod does not have an individual A = ΨΨ2 1 .ΨΨ2 2 = k 2 ρ Ψ1 ρ Ψ 2 =
consciousness. Its consciousness is
mΨ1 mΨ 2
consequently, much more simple and = k2 (146)
constitutes just a phase condensate V1 V2
imprecisely structured made by the The psychic interaction can be
consciousness of the iron atoms. described starting from the psychic
The existence of consciousnesses mass because the psychic mass is the
in the atoms is revealed in the source of the psychic field. Basically,
molecular formation, where atoms with the psychic mass is gravitational mass,
strong mutual affinity (their m Ψ ≡ m g (imaginary ) . In this way, the
consciousnesses) combine to form equations of the gravitational
molecules. It is the case, for instance interaction are also applied to the
of the water molecules, in which two Psychic Interaction. However, due to
Hydrogen atoms join an Oxygen atom. the psychic mass, m Ψ , to be an
Well, how come the combination
imaginary quantity, it is necessary to
between these atoms is always the
put mΨ into the mentioned equations
same: the same grouping and the
same invariable proportion? In the in order to homogenize them, because
case of molecular combinations the as we know, the module of an
phenomenon repeats itself. Thus, the imaginary number is always real and
chemical substances either mutually positive.
attract or repel themselves, carrying Thus, based on gravity theory,
out specific motions for this reason. It we can write the equation of the
is the so-called Chemical Affinity. This psychic field in nonrelativistic
phenomenon certainly results from a Mechanics.
specific interaction between the ΔΦ = 4πG ρ Ψ (147 )
consciousnesses. From now on, it will
be called Psychic Interaction.
Mutual Affinity is a
dimensionless psychic quantity with ‡‡‡
Quantum Mechanics tells us that Ψ do not have
which we are familiar and of which we a physical interpretation or a simple meaning and
have perfect understanding as to its also it cannot be experimentally observed. However
such restriction does not apply to Ψ
2
meaning. The degree of Mutual , which is
Affinity, A , in the case of two known as density of probability and represents the
consciousnesses, respectively probability of finding the body, described by the
described by ΨΨ1 and ΨΨ 2 , must be wave function Ψ , in the point x, y, z at the
moment t. A large value of Ψ
2
means a strong
possibility to find the body, while a small value of
Ψ 2 means a weak possibility to find the body.
82
69
It is similar to the equation of the attractive, if A is positive
gravitational field, with the difference (expressing positive mutual affinity
that now instead of the density of between the two psychic bodies), and
gravitational mass we have the density repulsive if A is negative (expressing
of psychic mass. Then, we can write negative mutual affinity between the
the general solution of Eq. (147), in the two psychic bodies). Contrary to the
following form: interaction of the matter, where the
ρ Ψ dV opposites attract themselves here, the
Φ = −G ∫ (148) opposites repel themselves.
r2
This equation expresses, with A method and device to obtain
nonrelativistic approximation, the images of psychic bodies have been
potential of the psychic field of any previously proposed [46]. By means of
distribution of psychic mass. this device, whose operation is based
Particularly, for the potential of on the gravitational interaction and the
the field of only one particle with piezoelectric effect, it will be possible
psychic mass mΨ1 , we get: to observe psychic bodies.
Expression (146) can be
G m Ψ1
Φ=− (149 ) rewritten in the following form:
r
Then the force produced by this field
m m
A = k 2 Ψ1 Ψ 2 (153)
V1 V2
upon another particle with psychic
The psychic masses mΨ1 and mΨ 2 are
mass mΨ 2 is
r r imaginary quantities. However, the
∂Φ
FΨ12 = − FΨ 21 = − mΨ 2 = product mΨ1 .mΨ 2 is a real quantity. One
∂r
can then conclude from the previous
m Ψ1 m Ψ 2
= −G (150) expression that the degree of mutual
r2 affinity between two consciousnesses
By comparing equations (150) and depends basically on the densities of
(146) we obtain their psychic masses, and that:
1) If mΨ1 > 0 and mΨ 2 > 0 then
r r A > 0 (positive mutual affinity
VV
FΨ12 = − FΨ 21 = −G A 12 22 (151) between them)
k r
In the vectorial form the above 2) If mΨ1 < 0 and mΨ 2 < 0 then
equation is written as follows A > 0 (positive mutual affinity
r r VV
FΨ 12 = − FΨ 21 = − GA 12 22 μ̂ (152 ) between them)
k r 3) If mΨ1 > 0 and mΨ 2 < 0 then
Versor μ̂ has the direction of the line A < 0 (negative mutual affinity
connecting the mass centers (psychic between them)
mass) of both particles and oriented 4) If mΨ1 < 0 and mΨ 2 > 0 then
from mΨ1 to mΨ 2 . A < 0 (negative mutual affinity
In general, we may distinguish between them)
and quantify two types of mutual In this relationship, as occurs in the
affinity: positive and negative case of material particles (“virtual”
(aversion). The occurrence of the first transition of the electrons previously
type is synonym of psychic attraction, mentioned), the consciousnesses
(as in the case of the atoms in the interact mutually, intertwining or not
water molecule) while the aversion is their wave functions. When this
synonym of repulsion. In fact, Eq. (152) happens, there occurs the so-called
r r
shows that the forces FΨ12 and FΨ 21 are Phase Relationship according to
quantum-mechanics concept.
83
70
Otherwise a Trivial Relationship takes
place.
The psychic forces such as the
gravitational forces, must be very weak
when we consider the interaction
between two particles. However, in
spite of the subtleties, those forces
stimulate the relationship of the
consciousnesses with themselves and
with the Universe (Eq.152).
From all the preceding, we
perceive that Psychic Interaction –
unified with matter interactions,
constitutes a single Law which links
things and beings together and, in a
network of continuous relations and
exchanges, governs the Universe both
in its material and psychic aspects. We
can also observe that in the
interactions the same principle
reappears always identical. This unity
of principle is the most evident
expression of monism in the Universe.

84
71

APPENDIX A: Allais effect explained


≅ 1.3 × 10−18 kg.m −3 that can work as a
A Foucault-type pendulum slightly gravitational shielding and explain the
increases its period of oscillation at sites Allais and pendulum effects. Below this
experiencing a solar eclipse, as compared layer, the density of the lunar atmosphere
with any other time. This effect was first increases, making the effect of
observed by Allais [47] over 40 years ago. gravitational shielding negligible.
Also Saxl and Allen [48], using a torsion During the solar eclipses, when the
pendulum, have observed the Moon is between the Sun and the Earth,
phenomenon. Recently, an anomalous two gravitational shieldings Sh1 and Sh2 ,
eclipse effect on gravimeters has become
are established in the top layer of the lunar
well-established [49], while some of the
atmosphere (See Fig. 1A). In order to
pendulum experiments have not. Here,
understand how these gravitational
we will show that the Allais gravity and
shieldings work (the gravitational shielding
pendulum effects during solar eclipses
effect) see Fig. II. Thus, right after Sh1
result from a shielding effect of the Sun’s
gravity when the Moon is between the Sun (inside the system Moon-Lunar
atmosphere), the Sun’s gravity
and the Earth. r r
The interplanetary medium includes acceleration, g S , becomes χ g S where,
interplanetary dust, cosmic rays and hot according to Eq. (57) χ is given by
plasma from the solar wind. Its density is
inversely proportional to the squared
⎧ ⎡ ⎛ ⎞
2 ⎤⎫
⎪ ⎪
distance from the Sun, decreasing as this 2
n D
distance increases. Near the Earth-Moon χ = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ − 1⎥ ⎬
r
(1A)
⎪ ⎢ ⎝ ρc ⎠ ⎥⎪
system, this density is very low, with ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭
(
values about 5 protons/ cm3 8.3×10−21 kg m3 . ) The total density of solar radiation D
However, this density is highly variable. It arriving at the top layer of the lunar
can be increased up to atmosphere is given by
( −19
~ 100 protons / cm 1.7 ×10 k g m [50].
3
)
3
D = σT 4 = 6.32 × 10 7 W / m 2
The atmosphere of the Moon is Since the temperature of the surface of the
very tenuous and insignificant in Sun is T = 5.778 × 10 3 K and
comparison with that of the Earth. The
average daytime abundances of the
σ = 5.67 × 10 −8 W .m −2 .K −4 . The density of
elements known to be present in the lunar the top layer is ρ ≅ 1.3 × 10−18 kg.m−3 then
atmosphere, in atoms per cubic Eq. (1A) gives §§§
centimeter, are as follows: H <17, He 2-
40x103, Na 70,K 17, Air 4x104, yielding χ = − 1 .1
~8x104 total atoms per cubic
( −16
)
−3
centimeter ≅ 10 kg.m [51]. According to The negative sign of χ shows that
Öpik [52], near the Moon surface, the r r
χg S , has opposite direction to g S . As
density of the lunar atmosphere can reach
values up to 10 −12 kg.m −3 .The minimum
previously showed (see Fig. II), after
the second gravitational shielding
possible density of the lunar atmosphere is
in the top of the atmosphere and is §§§
essentially very close to the value of the The text in red in wrong. But the value of
interplanetary medium. χ = −1 .1 is correct. It is not the solar radiation
Since the density of the that produces the phenomenon. The exact
interplanetary medium is very small it description of the phenomenon starting from the
cannot work as gravitational shielding. same equation (1A) is presented in the end of my
However, there is a top layer in the lunar paper: “Scattering of Sunlight in Lunar Exosphere
Caused by Gravitational Microclusters of Lunar Dust”
atmosphere with density (2013).

85
72
(Sh2) the gravity acceleration χgr S g ′ = g ⊕ − (− 0 .4 ) g S − (− 0 .4 )g Moon =
2

r r
becomes χ 2 g S . This means that χ 2 g S ≅ g ⊕ − 9.6 × 10 − 4 m.s − 2 =
r
has the same direction of g S . In (
= 1 − 9.7 × 10 − 5 g ⊕) (4 A )
addition, right after the lunar (Sh2) This decrease in g increases the
r
gravity becomes χg moon . Therefore, the pendulum’s period by about
total gravity acceleration in the Earth g⊕
T′ =T = 1 .000048 T
will be given by ( )
1 − 9 .4 × 10 − 5 g ⊕
r r r r
g ′ = g ⊕ − χ 2 g S − χg moon (2 A) This corresponds to 0.0048% increase
in the pendulum’s period. Jun’s
abstract [53] tells us of a relative
Since g S ≅ 5.9 × 10 −3 m / s 2 and change less than 0.005% in the
−5
g moon ≅ 3.3 × 10 m / s Eq. (2A), gives
2 pendulum’s period associated with the
1990 solar eclipse.
For example, if the density of the
g ′ = g ⊕ − (− 1 .1) g S − (− 1 .1)g Moon =
2
top layer of the lunar atmosphere
≅ g ⊕ − 7 .1 × 10 − 3 m .s − 2 = increase up to 2.0917 × 10−18 k g m 3 , the
(
= 1 − 7 .3 × 10 − 4 g ⊕ ) (3 A ) value for χ becomes

This decrease in g increases the χ = −1.5 × 10 −3


period T = 2π l g of a paraconical
Thus, we obtain
g ′ = g ⊕ − (− 1.5 × 10−3 ) g S − (− 1.5 × 10−3 )g Moon =
pendulum (Allais effect) in about 2

g⊕
T′ = T = 1.00037 T
(
1 − 7.3 × 10 − 4 g ⊕ ) ≅ g ⊕ − 6.3 × 10−8 m.s −2 =
This corresponds to 0.037% increase ( )
= 1 − 6.4 × 10−9 g ⊕ (5 A)
in the period, and is roughly the value So, the total gravity acceleration in the
(0.0372%) obtained by Saxl and Allen Earth will decrease during the solar
during the total solar eclipse in March eclipses by about
1970 [48].
As we have seen, the density of 6.4 × 10 −9 g ⊕
the interplanetary medium near the
Moon is highly variable and can reach The size of the effect, as measured
values up to ~ 100 protons / cm 3 with a gravimeter, during the 1997
(1.7 ×10−19 k g m3 .) eclipse, was roughly (5 − 7 ) × 10 −9 g ⊕
When the density of the [54, 55].
interplanetary medium increases, the The decrease will be even
top layer of the lunar atmosphere can smaller forρ ≳ 2.0917 ×10-18kg.m-3. The
also increase its density, by absorbing lower limit now is set by Lageos
particles from the interplanetary satellites, which suffer an anomalous
medium due to the lunar gravitational
acceleration of only about 3 × 10 −13 g ⊕ ,
attraction. In the case of a density
increase of roughly 30% during “seasons” where the satellite
( )
1.7 × 10 k g m , the value for χ
−18 3 experiences eclipses of the Sun by the
Earth [56].
becomes
χ = − 0 .4
Consequently, we get

86
73

Top layer of the Moon’s atmosphere


(Gravitational Shielding)
Interplanetary medium
≈ 10 −19 kg m 3
≈10−18 kg.m-3
Solar radiation ≈10−17 kg.m-3
≈10−12 kg.m-3 r
χg Moon
r Sh1 r Moon r Sh2 r r r r Earth
gS χg S g Moon χg Moon χ 2 g S χ 2gS g⊕

Fig. 1A – Schematic diagram of the Gravitational Shielding around the Moon – The top layer of the
Moon’s atmosphere with density of the order of 10-18 kg.m-3 , produces a gravitational shielding
r r
when subjected to the radiation from the Sun. Thus, the solar gravity g S becomes χ g S after the
r r
first shielding Sh1 and χ 2 g S after the second shielding Sh 2 . The Moon gravity becomes χ g Moon
after Sh 2 . Therefore the total gravity acceleration in the Earth will be given by
r r r r
g ′ = g ⊕ − χ 2 g S − χg moon .

87
74

APPENDIX B n2h2 n2h2


En = = (3B)
In this appendix we will show 8mg L2 8η 2 mi L2
why, in the quantized gravity equation
(Eq.34), n = 0 is excluded from the From this equation we can easily
sequence of possible values of n . conclude that η cannot be
Obviously, the exclusion of n = 0 , zero (E n → ∞ or E n → 0 ) . On the
0

means that the gravity can have only other hand, the Eq. (2B) shows that the
discrete values different of zero. exclusion of η = 0 means the exclusion
Equation (33) shows that the of m g = 0 as a possible value for the
gravitational mass is quantized and
given by gravitational mass. Obviously, this also
means the exclusion of M g = 0
M g = n 2 mg (min ) (Relativistic mass). Equation (33) tells
us that M g = n 2 m g (min ) , thus we can
Since Eq. (43) leads to conclude that the exclusion of Mg = 0
implies in the exclusion of n = 0 since
mg(min) = mio(min)
mg(min) = mi0(min) = finite value (elementary
quantum of mass). Therefore Eq. (3B)
where
is only valid for values of n and η
different of zero. Finally, from the
mi0(min) = ± h 3 8 cdmax = ±3.9×10−73kg
quantized gravity equation (Eq. 34),
GM g ⎛ Gm g (min ) ⎞
is the elementary quantum of inertial g =− = n 2
⎜− ⎟=
r2 ⎜ (r )2 ⎟
mass. Then the equation ⎝ max n ⎠
for M g becomes = n 4 g min
we conclude that the exclusion of n = 0
M g = n 2 mg (min ) = n 2 mi (min ) means that the gravity can have only
discrete values different of zero.
On the other hand, Eq. (44)
shows that
M i = ni2 mi 0(min )
Thus, we can write that
2
Mg ⎛n ⎞
= ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ or M g = η 2 M i (1B)
M i ⎝ ni ⎠

where η = n ni is a quantum number


different of n .
By multiplying both members of
Eq. (1B) by 1 − V 2 c 2 we get
mg = η 2 mi (2B)
By substituting (2B) into Eq. (21)
we get

88
75

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90
Gravity Control by means of Electromagnetic Field
through Gas or Plasma at Ultra-Low Pressure
Fran De Aquino
Maranhao State University, Physics Department, S.Luis/MA, Brazil.
Copyright © 2007-2010 by Fran De Aquino. All Rights Reserved

It is shown that the gravity acceleration just above a chamber filled with gas or plasma at ultra-low
pressure can be strongly reduced by applying an Extra Low-Frequency (ELF) electromagnetic field
across the gas or the plasma. This Gravitational Shielding Effect is related to recent discovery of
quantum correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass. According to the theory samples
hung above the gas or the plasma should exhibit a weight decrease when the frequency of the
electromagnetic field is decreased or when the intensity of the electromagnetic field is increased. This
Gravitational Shielding Effect is unprecedented in the literature and can not be understood in the
framework of the General Relativity. From the technical point of view, there are several applications for
this discovery; possibly it will change the paradigms of energy generation, transportation and
telecommunications.

Key words: Phenomenology of quantum gravity, Experimental Tests of Gravitational Theories,


Vacuum Chambers, Plasmas devices. PACs: 04.60.Bc, 04.80.Cc, 07.30.Kf, 52.75.-d.

CONTENTS

I. INTRODUCTION 02

II. THEORY 02
Gravity Control Cells (GCC) 07

III. CONSEQUENCES 09
Gravitational Motor using GCC 11
Gravitational Spacecraft 12
Decreasing of inertial forces on the Gravitational Spacecraft 13
Gravity Control inside the Gravitational Spacecraft 13
Gravitational Thrusters 14
Artificial Atmosphere surrounds the Gravitational Spacecraft. 15
Gravitational Lifter 15
High Power Electromagnetic Bomb (A new type of E-bomb). 16
Gravitational Press of Ultra-High Pressure 16
Generation and Detection of Gravitational Radiation 17
Quantum Gravitational Antennas. Quantum Transceivers 18
Instantaneous Interstellar Communications 18
Wireless Electric Power Transmission, by using Quantum Gravitational Antennas. 18
Method and Device using GCCs for obtaining images of Imaginary Bodies 19
Energy shieldings 19
Possibility of Controlled Nuclear Fusion by means of Gravity Control 20

IV. CONCLUSION 21
APPENDIX A 42

APPENDIX B 70

References 74

91
2

I. INTRODUCTION
It will be shown that the local In general, the momentum variation
gravity acceleration can be controlled by Δp is expressed by Δp = FΔt where F
means of a device called Gravity Control is the applied force during a time
Cell (GCC) which is basically a recipient interval Δt . Note that there is no
filled with gas or plasma where is applied restriction concerning the nature of the
an electromagnetic field. According to force F , i.e., it can be mechanical,
the theory samples hung above the gas electromagnetic, etc.
or plasma should exhibit a weight For example, we can look on the
decrease when the frequency of the momentum variation Δp as due to
electromagnetic field is decreased or absorption or emission of electromagnetic
when the intensity of the electromagnetic energy by the particle.
field is increased. The electrical In the case of radiation, Δp can be
conductivity and the density of the gas or obtained as follows: It is known that the
plasma are also highly relevant in this radiation pressure, dP , upon an area
process.
dA = dxdy of a volume d V = dxdydz of
With a GCC it is possible to
convert the gravitational energy into a particle ( the incident radiation normal
rotational mechanical energy by means to the surface dA )is equal to the
of the Gravitational Motor. In addition, a energy dU absorbed per unit volume
new concept of spacecraft (the (dU dV ) .i.e.,
Gravitational Spacecraft) and aerospace
dP =
dU
=
dU
=
dU
(2)
flight is presented here based on the dV dxdydz dAdz
possibility of gravity control. We will also
see that the gravity control will be very Substitution of dz = vdt ( v is the speed
important to Telecommunication. of radiation) into the equation above
gives
II. THEORY dU (dU dAdt ) dD
It was shown [1] that the relativistic dP = = = (3)
dV v v
gravitational mass M g = m g 1 − V 2 c2
and the relativistic inertial mass Since dPdA = dF we can write:
M i = mi 0 1 − V 2 c 2 are quantized, and dFdt=
dU
(4)
v
given by M g = n g2 mi 0(min ) , M i = ni2 mi 0(min ) However we know that dF = dp dt , then
where n g and ni are respectively, the
dp =
dU
(5)
gravitational quantum number and the v
inertial quantum number ; From this equation it follows that
mi 0(min ) = ±3.9 × 10 kg is the elementary
−73
U ⎛c⎞ U
Δp = ⎜ ⎟ = nr
quantum of inertial mass. The masses v ⎝c⎠ c
m g and mi 0 are correlated by means of Substitution into Eq. (1) yields
the following expression: ⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫
⎪ ⎛ ⎞ ⎪
⎡ 2 ⎤
⎢ ⎜
mg = ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜

U
nr ⎟ − 1⎥⎬mi0

⎥⎪
(6)
⎛ Δp ⎞ ⎪ ⎝
2


mg = mi0 − 2 1 + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − 1⎥mi0 . (1) ⎩ ⎣
mi0 c
⎦⎭
⎢ ⎝ mi c ⎠ ⎥
⎣ ⎦ Where U , is the electromagnetic energy
Where Δp is the momentum variation on absorbed by the particle; nr is the index
the particle and mi 0 is the inertial mass of refraction.
at rest.
92
3
Equation (6) can be rewritten in Equation (9) shows that ω κ r = v . Thus,
the following form E B = ω k r = v , i.e., E = vB = vμH .
⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫
⎪ ⎛ W ⎞ ⎪ Then, Eq. (8) can be rewritten in the

mg = ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜ n ⎟ − 1⎥⎬mi 0 (7) following form:
⎢ ⎜ ρ c2 r ⎟ ⎥

⎩ ⎣⎢
⎝ ⎠ ⎪
⎦⎥⎭ W = 12 (ε v2μ)μH 2 + 12 μH 2 (12)
Where W = U V is the density of For σ << ωε , Eq. (9) reduces to
electromagnetic energy and ρ = mi 0 V c
v=
is the density of inertial mass. ε r μr
The Eq. (7) is the expression of the Then, Eq. (12) gives
quantum correlation between the ⎡ ⎛ c2 ⎞ ⎤ 2 1 2
gravitational mass and the inertial mass W = 12 ⎢ε ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟μ⎥μH + 2 μH = μH2 (13)
⎢⎣ ⎝ εr μr ⎠ ⎥⎦
as a function of the density of
electromagnetic energy. This is also the This equation can be rewritten in the
expression of correlation between following forms:
B2
gravitation and electromagnetism.
W = (14)
The density of electromagnetic μ
energy in an electromagnetic field can be or
deduced from Maxwell’s equations [2] W = ε E2 (15)
and has the following expression
W = 12 ε E 2 + 12 μH 2 (8) For σ >> ωε , Eq. (9) gives

It is known that B = μH , E B = ω k r [3] v= (16 )
μσ
and
dz ω Then, from Eq. (12) we get
v= = =
c
(9) ⎡ ⎛ 2ω ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ ωε ⎞
dt κ r ε r μr ⎛ W = 12 ⎢ε⎜⎜ ⎟⎟μ⎥μH2 + 12 μH2 = ⎜ ⎟μH2 + 12 μH2 ≅
⎜ 1 + (σ ωε ) + 1⎞⎟
2

2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ μσ ⎠ ⎦ ⎝σ ⎠
Where kr is the real part of the ≅ 12 μH2 (17)
r
propagation vector k (also called phase Since E = vB = vμH , we can rewrite (17)
r in the following forms:
constant [4]); k = k = k r + iki ; ε , μ and σ,
B2
are the electromagnetic characteristics of W ≅ (18)

the medium in which the incident (or
emitted) radiation is propagating or
⎛σ ⎞ 2
( ε = ε r ε 0 where ε r is the relative W ≅⎜ ⎟E (19 )
⎝ 4ω ⎠
dielectric permittivity and ε0 = 8.854×10−12F/ m
By comparing equations (14) (15) (18)
; μ = μrμ0 where μ r is the relative and (19) we see that Eq. (19) shows that
magnetic permeability and μ0 = 4π ×10−7 H / m; the better way to obtain a strong value of
W in practice is by applying an Extra
σ is the electrical conductivity). It is
Low-Frequency (ELF) electric field
known that for free-space σ = 0 and
ε r = μ r = 1 then Eq. (9) gives
(w = 2πf << 1Hz ) through a mean with
v=c (10) high electrical conductivity.
Substitution of Eq. (19) into Eq.
From (9) we see that the index of (7), gives
refraction nr = c v will be given by ⎧ ⎡ 3 ⎤⎫
⎪ μ ⎛ σ ⎞ E 4 ⎥⎪
c εμ
= r r ⎛⎜ 1 + (σ ωε) + 1⎞⎟ (11)

mg = ⎨1 − 2 1 + 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟ − 1 ⎬mi0 (20)
nr = 4c ⎝ 4πf ⎟⎠ ρ 2 ⎥⎪
2
⎪⎩ ⎢
v 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦⎭
This equation shows clearly that if an

93
4
electrical conductor mean has j lamp
ρ << 1 Kg.m −3
and σ >> 1 , then it is
σ Hg plasma = = 3.419 S .m −1 (23)
E lamp
possible obtain strong changes in its Substitution of (22) and (23) into (20)
gravitational mass, with a relatively small yields
ELF electric field. An electrical conductor
mean with ρ << 1 Kg.m−3 is obviously a
mg(Hg plasma) ⎧⎪ ⎡ E 4 ⎤⎫⎪
= ⎨1 − 2 1 + 1.909×10
⎢ −17
−1⎥⎬ (24)
mi(Hg plasma) ⎪ ⎢ f 3 ⎥⎪
plasma. ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭
There is a very simple way to test Thus, if an Extra Low-Frequency electric
Eq. (20). It is known that inside a
field E ELF with the following
fluorescent lamp lit there is low-pressure
Mercury plasma. Consider a 20W characteristics: E ELF ≈ 100V .m −1 and
T-12 fluorescent lamp (80044– f < 1mHZ is applied through the
F20T12/C50/ECO GE, Ecolux® T12), Mercury plasma then a strong decrease
whose characteristics and dimensions in the gravitational mass of the Hg
are well-known [5]. At around plasma will be produced.
T ≅ 318.15 K , an optimum mercury
0
It was shown [1] that there is an
vapor pressure of P = 6 ×10−3Torr= 0.8N.m−2 additional effect of gravitational shielding
is obtained, which is required for produced by a substance under these
maintenance of high luminous efficacy conditions. Above the substance the
throughout life. Under these conditions, gravity acceleration g 1 is reduced at the
the mass density of the Hg plasma can same ratio χ = m g mi 0 , i.e., g1 = χ g ,
be calculated by means of the well-
( g is the gravity acceleration under the
known Equation of State
substance). Therefore, due to the
ρ=
PM 0
(21) gravitational shielding effect produced by
ZRT
the decrease of m g (Hg plasma ) in the region
Where M 0 = 0.2006 kg.mol −1 is the
where the ELF electric field E ELF is
molecular mass of the Hg; Z ≅ 1 is the
compressibility factor for the Hg plasma; applied, the gravity acceleration just
R = 8.314 joule.mol −1 . 0 K −1 is the gases above this region will be given by
m g (Hg plasma)
universal constant. Thus we get g1 = χ (Hg plasma) g = g=
ρ Hg plasma ≅ 6.067 × 10 −5 kg.m −3 (22) mi (Hg plasma)
The electrical conductivity of the Hg ⎧⎪ ⎡ E4 ⎤ ⎫⎪
plasma can be deduced from the = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 1.909 × 10 −17 ELF − 1⎥ ⎬ g (25)
r r ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣
3
f ELF ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭
continuum form of Ohm's Law j = σE ,
since the operating current through the The trajectories of the
lamp and the current density are well- electrons/ions through the lamp are
known and respectively given by determined by the electric field E lamp along
i = 0.35A [5] and jlamp = i S = i π4 φint
2
, where the lamp. If the ELF electric field across
φint = 36.1mm is the inner diameter of the the lamp E ELF is much greater than E lamp ,
lamp. The voltage drop across the the current through the lamp can be
electrodes of the lamp is 57V [5] and the interrupted. However, if EELF <<Elamp, these
distance between them l = 570mm . Then trajectories will be only slightly modified.
the electrical field along the lamp E lamp is Since here Elamp = 100 V .m−1 , then we can
given by Elamp = 57V 0.570m = 100 V.m−1 . max
arbitrarily choose E ELF ≅ 33 V . m −1 . This
Thus, we have means that the maximum voltage drop,
which can be applied across the metallic

94
5
plates, placed at distance d , is equal to mg1(Hg plasma)
the outer diameter (max * ) of the χ1(Hg plasma) = =
max
mi1(Hg plasma)
bulb φlamp of the 20W T-12 Fluorescent
⎧ ⎡ 4 ⎤⎫
lamp, is given by ⎪ EELF ⎪
φlamp ≅ 1.5 V
max max
Vmax = E ELF
= ⎨1 − 2 1 + 1.909×10
⎢ −17 (1)
− 1⎥⎬ (27)
⎪⎩ ⎢ f ELF(1) ⎥⎪
3
⎣ ⎦⎭
max
Since φlamp = 40.3mm [5]. Then, above the second lamp, the
max
Substitution of EELF ≅ 33 V.m−1 into gravity acceleration becomes
(25) yields r r r
mg (Hg plasma) g 2 = χ 2(Hg plasma) g1 = χ 2(Hg plasma) χ1(Hg plasma) g (28)
g1 = χ (Hg plasma) g = g= where
mi (Hg plasma)
mg 2(Hg plasma)
⎧⎪ χ 2(Hg plasma) = =
⎡ 2.264× 10−11 ⎤⎫⎪
= ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 3
− 1⎥⎬g (26) mi 2(Hg plasma)
⎪⎩ ⎢
⎣ f ELF ⎦⎥⎪⎭ ⎧ ⎡ 4 ⎤⎫⎪
⎪ E ELF
Note that, for f < 1mHz = 10 −3 Hz , the = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 1.909 × 10 −17 (2 )
− 1 ⎥⎬ (29)
⎪⎩ ⎢ 3
f ELF ( 2) ⎥⎪
gravity acceleration can be strongly ⎣ ⎦⎭
reduced. These conclusions show that Then, results
the ELF Voltage Source of the set-up
g2 ⎧⎪ ⎡ 4
EELF ⎤⎫⎪
(1)
shown in Fig.1 should have the following = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 1.909×10−17 3 − 1⎥⎬ ×
characteristics: g ⎪ ⎢ f ELF(1) ⎥⎪
⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭
- Voltage range: 0 – 1.5 V ⎧
⎪ ⎡ 4
EELF ⎤⎫⎪
- Frequency range: 10-4Hz – 10-3Hz × ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 1.909×10−17 ( 2)
− 1⎥⎬ (30)
⎪⎩ ⎢ 3
f ELF( 2) ⎥⎪
⎣ ⎦⎭
In the experimental arrangement
shown in Fig.1, an ELF electric field with From Eq. (28), we then conclude that if
intensity E ELF = V d crosses the χ1(Hg plasma ) < 0 and also χ 2(Hg plasma ) < 0 ,
fluorescent lamp; V is the voltage drop then g 2 will have the same direction
across the metallic plates of the
of g . This way it is possible to intensify
capacitor and max
d = φlamp = 40.3mm .
several times the gravity in the direction
When the ELF electric field is applied, r
of g . On the other hand, if χ1(Hg plasma ) < 0
the gravity acceleration just above the r
lamp (inside the dotted box) decreases and χ 2(Hg plasma ) > 0 the direction of g 2 will
according to (25) and the changes can r
be contrary to direction of g . In this case
be measured by means of the system will be possible to intensify and
balance/sphere presented on the top of r r
become g 2 repulsive in respect to g .
Figure 1.
In Fig. 2 is presented an If we put a lamp above the second
experimental arrangement with two lamp, the gravity acceleration above the
fluorescent lamps in order to test the third lamp becomes
r r
gravity acceleration above the second g 3 = χ 3(Hg plasma) g 2 =
r
lamp. Since gravity acceleration above = χ 3(Hg plasma) χ 2(Hg plasma) χ1(Hg plasma) g (31)
the first lamp is given by
r r or
g1 = χ1(Hg plasma ) g , where

*
After heating.

95
6
g3 ⎧⎪ ⎡ ⎤⎫
4 Table1 presents the theoretical
EELF (1) ⎪
= ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 1.909×10−17 3 − 1⎥⎬ × values for g 1 and g 2 , calculated
g ⎪ ⎢ f ELF(1) ⎥⎪
⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ respectively by means of (25) and
(30).They are also plotted on Figures 5,
⎧ ⎡ 4 ⎤⎫
⎪ EELF (2) ⎪ 6 and 7 as a function of the
× ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 1.909×10−17
− 1⎥⎬ ×
⎪⎩ ⎢ f ELF(2) ⎥⎪
3 frequency f ELF .
⎣ ⎦⎭
Now consider a chamber filled
⎧ ⎡ 4 ⎤⎫ with Air at 3 × 10 −12 torr and 300K as
⎪ EELF ⎪
× ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 1.909×10−17 3
(3)
− 1⎥⎬ (32) shown in Figure 8 (a). Under these
⎪⎩ ⎢ f ELF(3) ⎥⎪
⎣ ⎦⎭ circumstances, the mass density of the
If f ELF (1) = f ELF (2 ) = f ELF (3 ) = f and air inside the chamber, according to Eq.
(21) is ρ air ≅ 4.94 × 10 −15 kg.m −3 .
E ELF (1) = E ELF (2 ) = E ELF (3 ) = V φ = If the frequency of the magnetic
= V0 sin ωt 40.3mm = field, B , through the air is f = 60 Hz then
= 24.814V0 sin 2πft. ωε = 2πfε ≅ 3 × 10 −9 S / m . Assuming that
Then, for t = T 4 we get the electric conductivity of the air inside
the chamber, σ (air ) is much less than ωε ,
E ELF (1) = E ELF (2 ) = E ELF (3 ) = 24.814V0 .
Thus, Eq. (32) gives i.e., σ (air ) << ωε (The atmospheric air
3 conductivity is of the order of
g3 ⎧⎪ ⎡ V 4 ⎤⎫⎪
= ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 7.237×10−12 03 − 1⎥⎬ (33) 2 − 100 × 10 −15 S .m −1 [6, 7]) then we can
g ⎪
⎩ ⎢
⎣ f ⎥⎪
⎦⎭ rewritten the Eq. (11) as follows
For V0 = 1.5V and f = 0.2mHz
(t = T 4 = 1250s = 20.83min) the gravity
nr(air) ≅ ε r μr ≅ 1 (34)
r
acceleration g 3 above the third lamp will
From Eqs. (7), (14) and (34) we thus
be given by
r r obtain
g 3 = −5.126 g
⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫
Above the second lamp, the gravity ⎪ ⎢ ⎛ B2 ⎞ ⎪
mg(air) = ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜⎜ nr(air) ⎟⎟ − 1⎥⎬mi(air) =
acceleration given by (30), is
r r ⎪ ⎢ ⎝ μair ρairc
2
⎠ ⎥⎪
g 2 = +2.972g . ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭
According to (27) the gravity acceleration
above the first lamp is
{ [ ]}
= 1 − 2 1 + 3.2 ×106 B4 −1 mi(air) (35)
r r
g1 = -1,724g
Therefore, due to the gravitational
Note that, by this process an
r shielding effect produced by the
acceleration g can be increased several
r decreasing of m g (air ) , the gravity
times in the direction of g or in the
acceleration above the air inside the
opposite direction.
chamber will be given by
In the experiment proposed in Fig.
m g (air )
1, we can start with ELF voltage g ′ = χ air g = g =
sinusoidal wave of amplitude V0 = 1.0V m i (air )
and frequency 1mHz . Next, the frequency
will be progressively decreased down
{ [
= 1 − 2 1 + 3 . 2 × 10 6 B 4 − 1 g ]}
to 0.8mHz , 0.6mHz , 0.4mHz and
Note that the gravity acceleration
0.2mHz . Afterwards, the amplitude of the
above the air becomes negative
voltage wave must be increased to
for B > 2.5 × 10 −2 T .
V0 = 1.5V and the frequency decreased
in the above mentioned sequence.
96
7
For B = 0.1T the gravity nitrogen atoms of the air in the
acceleration above the air becomes ionization chamber (See Fig. 3(c))
increasing the electrical conductivity of
g ′ ≅ −32.8 g the air inside the chamber. The high-
speed alpha particles hit molecules in
Therefore the ultra-low pressure air the air and knock off electrons to form
inside the chamber, such as the Hg ions, according to the following
plasma inside the fluorescent lamp, expressions
works like a Gravitational Shield that in
practice, may be used to build Gravity O2 + H e+ + → O2+ + e − + H e+ +
Control Cells (GCC) for several practical N 2 + H e+ + → N 2+ + e − + H e+ +
applications.
Consider for example the GCCs of
It is known that the electrical
Plasma presented in Fig.3. The
conductivity is proportional to both the
ionization of the plasma can be made of
concentration and the mobility of the ions
several manners. For example, by
and the free electrons, and is expressed
means of an electric field between the
by
electrodes (Fig. 3(a)) or by means of a
RF signal (Fig. 3(b)). In the first case the
σ = ρ e μe + ρi μi
ELF electric field and the ionizing electric Where ρ e and ρ i express respectively
field can be the same. ( )
the concentrations C m 3 of electrons
Figure 3(c) shows a GCC filled
and ions; μ e and μ i are respectively the
with air (at ambient temperature and 1
atm) strongly ionized by means of alpha mobilities of the electrons and the ions.
particles emitted from 36 radioactive ions In order to calculate the electrical
sources (a very small quantity of conductivity of the air inside the
Americium 241 † ). The radioactive ionization chamber, we first need to
element Americium has a half-life of 432 calculate the concentrations ρ e and ρ i .
years, and emits alpha particles and low We start calculating the disintegration
energy gamma rays (≈ 60 KeV ) . In order constant, λ , for the Am 241 :
0.693 0.693
to shield the alpha particles and gamma λ= = = 5.1 × 10 −11 s −1
rays emitted from the Americium 241 it is T
1
2 432 (
3.15 × 10 7
s )
sufficient to encapsulate the GCC with 1

epoxy. The alpha particles generated by Where T = 432 years is the half-life of
2

the americium ionize the oxygen and the Am 241.


One kmole of an isotope has mass
† equal to atomic mass of the isotope
The radioactive element Americium (Am-241) is
widely used in ionization smoke detectors. This expressed in kilograms. Therefore, 1g of
type of smoke detector is more common because Am 241 has
it is inexpensive and better at detecting the 10 −3 kg
smaller amounts of smoke produced by flaming = 4.15 × 10 −6 kmoles
fires. Inside an ionization detector there is a small 241 kg kmole
amount (perhaps 1/5000th of a gram) of One kmole of any isotope contains the
americium-241. The Americium is present in
oxide form (AmO2) in the detector. The cost of Avogadro’s number of atoms. Therefore
the AmO2 is US$ 1,500 per gram. The amount of 1g of Am 241 has
radiation in a smoke detector is extremely small.
N = 4.15 × 10−6 kmoles×
It is also predominantly alpha radiation. Alpha
radiation cannot penetrate a sheet of paper, and
it is blocked by several centimeters of air. The × 6.025 × 1026 atoms kmole = 2.50 × 1021 atoms
americium in the smoke detector could only pose
a danger if inhaled.
Thus, the activity [8] of the sample is

97
8
R = λN = 1.3 × 10 disintegrations/s.
11
ρ air = 1.1452kg.m . Thus, for d = 2cm ,
−3

σ air ≈ 10 3 S .m −1 and f = 60 Hz Eq. (20)


However, we will use 36 ionization
gives
sources each one with 1/5000th of a
mg (air)
gram of Am 241. Therefore we will only χ air = =
use 7.2 × 10 −3 g of Am 241. Thus, R mi(air)
reduces to: ⎧ ⎡ ⎤⎫
μ ⎛ σ air ⎞ Vrms
3
⎪ ⎪
4

= ⎨1 − 2 1 + 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 4 2 − 1⎥⎬ =
R = λN ≅ 10 9 disintegrations/s ⎪⎩ ⎢ 4c ⎝ 4πf ⎠ d ρair ⎥⎪
⎣ ⎦⎭
This means that at one second, about { [
= 1 − 2 1 + 3.10×10−16Vrms
4
−1 ]}
10 9 α particles hit molecules in the air Note that, for Vrms ≅ 7.96KV , we obtain:
and knock off electrons to form ions χ (air ) ≅ 0 . Therefore, if the voltages
O2+ and N 2+ inside the ionization chamber.
range of this GCC is: 0 − 10KV then it is
Assuming that each alpha particle yields possible to reach χ air ≅ −1 when
one ion at each 1 10 9 second then the
Vrms ≅ 10KV .
total number of ions produced in one
second will be Ni ≅ 1018 ions. This It is interesting to note that σ air can
corresponds to an ions concentration be strongly increased by increasing the

ρ i = eN i V ≈ 0.1 V (C m 3 )
amount of Am 241. For example, by
using 0.1g of Am 241 the value of R
Where V is the volume of the ionization increases to:
chamber. Obviously, the concentration of
electrons will be the same, i.e., ρ e = ρ i . R = λN ≅ 1010 disintegrations/s
For d = 2cm and φ = 20cm (See Fig.3(c))
we obtain This means Ni ≅ 1020 ions that yield
V = π4 (0.20) (2 × 10 −2 ) = 6.28 × 10 −4 m 3 The ρ i = eN i V ≈ 10 V (C m 3 )
2

n we get: Then, by reducing, d and φ


respectively, to 5mm and to 11.5cm, the
ρ e = ρ i ≈ 10 2 C m 3 volume of the ionization chamber
reduces to:
This corresponds to the minimum V = π4 (0 .115 ) (5 × 10 −3 ) = 5 .19 × 10 −5 m 3
2

concentration level in the case of


conducting materials. For these Consequently, we get:
materials, at temperature of 300K, the
mobilities μ e and μ i vary from 10 up ρ e = ρ i ≈ 10 5 C m 3
to 100 m 2V −1 s −1 [9]. Then we can assume
Assuming that μ e = μi ≈ 10 m 2V −1 s −1 ,
that μe = μi ≈ 10 m2V −1s −1 . (minimum
then the electrical conductivity of the air
mobility level for conducting materials).
inside the ionization chamber becomes
Under these conditions, the electrical
conductivity of the air inside the
ionization chamber is σ air = ρ e μ e + ρ i μ i ≈ 10 6 S .m −1

σ air = ρ e μ e + ρ i μ i ≈ 10 3 S .m −1 This reduces for Vrms ≅ 18.8V the voltage


necessary to yield χ(air) ≅ 0 and reduces
At temperature of 300K, the air
density inside the GCC, is

98
9
to Vrms ≅ 23.5V the voltage necessary to Thus, the local inertia is just the
reach χ air ≅ −1 . gravitational influence of the rest of
matter existing in the Universe.
If the outer surface of a metallic Consequently, if we reduce the
sphere with radius a is covered with a gravitational interactions between a
radioactive element (for example Am spacecraft and the rest of the Universe,
241), then the electrical conductivity of then the inertial properties of the
the air (very close to the sphere) can be spacecraft will be also reduced. This
strongly increased (for example up effect leads to a new concept of
to σ air ≅ 10 6 s.m −1 ). By applying a low- spacecraft and space flight.
frequency electrical potential Vrms to the Since χ air is given by
sphere, in order to produce an electric
field E rms starting from the outer surface ⎧ ⎡ 3 ⎤⎫
mg(air) ⎪ ⎢ μ0 ⎛ σair ⎞ Vrms
4

of the sphere, then very close to the χair = = ⎨1 − 2 1 + 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 4 2 − 1⎥⎬
sphere the low-frequency electromagnetic mi0(air) ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ 4c ⎝ 4πf ⎠ a ρair ⎥⎪
⎦⎭
field is E rms = Vrms a , and according to
Eq. (20), the gravitational mass of the air Then, for σ air ≅ 106 s.m −1 , f = 6Hz , a = 5m,
in this region expressed by
ρair ≅ 1Kg.m−3 and Vrms = 3.35 KV we get
⎧ ⎡
μ0 ⎛σair ⎞ Vrms
3 ⎤⎫
⎪ ⎢ ⎪
4
mg(air) = ⎨1− 2 1+ 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 4 2 −1⎥⎬mi0(air) ,
⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ 4c ⎝ 4πf ⎠ a ρair ⎥⎪ χ air ≅ 0
⎦⎭
can be easily reduced, making possible Under these conditions, the gravitational
to produce a controlled Gravitational forces upon the spacecraft become
Shielding (similar to a GCC) surround approximately nulls and consequently,
the sphere. the spacecraft practically loses its inertial
This becomes possible to build a properties.
spacecraft to work with a gravitational Out of the terrestrial atmosphere,
shielding as shown in Fig. 4. the gravity acceleration upon the
The gravity accelerations on the spacecraft is negligible and therefore the
spacecraft (due to the rest of the gravitational shielding is not necessary.
Universe. See Fig.4) is given by However, if the spacecraft is in the outer
space and we want to use the
g i′ = χ air g i i = 1, 2, 3 … n gravitational shielding then, χ air must be
replaced by χ vac where
Where χ air = m g (air ) mi 0 (air ) . Thus, the
gravitational forces acting on the
⎧ ⎡ 3
μ0 ⎛ σvac ⎞ Vrms ⎤⎫
⎪ ⎢ ⎪
4
spacecraft are given by mg(vac)
χvac = = ⎨1− 2 1+ 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 4 2 −1⎥⎬
mi0(vac) ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ 4c ⎝ 4πf ⎠ a ρvac ⎥⎪
Fis = M g g i′ = M g (χ air g i ) ⎦⎭

By reducing the value of χ air , these The electrical conductivity of the


ionized outer space (very close to the
forces can be reduced.
spacecraft) is small; however, its density
According to the Mach’s principle;
(
is remarkably small << 10 −16 Kg.m −3 , in )
“The local inertial forces are such a manner that the smaller value of
determined by the gravitational the factor σ vac3
ρ vac
2
can be easily
interactions of the local system with the compensated by the increase of Vrms .
distribution of the cosmic masses”.

99
10
It was shown that, when the Fgj = M g (imaginary) g ′j =
gravitational mass of a particle is
reduced to ranging between + 0.159 M i
( )
= M g (imaginary) − χGmgj (imaginary) r j2 =

to − 0.159M i , it becomes imaginary [1], ( )


= M g i − χGmgj i r j2 = + χGM g mgj r j2 .
i.e., the gravitational and the inertial Note that these forces are real. Remind
masses of the particle become that, the Mach’s principle says that the
imaginary. Consequently, the particle inertial effects upon a particle are
disappears from our ordinary space-time. consequence of the gravitational
However, the factor interaction of the particle with the rest of
χ = M g (imaginary ) M i (imaginary ) remains real the Universe. Then we can conclude that
the inertial forces upon an imaginary
because spacecraft are also real. Consequently, it
M g (imaginary ) M gi Mg can travel in the imaginary space-time
χ = = = = real
M i (imaginary ) M ii Mi using its thrusters.
Thus, if the gravitational mass of the It was shown that, imaginary
particle is reduced by means of particles can have infinite speed in the
absorption of an amount of imaginary space-time [1] . Therefore, this
electromagnetic energy U , for example, is also the speed upper limit for the
we have spacecraft in the imaginary space-time.
Since the gravitational spacecraft
χ=
Mg ⎧
( ⎫
= ⎨1 − 2⎡⎢ 1 + U mi0 c 2 − 1⎤⎥⎬
2
) can use its thrusters after to becoming
Mi ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ an imaginary body, then if the thrusters
This shows that the energy U of the produce a total thrust F = 1000kN and
electromagnetic field remains acting on the gravitational mass of the spacecraft
the imaginary particle. In practice, this is reduced from M g = M i = 10 5 kg down
means that electromagnetic fields act on
imaginary particles. Therefore, the to M g ≅ 10 −6 kg , the acceleration of the
electromagnetic field of a GCC remains spacecraft will be, a = F Mg ≅ 1012m.s−2 .
acting on the particles inside the GCC
With this acceleration the spacecraft
even when their gravitational masses
crosses the “visible” Universe
reach the gravitational mass ranging
( diameter= d ≈ 10 m ) in a time interval
26
between + 0.159 M i to − 0.159M i and
Δt = 2d a ≅ 1.4 × 107 m.s −1 ≅ 5.5 months
they become imaginary particles. This is
very important because it means that the Since the inertial effects upon the
GCCs of a gravitational spacecraft keep spacecraft are reduced by
−11
on working when the spacecraft M g M i ≅ 10 then, in spite of the
becomes imaginary. effective spacecraft acceleration be
Under these conditions, the gravity a = 1012 m. s −1 , the effects for the crew
accelerations on the imaginary and for the spacecraft will be equivalent
spacecraft particle (due to the rest of the to an acceleration a′ given by
imaginary Universe) are given by Mg
a′ = a ≈ 10m.s −1
g ′j = χ g j j = 1,2,3,..., n. Mi
This is the order of magnitude of the
acceleration upon of a commercial jet
Where χ = M g (imaginary ) M i (imaginary ) aircraft.
and g j = − Gmgj (imaginary) r . 2
j Thus, the On the other hand, the travel in the
gravitational forces acting on the imaginary space-time can be very safe,
spacecraft are given by because there won’t any material body
along the trajectory of the spacecraft.

100
11
Now consider the GCCs presented rotor in order to become negative the
in Fig. 8 (a). Note that below and above acceleration of gravity inside half of the
the air are the bottom and the top of the
chamber. Therefore the choice of the
(
rotor g ′ = (χ steel ) χ air g ≅ χ air g = − ng .
2
)
Obviously this causes a torque
material of the chamber is highly
relevant. If the chamber is made of steel, T = (− F ′ + F )r and the rotor spins with
for example, and the gravity acceleration angular velocity ω . The average
below the chamber is g then at the power, P , of the motor is given by
bottom of the chamber, the gravity
becomes g ′ = χ steel g ; in the air, the P = Tω = [(− F ′ + F )r ]ω (36)
Where
gravity is g′′ = χairg′ = χairχsteelg . At the top
g′′′ = χsteelg′′ = (χsteel) χairg .
2
of the chamber, F ′ = 12 m g g ′ F = 12 m g g
Thus, out of the chamber (close to the
top) the gravity acceleration becomes and m g ≅ mi ( mass of the rotor ). Thus,
g ′′′ . (See Fig. 8 (a)). However, for the
Eq. (36) gives
steel at B < 300T and f = 1 × 10 −6 Hz , we mi gω r
have P = (n + 1) (37)
2
mg (steel) ⎧⎪ ⎡ σ (steel) B 4 ⎤⎫ On the other hand, we have that
⎢ ⎪
χ steel = = ⎨1− 2 1+ −1⎥⎬ ≅ 1 − g′ + g = ω 2r (38)
mi(steel) ⎪ ⎢ 4πfμρ(steel) c
2 2 ⎥⎪
⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ Therefore the angular speed of the rotor
Since ρ steel = 1.1 × 10 6 S .m −1 , μ r = 300 and is given by
ρ (steel ) = 7800k .m −3 . ω=
(n + 1)g (39)
Thus, due to χ steel ≅ 1 it follows r
that By substituting (39) into (37) we obtain
g ′′′ ≅ g ′′ = χ air g ′ ≅ χ air g the expression of the average power of
If instead of one GCC we have the gravitational motor, i.e.,
P = 12 mi (n + 1) g 3 r (40)
three GCC, all with steel box (Fig. 8(b)), 3
then the gravity acceleration above the
second GCC, g 2 will be given by Now consider an electric generator
coupling to the gravitational motor in
g 2 ≅ χ air g1 ≅ χ air χ air g
order to produce electric energy.
and the gravity acceleration above the Since ω = 2πf then for f = 60 Hz
third GCC, g 3 will be expressed by
we have ω = 120 πrad . s − 1 = 3600 rpm .
g 3 ≅ χ air g ′′ ≅ χ air g
3
Therefore for ω = 120πrad .s −1 and
n = 788 (B ≅ 0.22T ) the Eq. (40) tell us
that we must have
III. CONSEQUENCES
r=
(n + 1)g = 0.0545m
These results point to the
2
ω
possibility to convert gravitational energy Since r = R 3 and mi = ρπR 2 h where ρ ,
into rotational mechanical energy. R and h are respectively the mass
Consider for example the system density, the radius and the height of the
presented in Fig. 9. Basically it is a motor rotor then for h = 0.5m and
with massive iron rotor and a box filled −3
ρ = 7800 Kg .m (iron) we obtain
with gas or plasma at ultra-low pressure
(Gravity Control Cell-GCC) as shown in
Fig. 9. The GCC is placed below the mi = 327.05kg

101
12
mg ( Al )
Then Eq. (40) gives g l′ = g l = χ Al g l ≅ −10−9 g l l = 1,2,..,n
mi ( Al )
P ≅ 2.19 × 105 watts ≅ 219 KW ≅ 294HP (41)
This shows that the gravitational motor Where g l is the external gravity in the
can be used to yield electric energy at direction l . We thus conclude that the
large scale. gravity acceleration inside the spacecraft
The possibility of gravity control becomes negligible if g l << 10 9 m .s −2 .
leads to a new concept of spacecraft This means that the aluminum shell,
which is presented in Fig. 10. Due to the under these conditions, works like a
Meissner effect, the magnetic field B is gravity shielding.
expelled from the superconducting shell. Consequently, the gravitational
The Eq. (35) shows that a magnetic forces between anyone point inside the
field, B , through the aluminum shell of spacecraft with gravitational mass, m gj ,
the spacecraft reduces its gravitational
mass according to the following and another external to the spacecraft
expression: (gravitational mass m gk ) are given by
⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫ r r m gj m gk
⎪ ⎢ ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎪ F j = − Fk = −G μ̂
nr ( Al) − 1⎥⎬mi( Al) (42)
⎜ B ⎟
mg ( Al) = ⎨1 − 2 1 + r jk2
⎢ ⎜ μc ρ
2 ⎟ ⎥
⎪ ⎝ ( Al) ⎠ ⎪
⎩ ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥⎭ where m gk ≅ mik and m gj = χ Al mij .
If the frequency of the magnetic field is Therefore we can rewrite equation above
f = 10 −4 Hz then we have that in the following form
σ ( Al ) >> ωε since the electric r r mij mik
F j = − Fk = − χ Al G μˆ
conductivity of the aluminum r jk2
−1
is σ ( Al ) = 3.82 × 10 S .m . In this case, the
7
Note that when B = 0 the initial
Eq. (11) tell us that gravitational forces are
r r mij mik
μc 2σ ( Al ) F j = − Fk = −G μ̂
nr ( Al ) = (43) r jk2
4πf
Substitution of (43) into (42) yields Thus, if χ Al ≅ −10 −9 then the initial
⎧ ⎡ σ ( Al ) B 4 ⎤⎫⎪ gravitational forces are reduced from 109
⎪ ⎥⎬mi ( Al ) (44)
mg ( Al ) = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + − 1 times and become repulsives.
⎪⎩ ⎢ 4πfμρ 2
( ) c 2
⎥⎪
⎣ Al
⎦⎭ According to the new expression
r r
Since the mass density of the Aluminum for the inertial forces [1], F = m g a , we
is ρ ( Al ) = 2700 kg .m −3 then the Eq. (44) see that these forces have origin in the
can be rewritten in the following form: gravitational interaction between a

{ [ ]}
mg( Al) particle and the others of the Universe,
χ Al = = 1 − 2 1 + 3.68×10−8 B4 −1 (45) just as Mach’s principle predicts. Hence
mi( Al) mentioned expression incorporates the
In practice it is possible to adjust B in Mach’s principle into Gravitation Theory,
order to become, for example, and furthermore reveals that the inertial
χ Al ≅ 10 . This occurs to B ≅ 76 .3T .
−9 effects upon a body can be strongly
reduced by means of the decreasing of
(Novel superconducting magnets are
its gravitational mass.
able to produce up to 14.7T [10, 11]).
Then the gravity acceleration in Consequently, we conclude that if
any direction inside the spacecraft, g l′ , the gravitational forces upon the
spacecraft are reduced from 109 times
will be reduced and given by
then also the inertial forces upon the

102
13
spacecraft will be reduced from 109 times radioactive material, it is possible to
when χ Al ≅ −10 −9 . Under these increase the air conductivity inside the
conditions, the inertial effects on the GCC up to σ (air) ≅ 106 S .m−1 . Then
crew would be strongly decreased. for f = 10 Hz ; ρ (air ) = 4.94 × 10−15 kg.m −3
Obviously this leads to a new concept of
(Air at 3 ×10-12 torr, 300K) and we obtain
{[ ] }
aerospace flight.
Inside the spacecraft the χ air = 2 1 + 2.8 × 1021 B 4 − 1 − 1 (57)
gravitational forces between the For B = BGCC = 0.1T (note that, due to
dielectric with gravitational mass, M g
the Meissner effect, the magnetic field
and the man (gravitational mass, m g ), BGCC stay confined inside the
when B = 0 are superconducting box) the Eq. (57) yields
r r M g mg
Fm = − FM = −G μ̂ (46)
r2 χ air ≅ −10 9
or
r Mg
Fm = −G 2 m gˆμ = − m g g M ˆμ (47 ) Since there is no magnetic
r field through the dielectric presented in
r mg Fig.10 then, Mg ≅ Mi . Therefore if
FM = +G 2 M gˆμ = + M g g mˆμ (48)
r M g ≅ Mi =100Kg and r = r0 ≅ 1m the
If the superconducting box under M g
gravity acceleration upon the man,
(Fig. 10) is filled with air at ultra-low according to Eq. (55), is
pressure (3×10-12 torr, 300K for example) a man ≅ 10m .s −1
then, when B ≠ 0 , the gravitational mass
of the air will be reduced according to Consequently it is easy to see that this
(35). Consequently, we have system is ideal to yield artificial gravity
inside the spacecraft in the case of inter-
g ′M = (χ steel ) χ air g M ≅ χ air g M (49)
2
stellar travel, when the gravity
g m′ = (χ steel ) χ air g m ≅ χ air g m (50)
2
acceleration out of the spacecraft - due
r r to the Universe - becomes negligible.
Then the forces Fm and FM become
r The vertical displacement of the
Fm = −m g (χ air g M )ˆμ (51) spacecraft can be produced by means of
r
FM = + M g (χ air g m )ˆμ (52) Gravitational Thrusters. A schematic
diagram of a Gravitational Thruster is
Therefore if χ air = −n we will have shown in Fig.11. The Gravitational
r
Fm = +nmg g M μ̂ (53) Thrusters can also provide the horizontal
r displacement of the spacecraft.
FM = −nM g g m μ̂ (54) The concept of Gravitational
r r Thruster results from the theory of the
Thus, Fm and FM become repulsive.
Gravity Control Battery, showed in Fig. 8
Consequently, the man inside the (b). Note that the number of GCC
spacecraft is subjected to a gravity increases the thrust of the thruster. For
acceleration given by example, if the thruster has three GCCs
r Mg
aman = ngMˆμ = −χ air G 2 ˆμ (55) then the gravity acceleration upon the
r gas sprayed inside the thruster will be
Inside the GCC we have, repulsive in respect to M g (See Fig.
⎧ ⎡ σ B4 ⎤⎫⎪ 11(a)) and given by
m ⎪
χair = g(air) = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + (air)2 2 − 1⎥⎬ (56) Mg
mi(air) ⎪ ⎢⎣ 4πfμρ(air)c ⎥⎦⎪ a gas = (χ air ) (χ steel ) g ≅ −(χ air ) G
3 4 3
⎩ ⎭
r02
By ionizing the air inside the GCC
(Fig. 10), for example, by means of a Thus, if inside the GCCs, χair ≅ −109
103
14
(See Eq. 56 and 57) then the equation Let us now calculate the
above gives gravitational forces between two very
Mi close thin layers of the air around the
a gas ≅ +10 27 G
r02 spacecraft. (See Fig. 13).
The gravitational force dF12 that
For M i ≅ 10kg , r0 ≅ 1m and m gas ≅ 10 −12 kg
dm g1 exerts upon dm g 2 , and the
the thrust is
F = m gas a gas ≅ 10 5 N
gravitational force dF21 that dm g 2 exerts
Thus, the Gravitational Thrusters are upon dm g1 are given by
able to produce strong thrusts. r r dmg2 dmg1
Note that in the case of very dF12 = dF21 = −G μ̂ (58)
r2
strong χ air , for example χ air ≅ −10 9 , the Thus, the gravitational forces between
gravity accelerations upon the boxes of the air layer 1, gravitational mass m g1 ,
the second and third GCCs become very
and the air layer 2, gravitational mass
strong (Fig.11 (a)). Obviously, the walls
m g 2 , around the spacecraft are
of the mentioned boxes cannot to stand
the enormous pressures. However, it is r r G mg1 mg 2
F12 = −F21 = − 2 ∫ ∫ dmg1dmg 2ˆμ =
possible to build a similar system with 3 r 0 0
or more GCCs, without material boxes. mg1mg 2 mi1mi 2
Consider for example, a surface with = −G ˆ
μ = −χ air χ air G ˆμ (59)
several radioactive sources (Am-241, for r2 r2
example). The alpha particles emitted At 100km altitude the air pressure is
from the Am-241 cannot reach besides 5.691×10−3 torr and ρ(air) = 5.998×10−6 kg.m−3 [12].
10cm of air. Due to the trajectory of the By ionizing the air surround the
alpha particles, three or more successive spacecraft, for example, by means of an
layers of air, with different electrical oscillating electric field, E osc , starting
conductivities σ 1 , σ 2 and σ 3 , will be
from the surface of the spacecraft ( See
established in the ionized region (See Fig. 13) it is possible to increase the air
Fig.11 (b)). It is easy to see that the conductivity near the spacecraft up to
gravitational shielding effect produced by σ (air) ≅ 106 S .m−1 . Since f = 1Hz and, in
these three layers is similar to the effect
produced by the 3 GCCs shown in Fig. this case σ (air ) >> ωε , then, according to
11 (a).
Eq. (11), nr = μσ(air)c 2 4πf . From
It is important to note that if F is
force produced by a thruster then the Eq.(56) we thus obtain
spacecraft acquires acceleration ⎧ ⎡ σ B4 ⎤⎫⎪
m ⎪
a spacecraft given by [1] χair = g(air) = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + (air) 2 2 −1⎥⎬ (60)
mi(air) ⎪ ⎢ 4πfμ0ρ(air)c ⎥
F F ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎪⎭
a spacecraft = = Then for B = 763T the Eq. (60) gives
M g (spacecraft) χ Al M i (inside) + mi ( Al )
Therefore if χ Al ≅ 10 −9 ;
and mi ( Al ) = 100 Kg (inertial mass of the
M i(inside) = 104 Kg
{ [ ]}
χ air = 1 − 2 1+ ~ 104 B 4 − 1 ≅ −108 (61)
aluminum shell) then it will be necessary By substitution of χ air ≅ −108 into Eq.,
F = 10kN to produce
(59) we get
a spacecraft = 100m .s −2 r r
Note that the concept of Gravitational
m m
F12 = −F21 = −1016 G i1 2 i 2 μ̂ (62)
r
Thrusters leads directly to the
Gravitational Turbo Motor concept (See
Fig. 12).
104
15
−8
If mi1 ≅ mi 2 = ρ air V1 ≅ ρ air V2 ≅ 10 kg , and aspect of the flight dynamics of a
Gravitational Spacecraft.
r = 10 −3 m we obtain Before starting the flight, the
r r
F12 = −F21 ≅ −10−4 N (63) gravitational mass of the spacecraft, M g ,
These forces are much more intense must be strongly reduced, by means of a
than the inter-atomic forces (the forces gravity control system, in order to
which maintain joined atoms, and r
produce – withr a weak thrust F , a strong
molecules that make the solids and
acceleration, a , given by [1]
liquids) whose intensities, according to r
r F
the Coulomb’s law, is of the order of a=
1-1000×10-8N. Mg
Consequently, the air around the In this way, the spacecraft could be
spacecraft will be strongly compressed strongly accelerated and quickly to reach
upon their surface, making an “air shell” very high speeds near speed of light.
that will accompany the spacecraft If the gravity control system of the
during its displacement and will protect spacecraft is suddenly turned off, the
the aluminum shell of the direct attrition gravitational mass of the spacecraft
with the Earth’s atmosphere. becomes immediately equal to its inertial
In this way, during the flight, the mass, M i , (M g′ = M i ) and the velocity
attrition would occur just between the “air r r
shell” and the atmospheric air around V becomes equal to V ′ . According to
her. Thus, the spacecraft would stay free the Momentum Conservation Principle,
of the thermal effects that would be we have that
produced by the direct attrition of the M gV = M g′ V ′
aluminum shell with the Earth’s Supposing that the spacecraft was
atmosphere. traveling in space with speed V ≈ c , and
Another interesting effect produced that its gravitational mass it was
by the magnetic field B of the M g = 1Kg and M i = 10 4 Kg then the
spacecraft is the possibility of to lift a
velocity of the spacecraft is reduced to
body from the surface of the Earth to the
Mg Mg
spacecraft as shown in Fig. 14. By V′ = V= V ≈ 10−4 c
ionizing the air surround the spacecraft, ′
Mg Mi
by means of an oscillating electric field, Initially, when the velocity of the
E osc , the air conductivity near the r
spacecraft is V , its kinetic energy is
Ek = (Mg −mg )c2. Where Mg = mg 1 − V 2 c2 .
spacecraft can reach, for example,
σ (air ) ≅ 10 6 S .m −1 . Then for f = 1Hz ;
At the instant in which the gravity control
B = 40.8T and ρ(air) ≅ 1.2kg.m−3 (300K and system of the spacecraft is turned off,
1 atm) the Eq. (56) yields the kinetic energy becomes
Ek′ = (Mg′ − m′g )c . Where Mg′ = m′g 1 − V ′2 c2 .
2

χ air = ⎧⎨1 − 2⎡⎢ 1 + 4.9 ×10−7 B4 − 1⎤⎥⎫⎬ ≅ −0.1 We can rewritten the expressions of
⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ E k and E k′ in the following form

Ek = (MgV − mgV )
Thus, the weight of the body becomes c2
Pbody = mg (body) g = χ air mi (body) g = mi(body) g ′ V
Ek′ = (M g′V ′ − m′gV ′)
Consequently, the body will be lifted on c2
the direction of the spacecraft with V′
acceleration Substitution of M gV = M g′ V ′ = p ,
g ′ = χ air g ≅ +0.98m.s −1
Let us now consider an important
105
16
mgV = p 1−V c and m′gV ′ = p 1 − V ′ c into
2 2 2 2 Obviously this electromagnetic
pulse (EMP) will induce heavy currents
the equations of E k and E k′ gives in all electronic equipment that mainly
( ) pcV contains semiconducting and conducting
2
Ek = 1 − 1 − V 2 c 2 materials. This produces immense heat

E ′ = (1 − c )
2 that melts the circuitry inside. As such,
pc
1 − V ′2 2
while not being directly responsible for
V′
k
the loss of lives, these EMP are capable
Since V ≈ c then follows that of disabling electric/electronic systems.
Therefore, we possibly have a new type
E k ≈ pc of electromagnetic bomb. An
electromagnetic bomb or E-bomb is a
On the other hand, since V ′ << c we get well-known weapon designed to disable
( ) pcV ′ electric/electronic systems on a wide
2
E k′ = 1 − 1 − V ′ 2 c 2 = scale with an intense electromagnetic
⎛ ⎞
pulse.
⎜ ⎟ Based on the theory of the GCC it
⎟ pc ≅ ⎛⎜ V ′ ⎞⎟ pc
2

≅ 1−
1
is also possible to build a Gravitational
⎜ V ′2 ⎟ V′ ⎝ 2c ⎠
⎜ 1 + 2 + ... ⎟ Press of ultra-high pressure as shown in
⎝ 2c ⎠ Fig.15.
Therefore we conclude that E k >> E k′ . The chamber 1 and 2 are GCCs
Consequently, when the gravity control with air at 1×10-4torr, 300K
system of the spacecraft is turned off, (σ (air ) ≈ 10 S .m ; ρ (air ) = 5 × 10 kg .m −3 .
6 −1 −8
)
occurs an abrupt decrease in the kinetic
Thus, for f = 10 Hz and B = 0.107T we
energy of the spacecraft, ΔE k , given by
have
⎧ ⎡ σ (air) B 4 ⎤⎫
ΔEk = Ek − Ek′ ≈ pc ≈ M g c 2 ≈ 1017 J ⎪ ⎢
χ air = ⎨1− 2 1+

−1⎥⎬ ≅ −118
⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ 4πfμ0 ρ(air) c
2 2 ⎥⎪
⎦⎭
By comparing the energy ΔE k with the
inertial energy of the spacecraft, The gravity acceleration above the
E i = M i c 2 , we conclude that air of the chamber 1 is
r
ΔE k ≈
Mg
Ei ≈ 10 − 4 M i c 2
g1 = χ stellχ air gˆμ ≅ +1.15×103ˆμ (64)
Mi Since, in this case, χ steel ≅ 1 ; μ̂ is an
The energy ΔE k (several megatons) unitary vector in the opposite direction of
r
must be released in very short time g.
interval. It is approximately the same Above the air of the chamber 2 the
amount of energy that would be released gravity acceleration becomes
in the case of collision of the spacecraft ‡ .
r
However, the situation is very different of g2 = (χ stell ) (χair ) gˆμ ≅ −1.4 × 105ˆμ (65)
2 2

a collision ( M g just becomes suddenly


equal to M i ), and possibly the energy r
Therefore the resultant force R acting on
ΔE k is converted into a High Power m2 , m1 and m is
Electromagnetic Pulse.

In this case, the collision of the spacecraft would
release ≈1017J (several megatons) and it would be
similar to a powerful kinetic weapon.

106
r r r r
17
r r r
R = F2 + F1 + F = m2 g 2 + m1 g1 + mg = The GCCs can also be applied
on generation and detection of
= −1.4 × 105 m2ˆμ + 1.15 × 103 m1ˆμ − 9.81mˆμ = Gravitational Radiation.
≅ −1.4 × 105 m2ˆμ (66) Consider a cylindrical GCC (GCC
antenna) as shown in Fig.16 (a). The
where gravitational mass of the air inside the
⎛π 2 ⎞ GCC is
m 2 = ρ steel Vdisk 2 = ρ steel ⎜ φ inn H⎟ (67 ) ⎧ ⎡ ⎤⎫⎪
⎝4 ⎠ ⎪ σ (air ) B 4
mg (air ) = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + − 1⎥⎬mi (air ) (68)
Thus, for ρ steel ≅ 10 4 kg .m −3 we can write ⎪⎩ ⎢ 4πfμρ 2
(air ) c 2
⎥⎪
⎣ ⎦⎭
that By varying B one can varies mg (air) and
F2 ≅ 109 φinn 2
H
consequently to vary the gravitational
field generated by mg (air) , producing then
For the steel τ ≅ 105 kg.cm−2 = 109 kg.m−2
gravitational radiation. Then a GCC can
consequently we must have work like a Gravitational Antenna.
−2
F2 Sτ < 10 kg .m ( Sτ = πφinnH see Fig.15).
9
Apparently, Newton’s theory of
This means that gravity had no gravitational waves
10 9 φ inn
2
H because, if a gravitational field changed
< 10 9 kg .m − 2 in some way, that change took place
πφ inn H
instantaneously everywhere in space,
Then we conclude that and one can think that there is not a
φinn < 3.1m wave in this case. However, we have
For φinn = 2m and H = 1m the Eq. (67) gives already seen that the gravitational
interaction can be repulsive, besides
m2 ≅ 3 × 10 4 kg
attractive. Thus, as with electromagnetic
Therefore from the Eq. (66) we obtain interaction, the gravitational interaction
R ≅ 1010 N must be produced by the exchange of
Consequently, in the area S = 10 −4 m 2 of "virtual" quanta of spin 1 and mass null,
the Gravitational Press, the pressure is i.e., the gravitational "virtual" quanta
R (graviphoton) must have spin 1 and not
p = ≅ 1014 N .m − 2 2. Consequently, the fact of a change in
S
a gravitational field reach
This enormous pressure is much
instantaneously everywhere in space
greater than the pressure in the center of
occurs simply due to the speed of the
the Earth ( 3.617 × 1011 N .m −2 ) [13]. It is graviphoton to be infinite. It is known that
near of the gas pressure in the center of there is no speed limit for “virtual”
the sun ( 2 × 1016 N .m −2 ). Under the action photons. On the contrary, the
of such intensities new states of matter electromagnetic quanta (“virtual”
are created and astrophysical photons) could not communicate the
phenomena may be simulated in the lab electromagnetic interaction an infinite
for the first time, e.g. supernova distance.
explosions. Controlled thermonuclear Thus, there are two types of
fusion by inertial confinement, fast gravitational radiation: the real and
nuclear ignition for energy gain, novel virtual, which is constituted of
collective acceleration schemes of graviphotons; the real gravitational
particles and the numerous variants of waves are ripples in the space-time
material processing constitute examples generated by gravitational field changes.
of progressive applications of such According to Einstein’s theory of gravity
Gravitational Press of ultra-high the velocity of propagation of these
pressure. waves is equal to the speed of light (c).
107
18
Unlike the electromagnetic waves the be detectable even if the gravitational
real gravitational waves have low interaction mass of the nuclei of the antennas are not
with matter and consequently low scattering. strongly reduced, then we propose to
Therefore real gravitational waves are replace the gas at the nuclei of the antennas
suitable as a means of transmitting by a thin dielectric lamina. The dielectric
information. However, when the distance lamina with exactly 108 atoms (103atoms ×
between transmitter and receiver is too 103atoms × 102atoms) is placed between the
large, for example of the order of magnitude plates (electrodes) as shown in Fig. 17.
of several light-years, the transmission of When the virtual gravitational radiation
information by means of gravitational waves strikes upon the dielectric lamina, its
becomes impracticable due to the long time gravitational mass varies similarly to the
necessary to receive the information. On the gravitational mass of the dielectric lamina of
other hand, there is no delay during the the transmitter antenna, inducing an
transmissions by means of virtual electromagnetic field ( E , B ) similar to the
gravitational radiation. In addition the transmitter antenna. Thus, the electric
scattering of this radiation is null. Therefore current in the receiver antenna will have the
the virtual gravitational radiation is very same characteristics of the current in the
suitable as a means of transmitting transmitter antenna. In this way, it is then
information at any distances including possible to build two similar antennas whose
astronomical distances. nuclei have the same volumes and the same
As concerns detection of the types and quantities of atoms.
virtual gravitational radiation from GCC Note that the Quantum Gravitational
antenna, there are many options. Due to Antennas can also be used to transmit
Resonance Principle a similar GCC antenna electric power. It is easy to see that the
(receiver) tuned at the same frequency can Transmitter and Receiver (Fig. 17(a)) can
absorb energy from an incident virtual work with strong voltages and electric
gravitational radiation (See Fig.16 (b)). currents. This means that strong electric
Consequently, the gravitational mass of the power can be transmitted among Quantum
air inside the GCC receiver will vary such as Gravitational Antennas. This obviously
the gravitational mass of the air inside the solves the problem of wireless electric power
GCC transmitter. This will induce a magnetic transmission.
field similar to the magnetic field of the GCC The existence of imaginary masses has
transmitter and therefore the current through been predicted in a previous work [1]. Here
the coil inside the GCC receiver will have the we will propose a method and a device using
same characteristics of the current through GCCs for obtaining images of imaginary
the coil inside the GCC transmitter. bodies.
However, the volume and pressure of the air It was shown that the inertial
inside the two GCCs must be exactly the imaginary mass associated to an electron is
same; also the type and the quantity of given by
atoms in the air inside the two GCCs must 2 ⎛ hf ⎞
be exactly the same. Thus, the GCC m ie (ima ) = ⎜ 2 ⎟i =
2
m ( )i (69 )
antennas are simple but they are not easy to 3 ⎝c ⎠ 3 ie real
build. Assuming that the correlation between the
Note that a GCC antenna radiates gravitational mass and the inertial mass
graviphotons and gravitational waves (Eq.6) is the same for both imaginary and
simultaneously (Fig. 16 (a)). Thus, it is not real masses then follows that the
only a gravitational antenna: it is a gravitational imaginary mass associated to
Quantum Gravitational Antenna because it an electron can be written in the following
can also emit and detect gravitational form:
"virtual" quanta (graviphotons), which, in ⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫
⎪ ⎛ U ⎞ ⎪
turn, can transmit information mge(ima) = ⎨1− 2 1+ ⎜⎜ 2 nr ⎟⎟ −1⎥⎬mie(ima)

⎢ ⎥
(70)
instantaneously from any distance in the ⎪ ⎢⎣ ⎝ mi c ⎠ ⎪
⎥⎦⎭
Universe without scattering. ⎩
Due to the difficulty to build two similar Thus, the gravitational imaginary mass
GCC antennas and, considering that the associated to matter can be reduced, made
electric current in the receiver antenna can

108
19
negative and increased, just as the obtain an image of the imaginary body of
gravitational real mass. mass m g (ima ) placed in front of the board.
It was shown that also photons have
In order to decrease strongly the
imaginary mass. Therefore, the imaginary
gravitational effects produced by bodies
mass can be associated or not to the matter.
placed behind the imaginary body of mass
In a general way, the gravitational
forces between two gravitational imaginary im g , one can put five GCCs making a
masses are then given by Gravitational Shielding as shown in
r r ( )( )
iM g img M g mg Fig.18(c). If the GCCs are filled with air at
F = −F = −G 2
μˆ = +G 2 μˆ (71) 300Kand 3 ×10−12torr.Then ρair = 4.94×10−15kg.m−3
r r
and σair ≅1×10 S.m . Thus, for f = 60 Hz and
−14 −1
Note that these forces are real and
repulsive. B ≅ 0.7T the Eq. (56) gives
Now consider a gravitational
mg (air)
imaginary mass, mg (ima) = img , not associated χ air = = ⎧⎨1− 2⎡ 1+ 5B 4 −1⎤⎫⎬ ≅ −10−2 (73)
mi(air) ⎩ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦⎭
with matter (like the gravitational imaginary
mass associated to the photons) and For χ air ≅ 10 −2 the gravitational shielding
another gravitational imaginary mass presented in Fig.18(c) will reduce any value
M g (ima ) = iM g associated to a material of g to χ air 5
g ≅ 10 −10 g . This will be
body. sufficiently to reduce strongly the
Any material body has an imaginary gravitational effects proceeding from both
mass associated to it, due to the existence sides of the gravitational shielding.
of imaginary masses associated to the Another important consequence of the
electrons. We will choose a quartz crystal correlation between gravitational mass and
(for the material body with gravitational inertial mass expressed by Eq. (1) is the
imaginary mass M g (ima ) = iM g ) because possibility of building Energy Shieldings
quartz crystals are widely used to detect around objects in order to protect them from
forces (piezoelectric effect). high-energy particles and ultra-intense fluxes
By using GCCs as shown in Fig. 18(b) of radiation.
and Fig.18(c), we can increase the In order to explain that possibility, we
r start from the new expression [1] for the
gravitational acceleration, a , produced by
momentum q of a particle with gravitational
the imaginary mass im g upon the crystals.
mass M g and velocity V , which is given by
Then it becomes
mg q = M gV (74)
a = − χ air
3
G (72 )
r2 where Mg = mg 1−V 2 c2 and mg = χ mi [1].
As we have seen, the value of χ air can be Thus, we can write
increased up to χ air ≅ −10 (See Eq.57).
9
mg χ mi
Note that in this case, the gravitational
= (75)
1−V 2 c2 1−V 2 c2
forces become attractive. In addition, if m g
is not small, the gravitational forces between Therefore, we get
the imaginary body of mass im g and the M g = χM i (76 )
crystals can become sufficiently intense to It is known from the Relativistic Mechanics
be easily detectable. that
Due to the piezoelectric effect, the
gravitational force acting on the crystal will
UV
q= 2 (77 )
c
produce a voltage proportional to its
where U is the total energy of the particle.
intensity. Then consider a board with
hundreds micro-crystals behind a set of This expression is valid for any velocity V of
GCCs, as shown in Fig.18(c). By amplifying the particle, including V = c .
the voltages generated in each micro-crystal By comparing Eq. (77) with Eq. (74)
and sending to an appropriated data we obtain
acquisition system, it will be thus possible to
109
20
U = M gc 2
(78) our ordinary space-time. It goes to the
Imaginary Universe. On the other hand,
It is a well-known experimental fact that
when the gravitational mass of the particle
M i c 2 = hf (79) becomes greater than + 0.159 M i , or less
Therefore, by substituting Eq. (79) and Eq.
(76) into Eq. (74), gives than − 0.159M i , i.e., when χ > 0.159 , the
particle return to our Universe.
q=
V h
χ (80) Figure 19 (a) clarifies the
c λ
phenomenon of reduction of the momentum
Note that this expression is valid for any
for χ > 0.159 , and Figure 19 (b) shows the
velocity V of the particle. In the particular
case of V = c , it reduces to effect in the case of χ < 0.159 . In this case,
the particles become imaginary and
q=χ
h
(81) consequently, they go to the imaginary
λ space-time when they penetrate the electric
field E . However, the electric field E stays
By comparing Eq. (80) with Eq. (77), we
at the real space-time. Consequently, the
obtain
particles return immediately to the real
U = χhf (82) space-time in order to return soon after to
the imaginary space-time, due to the action
Note that only for χ = 1 the Eq. (81) and Eq. of the electric field E . Since the particles are
(82) are reduced to the well=known moving at a direction, they appear and
expressions of DeBroglie (q = h λ ) and disappear while they are crossing the region,
Einstein (U = hf ) . up to collide with the plate (See Fig.19) with
⎛V ⎞ h
Equations (80) and (82) show for a momentum, q m = χ ⎜ ⎟ , in the case
example, that any real particle (material ⎝ c ⎠λ
particles, real photons, etc) that penetrates a h
region (with density ρ and electrical of the material particle, and q r = χ in the
λ
conductivity σ ), where there is an ELF case of the photon. Note that by
electric field E , will have its momentum q making χ ≅ 0 , it is possible to block high-
and its energy U reduced by the factor χ , energy particles and ultra-intense fluxes of
given by radiation. These Energy Shieldings can be
⎧ ⎡ 3 ⎤⎫ built around objects in order to protect them
m ⎪ μ ⎛ σ ⎞ E4 ⎥ ⎪
χ = g = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 2 −1 ⎬ (83) from such particles and radiation.
mi ⎪ ⎢ 4c ⎝ 4πf ⎠ ρ ⎥⎪ It is also important to note that the
⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭
gravity control process described here points
The remaining amount of momentum to the possibility of obtaining Controlled
and energy, respectively given by Nuclear Fusion by means of increasing of
(1 − χ ) ⎛⎜ V ⎞⎟ h and (1 − χ ) hf , are
the intensity of the gravitational interaction
⎝ c ⎠λ between the nuclei. When the gravitational
transferred to the imaginary particle forces FG = Gmgm′g r2 become greater than
associated to the real particle § (material
particles or real photons) that penetrated the the electrical forces FE = qq ′ 4πε 0 r 2
mentioned region. between the nuclei, then nuclear fusion
It was previously shown that, when the reactions can occur.
gravitational mass of a particle is reduced to Note that, according to Eq. (83), the
ranging between + 0.159 M i to − 0.159M i , gravitational mass can be strongly
increased. Thus, if E = E m sin ωt , then the
i.e., when χ < 0.159 , it becomes imaginary
[1], i.e., the gravitational and the inertial average value for E 2 is equal to 1
2 E m2 ,
masses of the particle become imaginary. because E varies sinusoidaly ( E m is the
Consequently, the particle disappears from
maximum value for E ). On the other hand,
§
As previously shown, there are imaginary particles
Erms = Em 2 . Consequently, we can replace
associated to each real particle [1].

110
21
4
E for E . In addition, as j = σE (Ohm's
4 with 10μm -diameter, it is necessary that
rms
vectorial Law), then Eq. (83) can be rewritten the current through the wire, i rms , have the
as follows following intensity
mg ⎧⎪ ⎡ μ j4 ⎤⎫

χ= = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + K r 2rms3 − 1⎥ ⎬ (84) irms > 4.24 k A
mi 0 ⎪ ⎢ σρ f ⎥⎪
⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭
Obviously, this current will explode the
where K = 1.758× 10−27 and j rms = j 2 . carbon wire. However, this explosion
Thus, the gravitational force equation becomes negligible in comparison with the
can be expressed by very strong gravitational implosion, which
occurs simultaneously due to the enormous
FG = Gmgm′g r2 = χ2Gmi0mi′0 r2 = increase in intensities of the gravitational
forces among the carbon nuclei produced by
2
⎧ ⎡ μ j4 ⎤⎫⎪ means of the ELF current through the

= ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ K r 2rms3 −1⎥⎬ Gmi0mi′0 r2 (85) carbon wire as predicted by Eq. (85). Since,
⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ σρ f ⎥⎪
⎦⎭ in this case, the gravitational forces among
the carbon nuclei become greater than the
repulsive electric forces among them the
In order to obtain FG > FE we must have
result is the production of 12C + 12C fusion
⎧ ⎡ μr jrms
4 ⎤⎫ qq′ 4πε0 reactions.
⎪ ⎢ ⎪
⎨1− 2 1+ K 2 3 −1⎥⎬ > (86) Similar reactions can occur by using a
⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ σρ f ⎥⎪ Gmi0 mi′0
⎦⎭ lithium wire. In addition, it is important to
The carbon fusion is a set of nuclear note that j rms is directly proportional
fusion reactions that take place in massive 3

stars (at least 8M sun at birth). It requires high to f 4 (Eq. 87). Thus, for example,
−8
temperatures ( > 5×108 K ) and densities if f = 10 Hz , the current necessary to
produce the nuclear reactions will be
( > 3 × 10 9 kg .m −3 ). The principal reactions are:
23 i rms = 130 A .
Na + p + 2.24 MeV
12
C + 12C → 20
Ne + α + 4.62 MeV IV.CONCLUSION
24
Mg + γ +13.93 MeV The process described here is clearly
In the case of Carbon nuclei ( C) of a thin 12 the better way in order to control the gravity.
This is because the Gravity Control Cell in
carbon wire ( σ ≅ 4 ×104 S.m−1 ; ρ = 2.2 ×103 S.m−1 ) this case is very easy to be built, the cost is
Eq. (86) becomes low and it works at ambient temperature.
⎧ ⎡ 4 ⎤⎫⎪ e2 The Gravity Control is the starting point for
⎪ ⎢ −39 jrms
⎥⎬ >
⎨1− 2 1+ 9.08×10 −1 the generation of and detection of Virtual
⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ f 3 ⎥⎪ 16πε0Gm2p
⎦⎭ Gravitational Radiation (Quantum
whence we conclude that the condition for Gravitational Transceiver) also for the
the 12C + 12C fusion reactions occur is construction of the Gravitational Motor and
3 the Gravitational Spacecraft which includes
jrms > 1.7 ×1018 f 4 (87) the system for generation of artificial gravity
If the electric current through the carbon wire presented in Fig.10 and the Gravitational
has Extremely-Low Frequency (ELF), for Thruster (Fig.11). While the Gravitational
example, if f = 1μHz , then the current Transceiver leads to a new concept in
Telecommunication, the Gravitational Motor
density, j rms , must have the following value:
changes the paradigm of energy conversion
jrms > 5.4 ×1013 A.m−2 (88) and the Gravitational Spacecraft points to a
Since j rms = i rms S where S = πφ 2 4 is the new concept in aerospace flight.
area of the cross section of the wire, we can
conclude that, for an ultra-thin carbon wire

111
22

Fixed pulley g1=-g


g g
g1≅ 0

Inside the dotted box the gravity


g1=g acceleration can become different of g
Low-pressure Hg Plasma mg (Hg plasma )
(ρ ≅ 6×10-5Kg.m-3, σ ≅ 3.4 S.m-1@ 6×10-3Torr) g1 = χ Hg plasma g = g
mi (Hg plasma )

ELF Voltage Source


(0 – 1.5V, 1mHz – 0.1mHz)

20W T-12 Fluorescent Lamp lit


(F20T12/C50/ECO GE, Ecolux® T12)
EELF
Metallic Plate

Extra Low-Frequency Electric Field 220V, 60 Hz


(1mHz – 0.1mHz)

Fig. 1 – Gravitational Shielding Effect by means of an ELF electric field through


low- pressure Hg Plasma.

112
23

Inside the dotted box the gravity


acceleration above the second lamp
becomes
g 2 = χ 2 Hg plasma g1 =
= χ 2 Hg plasma (χ 1Hg plasma g )
g

g
2 g2

1 χ 2 Hg plasma
fELF(2)

g1
χ1Hg plasma
fELF(1)

Fig. 2 – Gravity acceleration above a second fluorescent lamp.

113
24

mg (Hg )
g1 =
plasma
g
mi (Hg plasma )

Electrodes
Low-density plasma ~ ELF Voltage Source
Electrodes

(a)
mg (Hg )
g1 =
plasma
g
mi (Hg plasma )

Low-density plasma RF Signal RF


Transmitter

g ~
ELF Voltage Source
(b)

Radioactive ions sources


(Americium 241)
φ

d • Air @ 1 atm, 25°C • ~ V, f

Insulating holder Epoxy Ionization chamber


Aluminium, 1mm-thickness

(c)

Fig. 3 – Schematic diagram of Gravity Control Cells (GCCs).


(a) GCC where the ELF electric field and the ionizing electric field can be the same. (b) GCC
where the plasma is ionized by means of a RF signal. (c) GCC filled with air (at ambient
temperature and 1 atm) strongly ionized by means of alpha particles emitted from radioactive
ions sources (Am 241, half-life 432 years). Since the electrical conductivity of the ionized air
depends on the amount of ions then it can be strongly increased by increasing the amount of Am
241 in the GCC. This GCC has 36 radioactive ions sources each one with 1/5000th of gram of
Am 241, conveniently positioned around the ionization chamber, in order to
obtain σ air ≅ 10 3 S.m −1 .

114
25

Gravitational Shielding
Spacecraft

a Mg

g’ = χair g

Erms (low frequency)


χair

g = G mg / r2

mg

The gravity accelerations on the spacecraft (due to the rest of the Universe) can be controlled by
means of the gravitational shielding, i.e.,
g’i = χair gi i = 1, 2, 3 … n
Thus,
Fis= Fsi = Mg g’i = Mg (χair gi)
Then the inertial forces acting on the spacecraft (s) can be strongly reduced. According to the Mach’s
principle this effect can reduce the inertial properties of the spacecraft and consequently, leads to a new
concept of spacecraft and aerospace flight.

Fig. 4 – Gravitational Shielding surround a Spherical Spacecraft.

115
26

V = V0 t = T /4 EELF (1) fELF (1) g1 / g EELF (2) fELF (2) g2 / g


(Volts) (s) ( min) (V/m) (mHz) Exp. Teo. (V/m) (mHz) Exp. Teo.
250 4.17 24.81 1 - 0.993 24.81 1 - 0.986
312.5 5.21 24.81 0.8 - 0.986 24.81 0.8 - 0.972
1.0 V 416.6 6.94 24.81 0.6 - 0.967 24.81 0.6 - 0.935
625 10.42 24.81 0.4 - 0.890 24.81 0.4 - 0.792
1250 20.83 24.81 0.2 - 0.240 24.81 0.2 - 0.058
250 4.17 37.22 1 - 0.964 37.22 1 - 0.929
312.5 5.21 37.22 0.8 - 0.930 37.22 0.8 - 0.865
1.5V 416.6 6.94 37.22 0.6 - 0.837 37.22 0.6 - 0.700
625 10.42 37.22 0.4 - 0,492 37.22 0.4 - 0.242
1250 20.83 37.22 0.2 - -1,724 37.22 0.2 - 2.972

Table 1 – Theoretical Results.

116
27

f ELF (mHz)
1,0 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1
3

g1/g 1

g1/g

1.0V

g1/g
-1
1.5V

-2

Fig. 5- Distribution of the correlation g1/ g as a function of f ELF

117
28

f ELF (mHz)
1,0 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1
3
g2/g
1.5V

g2/g 1

g2/g 1.0V

-1

-2

Fig. 6- Distribution of the correlation g2 / g as a function of f ELF

118
29

f ELF (mHz)
1,0 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1
3
g2/g

1.5V

gi/g 1

g1/g

1.5V
-1

-2

Fig. 7- Distribution of the correlations gi / g as a function of f ELF

119
30

Inductor
Air at ultra-low pressure
Steel Box

g ′′′ ( For B < 300T χ steel ≅ 1 then g ′′′ ≅ g ′′ )

g ′′′ = χ steel g ′′ = (χ steel ) χ air g


2

g ′′ = χ air g ′

g ′ = χ steel g

(a)

g 3 = χ 3 χ 2 χ1 g
χ3 GCC 3

g 2 = χ 2 χ1 g
Steel Boxes χ2 GCC 2

g1 = χ 1 g
χ1 GCC 1

(b)

Fig. 8 – (a) Gravity Control Cell (GCC) filled with air at ultra-low pressure.
(b) Gravity Control Battery (Note that if χ1 = χ 2−1 = −1 then g ′′ = g )

120
31

g’’= g
Gravity Control Cell
(Steel box)

R
g’
r
Massive Rotor
r
g

Gravity Control Cell


(Steel box)

g ′ = (χ steel ) χ air g and g ′′ = (χ steel )4 (χ air )2 g


Note that 2 therefore for

χ steel ≅ 1 and χ air (1) = χ air


−1
(2 ) = − n we get
g ′ ≅ − ng and g ′′ = g

Fig. 9 – The Gravitational Motor

121
32

Dielectric Gravity Control Cell- GCC


Aluminum Shell Superconducting
Shell

Superconducting
Ring

FM
Mg

Superconducting mg
Box Fm

μ̂

Fig. 10 – The Gravitational Spacecraft – Due to the Meissner effect, the magnetic field
B is expelled from the superconducting shell. Similarly, the magnetic field BGCC, of the
GCC stay confined inside the superconducting box.

122
33

Gas

Mg mg a μ
gas
GCC GCC GCC
FM Fm

Gas

Material boxes
(a)

g’’’= χair 3 g’’= χair 3 χair 2 χair 1 g

σ3 <σ2 (χair 3)

g ’’ = χair 2 g ’ = χair 2 χair 1 g


σ2 <σ1 (χair 2)
g ’= χair 1 g
σ1 (χair 1)

Am - 241
g

(b)

Fig. 11 – The Gravitational Thruster .


(a) Using material boxes. (b) Without material boxes

123
34

Gas Helix
HIGH

GCC GCC GCC SPEED Motor axis

GAS
Gas

Fig. 12 - The Gravitational Turbo Motor – The gravitationally accelerated gas, by


means of the GCCs, propels the helix which movies the motor axis.

124
35

Eosc

dmg2

dF12 r
dF21
Air Layer 1 Air Layer 2
dmg1

Spacecraft

Fig. 13 – Gravitational forces between two layers of the “air shell”. The electric field Eosc
provides the ionization of the air.

125
36

Eosc

Spacecraft

μ̂

r
( )
g ′ = χ air gμˆ ≅ + 0.98m.s −2 μˆ

χair

Eosc

Fig. 14 – The Gravitational Lifter

126
37

φinn

m2 H
Sτ B g 2 ≅ −1.4 × 10 6 m .s −2

Chamber 1 Air 0.20


−2
g m1 g1 ≅ +3 × 10 m .s
3 g
0.20
Chamber 2 Air 0.20

m g = −9.81m .s −2 H

S
P=R/S

Fig. 15 – Gravitational Press

127
38

Graviphotons
v=∞
GCC

Coil
i Real Gravitational Waves
v=c
f

(a) GCC Antenna

GCC GCC

Graviphotons
v=∞

i i

f f

Transmitter (b) Receiver

Fig. 16 - Transmitter and Receiver of Virtual Gravitational Radiation.

128
39

103atoms

Dielectric 102atoms

103atoms

f Graviphotons f
v=∞

Dielectric
(108 atoms)

Transmitter Receiver

(a)

Conductor Conductor

Microantenna

(b)
Fig. 17 – Quantum Gravitational Microantenna

129
40

(iM )(im ) M g mg
F = −G = +G
g g
v
2
r r2
Crystal

F F

iMg Mg = Mi
Imaginary body
img (Mi = inertial mass)
(a)

Crystal

F GCC GCC GCC F =Mg a ≅Mi a

iMg a = - (χair )3Gmg / r2


Imaginary body
img
χair → -109
(b)

g χair g χair2g χair3g χair4 g χair5 g χair5 g A


M
P Data
L
GCC GCC GCC GCC GCC GCC GCC GCC Y
Acquisition
F System
I
Imaginary body
E
χair5g’ χair5g’ χair4g’ χair3g’ χair2g’ χair g’ g’ img R

χair ≅ 10-2
micro-crystals
⏐ Gravitational Shielding ⏐

Display
(c)

Fig.18 – Method and device using GCCs for obtaining images of imaginary bodies.

130
41
χ > 0.159

⎛V ⎞ h ⎛V ⎞h
qm = χ ⎜ ⎟ qm ≅ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ c ⎠λ ⎝c ⎠λ
material particle
imaginary particle
⎛V ⎞ h associated to the
qi = [1 − χ ] ⎜ ⎟ q i = 0*
material particle
⎝ c ⎠λ
E, f ρ,σ
h h
qr = χ qr ≅
λ λ
real photon

imaginary photon
associated to the
q i = [1 − χ ]
h qi = 0 real photon
λ
(a)
* There are a type of neutrino, called "ghost” neutrino, predicted by General Relativity, with zero mass
and zero momentum. In spite its momentum be zero, it is known that there are wave functions that
describe these neutrinos and that prove that really they exist.
χ < 0.159

⎛V ⎞ h ⎛V ⎞ h
qm = χ ⎜ ⎟ qm ≅ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ c ⎠λ ⎝ c ⎠λ
material particle
imaginary particle
⎛V ⎞ h qi = 0 associated to the
qi = [1 − χ ] ⎜ ⎟
⎝ c ⎠λ material particle
E, f ρ,σ
h h
qr = χ qr ≅
λ λ
real photon

imaginary photon
associated to the
q i = [1 − χ ]
h qi = 0 real photon
λ
(b)
Fig. 19 – The phenomenon of reduction of the momentum. (a) Shows the reduction of
momentum for χ > 0.159 . (b) Shows the effect when χ < 0.159 . Note that in both cases, the
material particles collide with the cowl with the momentum q m = χ (V c )(h λ ) , and the
h
photons with q r = χ . Therefore, that by making χ ≅ 0 , it is possible to block high-energy
λ
particles and ultra-intense fluxes of radiation.

131
42

APPENDIX A: THE SIMPLEST METHOD TO CONTROL THE GRAVITY

In this Appendix we show the simplest


method to control the gravity.
Consider a body with mass density ρ and
i0
the following electric characteristics: μ r , ε r , σ
(relative permeability, relative permittivity and
electric conductivity, respectively). Through this
body, passes an electric current I , which is the
IDC
sum of a sinusoidal current iosc = i0 sin ωt and
the DC current I DC , i.e., I = I DC + i0 sin ωt
; ω = 2πf . If i0 << I DC then I ≅ I DC . Thus, the I = IDC + iosc
current I varies with the frequency f , but the
variation of its intensity is quite small in
comparison with I DC , i.e., I will be practically
constant (Fig. 1A). This is of fundamental
importance for maintaining the value of the
gravitational mass of the body, m g , sufficiently
stable during all the time. t
The gravitational mass of the body is given
by [1]
Fig. A1 - The electric current I varies with
⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫
⎪ ⎢ ⎛ nrU ⎞ ⎥⎪ frequency f . But the variation of I is quite small
mg = ⎨1− 2 1+

⎜ ⎟ −1 m
⎜ m c2 ⎟ ⎥⎬ i0
( A1) in comparison with I DC due to io << I DC . In this
⎪ ⎢ ⎝ i0 ⎠ ⎥⎪
⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ way, we can consider I ≅ I DC .

It is known that B = μH , E B = ω k r [11] and


where U , is the electromagnetic energy
dz ω
absorbed by the body and nr is the index of v= = =
c
( A4)
dt κ r ε r μr ⎛
⎜ 1 + (σ ωε ) + 1⎞⎟
refraction of the body. 2
Equation (A1) can also be rewritten in the 2 ⎝ ⎠
following form
where kr is the real part of the propagation
r
⎧ ⎡ ⎛ nrW ⎞
2 ⎤⎫ vector k (also called phase constant );
⎪ ⎟ − 1⎥ ⎪⎬
mg ⎢ r
= ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜
⎢ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎥
( A2 ) k = k = k r + iki ; ε , μ and σ, are the
mi 0 ⎪

⎣ ⎝ρ c ⎠ ⎪
⎦⎥ ⎭
⎩ electromagnetic characteristics of the medium in
which the incident (or emitted) radiation is
propagating( ε = εrε0 ; ε 0 = 8.854 ×10 F / m
−12
where, W =U V is the density of
electromagnetic energy and ρ = mi 0 V is the ;μ = μr μ0 where μ0 = 4π ×10−7 H / m ). It is
density of inertial mass. known that for free-space
The instantaneous values of the density of σ = 0 and ε r = μ r = 1 . Then Eq. (A4) gives
electromagnetic energy in an electromagnetic
field can be deduced from Maxwell’s equations v=c
and has the following expression From (A4), we see that the index of refraction
nr = c v is given by
W = 12 ε E 2 + 12 μH 2 ( A3)
ε μ
nr = = r r ⎛⎜ 1 + (σ ωε ) + 1⎞⎟ ( A5)
c 2
where E = E m sin ωt and H = H sin ωt are the
v 2 ⎝ ⎠
instantaneous values of the electric field and the
magnetic field respectively.

132
43
that ω κr = v. ⎧ ⎡ ⎫
⎞ E 4 ⎤⎥⎪
Equation (A4) shows 3
⎪ μ ⎛σ
Thus, E B = ω k r = v , i.e., mg = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 2 − 1 ⎬mi0 =
⎪⎩ ⎢ 4c ⎝ 4πf ⎠ ρ ⎥⎪
E = vB = vμH ( A6) ⎣ ⎦⎭
Then, Eq. (A3) can be rewritten in the following ⎧ ⎡ ⎛ μ0 ⎞⎛ μrσ ⎞ 4 ⎤⎫⎪

3
form:
= ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1+ ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟E − 1⎥⎬mi0 =
( )
W = 12 ε v2μ μH2 + 12 μH2 ( A7) ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣
3 2 ⎜ 2 3⎟
⎝ 256π c ⎠⎝ ρ f ⎠ ⎥⎦⎪

For σ << ωε , Eq. (A4) reduces to
⎧ ⎡ ⎛ μ σ3 ⎞ ⎤⎫⎪

c = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 1.758×10−27 ⎜⎜ r2 3 ⎟⎟E 4 − 1⎥⎬mi0
v= ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ ⎝ρ f ⎠ ⎥⎦⎪

ε r μr
( A14)
Then, Eq. (A7) gives Note that E = E m sin ωt .The average value for

⎡ ⎛ c2 ⎞ ⎤ 2 1 E 2 is equal to 1 2 E m2 because E varies


W = 12 ⎢ε ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟μ⎥μH + 2 μH 2 = μH 2 sinusoidaly ( E m is the maximum value for E ).
⎣ ⎝ ε r μr ⎠ ⎦
On the other hand, Erms = Em 2 . Consequently,
This equation can be rewritten in the following
forms:
we can change E 4 by E rms
4
, and the equation
above can be rewritten as follows
B2
W= ( A8) ⎧ ⎡ ⎛ μ σ3 ⎞ 4 ⎤⎫⎪
μ ⎪
mg = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 1.758×10−27 ⎜⎜ r2 3 ⎟⎟Erms − 1⎥⎬mi0
or
⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ ⎝ρ f ⎠ ⎥⎦⎪

W =ε E2 ( A9 )
Substitution of the well-known equation of the
Ohm's vectorial Law: j = σE into (A14), we get
For σ >> ωε , Eq. (A4) gives
⎧⎪ ⎡ μ j4 ⎤⎫⎪

v= ( A10) mg = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 +1.758×10−27 r 2 rms3 −1⎥⎬mi0 ( A15)
μσ ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ σρ f ⎥⎦⎪⎭
Then, from Eq. (A7) we get
where j rms = j 2 .
⎡ ⎛ 2ω ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ ωε ⎞ Consider a 15 cm square Aluminum thin
W = 12 ⎢ε ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟μ⎥μH2 + 12 μH2 = ⎜ ⎟μH2 + 12 μH2 ≅ foil of 10.5 microns thickness with the following
⎣ ⎝ μσ ⎠ ⎦ ⎝σ ⎠ characteristics: μr =1 ; σ = 3.82×107 S.m−1 ;
≅ 12 μH2 ( A11) ρ = 2700 Kg .m −3 . Then, (A15) gives
Since E = vB = vμH , we can rewrite (A11) in
⎧⎪ ⎡ j4 ⎤⎫⎪
mg = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 6.313×10−42 rms − 1⎥⎬mi0 ( A16)
⎢ ⎥⎦⎪⎭
the following forms: 3
⎪⎩ ⎣ f
B2
W ≅ ( A12 ) Now, consider that the ELF electric
2μ current I = I DC + i 0 sin ω t , (i0 << I DC )
or
passes through that Aluminum foil. Then, the
⎛ σ ⎞ 2
W ≅⎜ ⎟E ( A13 ) current density is
⎝ 4ω ⎠ I rms I DC
By comparing equations (A8) (A9) (A12) and jrms = ≅ ( A17)
(A13), we can see that Eq. (A13) shows that the
S S
where
best way to obtain a strong value of W in
S = 0.15m(10.5 × 10 −6 m) = 1.57 × 10 −6 m 2
practice is by applying an Extra Low-Frequency
(
(ELF) electric field w = 2πf << 1Hz through a )
medium with high electrical conductivity. If the ELF electric current has
Substitution of Eq. (A13) into Eq. (A2),
frequency f = 2μHz = 2 × 10 Hz ,
−6
gives then, the
gravitational mass of the aluminum foil, given by
(A16), is expressed by

133
44
⎧⎪ ⎡ I4 ⎤ ⎫⎪ known Function Generator HP3325A (Op.002
m g = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 7.89 × 10 − 25 DC4 − 1⎥ ⎬mi 0 = High Voltage Output) that can generate
⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭ sinusoidal voltages with extremely-low
⎪⎩ S
f = 1 × 10 −6 Hz and
{ [ ]}
frequencies down to
= 1 − 2 1 + 0.13I DC
4
− 1 mi 0 ( A18) amplitude up to 20V (40Vpp into 500Ω load). The
Then, maximum output current is 0.08 App ; output

χ=
mg
mi0
{ [
≅ 1−2 1+ 0.13I DC
4
−1 ]} ( A19) impedance <2Ω at ELF.
Figure A4 shows the equivalent electric
circuit for the experimental set-up. The
For I DC = 2.2 A , the equation above gives electromotive forces are: ε1 (HP3325A) and ε 2
⎛ mg ⎞
( A 20 )
(12V DC Battery).The values of the resistors are
χ = ⎜⎜ ⎟ ≅ −1
⎟ : R1 = 500Ω − 2W ; ri1 < 2Ω ; R2 = 4Ω − 40W ;
⎝ i0 ⎠
m
This means that the gravitational shielding ri 2 < 0.1Ω ; R p = 2 .5 × 10 −3 Ω ; Rheostat (0≤
produced by the aluminum foil can change the R ≤10Ω - 90W). The coupling transformer has the
gravity acceleration above the foil down to following characteristics: air core with diameter
g ′ = χ g ≅ −1g ( A21) φ = 10 mm ; area S = πφ 2 4 = 7.8 × 10 −5 m 2 ;
Under these conditions, the Aluminum foil works
basically as a Gravity Control Cell (GCC). wire#12AWG; N1 = N2 = N = 20; l = 42mm;
In order to check these theoretical L1 = L2 = L = μ0 N (S l ) = 9.3 ×10 H .Thus, we
2 −7

predictions, we suggest an experimental set-up


get
shown in Fig.A2.
A 15cm square Aluminum foil of 10.5 Z1 = (R1 + ri1 )2 + (ωL )2 ≅ 501Ω
microns thickness with the following composition:
and
Al 98.02%; Fe 0.80%; Si 0.70%; Mn 0.10%; Cu
0.10%; Zn 0.10%; Ti 0.08%; Mg 0.05%; Cr Z2 = (R 2 + ri 2 + R p + R ) + (ωL )
2 2

0.05%, and with the following characteristics:


μr =1; σ = 3.82×107 S.m−1 ; ρ = 2700Kg.m−3 ,is For R = 0 we get Z 2 = Z 2min ≅ 4Ω ; for
**
fixed on a 17 cm square Foam Board plate of R = 10Ω the result is Z 2 = Z 2max ≅ 14Ω . Thus,
6mm thickness as shown in Fig.A3. This device 2
⎛ N1 ⎞
(the simplest Gravity Control Cell GCC) is placed
Z min
1,total = Z1 + Z min
1, reflected = Z1 + Z min
2
⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ≅ 505Ω
on a pan balance shown in Fig.A2.
Above the Aluminum foil, a sample (any
⎝ N2 ⎠
2
type of material, any mass) connected to a ⎛ N1 ⎞
dynamometer will check the decrease of the local Z max
1,total = Z1 + Z max
1, reflected = Z1 + Z max
2
⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ≅ 515Ω
gravity acceleration upon the sample ⎝ N2 ⎠
(g ′ = χ g ) ,due to the gravitational shielding The maxima
following values:
rms currents have the
produced by the decreasing of gravitational mass
( )
of the Aluminum foil χ = m g mi 0 . Initially, the I 1max = 1
2 ,total = 56mA
40V pp Z1min
sample lies 5 cm above the Aluminum foil. As (The maximum output current of the Function
shown in Fig.A2, the board with the dynamometer Generator HP3325A (Op.002 High Voltage
can be displaced up to few meters in height. Output) is 80mApp ≅ 56.5mArms);
Thus, the initial distance between the Aluminum
ε2
foil and the sample can be increased in order to I 2max = = 3A
check the reach of the gravitational shielding Z 2min
produced by the Aluminum foil.
and
In order to generate the ELF electric
current of f = 2 μHz , we can use the widely- I 3max = I 2max + I1max ≅ 3A

The new expression for the inertial forces,


**
Foam board is a very strong, lightweight (density: r r
24.03 kg.m-3) and easily cut material used for the (Eq.5) Fi = M g a , shows that the inertial forces
mounting of photographic prints, as backing in picture are proportional to gravitational mass. Only in the
framing, in 3D design, and in painting. It consists of particular case of m g = m i 0 , the expression
three layers — an inner layer of polystyrene clad with
outer facing of either white clay coated paper or brown above reduces to the well-known Newtonian
r r
Kraft paper. expression Fi = m i 0 a . The equivalence

134
45
( )
r r
between gravitational and inertial forces Fi ≡ Fg ⎧⎪ ⎡ j4 ⎤⎫⎪
[1] shows then that a balance measures the mg = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ 6.313×10−42 rms −1⎥⎬mi0 =
⎢ ⎥⎦⎪⎭
3
gravitational mass subjected to ⎪⎩ ⎣ f
acceleration a = g . Here, the decrease in the
⎧⎪ ⎡ I4 ⎤⎫⎪
gravitational mass of the Aluminum foil will be
measured by a pan balance with the following
= ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ 7.89×10−25 DC4 −1⎥⎬mi0 =
characteristics: range 0-200g; readability 0.01g. ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ S ⎥⎦⎪⎭
The mass of the Foam Board plate is:
≅ 4.17 g , the mass of the Aluminum foil is: { [
= 1− 2 1+ 0.13I DC
4
]}
−1 mi0 ( A22)
≅ 0.64 g , the total mass of the ends and the
For I DC ≅ 3 A the equation above gives
electric wires of connection is ≅ 5 g . Thus,
initially the balance will show ≅ 9.81g .
m g ≅ − 3 .8 m i 0
According to (A18), when the electric current
through the Aluminum foil
Note that we can replace the Aluminum foil for
(resistance rp
*
= l σS = 2.5 ×10−3 Ω ) reaches the this wire in the experimental set-up shown in
value: I 3 ≅ 2.2 A , we will get m g ( Al ) ≅ − mi 0 ( Al ) . Fig.A2. It is important also to note that an ELF
electric current that passes through a wire - which
Under these circumstances, the balance will makes a spherical form, as shown in Fig A5 -
show: reduces the gravitational mass of the wire (Eq.
9.81g − 0.64 g − 0.64 g ≅ 8.53g A22), and the gravity inside sphere at the same
and the gravity acceleration g ′ above the proportion, χ =mg mi0 , (Gravitational Shielding
Aluminum foil, becomes g ′ = χ g ≅ −1g . Effect). In this case, that effect can be checked
It was shown [1] that, when the by means of the Experimental set-up 2 (Fig.A6).
gravitational mass of a particle is reduced to the Note that the spherical form can be transformed
into an ellipsoidal form or a disc in order to coat,
gravitational mass ranging between + 0.159 M i for example, a Gravitational Spacecraft. It is also
to − 0.159M i , it becomes imaginary, i.e., the possible to coat with a wire several forms, such
as cylinders, cones, cubes, etc.
gravitational and the inertial masses of the
The circuit shown in Fig.A4 (a) can be
particle become imaginary. Consequently, the
modified in order to produce a new type of
particle disappears from our ordinary space-time.
Gravitational Shielding, as shown in Fig.A4 (b).
This phenomenon can be observed in the
In this case, the Gravitational Shielding will be
proposed experiment, i.e., the Aluminum foil will
produced in the Aluminum plate, with thickness
disappear when its gravitational mass becomes
h , of the parallel plate capacitor connected in the
smaller than + 0.159 M i . It will become visible point P of the circuit (See Fig.A4 (b)). Note that,
again, only when its gravitational mass becomes in this circuit, the Aluminum foil (resistance R p )
smaller than − 0.159M i , or when it becomes (Fig.A4(a)) has been replaced by a Copper wire #
greater than + 0.159M i . 14 AWG with 1cm length ( l = 1cm ) in order to
Equation (A18) shows that the gravitational produce a resistance Rφ = 5.21 × 10 −5 Ω . Thus,
mass of the Aluminum foil, mg ( Al ) , goes close to the voltage in the point P of the circuit will have
zero when I 3 ≅ 1.76 A . Consequently, the the maximum value V pmax = 1.1 × 10 −4 V when
gravity acceleration above the Aluminum foil also the resistance of the rheostat is null (R = 0 ) and
goes close to zero since
g ′ = χ g = m g ( Al ) mi 0 ( Al ) . Under these the minimum value V pmin = 4.03 × 10 −5 V when

circumstances, the Aluminum foil remains R = 10Ω . In this way, the voltage V p (with
invisible. frequency f = 2 μHz ) applied on the capacitor
Now consider a rigid Aluminum wire # 14
AWG. The area of its cross section is will produce an electric field E p with intensity

S = π (1.628 × 10 −3 m ) 4 = 2.08 × 10 −6 m 2 E p = V p h through the Aluminum plate of


2

If an ELF electric current with thickness h = 3mm . It is important to note that this
frequency f = 2μHz = 2 × 10 Hz passes through
−6 plate cannot be connected to ground (earth), in
other words, cannot be grounded, because, in
this wire, its gravitational mass, given by (A16),
will be expressed by

135
46
this case, the electric field through it will be null
††
insulation layer with relative permittivity εr
.
According to Eq. A14, when and dielectric strength k . A voltage source is
connected to the Aluminum foil in order to provide
p =Vp
Emax max
h = 0.036 V / m, f = 2μHz and
a voltage V0 (rms) with frequency f . Thus, the
σ Al = 3 . 82 × 10 7 S / m , ρ Al = 2700kg / m3 electric potential V at a distance r , in the
(Aluminum), we get interval from r0 to a , is given by
m ( Al )
χ = ≅ − 0 .9
m i ( Al ) V=
1 q
( A23)
4πε r ε 0 r
Under these conditions, the maximum current
density through the plate with thickness h will be In the interval a < r ≤ b the electric potential is

given by j max = σ Al E max


p = 1.4 ×10 A / m (It is
6 2
V =
1 q
( A24 )
4πε 0 r
well-known that the maximum current density
supported by the Aluminum is ≈ 10 A / m ).
8 2 since for the air we have ε r ≅ 1 .
Since the area of the plate is Thus, on the surface of the metallic
spheres (r = r0 ) we get
A= (0.2) = 4×10 m , then the maximum current is
2 −2 2

i max = j max A = 56kA . Despite this enormous V0 =


1 q
( A25)
current, the maximum dissipated power will be 4πε r ε 0 r0
( )
2
just P max = i max R plate = 6.2W , because the
Consequently, the electric field is

E0 =
1 q
( A26)
resistance of the plate is very small, i.e.,
4πε r ε 0 r02
R plate = h σ Al A ≅ 2 × 10−9 Ω . By comparing (A26) with (A25), we obtain
V0
Note that the area A of the plate (where
the Gravitational Shielding takes place) can have E0 = ( A27)
r0
several geometrical configurations. For example,
it can be the area of the external surface of an Vb at r = b is
The electric potential
ellipsoid, sphere, etc. Thus, it can be the area of
1 q ε r V 0 r0
the external surface of a Gravitational Spacecraft. Vb = = ( A28 )
In this case, if A ≅ 100m , for example, the
2 4πε 0 b b
maximum dissipated power will be Consequently, the electric field Eb is given by
Pmax ≅ 15.4kW , i.e., approximately 154W / m 2 . 1 q ε rV0 r0
All of these systems work with Extra-Low Eb = = ( A29)
4πε 0 b 2 b2
( −3
)
Frequencies f <<10 Hz . Now, we show that,
From r = r0 up to r = b = a + d the electric
by simply changing the geometry of the surface
of the Aluminum foil, it is possible to increase the field is approximately constant (See Fig. A7).
working frequency f up to more than 1Hz. Along the distance d it will be called E air . For
Consider the Aluminum foil, now with r > a + d , the electric field stops being constant.
several semi-spheres stamped on its surface, as Thus, the intensity of the electric field at
shown in Fig. A7 . The semi-spheres have r = b = a + d is approximately equal to E0 ,
radius r0 = 0.9 mm , and are joined one to
i.e., Eb ≅ E 0 . Then, we can write that
another. The Aluminum foil is now coated by an
ε rV0 r0 V0
≅ ( A30)
††
When the voltage Vp is applied on the capacitor, the b2 r0
charge distribution in the dielectric induces positive whence we get
and negative charges, respectively on opposite sides of
the Aluminum plate with thickness h. If the plate is not b ≅ r0 ε r ( A31)
connected to the ground (Earth) this charge Since the intensity of the electric field through the
distribution produces an electric field Ep=Vp/h through air, E air , is Eair ≅ Eb ≅ E0 , then, we can write that
the plate. However, if the plate is connected to the
q ε rV0 r0
ground, the negative charges (electrons) escapes for Eair =
1
= 2 ( A32)
the ground and the positive charges are redistributed 4πε0 b 2 b
along the entire surface of the Aluminum plate making
Note that ε r refers to the relative permittivity of
null the electric field through it.

136
47
the insulation layer, which is covering the 1 3

⎛ Eair ⎞ ⎛b⎞
( A39)
2 2
Aluminum foil. σ air = 2α⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
If the intensity of this field is greater than ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝a⎠
the dielectric strength of the air 3 × 10 V / m ( 6
) If the insulation layer has thickness
there will occur the well-known Corona effect. Δ = 0.6 mm , ε r ≅ 3.5 (1- 60Hz),
Here, this effect is necessary in order to increase
the electric conductivity of the air at this region k = 17kV / mm (Acrylic sheet 1.5mm thickness),
(layer with thickness d). Thus, we will assume and the semi-spheres stamped on the metallic
ε rV min
r V min surface have r0 = 0.9 mm (See Fig.A7) then
min
Eair = 0 0
= 0
= 3×106 V / m
b 2
r0 a = r0 + Δ = 1.5 mm. Thus, we obtain from Eq.
and (A33) that
ε rV max
r V max
V0min = 2.7kV
max
Eair = 0 0
= = 1×107 V / m ( A33)
0

b 2
r0 V0max = 9kV ( A40)
The electric field E min
air ≤ E air ≤ E max
air will From equation (A31), we obtain the following
produce an electrons flux in a direction and an value for b :
ions flux in an opposite direction. From the b = r0 ε r = 1.68×10−3 m ( A41)
viewpoint of electric current, the ions flux can be
Since b = a + d we get
considered as an “electrons” flux at the same
direction of the real electrons flux. Thus, the d = 1.8 × 10 −4 m
current density through the air, j air , will be the Substitution of a , b , d and A(32) into (A39)
double of the current density expressed by the produces
1 1
well-known equation of Langmuir-Child
3 3 3
σ air = 4.117×10−4 Eair = 1.375×10−2 V0
2 2

4
j = εrε0
2e V 2
= α
V2
= 2.33×10−6 V
2
( A34) Substitution of σ air , E air (rms ) and
9 me d2 d2 d2 ρ air = 1.2 kg .m −3 into (A14) gives
where ε r ≅ 1 for the air; α = 2.33 × 10 −6
is the
mg(air) ⎧⎪ ⎡ σ 3 E4 ⎤⎫⎪
called Child’s constant. = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+1.758×10−27 air2 air3 −1⎥⎬ =
Thus, we have mi0(air) ⎪ ⎢ ρair f ⎥⎦⎪⎭
3 ⎩ ⎣
V2
jair = 2α 2 ( A35) ⎧⎪ ⎡ 5.5 ⎤⎫⎪
−21 V0
d = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ 4.923×10 − 1⎥⎬ ( A42)
where d , in this case, is the thickness of the air ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ f 3 ⎥⎦⎪

layer where the electric field is approximately
For V0 = V0 = 9kV and f = 2 Hz , the result is
max
constant and V is the voltage drop given by
1 q 1 q mg (air)
V = Va − Vb = − = ≅ −1.2
4πε 0 a 4πε 0 b mi0(air)
⎛ b − a ⎞ ⎛ ε r r0 d ⎞
= V0 r0ε r ⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟V0 ( A36) Note that, by increasing V0 , the values of
⎝ ab ⎠ ⎝ ab ⎠ E air and σ air are increased. Thus, as show
By substituting (A36) into (A35), we get (A42), there are two ways for decrease the value
3 3 3

2α ⎛ ε r r0dV0 ⎞ 2α ⎛ ε r r0V0 ⎞
2 2
⎛b⎞ 2 of m g (air ) : increasing the value of V0 or
jair = ⎜ ⎟ = 1⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ =
d 2 ⎝ ab ⎠ d 2 ⎝ b2 ⎠ ⎝ a⎠ decreasing the value of f .
3 Since E0
max
= 107 V / m = 10kV / mm and
2α ⎛ b ⎞2
( A37)
3

= 1 Eair⎜ ⎟
2
Δ = 0.6 mm then the dielectric strength of the
d2 ⎝ a⎠ insulation must be ≥ 16.7kV / mm . As
According to the equation of the Ohm's vectorial mentioned above, the dielectric strength of the
Law: j = σE , we can write that acrylic is 17kV / mm .
σair =
jair
( A38) It is important to note that, due to the
strong value of E air (Eq. A37) the drift velocity
Eair
Substitution of (A37) into (A38) yields vd , (vd = jair ne = σ air Eair ne) of the free
charges inside the ionized air put them at a

137
48
distance x = vd t = 2 fvd ≅ 0.4m , which is much means of a convenient process, several semi-
−4
spheres can be stamped on its surface. The
greater than the distance d =1.8 ×10 m .
semi-spheres have radius r0 = 0.9 mm , and
Consequently, the number n of free charges
decreases strongly inside the air layer of are joined one to another. Next, take an acrylic
thickness d ‡‡ , except, obviously, in a thin layer, sheet (A4 format) with 1.5mm thickness (See
very close to the dielectric, where the number of Fig.A8 (a)). Put a heater below the Aluminum
free charges remains sufficiently increased, to plate in order to heat the Aluminum (Fig.A8 (b)).
When the Aluminum is sufficiently heated up, the
maintain the air conductivity with σ air ≅ 1.1S / m
acrylic sheet and the Aluminum plate are
(Eq. A39). pressed, one against the other, as shown in Fig.
The thickness h of this thin air layer close A8 (c). The two D devices shown in this figure are
to the dielectric can be easily evaluated starting used in order to impede that the press
from the charge distribution in the neighborhood compresses the acrylic and the aluminum to a
of the dielectric, and of the repulsion forces distance shorter than y + a . After some seconds,
established among them. The result is remove the press and the heater. The device is
h = 0.06e 4πε 0 E ≅ 4 × 10−9 m . This is, therefore, ready to be subjected to a voltage V0 with
the thickness of the Air Gravitational Shielding. If frequency f , as shown in Fig.A9. Note that, in
the area of this Gravitational Shielding is equal to
this case, the balance is not necessary, because
the area of a format A4 sheet of paper,
the substance that produces the gravitational
i.e., A = 0.20 × 0.291= 0.0582m , we obtain the
2
shielding is an air layer with thickness d above
following value for the resistance R air of the the acrylic sheet. This is, therefore, more a type
of Gravity Control Cell (GCC) with external
Gravitational Shielding: Rair = h σair A≅ 6×10−8 Ω.
gravitational shielding.
Since the maximum electrical current through this It is important to note that this GCC can be
air layer is i max = j max A ≅ 400 kA , then the made very thin and as flexible as a fabric. Thus, it
maximum power radiated from the Gravitational can be used to produce anti- gravity clothes.

( ) 2
These clothes can be extremely useful, for
Shielding is Pair max
= Rair iair
max
≅ 10kW . This example, to walk on the surface of high gravity
means that a very strong light will be radiated planets.
from this type of Gravitational Shielding. Note that Figure A11 shows some geometrical
this device can also be used as a lamp, which will forms that can be stamped on a metallic surface
be much more efficient than conventional lamps. in order to produce a Gravitational Shielding
Coating a ceiling with this lighting system effect, similar to the produced by the semi-
enables the entire area of ceiling to produce light. spherical form.
This is a form of lighting very different from those An obvious evolution from the semi-
usually known. spherical form is the semi-cylindrical form shown
in Fig. A11 (b); Fig.A11(c) shows concentric
max
Note that the value Pair ≅ 10kW , defines the metallic rings stamped on the metallic surface, an
power of the transformer shown in Fig.A10. Thus, evolution from Fig.A11 (b). These geometrical
the maximum current in the secondary is forms produce the same effect as the semi-
i smax = 9kV 10 kW = 0.9 A . spherical form, shown in Fig.A11 (a). By using
concentric metallic rings, it is possible to build
Above the Gravitational Shielding, σ air is Gravitational Shieldings around bodies or
reduced to the normal value of conductivity of the spacecrafts with several formats (spheres,
( )
atmospheric air ≈ 10 −14 S / m . Thus, the power ellipsoids, etc); Fig. A11 (d) shows a Gravitational
Shielding around a Spacecraft with ellipsoidal
radiated from this region is
( ) σ A=
form.
= (d − h ) i air
max max 2
Pair air
The previously mentioned Gravitational

= (d − h )Aσ (E ) ≅ 10
Shielding, produced on a thin layer of ionized air,
max 2 −4 has a behavior different from the Gravitational
air air W
Now, we will describe a method to coat the Shielding produced on a rigid substance. When
Aluminum semi-spheres with acrylic in the the gravitational masses of the air molecules,
necessary dimensions (Δ = a − r0 ) , we propose
inside the shielding, are reduced to within the
range + 0.159 mi < m g < −0.159 mi , they go to
the following method. First, take an Aluminum
the imaginary space-time, as previously shown in
plate with 21cm × 29.1cm (A4 format). By
this article. However, the electric field E air stays
‡‡
Reducing therefore, the conductivity σ air , to the at the real space-time. Consequently, the
molecules return immediately to the real space-
normal value of conductivity of the atmospheric air.

138
49
time in order to return soon after to the imaginary since the shielding does not stop to work, due
space-time, due to the action of the electric to its extremely short permanence at the
field E air . imaginary space-time. Under these
circumstances, the gravitational mass of the
In the case of the Gravitational Shielding Gravitational Shielding can be reduced to
produced on a solid substance, when the
molecules of the substance go to the imaginary m g ≅ 0 . For example, m g ≅ 10 −4 kg . Thus, if
space-time, the electric field that produces the the inertial mass of the Gravitational Shielding is
effect, also goes to the imaginary space-time
together with them, since in this case, the
mi 0 ≅ 1kg , then χ = m g mi 0 ≅ 10 −4 . As we
substance of the Gravitational Shielding is rigidly have seen, this means that the inertial effects on
the spacecraft will be reduced by χ ≅ 10 . Then,
connected to the metal that produces the electric −4
field. (See Fig. A12 (b)). This is the fundamental
in spite of the effective acceleration of the
difference between the non-solid and solid −2
spacecraft be, for example, a = 10 m.s , the
5
Gravitational Shieldings.
Now, consider a Gravitational Spacecraft effects on the crew of the spacecraft will be
that is able to produce an Air Gravitational equivalent to an acceleration of only
Shielding and also a Solid Gravitational mg
Shielding, as shown in Fig. A13 (a) §§ . Assuming a′ = a = χ a ≈ 10m.s −1
that the intensity of the electric field, E air ,
mi 0
This is the magnitude of the acceleration upon
necessary to reduce the gravitational mass of
the passengers in a contemporary commercial
the air molecules to within the range
jet.
+ 0.159 mi < m g < −0.159 mi , is much smaller Then, it is noticed that Gravitational
than the intensity of the electric field, E rs , Spacecrafts can be subjected to enormous
accelerations (or decelerations) without imposing
necessary to reduce the gravitational mass of any harmful impacts whatsoever on the
the solid substance to within the range spacecrafts or its crew.
+ 0.159 mi < m g < −0.159 mi , then we Now, imagine that the intensity of the
conclude that the Gravitational Shielding made of electric field that produces the Gravitational
ionized air goes to the imaginary space-time Shielding around the spacecraft is increased up
before the Gravitational Shielding made of solid to reaching the value E rs that reduces the
substance. When this occurs the spacecraft does gravitational mass of the solid Gravitational
not go to the imaginary space-time together with Shielding to within the range
the Gravitational Shielding of air, because the air + 0.159 m i < m g < −0.159 mi . Under these
molecules are not rigidly connected to the
spacecraft. Thus, while the air molecules go into circumstances, the solid Gravitational Shielding
the imaginary space-time, the spacecraft stays in goes to the imaginary space-time and, since it is
the real space-time, and remains subjected to the rigidly connected to the spacecraft, also the
effects of the Gravitational Shielding around it, spacecraft goes to the imaginary space-time
together with the Gravitational Shielding. Thus,
§§ the spacecraft can travel within the imaginary
The solid Gravitational Shielding can also be space-time and make use of the Gravitational
obtained by means of an ELF electric current through Shielding around it.
a metallic lamina placed between the semi-spheres As we have already seen, the maximum
and the Gravitational Shielding of Air (See Fig.A13 velocity of propagation of the interactions in the
(a)). The gravitational mass of the solid Gravitational imaginary space-time is infinite (in the real space-
Shielding will be controlled just by means of the
time this limit is equal to the light velocity c ). This
intensity of the ELF electric current. Recently, it was
means that there are no limits for the velocity of
discovered that Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be
the spacecraft in the imaginary space-time. Thus,
added to Alumina (Al2O3) to convert it into a good
the acceleration of the spacecraft can reach, for
electrical conductor. It was found that the electrical
conductivity increased up to 3375 S/m at 77°C in example, a = 109 m.s −2 , which leads the
samples that were 15% nanotubes by volume [12]. It spacecraft to attain velocities
−1
is known that the density of α-Alumina is 3.98kg.m-3 V ≈ 10 m.s (about 1 million times the speed
14

and that it can withstand 10-20 KV/mm. Thus, these of light) after one day of trip. With this velocity,
values show that the Alumina-CNT can be used to after 1 month of trip the spacecraft would have
make a solid Gravitational Shielding. In this case, the 21
traveled about 10 m . In order to have idea of
electric field produced by means of the semi-spheres
this distance, it is enough to remind that the
will be used to control the gravitational mass of the
diameter of our Universe (visible Universe) is of
Alumina-CNT. 26
the order of 10 m .

139
50
Due to the extremely low density of the then the dielectric strength of the insulation
imaginary bodies, the collision between them must be ≥ 173kV / mm . As shown in the table
cannot have the same consequences of the below *** , 0.1mm - thickness of Mica can
collision between the real bodies. withstand 17.6 kV (that is greater
Thus, for a Gravitational Spacecraft in
than V0max = 15.6kV ), in such way that the
imaginary state, the problem of the collision in
high-speed doesn't exist. Consequently, the dielectric strength is 176 kV/mm.
Gravitational Spacecraft can transit freely in the The Gravitational Thrusters are positioned
imaginary Universe and, in this way, reach easily at the spacecraft, as shown in Fig. A13 (b).
any point of our real Universe once they can Then, when the spacecraft is in the intergalactic
make the transition back to our Universe by only space, the gravity acceleration upon the
increasing the gravitational mass of the gravitational mass m gt of the bottom of the
Gravitational Shielding of the spacecraft in such thruster (See Fig.A13 (c)), is given by [2]
way that it leaves the range of + 0.159 M i Mg
r 10 r
a ≅ (χ air ) g M ≅ −(χ air ) G 2 μˆ
10
to − 0.159M i .
r
The return trip would be done in similar
way. That is to say, the spacecraft would transit where M g is the gravitational mass in front of
in the imaginary Universe back to the departure
the spacecraft.
place where would reappear in our Universe.
For simplicity, let us consider just the effect
Thus, trips through our Universe that would delay
of a hypothetical volume
millions of years, at speeds close to the speed of
light, could be done in just a few months in the V = 10 × 10 × 10 = 10 m
3 3 7 3
of intergalactic
imaginary Universe. (
matter in front of the spacecraft r ≅ 30m . The )
In order to produce the acceleration of average density of matter in the intergalactic
a ≈ 10 9 m.s −2 upon the spacecraft we propose a medium (IGM) is ρig ≈ 10−26 kg.m−3 ) ††† . Thus,
Gravitational Thruster with 10 GCCs (10
for χ air ≅ −1.6 ×10 we get
4
Gravitational Shieldings) of the type with several
semi-spheres stamped on the metallic surface, as
) (6.67 × 10 )⎛⎜⎜ 10 ⎞
−19
previously shown, or with the semi-cylindrical
form shown in Figs. A11 (b) and (c). The 10
(
a = − − 1.6 × 10 4
10 −11
2
⎟⎟ =
GCCs are filled with air at 1 atm and 300K. If the
⎝ 30 ⎠
insulation layer is made with Mica (ε r ≅ 5.4 ) and = −10 9 m.s − 2
has thickness Δ = 0.1 mm , and the semi- In spite of this gigantic acceleration, the inertial
spheres stamped on the metallic surface have effects for the crew of the spacecraft can be
strongly reduced if, for example, the gravitational
r0 = 0.4 mm (See Fig.A7) then mass of the Gravitational Shielding is reduced
a = r0 + Δ = 0.5 mm. Thus, we get
***
b = r0 εr = 9.295×10−4 m The dielectric strength of some dielectrics can have
different values in lower thicknesses. This is, for
and example, the case of the Mica.
d = b − a = 4.295 ×10 −4 m Dielectric Thickness (mm) Dielectric Strength (kV/mm)
Then, from Eq. A42 we obtain Mica 0.01 mm 200
Mica 0.1 mm 176
mg (air) ⎧⎪ ⎡ σ 3 E4 ⎤⎫⎪ Mica 1 mm 61
χair = = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 +1.758×10−27 air2 air3 −1⎥⎬ =
mi0(air) ⎪ ⎢⎣ ρair f ⎥⎦⎪⎭
⎩ †††
Some theories put the average density of the
⎧⎪ ⎡ V 5.5 ⎤⎫⎪
Universe as the equivalent of one hydrogen atom per
= ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 +1.0 ×10−18 0 3 −1⎥⎬ cubic meter [13,14]. The density of the universe,
⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ f ⎥⎦⎪⎭ however, is clearly not uniform. Surrounding and
stretching between galaxies, there is a rarefied plasma
For V0 = V0max = 15.6kV and f = 0.12Hz, the result is [15] that is thought to possess a cosmic filamentary
structure [16] and that is slightly denser than the
mg (air)
χ air = ≅ −1.6 ×104 average density in the universe. This material is called
mi0(air) the intergalactic medium (IGM) and is mostly ionized
hydrogen; i.e. a plasma consisting of equal numbers of
Since E 0max = V0max r0 is now given by electrons and protons. The IGM is thought to exist at a
E0max =15.6kV 0.9mm=17.3kV / mm and Δ = 0.1 mm density of 10 to 100 times the average density of the
Universe (10 to 100 hydrogen atoms per cubic meter,
i.e., ≈ 10 −26 kg.m −3 ).
140
51
−6
down to m g ≅ 10 kg and its inertial mass is Spacecraft can reach about 50000 km/h in a
few seconds. Obviously, the Gravitational
mi 0 ≅ 100kg . Then, we get Shielding of the spacecraft will reduce strongly
the inertial effects upon the crew of the
χ = m g mi 0 ≅ 10 −8
. Therefore, the inertial spacecraft, in such way that the inertial effects of
effects on the spacecraft will be reduced by this strong acceleration will not be felt. In
χ ≅ 10−8 , and consequently, the inertial effects on addition, the artificial atmosphere, which is
possible to build around the spacecraft, by means
the crew of the spacecraft would be equivalent to of gravity control technologies shown in this
an acceleration a′ of only article (See Fig.6) and [2], will protect it from the

a = (10 −8 )(10 9 ) ≈ 10m.s − 2


mg heating produced by the friction with the Earth’s
a′ = atmosphere. Also, the gravity can be controlled
mi 0 inside of the Gravitational Spacecraft in order to
Note that the Gravitational Thrusters in the maintain a value close to the Earth’s gravity as
spacecraft must have a very small diameter (of shown in Fig.3.
the order of millimeters) since, obviously, the hole Finally, it is important to note that a Micro-
through the Gravitational Shielding cannot be Gravitational Thruster does not work outside a
large. Thus, these thrusters are in fact, Micro- Gravitational Shielding, because, in this case, the
Gravitational Thrusters. As shown in Fig. A13 resultant upon the thruster is null due to the
(b), it is possible to place several micro- symmetry (See Fig. A15 (a)). Figure A15 (b)
gravitational thrusters in the spacecraft. This shows a micro-gravitational thruster inside a
gives to the Gravitational Spacecraft, several Gravitational Shielding. This thruster has 10
degrees of freedom and shows the enormous Gravitational Shieldings, in such way that the
superiority of this spacecraft in relation to the gravitational acceleration upon the bottom of the
contemporaries spacecrafts. thruster, due to a gravitational mass M g in front
The density of matter in the intergalactic
medium (IGM) is about 10 -26 kg.m-3 , which is of the thruster, is a10 = χ air
10
a0 where
very less than the density of matter in the
a 0 = −G M g r 2 is the gravitational acceleration
interstellar medium (~10-21 kg.m-3) that is less
than the density of matter in the interplanetary acting on the front of the micro-gravitational
medium (~10-20 kg.m-3). The density of matter is thruster. In the opposite direction, the
enormously increased inside the Earth’s gravitational acceleration upon the bottom of the
atmosphere (1.2kg.m-3 near to Earth’s surface). thruster, produced by a gravitational mass M g ,
Figure A14 shows the gravitational acceleration is
acquired by a Gravitational Spacecraft, in these
media, using Micro-Gravitational thrusters.
In relation to the Interstellar and (
a 0′ = χ s − GM g r ′ 2 ≅ 0 )
Interplanetary medium, the Intergalactic medium
requires the greatest value of χ air ( χ inside the since χ s ≅ 0 due to the Gravitational Shielding
Micro-Gravitational Thrusters), i.e., around the micro-thruster (See Fig. A15 (b)).
χ air ≅ −1.6 ×10 . This value strongly decreases
4 Similarly, the acceleration in front of the thruster
is
when the spacecraft is within the Earth’s

[ ( )] χ
atmosphere. In this case, it is sufficient
only χ air ≅ −10 in order to obtain:
‡‡‡ ′ = χ air
a10 10
a 0′ = χ air
10
− GM g r ′ 2 s

ρ atmV
a = −(χ air ) G
10

r 2
≅ where [χ (− GM
10
air g )]
r ′ 2 < a10 , since r′ > r .

) ( ) ≅ 10
Thus, for a10 ≅ 10 9 m.s −2 and χ s ≈ 10 −8 we
10
(
≅ −(− 10) 6.67 × 10 −11
1.2 10 7 4
m.s −2 ′ < 10m.s −2
(20)2 conclude that a10 . This means that
With this acceleration the Gravitational ′ << a10 . Therefore, we can write that the
a10
resultant on the micro-thruster can be expressed
‡‡‡
This value is within the range of values of χ by means of the following relation
(χ < − 10 3
)
. See Eq . A15 , which can be produced by
R ≅ F10 = χ air
10
F0
means of ELF electric currents through metals as
Aluminum, etc. This means that, in this case, if
convenient, we can replace air inside the GCCs of the Figure A15 (c) shows a Micro-Gravitational
Gravitational Micro-thrusters by metal laminas with Thruster with 10 Air Gravitational Shieldings (10
ELF electric currents through them. GCCs). Thin Metallic laminas are placed after

141
52
each Air Gravitational Shielding in order to retain 1 3
⎛ Eair
⎞2⎛ b⎞2 1
the electric field E b = V0 x , produced by metallic σair=2α⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ =0.029V02 (A46)
surface behind the semi-spheres. The laminas ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ a⎠
with semi-spheres stamped on its surfaces are Note that b = r0 ε r ( H2O) . Therefore, here the
connected to the ELF voltage source V0 and the
value of b is larger than in the case of the acrylic.
thin laminas in front of the Air Gravitational
Consequently, the electrical conductivity of the air
Shieldings are grounded. The air inside this
layer will be larger here than in the case of
Micro-Gravitational Thruster is at 300K, 1atm.
acrylic.
We have seen that the insulation layer of a
GCC can be made up of Acrylic, Mica, etc. Now, Substitution of σ (air ) , E air (rms) and
we will design a GCC using Water (distilled ρ air = 1.2kg .m −3 into Eq. A14, gives
water, ε r ( H 2O ) = 80 ) and Aluminum semi-
radius r0 = 1 . 3 mm .
mg(air) ⎧⎪ ⎡ V5.5 ⎤⎫⎪
cylinders with Thus,
for Δ = 0.6mm , the new value of a is a = 1.9mm . =⎨1−2⎢ 1+4.54×10−20 03 −1⎥⎬ ( A47)
mi0(air) ⎪ ⎢ f ⎥⎪
Then, we get ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭
b = r0 εr(H2O) = 11.63×10−3m ( A43)
For V0 = V0 = 9kV and f = 2 Hz , the result
max
d = b − a = 9.73×10−3m ( A44)
and is
1 q mg (air)
Eair = = ≅ −8.4
4πεr(air)ε 0 b 2 mi0(air)
V0 r0 This shows that, by using water instead of acrylic,
= ε r( H ) = the result is much better.
2O
ε r(air)b 2 In order to build the GCC based on the
calculations above (See Fig. A16), take an Acrylic
V0 r0 V0
= ≅ = 1111.1 V0 ( A45) plate with 885mm X 885m and 2mm thickness,
ε r(air) r0 then paste on it an Aluminum sheet with
895.2mm X 885mm and 0.5mm thickness(note
Note that
that two edges of the Aluminum sheet are bent as
V0 r0 shown in Figure A16 (b)). Next, take 342
E( H2O) =
ε r ( H2O) Aluminum yarns with 884mm length and
2.588mm diameter (wire # 10 AWG) and insert
and
them side by side on the Aluminum sheet. See in
V0 r0 Fig. A16 (b) the detail of fixing of the yarns on the
E(acrylic) =
ε r (acrylic) Aluminum sheet. Now, paste acrylic strips (with
13.43mm height and 2mm thickness) around the
Therefore, E ( H 2O ) and E (acrylic ) are much Aluminum/Acrylic, making a box. Put distilled
smaller than E air . Note that for V0 ≤ 9kV the water (approximately 1 litter) inside this box, up to
a height of exactly 3.7mm from the edge of the
intensities of E ( H 2O ) and E (acrylic ) are not acrylic base. Afterwards, paste an Acrylic lid
sufficient to produce the ionization effect, which (889mm X 889mm and 2mm thickness) on the
increases the electrical conductivity. box. Note that above the water there is an air
Consequently, the conductivities of the water and layer with 885mm X 885mm and 7.73mm
−1 thickness (See Fig. A16). This thickness plus the
the acrylic remain << 1 S.m . In this way, with
acrylic lid thickness (2mm) is equal to
E ( H 2O ) and E (acrylic ) much smaller than E air ,
d = b − a = 9.73mm where b = r0 ε r(H2O) =11.63mm
and σ ( H 2O ) << 1 , σ (acrylic ) << 1 , the decrease in
and a = r0 + Δ = 1.99 mm , since r0 = 1.3mm ,
both the gravitational mass of the acrylic and the
gravitational mass of water, according to Eq.A14, ε r ( H 2O ) = 80 and Δ = 0.6mm .
is negligible. This means that only in the air layer Note that the gravitational action of the
the decrease in the gravitational mass will be electric field E air , extends itself only up to the
relevant. distance d , which, in this GCC, is given by the
Equation A39 gives the electrical
sum of the Air layer thickness (7.73mm) plus the
conductivity of the air layer, i.e.,
thickness of the Acrylic lid (2mm).
Thus, it is ensured the gravitational effect
on the air layer while it is practically nullified in

142
53
the acrylic sheet above the air layer, since
E (acrylic ) << E air and σ (acrylic ) << 1 .
With this GCC, we can carry out an
experiment where the gravitational mass of the
air layer is progressively reduced when the
voltage applied to the GCC is increased (or when
the frequency is decreased). A precision balance
is placed below the GCC in order to measure the
mentioned mass decrease for comparison with
the values predicted by Eq. A(47). In total, this
GCC weighs about 6kg; the air layer 7.3grams.
The balance has the following characteristics:
range 0-6kg; readability 0.1g. Also, in order to
prove the Gravitational Shielding Effect, we can
put a sample (connected to a dynamometer)
above the GCC in order to check the gravity
acceleration in this region.
In order to prove the exponential effect
produced by the superposition of the
Gravitational Shieldings, we can take three
similar GCCs and put them one above the other,
in such way that above the GCC 1 the gravity
acceleration will be g′ = χ g ; above the GCC2
g ′′ = χ 2 g , and above the GCC3 g ′′′ = χ 3 g .
Where χ is given by Eq. (A47).
It is important to note that the intensity of
the electric field through the air below the GCC is
much smaller than the intensity of the electric
field through the air layer inside the GCC. In
addition, the electrical conductivity of the air
below the GCC is much smaller than the
conductivity of the air layer inside the GCC.
Consequently, the decrease of the gravitational
mass of the air below the GCC, according to
Eq.A14, is negligible. This means that the GCC1,
GCC2 and GCC3 can be simply overlaid, on the
experiment proposed above. However, since it is
necessary to put samples among them in order to
measure the gravity above each GCC, we
suggest a spacing of 30cm or more among them.

143
54

Dynamometer

50 mm
g g
g′ = χ g
Sample
Aluminum foil Foam Board

GCC

Flexible Copper wire


# 12 AWG Pan balance

Battery 12V

R ε2 4Ω - 40W
R2
Rheostat
10Ω - 90W Coupling
Transformer

Function Generation
Flexible Copper wire
HP3325A # 12 AWG

ε1

R1
500Ω - 2W
Figure A2 – Experimental Set-up 1.

144
55

Flexible Copper Wire


# 12 AWG

15 cm square Aluminum foil


(10.5 microns thickness)

Gum
(Loctite Super Bonder)

17 cm square Foam Board plate


(6mm thickness)

Aluminum foil
Foam Board

Figure A3 – The Simplest Gravity Control Cell (GCC).

145
56
I1 ε2
+ − ri 2
R
I2

GCC
ri1

ε1 ~ Rp

f = 2 μHz
Wire # 12 AWG
Gravitational
R1 Shielding
I 3 = I1 + I 2 R2

(a)
ε 1 = Function Generator HP3325A(Option 002 High Voltage Output)
ri1 < 2Ω; R1 = 500Ω − 2 W ; ε 2 = 12V DC; ri 2 < 0.1Ω (Battery );
R2 = 4Ω − 40W ; R p = 2.5 × 10 −3 Ω; Reostat = 0 ≤ R ≤ 10Ω − 90W
I1max = 56mA (rms ); I 2max = 3 A ; I 3max ≅ 3 A (rms )
Coupling Transformer to isolate the Function Generator from the Battery
• Air core 10 - mm diameter; wire # 12 AWG; N1 = N 2 = 20; l = 42mm

I1 ε2 T
+ − ri 2
I2 R

ri1
−5
ε1 GCC l = 1cm → Rφ = 5.23 × 10 Ω
~ l
0.5 2 h =3mm
f = 2 μHz
d
i
Wire # 12 AWG e
l
e Al 200 mm
R1 c
t
I 3 = I1 + I 2 R2 r
P # 12 AWG i
c
(b)
R = 0 ⇒ V pmax = 1.1 × 10−4V Gravitational
Shielding
R = 10 ⇒ V pmin = 4.0 × 10−5V

Fig. A4 – Equivalent Electric Circuits

146
57

j
ELF electric current Wire

⎧⎪ ⎡ ⎤ ⎫⎪
− 27 μr j
4
mg = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 1.758 ×10 − 1⎥ ⎬mi 0
⎪⎩ ⎣⎢ σρ 2 f 3 ⎥⎦ ⎪

Figure A5 – An ELF electric current through a wire, that makes a spherical form as shown above,
reduces the gravitational mass of the wire and the gravity inside sphere at the same proportion
χ = m g mi 0 (Gravitational Shielding Effect). Note that this spherical form can be transformed into
an ellipsoidal form or a disc in order to coat, for example, a Gravitational Spacecraft. It is also
possible to coat with a wire several forms, such as cylinders, cones, cubes, etc. The characteristics
of the wire are expressed by: μ r , σ , ρ ; j is the electric current density and f is the frequency.

147
58

Dynamometer

Rigid Aluminum wire 50 mm


# 14 AWG
Length = 28.6 m
RS= 0.36 Ω

Flexible Copper wire


# 12 AWG

Battery 12V

R ε2 4Ω - 40W
R2
Rheostat
Coupling
Transformer

Function Generation
HP3325A Flexible Copper wire
# 12 AWG

ε1

R1
Figure A6 – Experimental set-up 2.

148
59

Gravitational Shielding Air


d
Eair ,σair
b
Insulation Δ
εr
a

r0

Aluminum Foil

~ V0 , f

Figure A7 – Gravitational shielding produced by semi-spheres stamped on the Aluminum


foil - By simply changing the geometry of the surface of the Aluminum foil it is possible to
increase the working frequency f up to more than 1Hz.

149
60

a =1.5 mm Acrylic sheet


r0 =0.9 mm
y Aluminum Plate
(a)

Heater
(b)

Press

D D
y+a

(c)

Δ=0.6 mm
r0 =0.9 mm a = 1.5 mm

(d)

Figure A8 – Method to coat the Aluminum semi-spheres with acrylic (Δ = a − r0 = 0.6mm ) .


(a)Acrylic sheet (A4 format) with 1.5mm thickness and an Aluminum plate (A4) with several
semi-spheres (radius r0 = 0.9 mm ) stamped on its surface. (b)A heater is placed below the
Aluminum plate in order to heat the Aluminum. (c)When the Aluminum is sufficiently heated
up, the acrylic sheet and the Aluminum plate are pressed, one against the other (The two D
devices shown in this figure are used in order to impede that the press compresses the acrylic
and the aluminum besides distance y + a ). (d)After some seconds, the press and the heater are
removed, and the device is ready to be used.

150
61

Dynamometer

50 mm
g g
GCC
g′ = χ g
Sample
Acrylic/Aluminum

Flexible Copper wire


# 12 AWG

High-voltage V0
Rheostat Oscillator
Transformer f > 1Hz

Figure A9 – Experimental Set-up using a GCC subjected to high-voltage V 0 with frequency


f > 1Hz . Note that in this case, the pan balance is not necessary because the substance of the
Gravitational Shielding is an air layer with thickness d above the acrylic sheet. This is therefore,
more a type of Gravity Control Cell (GCC) with external gravitational shielding.

151
62

Gravitational Shielding

d
R
V0

GCC
Acrylic /Aluminum

V0max = 9 kV
Oscillator
V0min = 2.7 kV ~ f > 1Hz

(a)

Acrylic

Pin wire

Aluminum

Connector
(High-voltage)
(b)
10kV

Figure A10 – (a) Equivalent Electric Circuit. (b) Details of the electrical connection with the
Aluminum plate. Note that others connection modes (by the top of the device) can produce
destructible interference on the electric lines of the E air field.

152
63

(a) (b)

Metallic Rings

Metallic base

(c)

Eair
Gravitational Shielding εr

Ellipsoidal metallic base

Metallic Rings
Oscillator f
Transformer
V0
Dielectric layer
Ionized air (d)

Figure A11 – Geometrical forms with similar effects as those produced by the semi-spherical form – (a)
shows the semi-spherical form stamped on the metallic surface; (b) shows the semi-cylindrical form (an
obvious evolution from the semi-spherical form); (c) shows concentric metallic rings stamped on
the metallic surface, an evolution from semi-cylindrical form. These geometrical forms produce
the same effect as that of the semi-spherical form, shown in Fig.A11 (a). By using concentric
metallic rings, it is possible to build Gravitational Shieldings around bodies or spacecrafts with
several formats (spheres, ellipsoids, etc); (d) shows a Gravitational Shielding around a Spacecraft
with ellipsoidal form.

153
64

Dielectric
Metal Dielectric Metal (rigidly connected to the spacecraft)

Spacecraft E
Spacecraft E

Non-solid Gravitational Shielding Solid Gravitational Shielding


(rigidly connected to the dielectric)

(a) (b)

Figure A12 – Non-solid and Solid Gravitational Shieldings - In the case of the Gravitational
Shielding produced on a solid substance (b), when its molecules go to the imaginary space-time,
the electric field that produces the effect also goes to the imaginary space-time together with
them, because in this case, the substance of the Gravitational Shielding is rigidly connected (by
means of the dielectric) to the metal that produces the electric field. This does not occur in the
case of Air Gravitational Shielding.

154
65

Metal Dielectric Metal Dielectric i ELF electric current


A
l
u
Spacecraft Spacecraft m
Ers Eair i
n
u
m

Solid Gravitational Shielding Air Gravitational Shielding


(a)

Micro-Gravitational Thruster

(b)

Volume V
of the
Micro-Gravitational Thruster with 10 gravitational shieldings Intergallactic
medium
(IGM)
Gravitational Spacecraft a
m gt r
Mg
Mg ρ igmV
a = χ 10 G = χ 10 G
r2 r2
Gravitational Shielding
ρ igm∼10-26kg.m-3

(c)

Figure A13 – Double Gravitational Shielding and Micro-thrusters – (a) Shows a double
gravitational shielding that makes possible to decrease the inertial effects upon the spacecraft
when it is traveling both in the imaginary space-time and in the real space-time. The solid
Gravitational Shielding also can be obtained by means of an ELF electric current through a metallic
lamina placed between the semi-spheres and the Gravitational Shielding of Air as shown above. (b)
Shows 6 micro-thrusters placed inside a Gravitational Spacecraft, in order to propel the
spacecraft in the directions x, y and z. Note that the Gravitational Thrusters in the spacecraft
must have a very small diameter (of the order of millimeters) because the hole through the
Gravitational Shielding of the spacecraft cannot be large. Thus, these thrusters are in fact Micro-
thrusters. (c) Shows a micro-thruster inside a spacecraft, and in front of a volume V of the
intergalactic medium (IGM). Under these conditions, the spacecraft acquires an acceleration a in
the direction of the volume V.

155
66
Volume V
of the
Micro-Gravitational Thruster with 10 gravitational shieldings Interstellar
medium
(ISM)
Gravitational Spacecraft a
r
Mg
Mg ρ ismV
a = χ 10 G 2
= χ 10 G
r r2
Gravitational Shielding
ρ ism∼10-21kg.m-3

(a)

Volume V
of the
Interplanetary
Micro-Gravitational Thruster with 10 gravitational shieldings medium
(IPM)

Gravitational Spacecraft a
r
Mg
Mg ρ ipmV
a=χ G 10
=χ G10

Gravitational Shielding r2 r2
ρ ipm∼10-20kg.m-3

(b)

Volume V
of the
Earth’s
Micro-Gravitational Thruster with 10 gravitational shieldings
atmospheric

Gravitational Spacecraft a
r
Mg
Mg ρ atmV
a = χ 10 G = χ 10 G
Gravitational Shielding r2 r2
ρ atm∼1.2kg.m-3
(c)
Figure A14 – Gravitational Propulsion using Micro-Gravitational Thruster – (a) Gravitational
acceleration produced by a gravitational mass Mg of the Interstellar Medium. The density of the
Interstellar Medium is about 105 times greater than the density of the Intergalactic Medium (b)
Gravitational acceleration produced in the Interplanetary Medium. (c) Gravitational acceleration
produced in the Earth’s atmosphere. Note that, in this case, ρatm (near to the Earth’s surface)is about
1026 times greater than the density of the Intergalactic Medium.

156
67

r
F’0 F2 =χair2F0 F’2=χair2F’0 F0 r
F1 =χairF0 F’1 =χairF’0
Mg Mg
S2 S1
F’0 = F0 => R = (F’0 – F2) + (F1 – F’1 ) + (F’2 – F0) = 0

(a)

Micro-Gravitational Thruster
with 10 gravitational shieldings
Gravitational Shielding

r’ χ s ≅ −10 −8 a’0 r
a’0 =χs(-GMg /r’2) a10=χair10a0 a0 = - GMg/r2
Mg Mg
R ≅ F10 = χ 10
air F0

Hole in the Gravitational Shielding

Metal
Mica
(b) Grounded Metallic laminas
1 GCC
Air Gravitational Shielding
x

10mm

ELF
~
V0 ~ 400 mm

(c)
Figure A15 – Dynamics and Structure of the Micro-Gravitational Thrusters - (a) The Micro-Gravitational
Thrusters do not work outside the Gravitational Shielding, because, in this case, the resultant upon the thruster is
( )
null due to the symmetry. (b) The Gravitational Shielding χ s ≅ 10 −8 reduces strongly the intensities of the
gravitational forces acting on the micro-gravitational thruster, except obviously, through the hole in the
gravitational shielding. (c) Micro-Gravitational Thruster with 10 Air Gravitational Shieldings (10GCCs). The
grounded metallic laminas are placed so as to retain the electric field produced by metallic surface behind the
semi-spheres.

157
68

0.885 m
Sample
Any type of material; any mass
Acrylic Box
(2mm thickness) g’= χ g
2 mm
d = 9.73 mm Air layer mg (air) = χ mi (air) 7.73 mm
Distilled Water a = 1.9 mm
3.2 mm
1.8 mm
2 mm
Aluminum sheet
(0.5 mm thickness) V0max = 9 kV
342 Aluminum yarns (# 10 AWG) Balance
(2.558 mm diameter; 0.884 mm length) ~ 2 Hz

Transformer
g

GCC Cross-section Front view


(a)

0.885 m

0.884 m
1mm 1mm

Aluminum sheet
(0.5 mm thickness)
Balance
342 Aluminum yarns (# 10 AWG) 1.5mm
(2.558 mm diameter; 0.884 mm length) 0.5 mm
3.6mm

0.885 m

GCC Cross-section Side View


(b)

Fig. A16 – A GCC using distilled Water.


In total this GCC weighs about 6kg; the air layer 7.3 grams. The balance has the
following characteristics: Range 0 – 6kg; readability 0.1g. The yarns are inserted
side by side on the Aluminum sheet. Note the detail of fixing of the yarns on the
Aluminum sheet.

158
69
140 cm

70
cm Sample 5Kg
mg Any type of material; any mass

g ′′′ = χ 3 g
GCC 3 Balance

70
cm 5Kg
mg

g ′′ = χ 2 g
GCC 2 Balance

70
cm 5Kg
mg

g′ = χ g
GCC 1 Balance

Fig. A17 – Experimental set-up. In order to prove the exponential effect produced by the
superposition of the Gravitational Shieldings, we can take three similar GCCs and put them one above
the other, in such way that above the GCC 1 the gravity acceleration will be g′ = χ g ; above the
GCC2 g ′′ = χ 2 g , and above the GCC3 g ′′′ = χ 3 g . Where χ is given by Eq. (A47). The arrangement
above has been designed for values of mg < 13g and χ up to -9 or mg < 1kg and χ up to -2 .

159
70

APPENDIX B: A DIDACTIC GCC USING A BATTERY OF CAPACITORS

Let us now show a new type of GCC - easy to


be built with materials and equipments that also can E max = 5 . 3 × 10 10 V / m
be obtained with easiness.
Consider a battery of n parallel plate
Therefore, if the frequency of the wave voltage
capacitors with capacitances C1 , C2 , C 3 ,…, C n ,
(
is f = 60 Hz , ω = 2πf , we ) have that
connected in parallel. The voltage applied is V ; A
ωεair = 3.3 ×10 S.m . It is known that the electric
−9 −1
is the area of each plate of the capacitors and d is
the distance between the plates; ε r ( water ) is the conductivity of the air, σ air , at 10-4 Torr and 300K,
is much smaller than this value, i.e.,
relative permittivity of the dielectric (water). Then the
electric charge q on the plates of the capacitors is σ air << ωε air

given by (
Under this circumstance σ << ωε , we can )
substitute Eq. 15 and 34 into Eq. 7. Thus, we get
q = (C1 + C2 + C3 +...+ Cn )V = n(εr(water)ε0 ) V (B1)
A
d ⎧⎪ ⎡ μ ε 3 E4 ⎤ ⎫⎪
m g (air ) = ⎨1 − 2 ⎢ 1 + air 2 air 2 − 1⎥ ⎬mi 0 (air )
⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ c ρ air ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭
In Fig. I we show a GCC with two capacitors
connected in parallel. It is easy to see that the ⎧⎪ ⎡ E4 ⎤ ⎫⎪
electric charge density σ 0 on each area A0 = az
= ⎨1 − 2 ⎢ 1 + 9.68 × 10 − 57 2 − 1⎥ ⎬mi 0 (air ) (B 5 )
⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ ρ air ⎥⎦ ⎭⎪
of the edges B of the thin laminas (z is the thickness
of the edges B and a is the length of them, see
Fig.B2) is given by The density of the air at 10-4 Torr and 300K is
ρ air = 1 . 5 × 10 − 7 kg . m − 3
= n (ε r ( water )ε 0 ) (B 2 )
q A
σ0 = V
A0 azd Thus, we can write
Thus, the electric field E between the edges B is
m g (air )
2σ 0 ⎛ ε r ( water ) ⎞ A χ = =
E= = 2 n⎜ ⎟
⎜ ε r (air ) ⎟ azd
V (B 3) m i (air )
ε r (air )ε 0 ⎝ ⎠
Since A = L x L y , we can write that = ⎧⎨1 − 2 ⎡ 1 + 4 . 3 × 10 − 43 E 4 − 1⎤ ⎫⎬ (B 6 )
⎩ ⎢⎣ ⎦⎥ ⎭

⎛ ε r ( water ) ⎞ L x L y Substitution of E for Emax = 5.3 ×10 V / m into


10
E = 2n⎜ ⎟
⎜ ε r (air ) ⎟ azd
V (B 4 ) this equation gives
⎝ ⎠
χ max ≅ − 1 . 2
Assuming ε r ( water ) = 81 ****
(bidistilled
water); ε r (air ) ≅ 1 (vacuum 10-4 Torr; 300K); n = 2; This means that, in this case, the gravitational
Lx = L y = 0.30m ; a = 0.12m ; z = 0.1mm and shielding produced in the vacuum between the
edges B of the thin laminas can reduce the local
d = 10mm we obtain gravitational acceleration g down to
g 1 ≅ − 1 .2 g
E = 2 . 43 × 10 8 V Under these circumstances, the weight, P = + m g g ,
of any body just above the gravitational shielding
For Vmax = 220V , the electric field is becomes

P = m g g 1 = −1.2m g g
****
It is easy to see that by substituting the water for
Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) the dimensions L x , L y of the
capacitors can be strongly reduced due to
ε r (BaTiO3) = 1200 .

160
71

Lamina

Edge B of the
Gravitational
Thin Lamina
Shielding (0.1mm thickness)
εr (air) g1 = χ g χ<1
Vacuum Chamber
(INOX) E Encapsulating
(10- 4 Torr, 300K) (EPOXI)
B B
g
Parallel plate
Capacitors Insulating holder
Dielectric:
Bidistilled Water
εr (water) = 81 d = 10 mm
V (60Hz)
Vmax=220V
Lx

Vertical Cross Section

q = (C1+C2+...+Cn) V =
= n [εr (water) / εr (air)] [A/A0] V / d

εr (water) = 81 ; εr (air) ≅ 1

E = [q/A0] / εr (air) ε0 = n [εr (water) / εr (air)] [A/A0] V / d

A is the area of the plates of the capacitors and A0 the


cross section area of the edges B of the thin laminas (z is
the thickness of the edges).

Figure B1 – Gravity Control Cell (GCC) using a battery of capacitors. According to Eq. 7 , the
electric field, E, through the air at 10-4 Torr; 300K, in the vacuum chamber, produces a gravitational
shielding effect. The gravity acceleration above this gravitational shielding is reduced to χg where χ
< 1.

161
72

Gravitational Shielding Lx

Ly E a

Lamina Lamina

Vacuum Chamber
EPOXI
Thin laminas
Thickness = z
Length = a
Top view

A0 = a z ; A = Lx Ly

Figure B2 – The gravitational shielding produced between the thin laminas.

162
73

+P

Sample −P
Any type of material
Any mass
Gravitational g1 = χ g χ<1
Shielding
GCC

↓g

mgg1 = -χ g mg

Elementar Motor

GCC

Figure B3 – Experimental arrangement with a GCC using battery of capacitors. By means of this
set-up it is possible to check the weight of the sample even when it becomes negative.

163
74

REFERENCES
1. DeAquino, F. 2010. Mathematical Foundations
15. Zhan, G.D et al. (2003) Appl. Phys. Lett.
of the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity.
83, 1228.
Pacific Journal of Science and Technology.
11(1), pp.173-232.
16. Davidson, K. & Smoot, G. (2008)
Wrinkles in Time. N. Y: Avon, 158-163.
2. Freire, G. F. O and Diniz, A. B. (1973)
Ondas Eletromagnéticas, Ed. USP,p.26.
17. Silk, Joseph. (1977) Big Bang. N.Y,
Freeman, 299.
3. Halliday, D. and Resnick, R. (1968)
Physics, J. Willey & Sons, Portuguese
18. Jafelice, L.C. and Opher, R. (1992). The
Version, Ed. USP, p.1118.
origin of intergalactic magnetic fields
due to extragalactic jets. RAS.
4. Quevedo, C. P. (1977) Eletromagnetismo,
http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-
McGraw-Hill, p.255 and 269.
bib query? Bib code = 1992 MNRAS.
257. 135J. Retrieved 2009-06-19.
5. GE Technical Publications (2007),
80044 – F20T12/C50/ECO, GE Ecolux ®T12. 19. Wadsley, J., et al. (2002). The Universe
in Hot Gas. NASA.
6. Aplin, K. L. (2000) PhD thesis, The http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap
University of Reading, UK 020820. html. Retrieved 2009-06-19.
7. Aplin K. L (2005) Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76,
104501.

8. Beiser, A. (1967) Concepts of Modern


Physics, McGraw-Hill,Portuguese version
(1969) Ed. Polígono, S.Paulo, p.362-363.

9. Hayt, W. H. (1974), Engineering


Electromagnetics, McGraw-Hill.
Portuguese version (1978) Ed. Livros
Técnicos e Científicos Editora S.A, RJ,
Brasil. P.146.

10. Benjegerdes, R. et al.,(2001) Proceedings


of the 2001Particle Accelerator Conference,
Chicago.
http://epaper.kek.jp/p01/PAPERS/TOAB009.PDF

11. Gourlay, S. et al., (2000) Fabrication


and Test of a 14T, Nb3Sn
Superconducting Racetrack Dipole
Magnetic, IEE Trans on Applied
Superconductivity, p.294.

12. BPE soft, Extreme High Altitude


Conditions Calculator.
http://bpesoft.com/s/wleizero/xhac/?M=p

13. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics,


77th ed.1996.

14. Halliday, D. and Resnick, R. (1968)


Physics, J. Willey & Sons,
Portuguese Version, Ed. USP, p.1118.

164
Physical Foundations of Quantum Psychology
Fran De Aquino
Maranhao State University, Physics Department, S.Luis/MA, Brazil.
Copyright © 2007 by Fran De Aquino. All Rights Reserved.

Abstract: The existence of imaginary mass associated to the neutrino is already well-known.
Although its imaginary mass is not physically observable, its square is. This amount is found
experimentally to be negative. Recently, it was shown that quanta of imaginary mass exist
associated to the electron and the photon too. These imaginary masses have unusual
properties that violate the Parity Conservation Principle. The non-conservation of the parity is
also found in the weak interactions, and possibly can be explained by means of the existence of
the imaginary masses. Also protons and neutrons would have imaginary masses associated to
them and, in this way, atoms and molecules would also have imaginary masses directly
proportional to their atomic and molecular masses. The Parity Conservation Principle holds that
the material particles are not able to distinguish their right from their left. The non-conservation
of the parity would necessarily imply capability of "choice". Thus, as the particles with imaginary
mass don't conserve the parity, they would have the elementary capability of “choosing between
their right or left”. Where there is “choice” isn’t there also psychism, by definition? This
fundamental discovery shows that, in some way, the consciousnesses are related to the
imaginary masses. This fact, make it possible to redefine Psychology on a Quantum Physics
basis.

Key words: Quantum Psychology, Quantized Fields, Unification and Mass Relations,
Quantum Mechanics, Bose-Einstein Condensation, Origin of the Universe.
PACs: 03.70.+k; 12.10.Kt; 14.80.Cp; 03.65.-w; 03.75.Nt; 98.80.Bp.

1. INTRODUCTION

In the last decades it has become evident that the theoretical foundations of
Natural Sciences are based on Physics. Today’s Chemistry is completely based on
Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Statistics, Thermodynamics and Kinetic Physics. Also
Biology becomes progressively based on Physics, as more and more biological
phenomena are being described on the basis of Quantum Physics. Modern Biophysics
is now considered a branch of Physics and no longer a secondary part of Biology and
Physiology. As regards Psychology, there are recently several authors making use of
Quantum Physics in order to explain psychic phenomena [1,2].
The idea of psyche associated with matter dates back to the pre-Socratic period
and is usually called panpsychism. Remnants of organized panpsychism may be found
in the Uno of Parmenides or in Heracleitus’s Divine Flux. Scholars of Miletus’s school
were called hylozoists, that is, “those who believe that matter is alive”. More recently,
we will find the panpsychistic thought in Spinoza, Whitehead and Teilhard de Chardin,
among others. The latter one admitted the existence of proto-conscious properties at
level of elementary particles.
Generally, the people believe that there is some type of psyche associated to the
animals, and some biologists agree that even very simple animals like the ameba and
the sea anemone are endowed with psychism. This led several authors to consider the
possibility of the psychic phenomena to be described in a theory based on Physics
[3,4,5,6].
This work presents a possible theoretical foundation for Psychology based on
Quantum Physics, starting from discoveries published in a recent article [7], where it is
shown that there is a quantum of imaginary mass associated to the electron, which
would be equivalent to an elementary particle that does not conserves the parity. Thus,
besides its inertial mass the electron would have an imaginary mass that would have
elementary capacity of “choice”. The theory here presented describes the structures

165
2

and the interaction between these imaginary particles and also explain their relations
with the matter on all levels, from the atom to man. In addition, it gives us a better
understanding of life and a more complete cosmological view, which lead us to
understand our relationship with ourselves, with others, with the Universe and with
God.

2. THEORY

It was shown [7] that quanta of imaginary mass exist associated to the
electron and the photon and that these imaginary masses would have psychic
properties (elementary capacity of “choice”). Thus, we can say that, besides its
inertial mass, the electron would have a psychic mass, given by
⎛ hf electron ⎞
mΨelectron = mg (imaginary)electron =
⎜ 4
⎟ i = 43 mi (real)electron i (01)
⎝ c ⎠
23

Where mi (real )electron = 9.11 × 10 −31 kg is the real inertial mass of the electron. In the
case of the photons, it was shown that the imaginary gravitational mass of the
4 ⎛ hf ⎞
photon is: m g (imaginary ) photon =
⎜ 2 ⎟ i . Therefore, the psychic mass associated
3 ⎝c ⎠
to a photon with frequency f is expressed by the following equation:
4 ⎛ hf ⎞
m Ψ photon = m g (imaginary ) photon =
⎜ 2⎟ i (02 )
3⎝c ⎠
The equation of quantization of mass [7], in the generalized form is expressed
by: m g (imaginary ) = n 2 m g (imagynary )(min ) . Thus, we can also conclude that the psychic
mass is also quantized, due to m Ψ = m g (imaginary ) , i.e.,
m Ψ = n 2 m Ψ (min ) (03)
Where
mΨ (min ) = 4
3
(hf min )
c2 i = 4
3
mi (real )min i (04)

The minimum quantum of real inertial mass in the Universe, mi (real )min , is given
by [7]:
mi (real )min = ± h 3 8 cdmax = ±3.9 × 10 −73 kg (05)
By analogy to Eq. (01), the expressions of the psychic masses associated to the
proton and the neutron are respectively given by:

m Ψproton = m g (imaginary ) proton = 4


3
(hf proton )
c2 i = 4
3
mi (real ) proton i (06 )

mΨneutron = m g (imaginary )neutron = 4


3
(hf neutron )
c2 i = 4
3
mi (real )neutron i (07)

166
3

Where f proton and f neutron are respectively the frequencies of the DeBroglie’s
waves associated to the proton and the neutron.
Thus, from a quantum viewpoint, the psychic particles are similar to the
material particles, so that we can use the Quantum Mechanics to describe the
psychic particles. In this case, by analogy to the material particles, a particle
with psychic mass mΨ will be described by the following expressions:

r r
pψ = hkψ (08)
Eψ = hωψ (09)
r r
Where pψ = mΨV is the momentum carried by the wave and Eψ its energy;
r
kψ = 2π λψ is the propagation number and λψ = h m Ψ V the wavelength and
ωψ = 2πfψ its cyclic frequency.
The variable quantity that characterizes DeBroglie’s waves is called Wave
Function, usually indicated by Ψ . The wave function associated to a material
particle describes the dynamic state of the particle: its value at a particular point
x, y, z, t is related to the probability of finding the particle in that place and
instant. Although Ψ does not have a physical interpretation, its square Ψ 2
or Ψ Ψ * ) calculated for a particular point x, y, z, t is proportional to the
probability of experimentally finding the particle in that place and instant.

Since Ψ 2 is proportional to the probability P of finding the particle


described by Ψ , the integral of Ψ 2 on the whole space must be finite –
inasmuch as the particle is someplace. Therefore, if
(10)
+∞
∫−∞
Ψ 2 dV = 0
The interpretation is that the particle does not exist. However, if
(11)
+∞
∫−∞
Ψ 2 dV = ∞
the particle will be everywhere simultaneously (Omnipresence).
The wave function Ψ corresponds, as we know, to the displacement y
of the undulatory motion of a rope. However, Ψ as opposed to y , is not a
measurable quantity and can, hence, be a complex quantity. For this reason, it
is admitted that Ψ is described in the x -direction by
− (2π i h )( Et − px )
Ψ = Be (12 )
This equation is the mathematical description of the wave associated with a free
material particle, with total energy E and momentum p , moving in the direction
+ x.
As concerns the psychic particle, the variable quantity characterizing
psyche waves will also be called wave function, denoted by ΨΨ ( to differentiate
it from the material particle wave function), and, by analogy with equation Eq.
(12), expressed by:

167
4

( )
ΨΨ = Ψ0 e Ψ Ψ
(13)
− 2π i h ( E t − p x )

If an experiment involves a large number of identical particles, all described by


the same wave function Ψ , real density of mass ρ of these particles in x, y, z,
t is proportional to the corresponding value Ψ 2 ( Ψ 2 is known as density of
probability. If Ψ is complex then Ψ 2 = ΨΨ* . Thus, ρ ∝ Ψ 2 = Ψ.Ψ* ). Similarly,
in the case of psychic particles, the density of psychic mass, ρ Ψ , in x, y, z, will
be expressed by ρ Ψ ∝ ΨΨ2 = ΨΨ Ψ*Ψ . It is known that ΨΨ2 is always real and
positive while ρ Ψ = mΨ V is an imaginary quantity. Thus, as the modulus of an
imaginary number is always real and positive, we can transform the proportion
ρ Ψ ∝ ΨΨ2 , in equality in the following form:
ΨΨ2 = k ρ Ψ (14)
Where k is a proportionality constant (real and positive) to be determined.
In Quantum Mechanics we have studied the Superpositon Principle,
which affirms that, if a particle (or system of particles) is in a dynamic state
represented by a wave function Ψ1 and may also be in another dynamic state
described by Ψ2 then, the general dynamic state of the particle may be
described by Ψ , where Ψ is a linear combination (superposition) of Ψ1 and
Ψ2 , i.e.,
Ψ = c1Ψ1 + c2 Ψ2 (15)
Complex constants c1 e c2 respectively indicate the percentage of dynamic
state, represented by Ψ1 e Ψ2 in the formation of the general dynamic state
described by Ψ .
In the case of psychic particles (psychic bodies, consciousness, etc.), by
analogy, if ΨΨ1 , ΨΨ 2 ,..., ΨΨn refer to the different dynamic states the psychic
particle assume, then its general dynamic state may be described by the wave
function ΨΨ , given by:
ΨΨ = c1ΨΨ1 + c2 ΨΨ 2 + ... + cn ΨΨn (16)
The state of superposition of wave functions is, therefore, common for both
psychic and material particles. In the case of material particles, it can be
verified, for instance, when an electron changes from one orbit to another.
Before effecting the transition to another energy level, the electron carries out
“virtual transitions” [8]. A kind of relationship with other electrons before
performing the real transition. During this relationship period, its wave function
remains “scattered” by a wide region of the space [9] thus superposing the
wave functions of the other electrons. In this relationship the electrons mutually
influence each other, with the possibility of intertwining their wave functions 1 .
When this happens, there occurs the so-called Phase Relationship according to
quantum-mechanics concept.

1
Since the electrons are simultaneously waves and particles, their wave aspects will interfere with each
other; besides superposition, there is also the possibility of occurrence of intertwining of their wave
functions.

168
5

In the electrons “virtual” transition mentioned before, the “listing” of all the
possibilities of the electrons is described, as we know, by Schrödinger’s wave equation.
Otherwise, it is general for material particles. By analogy, in the case of psychic
particles, we may say that the “listing” of all the possibilities of the psyches involved in
the relationship will be described by Schrödinger’s equation – for psychic case, i.e.,
p Ψ2
∇ 2 ΨΨ + ΨΨ = 0
h2
Because the wave functions are capable of intertwining themselves, the quantum
systems may “penetrate” each other, thus establishing an internal relationship where all
of them are affected by the relationship, no longer being isolated systems but
becoming an integrated part of a larger system. This type of internal relationship, which
exists only in quantum systems, was called Relational Holism [10].
It is a proven quantum fact that a wave function may collapse, and that, at this
moment, all the possibilities that it describes are suddenly expressed in reality. This
means that, through this process, particles can be suddenly materialized. Similarly, the
collapse of the psychic wave function must suddenly also express in reality all the
possibilities described by it. This is, therefore, a point of decision in which there occurs
the compelling need of realization of the psychic form. Thus, this is moment in which
the content of the psychic form realizes itself in the space-time. For an observer in
space-time, something is real when it is under a matter or radiation form. Therefore, the
content of the psychic form may realize itself in space-time exclusively under the form
of radiation, that is, it does not materialize. This must occur when the Materialization
Condition is not satisfied, i.e., when the content of the psychic form is undefined
(impossible to be defined by its own psychic) or it does not contain enough psychic
mass to materialize 2 the respective psychic contents.
Nevertheless, in both cases, there must always be a production of “virtual”
photons to convey the psychic interaction to the other psychic particles, according to
the quantum field theory, only through this type of quanta will interaction be conveyed,
since it has an infinite reach and may be either attractive or repulsive, just as
electromagnetic interaction which, as we know, is conveyed by the exchange of
“virtual” photons.
If electrons, protons and neutrons have psychic mass, then we can infer that the
psychic mass of the atoms are Phase Condensates 3 . In the case of the molecules the
situation is similar. More molecular mass means more atoms and consequently, more
psychic mass. In this case the phase condensate also becomes more structured
because the great amount of elementary psyches inside the condensate requires, by
stability reasons, a better distribution of them. Thus, in the case of molecules with very
large molecular masses (macromolecules) it is possible that their psychic masses
already constitute the most organized shape of a Phase Condensate, called Bose-
Einstein Condensate 4 .

2
By this we mean not only materialization proper but also the movement of matter to realize its psychic
content (including radiation).
3
Ice and NaCl crystals are common examples of imprecisely-structured phase condensates. Lasers, super
fluids, superconductors and magnets are examples of phase condensates more structured.
4
Several authors have suggested the possibility of the Bose-Einstein condensate occurring in the brain,
and that it might be the physical base of memory, although they have not been able to find a suitable
mechanism to underpin such a hypothesis. Evidences of the existence of Bose-Einstein condensates in
living tissues abound (Popp, F.A Experientia, Vol. 44, p.576-585; Inaba, H., New Scientist, May89, p.41;
Rattermeyer, M and Popp, F. A. Naturwissenschaften, Vol.68, Nº5, p.577.)

169
6

The fundamental characteristic of a Bose-Einstein condensate is, as we


know, that the various parts making up the condensed system not only behave
as a whole but also become a whole, i.e., in the psychic case, the various
consciousnesses of the system become a single consciousness with psychic
mass equal to the sum of the psychic masses of all the consciousness of the
condensate. This obviously, increases the available knowledge in the system
since it is proportional to the psychic mass of the consciousness. This unity
confers an individual character to this type of consciousness. For this reason,
from now on they will be called Individual Material Consciousness.
It derives from the above that most bodies do not possess individual
material consciousness. In an iron rod, for instance, the cluster of elementary
psyches in the iron molecules does not constitute Bose-Einstein condensate;
therefore, the iron rod does not have an individual consciousness. Its
consciousness is consequently, much more simple and constitutes just a phase
condensate imprecisely structured made by the consciousness of the iron
atoms.
The existence of consciousnesses in the atoms is revealed in the
molecular formation, where atoms with strong mutual affinity (their
consciousnesses) combine to form molecules. It is the case, for instance of the
water molecules, in which two Hydrogen atoms join an Oxygen atom. Well, how
come the combination between these atoms is always the same: the same
grouping and the same invariable proportion? In the case of molecular
combinations the phenomenon repeats itself. Thus, the chemical substances
either mutually attract or repel themselves, carrying out specific motions for this
reason. It is the so-called Chemical Affinity. This phenomenon certainly results
from a specific interaction between the consciousnesses. From now on, it will
be called Psychic Interaction.
Mutual Affinity is a dimensionless psychic quantity with which we are
familiar and of which we have perfect understanding as to its meaning. The
degree of Mutual Affinity, A , in the case of two consciousnesses, respectively
described by ΨΨ1 e ΨΨ 2 , must be correlated to ΨΨ2 1 e ΨΨ2 2 5 . Only a simple
algebraic form fills the requirements of interchange of the indices, the product

ΨΨ2 1.ΨΨ2 2 = ΨΨ2 2 .ΨΨ2 1 = A1,2 = A2,1 = A (17)

In the above expression, A is due to the product ΨΨ2 1 .ΨΨ2 2 will be always
positive. From equations (17) and (14) we get
m Ψ1 m Ψ 2
A = ΨΨ2 1 .ΨΨ2 2 = k 2 ρ Ψ1 ρ Ψ 2 = k 2 (18)
V1 V2

5
Quantum Mechanics tells us thatΨ does not have a physical interpretation nor a simple meaning and
also it cannot be experimentally observed. However such restriction does not apply to Ψ , which is
2

known as density of probability and represents the probability of finding the body, described by the wave
function Ψ , in the point x, y, z at the moment t. A large value of Ψ 2 means a strong possibility to find
the body, while a small value of Ψ means a weak possibility to find the body.
2

170
7

The psychic interaction can be described starting from the psychic mass
because the psychic mass is the source of the psychic field. Basically, the
psychic mass is gravitational mass, since m Ψ = m g (imaginary ) . In this way, the
equations of the gravitational interaction are also applied to the Psychic
Interaction. That is, we can use Einstein’s General Relativity equations, given
by:
8πG
(
Rik = 4 Ti k − 12 δ ik T ) (19)
c
in order to describe the Psychic Interaction. In this case, the expression of the
energy-momentum tensor, Ti k , must have the following form [11]:
Ti k = ρ Ψ c 2 μ i μ k (20 )
The psychic mass density, ρ Ψ , is a imaginary quantity. Thus, in order to
homogenize the above equation it is necessary to put ρ Ψ because, as we
know, the module of an imaginary number is always real and positive.
Making on the transition to Classical Mechanics [12] one can verify that
Eqs. (19) are reduced to:
ΔΦ = 4πG ρ Ψ (21)
This is, therefore, the equation of the psychic field in nonrelativistic Mechanics.
With respect to its form, it is similar to the equation of the gravitational field, with
the difference that now, instead of the density of gravitational mass we have the
density of psychic mass. Then, we can write the general solution of Eq. (21), in
the following form:
ρ Ψ dV
Φ = −G ∫ (22)
r2
This equation expresses, with nonrelativistic approximation, the potential of the
psychic field of any distribution of psychic mass.
Particularly, for the potential of the field of only one particle with psychic
mass mΨ1 , we get:
G mΨ1
Φ=− (23)
r
Then the force produced by this field upon another particle with psychic mass
mΨ 2 is
r r ∂Φ mΨ1 mΨ 2
FΨ12 = − FΨ 21 = − mΨ 2 = −G (24)
∂r r2
By comparing equations (24) and (18) we obtain
r r VV
FΨ12 = − FΨ 21 = −G A 12 22 (25)
k r
In the vectorial form the above equation is written as follows
r r VV
FΨ12 = − FΨ 21 = −GA 12 22 μ̂ (26 )
k r

Versor μ̂ has the direction of the line connecting the mass centers (psychic
mass) of both particles and oriented from mΨ1 to mΨ 2 .
In general, we may distinguish and quantify two types of mutual affinity:
positive and negative (aversion). The occurrence of the first type is synonym of

171
8

psychic attraction, (as in the case of the atoms in the water molecule) while the
aversion is synonym of repulsion. In fact, Eq. (26) shows that the forces
r r
FΨ12 and FΨ 21 are attractive, if A is positive (expressing positive mutual affinity
between the two psychic bodies), and repulsive if A is negative (expressing
negative mutual affinity between the two psychic bodies). Contrary to the
interaction of the matter, where the opposites attract themselves here, the
opposites repel themselves.
A method and device to obtain images of psychic bodies have been
previously proposed [13]. By means of this device, whose operation is based on
the gravitational interaction and the piezoelectric effect, it will be possible to
observe psychic bodies.
Expression (18) can be rewritten in the following form:
m m
A = k 2 Ψ1 Ψ 2 (27)
V1 V2
The psychic masses mΨ1 and mΨ 2 are imaginary quantities. However, the product
mΨ1 .mΨ 2 is a real quantity. One can then conclude from the previous expression
that the degree of mutual affinity between two consciousnesses depends
basically on the densities of their psychic masses, and that:

1) If mΨ1 > 0 and mΨ 2 > 0 then A > 0 (positive mutual affinity between them)
2) If mΨ1 < 0 and mΨ 2 < 0 then A > 0 (positive mutual affinity between them)
3) If mΨ1 > 0 and mΨ 2 < 0 then A < 0 (negative mutual affinity between them)
4) If mΨ1 < 0 and mΨ 2 > 0 then A < 0 (negative mutual affinity between them)

In this relationship, such as occurs in the case of material particles (“virtual”


transition of the electrons previously mentioned), the consciousnesses interact
mutually, intertwining or not their wave functions. When this happens, there
occurs the so-called Phase Relationship according to quantum-mechanics
concept. Otherwise a Trivial Relationship takes place.
The psychic forces such as the gravitational forces, must be very weak
when we consider the interaction between two particles. However, in spite of
the subtleties, those forces stimulate the relationship of the consciousnesses
with themselves and with the Universe (Eq.26).
From all the preceding, we perceive that Psychic Interaction – unified with
matter interactions, constitutes a single Law which links things and beings
together and, in a network of continuous relations and exchanges, governs the
Universe both in its material and psychic aspects. We can also observe that in
the interactions the same principle reappears always identical. This unity of
principle is the most evident expression of monism in the Universe.

172
9

3. UNIFIED COSMOLOGY

In traditional Cosmology, the Universe arises from a great explosion


where everything that exists would be initially concentrated in a minuscule
particle with the size of a proton and with a gigantic mass equal to the mass of
the Universe. However, the origin this tiny particle is not explained, nor is the
reason for its critical volume.
This critical volume denotes knowledge of what would happen with the
Universe starting from that initial condition, a fact that points towards the
existence of a Creator.
It was shown that a wave function may collapse and, at this moment, all
the possibilities that it describes are suddenly expressed in reality. This means
that, through this process, particles can be suddenly materialized. This is a
materialization process which can explain the materialization of the Universe.
That is, the Primordial Universe would have arisen at the exact moment in
which the Primordial Wave Function collapsed (Initial Instant) realizing the
content of the psychic form generated at the consciousness of the Creator when
He thought to create the Universe.
The psychic form described by this primordial wave function must have
been generated in a consciousness with a psychic mass much greater than that
needed to materialize the Universe (material and psychic).
This giant consciousness, in its turn, would not only be the greatest of all
consciousnesses in the Universe but also the substratum of everything that
exists and, obviously, everything that exists would be entirely contained within
it, including all the spacetime.
Based on General Theory of Relativity and recent cosmological
observations, it is known today that the Universe occupies a space of positive
curvature. This space, as we known, is “closed in itself”, its volume is finite but,
clearly understood, the space has no frontiers, it is unlimited. Thus, if the
consciousness we refer to contains all the space, its volume is necessarily
infinite, consequently having an infinite psychic mass.
This means that It contains all the existing psychic mass and, therefore,
any other consciousness that may exist will contained in It. Hence, we may
conclude that It is the Supreme Consciousness and that there no other equal to
It: It is unique.
The manifestation of the knowledge or auto-accessible knowledge in a
consciousness should be related to its quantity of psychic mass. In the
Supreme Consciousness, whose psychic mass is infinite, the manifestation of
the knowledge is total, and as such, necessarily, It should be omniscient. In the
elementary psyche (m Ψ (min ) ) most of the knowledge should be in latent state.
Being omniscient, the Supreme Conscience knows evidently, how to formulate
well-defined mental images and with sufficiently psychic masses in order to
materialize their contents (Materialization Condition). Consequently, It can
materialize everything which It wants (Omnipotence).
Since the Supreme Consciousness occupies all the space, we can
conclude that It cannot be displaced by another consciousness, not even by
Itself. Therefore, the Supreme Consciousness is immovable.
As Augustine says (Gen. Ad lit viii, 20), "The Creator Spirit moves Himself
neither by time, nor by place."

173
10

Thomas Aquinas also had already considered Creator's immobility as


necessary:
“From this we infer that it is necessary that the God that moves everything is
immovable.” (Summa Theologica).
On the other hand, since the Supreme Consciousness contains all the
space-time, It should contain obviously, all the time. More explicit, for the
Supreme Consciousness, past, present and future are an eternal present, and
the time does not flow as it flows for us.
Within this framework, when we talk about the Creation of the Universe,
the use of the verb “to create” means that something that was not came into
being, thus presupposing the concept of time flow. For the Supreme
Consciousness, however, the instant of Creation is mixed up with all other
times, consequently there being no “before” or “after” the Creation and, thus,
the following questions like “What did the Supreme Consciousness do before
Creation?
We can also infer from the above that the existence of the Supreme
Consciousness has no defined limit (beginning and end), which confers upon It
the unique characteristic of uncreated and eternal.
Being eternal, Its wave function ΨSC shall never collapse. On the other
hand, for having an infinite psychic mass, the value of ΨSC will always be infinite
and, hence, in agreement with Eq. (11), the Supreme Consciousness is
simultaneously everywhere, that is, It is omnipresent.
All these characteristics of the Supreme Consciousness (infinite, unique,
uncreated, eternal, omnipresent, omniscient and omnipotent) coincide with
those traditionally ascribed to God by most religions.
The option of the Supreme Consciousness to materialize the primordial
Universe into a critical volume denotes the knowledge of what was would
happen in the Universe starting from that initial condition. Therefore, It knew
how the Universe would behave under already existing laws. Consequently, the
laws were not created for the Universe and, hence, are not “Nature’s laws” or
“laws placed on Nature by God”, as written by Descartes. They already existed
as an intrinsic part of the Supreme Consciousness; Thomas Aquinas had a very
clear understanding about this. He talks about the Eternal Law “…which exists
in God’s mind and governs the whole Universe”.
The Supreme Consciousness had all freedom to choose the initial
conditions of the Universe, but opted for the concentration in a critical volume
so that the evolution of the Universe would proceed in the most convenient form
for the purpose It had in mind and in accordance with the laws inherent in Its
own nature. This reasoning then answers Einstein’s famous question: “What
level of choice would God have had when building the Universe?”
Apparently, Newton was the first one to notice the Divine option. In his
book Optiks, he gives us a perfect view of how he imagined the creation of the
Universe:
“ It seems possible to me that God, in the beginning, gave form to matter in
solid, compacted particles[…] in the best manner possible to contribute to the
purpose He had in mind…”
With what purpose did the Supreme Consciousness create the Universe?
This question seems to be difficult to answer. Nevertheless, if we admit the
Supreme Consciousness’s primordial desire to procreate, i.e., to generate

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individual consciousnesses from Itself so that the latter could evolve and
manifest Its same creating attributes, then we can infer that, in order for them to
evolve, such consciousness would need a Universe, and this might have been
the main reason for its creation. Therefore, the origin of the Universe would be
related to the generation of said consciousness and, consequently, the
materialization of the primordial Universe must have taken place at the same
epoch when the Supreme Consciousness decided to individualize the
postulated consciousness, hereinafter called Primordial Consciousness.
For having been directly individualized from the Supreme Consciousness,
the primordial consciousness certainly contained in themselves, although in a
latent state, all the possibilities of the Supreme Consciousness, including the
germ of independent will, which enables original starting points to be
established. However, in spite of the similarity to Supreme Consciousness, the
primordial consciousness could not have the understanding of themselves. This
self-understanding only arises with the creative mental state that such
consciousnesses can only reach by evolution.
Thus, in the first evolutionary period, the primordial consciousness must
have remained in total unconscious state, this being then the beginning of an
evolutionary pilgrimage from unconsciousness to superconsciousness.
The evolution of the primordial consciousness in this unconsciousness
period takes place basically through psychic relationship among them
(superposition of psychic wave functions, having or not intertwining). Thus, the
speed at which they evolved was determined by what they obtained in these
relationships.
After the origin of the first planets, some of them came to develop
favorable conditions for the appearance of macromolecules. These
macromolecules, as we have shown, may have a special type of consciousness
formed by a Bose-Einstein condensate (Individual Material Consciousness). In
this case, since the molecular masses of the macromolecules are very large,
they will have individual material consciousness of large psychic mass and,
therefore, access to a considerable amount of information in its own
consciousness. Consequently, macromolecules with individual material
consciousness are potentially very capable and some certainly already can
carry out autonomous motions, thus being considered as “living” entities.
However, if we decompose one of these molecules so as to destroy its
individual consciousness, its parts will no longer have access to the information
which “instructed” said molecule and, hence, will not be able to carry out the
autonomous motions it previously did. Thus, the “life” of the molecule
disappears – as we can see, Delbrück’s Paradox is then solved 6 .
The appearance of “living” molecules in a planet marks the beginning of
the most important evolutionary stage for the psyche of matter, for it is from the
combination of these molecules that there appear living beings with individual
material consciousness with even larger psychic masses.
Biologists have shown that all living organisms existing on Earth come
from two types of molecules – aminoacids and nucleotides – which make up the
fundamental building blocks of living beings. That is, the nucleotides and
6
This paradox ascribed to Max Delbrück (Delbrück, Max., (1978) Mind from Matter? American Scholar,
47. pp.339-53.) remained unsolved and was posed as follows: How come the same matter studied by
Physics, when incorporated into a living organism, assumes an unexpected behavior, although not
contradicting physical laws?

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aminoacids are identical in all living beings, whether they are bacteria, mollusks
or men. There are twenty different species of aminoacids and five of
nucleotides.
In 1952, Stanley Miller and Harold Urey proved that aminoacids could be
produced from inert chemical products present in the atmosphere and oceans in
the first years of existence of the Earth. Later, in 1962, nucleotides were created
in laboratory under similar conditions. Thus, it was proved that the molecular
units making up the living beings could have formed during the Earth’s primitive
history.
Therefore, we can imagine what happened from the moment said
molecules appeared. The concentration of aminoacids and nucleotides in the
oceans gradually increased. After a long period of time, when the amount of
nucleotides was already large enough, they began to group themselves by
mutual psychic attraction, forming the molecules that in the future will become
DNA molecules.
When the molecular masses of these molecules became large enough,
the distribution of elementary psyches in their consciousnesses took the most
orderly possible form of phase condensate (Bose-Einstein condensate) and
such consciousnesses became the individual material consciousness.
Since the psychic mass of the consciousnesses of these molecules is
very large (as compared with the psychic mass of the atoms), the amount of
self-accessible knowledge became considerable in such consciousnesses and
thus, they became apt to instruct the joining of aminoacids in the formation of
the first proteins (origin of the Genetic Code). Consequently, the DNA’s
capability to serve as guide for the joining of aminoacids in the formation of
proteins is fundamentally a result of their psychism.
In the psychic of DNA molecules, the formation of proteins certainly had a
definite objective: the construction of cells.
During the cellular construction, the most important function played by the
consciousnesses of the DNA molecules may have been that of organizing the
distribution of the new molecules incorporated to the system so that the
consciousnesses of these molecules jointly formed with the consciousness of
the system a Bose-Einstein condensate. In this manner, more knowledge would
be available to the system and, after the cell is completed, the latter would also
have an individual material consciousness.
Afterwards, under the action of psychic interaction, the cells began to
group themselves according to different degrees of positive mutual affinity, in an
organized manner so that the distribution of their consciousnesses would also
form Bose-Einstein condensates. Hence, collective cell units began to appear
with individual consciousnesses of larger psychic masses and, therefore, with
access to more knowledge. With greater knowledge available, these groups of
cells began to perform specialized functions to obtain food, assimilation, etc.
That is when the first multi-celled beings appeared.
Upon forming the tissues, the cells gather structurally together in an
organized manner. Thus, the tissues and, hence, the organs and the organisms
themselves also possess individual material consciousnesses.
The existence of the material consciousness of the organisms is proved
in a well-known experiment by Karl Lashley, a pioneer in neurophysiology.
Lashley initially taught guinea pigs to run through a maze, an ability they
remember and keep in their memories in the same way as we acquire new

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skills. He then systematically removed small portions of the brain tissue of said
guinea pigs. He thought that, if the guinea pigs still remembered how to run
through the maze, the memory centers would still be intact.
Little by little he removed the brain mass; the guinea pigs, curiously
enough, kept remembering how to run through the maze. Finally, with more
than90% of their cortex removed, the guinea pigs still kept remembering how to
run through the maze. Well, as we have seen, the consciousness of an
organism is formed by the concretion of all its cellular consciousnesses.
Therefore, the removal of a portion of the organism cells does not make it
disappear. Their cells, or better saying, the consciousnesses of their cells
contribute to the formation of the consciousness of the organism just as the
others, and it is exactly due to this that, even when we remove almost all of the
guinea pigs’ cortex, they were still able to remember from the memories of their
individual material consciousnesses. In this manner, what Lashley’s experiment
proved was precisely the existence of individual material consciousnesses in
the guinea pigs.
Another proof of the existence of the individual material
consciousnesses in organisms is given by the regeneration phenomenon, so
frequent in animals of simple structure: sponges, isolated coelenterates, worms
of various groups, mollusks, echinoderms and tunicates. The arthropods
regenerate their pods. Lizards may regenerate only their tail after autoctomy.
Some starfish may regenerate so easily that a simple detached arm may, for
example, give origin to a wholly new animal.
The organization of the psychic parts in the composition of an organism’s
individual material consciousness is directly related to the organization of the
material parts of the organism, as we have already seen. Thus, due to this
interrelationship between body and consciousness, any disturbance of a
material (physiological) nature in the body of the being will affect its individual
material consciousness, and any psychic disturbance imposed upon its
consciousness affects the physiology of its body.
When a consciousness is strongly affected to the extent of unmaking the
Bose-Einstein’s condensate, which gives it the status of individual
consciousness, there also occurs the simultaneous disappearance of the
knowledge made accessible by said condensation. Therefore, when a cell’s
consciousness no longer constitutes a Bose-Einstein condensate, there is also
the simultaneous disappearance of the knowledge that instructs and maintains
the cellular metabolism. Consequently, the cell no longer functions thus
initiating its decomposition (molecular disaggregation).
Similarly, when the consciousness of an animal (or plant) no longer
constitutes a Bose-Einstein condensate, the knowledge that instructs and
maintains its body functioning also disappears, and it dies. In this process, after
the unmaking of the being’s individual consciousness, there follows the
unmaking of the individual consciousnesses of the organs; next will be the
consciousnesses of their own cells which no longer exit. At the end there will
remain the isolated psyches of the molecules and atoms. Death, indeed,
destroys nothing, neither what makes up matter nor what makes up psyche.
As we have seen, all the information available in the consciousnesses of
the beings is also accessible by the consciousnesses of their organs up to their
molecules’. Thus, when an individual undergoes a certain experience, the
information concerning it not only is recorded somewhere in this consciousness

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but also pervades all the individual consciousnesses that make up its total
consciousness. Consequently, psychic disturbances imposed to a being reflect
up to the level of their individual molecular consciousnesses, perhaps even
structurally affecting said molecules, due to the interrelationship between body
and consciousness already mentioned here.
Therefore, one can expect that there may occur modifications in the
sequences of nucleotides of DNA molecules when the psychism of the
organism to which they are incorporated is sufficiently affected.
It is known that such modifications in the structure of DNA molecules may
also occur because of the chemical products in the blood stream ( as in the
case of the mustard gas used in chemical warface) or by the action of radiation
sufficiently energetic.
Modifications in the sequences of nucleotides in DNA molecules are
called mutations. Mutations as we know, determine hereditary variations which
make up the basis of Darwin’s theory of evolution.
There may occur “favorable” and unfavorable” mutation to the individuals;
the former enhances the individuals’ possibility of survival, whereas the latter
decrease such possibility.
The theory of evolution is established as a consequence of individuals’
efforts to survive in the environment where they live. This means that their
descendants may become different from their ancestors. This is the mechanism
that leads to the frequent appearance of new species. Darwin believed that the
mutation process was slow and gradual. Nevertheless, it is known today that
this is not the general rule, for there are evidences of the appearance of new
species in a relatively short period of time [14]. We also know that the
characteristics are transmitted from parents to offsprings by means of genes
and that the recombination of the parents’ genes, when genetic instructions are
transmitted by such genes.
However, it was shown that the genetic instructions are basically
associated with the psychism of DNA molecules. Consequently, the genes
transmit not only physiological but also psychic differences.
Thus, as a consequence of genetic transmission, besides the great
physiological difference between individuals of the same species, there is also a
great psychic dissimilarity.
Such psychic dissimilarity associated with the progressive enhancement
of the individual’s psychic quantities may have given rise, in immemorial time, to
a variety of individuals (most probably among anthropoid primates) which
unconsciously established a positive mutual affinity with primordial
consciousnesses must have been attracted to the Earth. Thus, the relationship
established among them and the consciousnesses of said individuals is
enhanced.
In the course of evolutionary transformation, there was a time when the
fetuses of said variety already presented such a high degree of mutual affinity
with the primordial consciousnesses attracted to the Earth that, during
pregnancy, the incorporation of primordial consciousnesses may have occurred
in said fetuses.
In spite of absolute psychic mass of the fetus’s material consciousness
being much smaller than that of the mother’s consciousness, the degree of
positive mutual affinity between the fetus’s consciousness and the primordial
consciousness that is going to be incorporated is much greater than that

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between the latter and the mother’s, which makes the psychic attraction
between the fetus’s consciousness and primordial consciousness much
stronger than the attraction between the latter and the mother’s. That is the
reason why primordial consciousness incorporates the fetus. Thus, when these
new individuals are born, they bring along, besides their individual material
consciousness, an individualized consciousness of the Supreme
Consciousness. This is how the first hominids were born.
Having been directly individualized from Supreme Consciousness, the
primordial consciousnesses constitutes as perfect individualities and not as
phase condensates as the consciousnesses of matter. In this manner, they do
not dissociate upon the death of those that incorporated them. Afterwards, upon
the action of psychic attraction, they were again able to incorporate into other
fetuses to proceed with their evolution.
These consciousnesses (hereinafter called human consciousness)
constitutes individualities and, therefore, the larger their psychic mass the more
available knowledge they will have and, consequently, greater ability to evolve.
Just as the human race evolves biologically, human consciousnesses
have also been evolving. When they are incorporated, the difficulties of the
material world provide them with more and better opportunities to acquire
psychic mass (later on we will see how said consciousnesses may gain or lose
psychic mass). That is why they need to perform successive reincorporations.
Each reincorporation arises as a new opportunity for said consciousnesses to
increase their psychic mass and thus evolve.
The belief in the reincarnation is millenary and well known, although it has
not yet been scientifically recognized, due to its antecedent probability being
very small. In other words, there is small amount of data contributing to its
confirmation. This, however, does not mean that the phenomenon is not true,
but only that there is the need for a considerable amount of experiments to
establish a significant degree of antecedent probability.
The rational acceptance of reincarnation entails deep modifications in
the general philosophy of the human being. For instance, it frees him from
negative feelings, such as nationalistic or racial prejudices and other response
patterns based on the naive conception that we are simply what we appear to
be.
Darwin’s lucid perception upon affirming that not only the individual’s
corporeal qualities but also his psychic qualities tend to improve made implicit in
his “natural selection” one of the most important rules of evolution: the psychic
selection, which basically consists in the survival of the most apt
consciousnesses. Psychic aptitude means, in the case of human
consciousnesses, mental quality, i.e., quality of thinking.
Further on, we will see that the human consciousnesses may gain or lose
psychic mass from the Supreme consciousness, respectively due to the mode
of resonance (quality) of their thoughts. This means that the consciousnesses
that cultivate a greater amount of bad-quality thoughts will have a lesser chance
of psychic survival than the others. A human consciousness that permanently
cultivates bad-quality thoughts progressively loses psychic mass and may even
be extinguished.
With the progressive disappearance of psychically less apt
consciousnesses, it will be increasingly easy for the more apt consciousnesses
to increase their psychic masses during reincorporation periods. There will be a

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time when psychic selection will have produced consciousnesses of large


psychic mass and, therefore, highly evolved. It may happen that such time will
precede the critical time from which material life will no longer be possible in the
Universe.

4. INTERACTION OF HUMAN CONSCIOUSNESSES

The thought originated in a consciousness (static thought) presupposes


the individualization of a quantum of psychic mass ΔmΨ in the very
consciousness where the thought originated. Consequently, the wave function
ΨΨ associated with this psychic body must collapse after a time interval Δt ,
expressing in the space-time its psychic content when it contains sufficiently
psychic mass for that, or otherwise transforming itself in radiation (psychic
radiation). In both cases, there is also production of “virtual” photons (“virtual’
psychic radiation) to convey the psychic interaction.
According to the Uncertainty Principle, “virtual” quanta cannot be
observed experimentally. However, since they are interaction quanta, their
effects may be verified in the very particles or bodies subjected to the
interactions.
Obviously, only one specific type of interaction occurs between two
particles if each one absorbs the quanta of said interaction emitted by the other;
otherwise, the interaction will be null. Thus, the null interaction between psychic
bodies particularly means that there is no mutual absorption of the “virtual”
psychic photons (psychic interaction quanta) emitted by them. That is, the
emission spectrum of each one of them does not coincide with the absorption
spectrum of the other.
By analogy with material bodies, whose emission spectra are, as we
know, identical with the absorption ones, also the psychic bodies must absorb
within the spectrum they emit. Specifically, in the case of human
consciousness, their thoughts cause them to become emitters of psychic
radiation in certain frequency spectra and, consequently, receivers in the same
spectra. Thus, when a human consciousness, by its thoughts, is receptive
coming from a certain thought, said radiation will be absorbed by the
consciousness (resonance absorption). Under these circumstances, the
radiation absorbed must stimulate – through the Resonance Principle – said
consciousness to emit in the same spectrum, just as it happens with matter.
Nevertheless, in order for that emission to occur in a human
consciousness, it must be preceded by the individualization of thoughts identical
with that which originated the radiation absorbed because obviously only
identical thoughts will be able to reproduce, when they collapse, the spectrum of
“virtual” psychic radiations absorbed.
These induced thoughts – such as the thoughts of consciousnesses
themselves – must remain individualized for a period of time Δt (lifetime of the
thought) after which its wave function will collapse, thus producing the “virtual”
psychic radiation in the same spectrum of frequencies absorbed.
The Supreme Consciousness, just as the other consciousnesses, has Its
own spectrum of absorption determined by Its thoughts – which make up the
standard of a good-quality thought is hereby established. That is, they are
resonant thoughts in Supreme Consciousness. Thus, only thoughts of this kind,

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produced in human consciousnesses, may induce the individualization of similar


thoughts in Supreme Consciousness.
In this context, a system of judgment is established in which the good and
the evil are psychic values, with their origin in free thought. The good is related
to the good-quality thoughts, which are thoughts resonant in Supreme
Consciousness. The evil, in turn, is related to the bad-quality thoughts, non-
resonant in the Supreme Consciousness.
Consequently, the moral derived thereof results from the Law itself,
inherent in the Supreme Consciousness and, therefore, this psychic moral must
be the fundamental moral. Thus, fundamental ethics is neither biological nor
located in the aggressive action, as thought by Nietzsche. It is psychic and
located in the good-quality thoughts. It has a theological basis and in it the
creation of the Universe by a pre-existing God is of an essential nature,
opposed, for instance, to Spinoza’s “geometrical ethics”, which eliminated the
ideas of the Creation of the Universe by a pre-existing God the main
underpinning of Christian theology and philosophy. However, it is very close to
Aristotle’s ethics, to the extent that, from it, we understand that we are what we
repeatedly do (think) and that excellence is not an act, but a habit (Ethics, II, 4).
According to Aristotle: ‘” the goodness of a man is a work of the soul towards
excellence in a complete lifetime: … it is not a day or a short period that makes
a man fortunate and happy. “ (Ibid, I, 7).
The “virtual” psychic radiation coming from a thought may induce several
similar thoughts in the consciousness absorbing it, because each photon of
radiation absorbed carries in itself the electromagnetic expression of the
thought which produced it and, consequently, each one of them stimulates the
individualization of a similar thought. However, the amount of thoughts induced
is, of course, limited by the amount of psychic mass of the consciousness
proper.
In the specific case of the Supreme Consciousness, the “virtual” psychic
radiation coming from a good-quality thought must induce many similar
thoughts. On the other hand, since Supreme Consciousness involves human
consciousness the induced thoughts appear in the surroundings of the very
consciousness which induced them. These thoughts are then strongly attracted
by said consciousness and fuse therewith, for just as the thoughts generated in
a consciousness have a high degree of positive mutual affinity with it, they will
also have the thoughts induced by it.
The fusion of these thoughts in the consciousness obviously determines
an increase in its psychic mass. We then conclude that the cultivation of good-
quality thoughts is highly beneficial to the individual. On the contrary, the
cultivation of bad-quality thoughts makes consciousness lose psychic mass.
When bad-quality thoughts are generated in a consciousness, they do not
induce identical thoughts in Supreme Consciousness, because the absorption
spectrum of Supreme Consciousness excludes psychic radiations coming from
bad-quality thoughts. Thus, such radiation directs itself to other
consciousnesses; however, it will only induce identical thoughts in those that
are receptive in the same frequency spectrum. When this happens and right
after the wave functions corresponding to these induced thoughts collapse and
materialize said thoughts or changing them into radiation, the receptive
consciousness will lose psychic mass, similarly to what happens in the
consciousness which first produced the thought. Consequently, both the

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consciousness which gave rise to the bad-quality thought and those receptive to
the psychic radiations coming from this type of thoughts will lose psychic mass.
We must observe, however, that our thoughts are not limited only to
harming or benefiting ourselves, since they also can, as we have already seen,
induce similar thoughts in other consciousnesses, thus affecting them. In this
case, it is important to observe that the psychic radiation produced by the
induced thoughts may return to the consciousness which initially produced the
bad-quality thought, inducing other similar thoughts in it, which evidently cause
more loss of psychic mass in said consciousness.
The fact of our thoughts not being restricted to influencing ourselves is
highly relevant because it leads us to understand we have a great responsibility
towards the others as regards what we think.
Let us now approach the intensity of thoughts. If two thoughts have the
same psychic form and equal psychic masses, they have the same psychic
density and, consequently, the same intensity, from the psychic viewpoint.
However, if one of them has more psychic mass than the other, it will evidently
have a larger psychic density and, thus, will be more intense.
The same thought repeated with different intensities in a consciousness –
in a time period much shorter than the lifetime of thought – has its psychic mass
increased due to the fusion of the psychic masses corresponding to each
repetition. The fusion is caused by a strong psychic attraction between them,
because the inertial thought and the repeated ones have high degree of positive
mutual affinity.
It is then possible by this process that the thought may appear with
enough psychic mass to materialize when its wave function collapses.
If the process is jointly shared with other consciousnesses, the thoughts
in these consciousnesses evidently correspond to different dynamics states in
the same thought. Thus, if ΨΨ1 , ΨΨ 2 ,..., ΨΨn refer to the different dynamic
states that the same thought may assume, then its general dynamic state,
according to the superposition principle, may be described by a single wave
function ΨΨ , given by:
ΨΨ = c1ΨΨ1 + c2 ΨΨ 2 + ... + cn ΨΨn
Therefore, everything happens as if there were only a single thought
described by ΨΨ , with psychic mass determined by the set of psychic masses
of all the similar thoughts repeated in the various consciousnesses. In this
manner, it is possible that in this process the thought materializes even faster
than in the case of a single consciousness.
It was shown that the consciousnesses may increase their psychic
masses by cultivating good-quality thoughts and avoiding the bad-quality
thoughts ones. However, both the cultivation of good thoughts and the ability to
instantly perceive nature in our thoughts to quickly repel the bad-quality
thoughts result in a slow and difficult process.
The fact of intense enough mental images being capable of materializing
suggests that we must be careful with mental images of fear. Thus more than
anything else, it is imperative to avoid their repetition in our consciousnesses,
because at each repetition they acquire more psychic mass.
Great are the possibilities encompassed in the consciousnesses, just as
many are the effects of psychic interaction. At cellular level, the intervention of

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psychic interaction in the formation of the embryo’s organs is particularly


interesting.
Despite the recent advances in Embryology, embryologists cannot
understand how the cells of the internal cellular mass 7 migrate to defined
places in the embryo in order to form the organs of the future child.
We will show that this is a typical biological phenomenon which is
fundamentally derived from the psychic interaction between the cells’
consciousnesses.
Just as the consciousnesses of the children have a high degree of
positive mutual affinity with the consciousnesses of their parents, and among
themselves (principle of familiar formation), the embryo cells, by having
originated from cellular duplication, have a high degree of positive mutual
affinity. The embryo cells result, as we know, from the cellular duplication of a
single cell containing the paternal and maternal genes and, hence, have a high
degree of positive mutual affinity.
Thus, under the action of psychic interaction the cells of the internal
cellular mass start gathering into small groups, according to the different
degrees of mutual affinity.
When there is a positive mutual affinity between two consciousnesses
there occurs the intertwining between their wave functions, and a Phase
Relationship is established among them. Consequently, since the degree of
positive mutual affinity among the embryo cells is high, also the relationship
among them will be intense, and it is exactly this what enables the construction
of the organs of the future child. In other words, when a cell is attracted by
certain group in the embryo, it is through the cell-group relationship that
determines where the cell is to aggregate to the group. In this manner, each cell
finds its correct place in the embryo; that is why observers frequently say that,
”the cells appear to know where to go”, when experimentally observed.
The cells of the internal cellular mass are capable of originating any
organ, and are hence called totipotents; thus, the organs begin to appear. In the
endoderm, there appear the urinary organs, the respiratory system, and part of
the digestive system; in the mesoderm are formed the muscles, bones,
cartilages, blood, vessels, heart, kidneys; in the ectoderm there appear the skin,
the nervous system, etc.
Thus, it is the mutual affinity among the consciousnesses of the cells that
determines the formation of the body organs and keeps their own physical
integrity. For this reason, every body rejects cells from other bodies, unless the
latter have positive mutual affinity with their own cells. The higher the degree of
cellular positive mutual affinity, the faster the integration of the transplanted
cells and, therefore, the less problematic the transplant. In the case of cells from
identical twins, this integration takes place practically with no problems, since
said degree of mutual affinity is very high.

7
When a spermatozoon penetrates the ovum, an egg is formed. Roughly twelve to
fourteen hours later, the egg divides into two identical cells. This is the beginning of the
phase where the embryo is called morula. Six days later, in the blastula phase, the
external cells fix the embryo to the uterus. The cells inside the blastula remain equal to
each other and are known as internal cellular mass.

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In eight weeks of life, all organs are practically formed in the embryo.
From there on, it begins to be called fetus.
The embryo’s material individual consciousness is formed by the
consciousnesses of its cells united in a Bose-Einstein condensate. As more
cells become incorporated into the embryo, its material consciousness acquires
more psychic mass. This means that this type of consciousness will be greater
in the fetus than in the embryo and even greater in the child.
Thus, the psychic mass of the mother-fetus consciousness progressively
increases during pregnancy, consequently increasing the psychic attraction
between this consciousness and that new one about to incorporate. In normal
pregnancies, this psychic attraction also increases due to the habitual increase
in the degree of positive mutual affinity between said consciousnesses.
Since the embryo's consciousness has greater degree of positive mutual
affinity with the consciousness that is going to incorporate, then the embryo's
consciousness becomes the center of psychic attraction to where the human
consciousness destined to the fetus will go.
When the psychic attraction becomes intense enough, human
consciousness penetrates the mother-fetus consciousness, forming with it a
new Bose–Einstein condensate. From that instant on, the fetus begins to have
two consciousnesses: the individual material one and the human consciousness
attracted to it.
It easy to see that the psychic attraction upon this human consciousness
tends to continue, being progressively compressed until effectively incorporating
the fetus. When this takes place, it will be ready to be born.
It is probably due to this psychic compression process that the
incorporated consciousness suffers amnesia of its preceding history. Upon
death, after the psychic decompression that arises from the definitive
disincorporation of the consciousness, the preceding memory must return.
It was shown that particles of matter perform transitions to the imaginary
space-time when their gravitational masses reach the gravitational mass
ranging between + 0.159 M i to − 0.159M i [7]. Under these circumstances, the
total energy of the particle becomes imaginary and consequently it disappears
from our ordinary space-time. Since imaginary mass is equal to psychic mass
we can infer that the particle makes a transition to the psychic space-time.
The consciousnesses are in the psychic space-time. Therefore, if material
bodies can become psychic bodies and to interact with others psychic bodies in
this space-time, then they reach a new part of the Universe where the
consciousnesses live and from where they come in order to incorporate the
human fetus, and to where they should return, after the death of the material
bodies. Consequently, the transition to the psychic space-time is a door for us
to visit the spiritual Universe.

184
21

REFERENCES

[1] Capra, F. (1988) O Tao da Física, Ed. Cultrix, S.Paulo.

[2] Zohar, D. (1990) O Ser Quântico, Ed. Best Seller, S.Paulo.

[3] Winger, K. (1967) Symmetries And Reflections, Blooming, Ind., Indiana


University Press.

[4] Young, A.M. (1976) The Geometry of Meaning, Delacorte Press, N.Y;
Young, A.M. The Reflexive Universe: Evolution of Consciousness, Delacorte
Press, N.Y.

[5] Herbert, N. (1979) Mind Science: A Physics of Consciousness Primer,


Boulder Creek, Cal: C -Life Institute.

[6] Bohm, D. (1980) A New Theory of Relation of Mind and Matter, The Journal
of the American Society of Psychical Research, Vol. 80, Nº 2, p.129.

[7] De Aquino, F. (2007) Mathematical Foundations of the Relativistic Theory


of Quantum Gravity, preprint, physics/0212033.

[8] Bohm, D. (1951) Quantum Theory, Prentice-Hall, N.Y, p.415.

[9] D’Espagnat, B. The Question of Quantum Reality, Scientific American,


241,128.

[10] Teller, P. Relational Holism and Quantum Mechanics, British Journal for the
Philosophy of Science, 37, 71-81.

[11] Landau, L. and Lifchitz, E. (1969) Theorie du Champ, Ed.MIR, Moscow,


Portuguese version (1974) Ed. Hemus, S.Paulo, pp.116 and 363.

[12] Landau, L. and Lifchitz, E. (1969) Theorie du Champ, Ed.MIR, Moscow,


Portuguese version (1974) Ed. Hemus, S.Paulo, pp.363-364.

[13] De Aquino, F. (2007) “Gravity Control by means of Electromagnetic


Field through Gas at Ultra-Low Pressure”, physics/0701091.

[14] Grant, P.R., and Grant, B.R. (1995). Predicting microevolutionary responses
to directional selection on heritable variation. Evolution 49:241-251.

185
The Gravitational Spacecraft
Fran De Aquino
Maranhao State University, Physics Department, S.Luis/MA, Brazil.
Copyright © 1997-2010 by Fran De Aquino. All Rights Reserved

There is an electromagnetic factor of correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass,
which in specific electromagnetic conditions, can be reduced, made negative and increased in
numerical value. This means that gravitational forces can be reduced, inverted and intensified
by means of electromagnetic fields. Such control of the gravitational interaction can have a lot
of practical applications. For example, a new concept of spacecraft and aerospace flight arises
from the possibility of the electromagnetic control of the gravitational mass. The novel
spacecraft called Gravitational Spacecraft possibly will change the paradigm of space flight
and transportation in general. Here, its operation principles and flight possibilities, it will be
described. Also it will be shown that other devices based on gravity control, such as the
Gravitational Motor and the Quantum Transceivers, can be used in the spacecraft,
respectively, for Energy Generation and Telecommunications.

Key words: Gravity, Gravity Control, Quantum Devices.

CONTENTS

1. Introduction 02
2. Gravitational Shielding 02

3. Gravitational Motor: Free Energy 05

4. The Gravitational Spacecraft 06

5. The Imaginary Space-time 13

6. Past and Future 18

7. Instantaneous Interstellar Communications 20

8. Origin of Gravity and Genesis of Gravitational Energy 23

Appendix A 26
Appendix B 34
Appendix C 39
References 42

186
2
1. Introduction

The discovery of the correlation In the beginning of this century,


between gravitational mass and inertial it has been clearly noticed that there
mass [1] has shown that the gravity was something unsatisfactory about
can be reduced, nullified and inverted. the whole notion of quantization and
Starting from this discovery several that the quantization process had many
ways were proposed in order to obtain ambiguities. Then, a new approach has
experimentally the local gravity been proposed starting from the
control [2]. Consequently, new generalization of the action function * .
concepts of spacecraft and aerospace The result has been the derivation of a
flight have arisen. This novel theoretical background, which finally
spacecraft, called Gravitational led to the so-sought quantization of the
Spacecraft, can be equipped with other gravity and of the space-time.
devices also based on gravity control, Published under the title:
such as the Gravitational Motor and “Mathematical Foundations of the
the Quantum Transceiver that can be Relativistic Theory of Quantum
used, respectively, for energy Gravity” † , this theory predicts a
generation and telecommunications. consistent unification of Gravity with
Based on the theoretical background Electromagnetism. It shows that the
which led to the gravity control, the strong equivalence principle is
operation principles of the reaffirmed and, consequently
Gravitational Spacecraft and of the Einstein’s equations are preserved. In
devices above mentioned, will be fact, Einstein’s equations can be
described in this work. deduced directly from the Relativistic
Theory of Quantum Gravity. This
2. Gravitational Shielding shows, therefore, that the General
Relativity is a particularization of this
The contemporary greatest new theory, just as the Newton’s
challenge of the Theoretical Physics theory is a particular case from the
was to prove that, Gravity is a General Relativity. Besides, it was
quantum phenomenon. Since the deduced from the new theory an
General Relativity describes gravity as important correlation between the
related to the curvature of the space- gravitational mass and the inertial
time then, the quantization of the mass, which shows that the
gravity implies the quantization of the gravitational mass of a particle can be
proper space-time. Until the end of the decreased and even made negative,
century XX, several attempts to independently of its inertial mass, i.e.,
quantify gravity were accomplished. while the gravitational mass is
However, all of them resulted fruitless
*
[3, 4]. The formulation of the action in Classical Mechanics
extends to the Quantum Mechanics and it has been the
basis for the development of the Strings Theory.

http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0212033

187
3
progressively reduced, the inertial kinetic momentum; c is the speed of
mass does not vary. This is highly light.
relevant because it means that the This equation shows that only
weight of a body can also be reduced for Δp = 0 the gravitational mass is
and even inverted in certain equal to the inertial mass. Instances in
circumstances, since Newton’s gravity which Δp is produced by
law defines the weight P of a body as electromagnetic radiation, Eq. (3) can
the product of its gravitational mass be rewritten as follows:
m g by the local gravity acceleration g , ⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫
⎪ ⎛ nr2 D ⎞
⎟ − 1⎥⎪⎬
mg ⎢
i.e., = ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜
⎢ ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎥
(4)
mi 0 ⎪ ρc ⎠
⎩ ⎢
⎣ ⎝ ⎥⎦⎪⎭
P = mg g (1)
Where nr is the refraction index of the
It arises from the mentioned law
particle; D is the power density of the
that the gravity acceleration (or simply
electromagnetic radiation absorbed by
the gravity) produced by a body with
the particle; and ρ its density of
gravitational mass M g is given by
inertial mass.
It was shown [1] that there is an
GM g
g= (2 ) additional effect of gravitational
r2 shielding produced by a substance
whose gravitational mass was reduced
The physical property of mass or made negative. This effect shows
has two distinct aspects: gravitational that just above the substance the
mass mg and inertial mass mi. The gravity acceleration g1 will be reduced
gravitational mass produces and
at the same proportion χ = m g mi 0 ,
responds to gravitational fields. It
supplies the mass factors in Newton's i.e., g1 = χ g , ( g is the gravity
famous inverse-square law of acceleration bellow the substance).
gravity (F = GM g m g r ) . The inertial
2 Equation (4) shows, for
example, that, in the case of a gas at
mass is the mass factor in Newton's
ultra-low pressure (very low density of
2nd Law of Motion (F = mi a ) . These
inertial mass), the gravitational mass
two masses are not equivalent but of the gas can be strongly reduced or
correlated by means of the following made negative by means of the
factor [1]: incidence of electromagnetic radiation
with power density relatively low.
⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫
mg ⎪ ⎛ Δ ⎞ ⎪ Thus, it is possible to use this
= ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜⎜
p