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Kingdom Animalia

Phylum Chordata
The vertebrates and their relatives

Phylum Chordata
Characteristics of a chordate
A dorsal hollow nerve cord (spinal cord in
A notochord (most vertebrates only have a
notochord during development becomes the
backbone in vertebrates)
Pharyngeal Pouches (develop into gills in fish
and amphibians)
Muscular Tail (disappears in humans)

Subphylum Urochordata
Tunicates (also known as sea squirts)
Look similar to other chordates during
development, but completely different as

Subphylum Cephalochordata
Lancelets: live in the ocean with their body buried in
Have a definite mouth and no jaws
Long pharynx with up to 100 gill slits
Breathe through their body surface
Have a simple digestive system, heart, and closed
Use paired muscles to move

Subphylum Vertebrata
99% of chordates are vertebrates

24,000 species
4,000 species
6,000 species
10,000 species
4,500 species

Aquatic vertebrates characterized by:
Fins (Movement)
Scales (Protection)
Gills (Breathing)
There are fish with exceptions!
Can you name any?

Fish Evolution
Fish were the first vertebrate to evolve
Evolved about 540 mya
Were jawless and covered in armored plates

Devonian Period = Age of the Fishes

Fish developed both jaws and fins at this time

Body Systems of Fishes

Fish feed in a variety of ways including parasites,
carnivores, herbivores, etc.
Most fish breathe using gills
Gills are feathery filaments containing a network of capillaries to
increase surface area for CO2 and O2 exchange

Fish have closed circulation

Body Systems of Fishes

Fish digestive systems are similar to that
of humans
Ammonia is excreted by diffusion of water
through gills and by use of kidneys
Salt water fish conserve bodily fluids by
having concentrated urine
Fresh water fish have dilute urine
Fish that move from fresh to salt water alter
their kidney function to adapt to tonicity!

Fish Senses
Fish exhibit
Many fish have
Chemoreceptors for
an extraordinary
sense of taste and
Lateral Line System
allows fish to sense
movement and

Fish Senses
Swim Bladder adjust buoyancy
How does pulling a fish from 40 feet of water
affect the size of its swim bladder?

Fish Reproduction
Oviparous egg laying; includes both
internal (some sharks) and external (most
fishes) fertilization
Ovoviviparous eggs develop inside
mothers body and are nourished by egg
yolk; young are born alive
Viviparous the mothers body nourishes
the developing young which are born alive

Groups of Fishes
Class Cephalospidomorphi lamprey
Class Myxini hagfishes
Class Chondrichthyes cartilaginous
Class Osteichthyes bony fishes

Lamprey and Hagfishes

Are jawless fishes
Have mouths of soft tissue and no true teeth

Have no bones
Are the only vertebrates that do not have
vertebral columns as adults

Are filter feeders as larvae and parasites
that suck blood and tissues of fish as

Feed on dead and dying fish using a
toothed tongue to scrape a hole in the
fishes side
Secrete large amounts of slime
Have 6 hearts and an open circulatory

Cartilaginous Fishes
Includes sharks, rays, skates, sawfishes,
and chimaeras
Chondros = Greek word for cartilage
A typical shark has 3000 teeth arranged in
6 to 20 rows
Not all are carnivores, the largest sharks
are filter feeders
Some have flat teeth for crushing mollusks
and crustaceans

Bony Fishes
Skeletons are made of calcified bone
Includes fish we are most familiar with:
Sunfish, Muskellunge, Northern Pike,
Walleye, Smallmouth Bass, etc.

Fish Ecology
Some fish can live in both salt water and
fresh water
Anadromous Fishes spend most of their
life in the ocean but move to fresh water to
Catadramous Fishes spend most of their
life in fresh water but move to the ocean to

Class Amphibia
Amphibians gave rise to all other land
Amphibian means double life
As larvae they are typically aquatic filter
feeders or herbivores breathing through gills
As adults most species are terrestrial
carnivores that breathe through their moist
skin and have lungs

Adaptations to Life on Land

As the amphibians developed in the late
Devonian Period 360 mya they needed to
adapt to terrestrial life
Keep from drying out
Breathe using lungs, not gills
Bones in limbs allow movement
Ribs to support and protect internal organs

Amphibians dominated the Carboniferous

Period 345 to 285 mya

Amphibian Body Systems

Amphibians have a well developed
digestive system similar to that of humans
As most amphibians develop lungs as
adults, some are lung-less and only
breathe through their skin
They have closed circulation and a 3
chambered heart with a double loop
system similar to that of a human
Ammonia is disposed of in urine through
the use of kidneys

Amphibian Reproduction
Most amphibians lay their eggs in water;
fertilization is external
Some salamanders fertilize internally

Amphibian Reproduction
In most cases of external fertilization, the
male will attach itself to the female. Eggs
and sperm are released simultaneously
and encapsulated in a jelly that attaches to
aquatic plants.
The jelly nourishes the developing
Tadpoles hatch and metamorphose into

Amphibian Reproduction
Most amphibians
abandon their eggs
once they lay them.
Some care for both
eggs and young
Some incubate their
eggs in unusual
places: in their mouth,
on their back, or in
their stomach

Amphibian Senses
Amphibians have a well developed brain
and spinal cord similar to that of a fish
Eyes are protected by a nictitating
A tympanic membrane, or eardrum, is
located on either side of the head
Many have a lateral line system similar to
that of a fish

Groups of Amphibians
Order Urodela: Salamanders and Newts

Order Anura: Frogs and Toads

Order Apoda: Caecilians

Salamanders and Newts

Have long bodies and tails
Both adults and larvae are carnivores
Most adults are terrestrial and live in damp
Some salamanders, such as mud
puppies, keep their gills and live in water
all their lives

Frogs and Toads

Have the ability to jump
Frogs have longer legs and can jump
farther than toads
Frogs are closely tied to water; toads are
more terrestrial

Least known of the amphibians
Are legless and burrow in moist soil or
Feed on small invertebrates such as
Some have scales

Amphibian Ecology
Most are a great meal for birds and
Some have toxins to poison predators
Some have bright colors to warn of their
Some mimic the bright colors of others
and are harmless

Amphibian Ecology
Amphibian populations are declining
worldwide due to several factors:
Global Warming
Decreasing Habitat
Depletion of the Ozone
Water Pollution
Introduced Aquatic Predators
Fungal Infections
Increasing human population!

Class Reptilia
Land vertebrates with a well developed
skull, a backbone and tail, and four limbs
Exemptions: snakes have no legs, and turtles
have a shell formed of fused vertebrae?
Can a turtle lose its shell?

Reptile Evolution
The oldest reptile fossils date back to the
early Carboniferous Period some 350
million years ago
Dinosaurs of the Triassic and Jurassic
Period ruled the earth until 65 million
years ago

Reptile Body Systems

Reptiles are ectotherms rely on
interactions with the environment to
control their body temperature
Reptiles have well developed lungs, four
chambered hearts, and a well developed
brain and spinal cord
Reptiles legs are rotated farther under
their body than amphibians allowing them
to carry weight and walk on land more

Reptile Reproduction
Internal Fertilization males have a penis
to place sperm in the females cloaca
Most are oviparous
Turtles leave their nests unattended while
alligators protect their nest

Some snakes are ovoviviparous

Reptilian Eggs
Reptiles have amniotic eggs named
after one of the four membranes around
the developing embryo
Amnion: produces watery environment
around embryo
Yolk Sac: contains nutrient rich yolk that
feeds embryo
Chorion: allows gas exchange
Allantois: stores waste

Groups of Reptiles
Order Squamata: lizards and snakes
Order Crocodilia: alligators, crocodiles,
caimans, and gavials
Order Chelonia: turtles, tortoises,
Order Rhynchocephalia - tuataras

Lizards and Snakes

Most lizards have legs, clawed toes,
external ears, and movable eyelids
Some lizards do not have legs and look
more like a snake

Alligators, Crocodiles, and their

Long broad snout and
squat appearance
Fierce carnivores
Very protective of their
Alligators and Caimans live
only in fresh water and
almost exclusively in North
and South America
Crocodiles live in both
fresh and salt water and
are native to Africa, India,
and Southeast Asia

Turtles, Tortoises, and Terrapins

Turtles live in or
near water
Tortoises are
Terrapins live in
brackish water
Carapace: Dorsal side
of Shell
Plastron: Ventral side
of Shell

Tuataras are the only living member of the
Order Rhynchocephalia
Beak headed reptiles that live on a few
small islands off the coast of New Zealand
Differ from lizards as they lack external
ears and retain primitive scales
They have a legendary third eye which is
part of a complex organs on top of the
brain the function is unknown

Ecology of Reptiles
Many are in danger due to loss of habitat
Humans also hunt them for food, pets,
and their skins (for bags and boots)
Many conservation efforts are underway,
but more are needed worldwide

Class Aves
Characteristics of most
Maintain a constant
internal body
Covered in feathers
Have two legs for
walking and perching
Front limbs are wings
Most are adapted for

Used for flight and warmth; several types
Contour Feathers: provide the lifting force and balance needed for
Down Feathers: trap air close to the body and keep the bird warm
Powder Down: found on ducks and other birds that live on or in
water; release a fine powder that repels water

Evolution of Birds
Oldest known fossil is Archaeopteryx
which lived during the Jurassic Period 150
Had teeth in its beak, a jointed tail, and toes
and claws on its wings

Birds are very closely related to dinosaurs,

but scientists disagree on whether birds
evolved from dinosaurs or- birds and
dinosaurs evolved from one common

Body Systems of Birds

Endotherms: can generate their own body
heat; warm-blooded
Smaller birds must eat more in relation to
its size due to Surface Area to Volume

Feeding habits of Birds

They lack teeth and therefore do not chew
Beaks are adapted to the types of food
they eat
Bird Digestion
Crop: enlargement of the esophagus used to
store food
Gizzard: has muscular walls and small bits of
gravel used to grind food

Birds have very efficient
lungs that provide oxygen
rich blood during both
inhalation and exhalation
Inhaled air enters posterior
and anterior air sacs it
then travels through the
lungs and is exhaled
Therefore the air flows into
the air sacs and out of the
lungs in one single
direction, always providing
oxygen rich air

Circulation and Excretion

Two loop circulatory system, similar to that of
Ammonia is removed by the kidneys, converted to
high concentration uric acid and defecated (bird
droppings); similar to reptiles

Senses of Birds
The brains of birds are very well
Birds can see color very well
Birds can hear very well
Smell or taste are not well developed

Bones and Muscles

Most birds can fly. Others are adapted for
swimming and running
Bones are light, strong, and adapted for
flight; many bones are fused to provide a
study base for flight adaptations

Bird Reproduction
Both male and female reproductive tracts
open into the cloaca
The sex organs, internal in both sexes,
increase in size during mating season
Birds rub their cloacas together during
mating to transfer sperm

Eggs and Incubation

Eggs are amniotic but unlike reptile eggs
have a hard outer shell
Eggs must be incubated by the parents
since they are endotherms
Young must be cared for after hatching

Groups of Birds
There are nearly 30 different orders of
60% of all birds worldwide are perching
Show many examples!

Ecology of Birds
Birds are very ecologically important
Hummingbirds are involved in pollination
Some birds eat seeds without digesting them
and therefore spread the seeds
Many birds keep insect populations in check

Many birds migrate by guidance of stars,

Earths landmarks, and Earths magnetic
Birds are good indicators of environmental
health; bird numbers dwindled with the
use of DDT

Class Mammalia
Characteristics of mammals
Have mammary glands and nurse young
Have hair

Evolution of Mammals
The earliest mammals evolved about the
same time as the early dinosaurs but
remained in the shadows until the giant
reptiles disappeared
First ancestors of mammals appeared
during the Permian Period about 290 to
250 mya
First true mammals appeared during the
Jurassic Period 210 mya

Mammal Evolution
When the continents
split about 60 mya,
three groups of
mammals were
isolated from one

Staying Warm
Animals have hair to help
insulate their bodies.
They also have
subcutaneous fat to keep
them warm and many have
sweat glands to cool them off.
Smaller mammals have
higher metabolism than larger
ones in order to create
enough body heat to keep
Mammals eat about 10 times
as much food as a reptile in
order to stay warm.

Comparison of Vertebrate
When comparing the bones and bone
structures of all vertebrates - birds,
amphibians, reptiles, and mammals you
can see many of the same bones with
very similar functions
Refer to Figure 32-7 in the text (Page 826)

Mammal Reproduction
Internal Fertilization occurs in mammals
Mammals are divided into three groups
based on methods of development and
Oviparous: egg-laying mammals are called
Viviparous: includes both placental mammals
and marsupials

Caring for Young

All newborn mammals feed on their
mothers milk
Some newborns are helpless at birth and
must be cared for
Others are able to see and walk within
minutes after birth

Monotremes are the egg laying
They share two notable
characteristics with reptiles
Both the reproductive and
urinary systems open into a
Monotreme means single
Only three species of
monotremes exist today: they
are found in Australia and New
Duckbill Platypus and two
species of Spiny Anteaters

Laying eggs and caring for young

Monotremes lay eggs that are incubated
outside the body
They hatch into young animals in about 10
The young are nourished by their mothers
milk that they lick from pores on the
mother's abdomen

Marsupials give birth to live young that
complete their development in an external
Examples include kangaroos, wombats,
koalas, and Tasmanian devils
A short time after internal fertilization a
small embryo leaves the mothers body,
crawls across the fur, and enters the
marsupium (pouch) where it attaches to a
nipple to nurse

Placental Mammals
Placental Mammals are those that are
most familiar to us.
Placenta organ in placental mammals
through which nutrients, oxygen, carbon
dioxide, and wastes are exchanged
between embryo and mother
Gestation the time it takes from
conception to birth in mammals (can vary
from 2 weeks to 2 years depending on the

Orders of Mammals
There are 12 orders of placental mammals
They are classified based on several
criteria including
Teeth and Jaw Structure
Foot Structure
Brain Development