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Abrahamic: (a.k.a.

Abramic) A group of religions that recognize Abraham as a

patriarch. This includes Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Sometimes, the Baha'i World
Faith is included in the list. Many smaller non-Jewish groups such as Samaritans,
Falashas, Karaits, etc, also trace their spiritual roots back to Abraham, but are not often
cited as Abrahamic religions.
Adhan: The Muslim call to prayer, typically from the minaret at a mosque.
Agnostic: a person who believes that, at our present level of knowledge, we cannot
know whether or not a God exists. Some Agnostics believe that we can never know
whether a deity exists.
Amen: The word is related to "Emunah" in Hebrew, which means faith and/or belief.
Adding "Amen" at the end of "...a blessing or a prayer demonstrates a statement of
affirmation that the blessing is true and hope that the prayer will be answered." "Amen"
is also a near acronym; its four letters stand for the three Hebrew words: "Aiy'l Melech
Ne-eman" which mean that God is a true and faithful king. 2
Amish: A very conservative Christian group which broke away from the larger
Anabaptist movement in the Alsace region in France during the late 17th century. Most
Amish now live in the U.S. and Canada -- largely in Indiana, Ohio and Pennsylvania.
They isolate themselves from the larger American/Canadian culture. Most are farmers.
Anabaptists: A European Christian movement at the time of the Protestant reformation.
They believed in adult baptism, freedom of belief, separation of church and state, the
rejection of war, and other beliefs that were rather advanced for their time. They were
terrible persecuted, both by Roman Catholicism and Protestant churches. The Amish
and Mennonites trace their origins to the Anabaptists. Some theologians and historians
include the Society of Friends (Quakers) and Moravians among the Anabaptist
Angel: The English word comes from the Greek "angelos" (messenger). In the Bible
they were described as an intelligent and immortal species, usually presented as being
visually indistinguishable from humans -- i.e. with a human body and without wings.
They delivered messages from God, and either harmed or helped humans. Because the
Bible's cosmology asserts that the earth was flat, that it was covered by a firmament or
dome, and that God resided in Heaven above the dome, angels have often been
portrayed as having wings so that they could fly from Heaven to earth and back.
Anglicanism: The beliefs and organization of the Church of England and the national
churches that together form the Anglican Communion. The Communion includes the
Episcopal Church in the U.S. and the Anglican Church of Canada.
Animism: a type of religious belief that all components of the universe, including
humans, animals, plant life, rocks, etc. contain some form of life force, soul or spirit.
Annihilationism: From the Latin word "nihil" -- which means nothing.

This an umbrella term used to refer to a group of beliefs about life after death.
They are:
After death, unsaved people will immediately cease to exist in any form. This is taught
by most Adventist groups, by the Jehovah's Witnesses and others. This contrasts with
the historical Christian belief that the unsaved will be tormented for all eternity in Hell
without hope of mercy or cessation. Both views can be supported by selected biblical
The belief that unsaved people spend an interval of time in Hell. Their length of stay is
matched to the frequency and seriousness of their evil deeds. They are then
exterminated and cease to exist. This view is also supported by some biblical passages.
The belief -- common among Agnostics, Atheists, Humanists, secularists and others -that after death everyone will automatically cease to exist. After death, we live on only in
the DNA that we have passed on to the next generation, and in the influences that we
have had on other people and society.
Antedeluvian: The interval of time preceding the great flood of Noah, described in
Genesis 2:6-8.
Anthropology: The study of humanity and human cultures.
Antibaptists: (not to be confused with Anabaptists):
-Christians who deny the validity of baptism. Most believe that water baptism has been
replaced by spirit baptism.
-Christians who do not recognize earlier baptism that convert's from other
denominations had received.
Antichrist: An individual whose appearance is prophesized in two books of the
Christian Scriptures (1 John and 2 John). He is expected by some Christians to appear
near the End Time, when he will act as Satan's chief representative. The pope, Ronald
Reagan, Bill Gates, Hitler, Stalin, and many other people have been called the
Antichrist. So has at least one computer.

Apocalypse, apocalyptic: A style of mainly Jewish and Christian writing that was
common from about 200 BCE to 200 CE. The writings prophesized the destruction of
evil and triumph of good.
Apostate: From the Greek apo - histanai ("depart from a stand.") A person who was
once affiliated with a faith group, but has since "fallen away" and left the group. One

group's apostate is generally another group's convert. Very severe penalties exist in
some countries of the world against individuals who abandon the state religion in favor
of another faith. It can theoretically mean execution in some Islamic countries. The
Roman Catholic church stopped burning European apostates at the stake in 1792 CE.
Apostle: A Christian term to refer to Jesus' immediate followers. An apostle must
generally a man was personally chosen by Jesus, and to have seen him. Sometimes,
the term is used to refer only to the twelve disciples, or to the twelve disciples and
Paul. Other times, it has been used to refer to the 70 disciples selected by Jesus. In
Romans 16:7, Paul refers to a female apostle, Junia, as "outstanding among the
apostles." (NIV)
Apostle's Creed: A summary of Christian beliefs.
Apostolic succession: The Catholic belief that the twelve apostles ordained bishops
who ordained their successors in an unbroken sequence up until the present day.
Armageddon: A battle that is prophesized to occur in the plain of Megiddo, Israel.
Jesus and Satan, and their armies, will fight a final battle (as stated in the biblical Book
of Revelation).
Astrology: a belief that the positions of the planets affect events and states of being
on earth. It was developed independently in Greece and India circa 300 BCE.
-According to many Atheists: having no belief about a deity.
-According to most non-Atheists, actively denying that a deity exists.
Baptism: The English words "baptize" and "baptism" are derived from a Greek root:
"baptizr," which means "to immerse," "to dip under," or "to wash." Within Christianity, it
is usually performed by a member of the clergy in a church setting, thus welcoming an
individual into the church
Baptism for the dead: This is a procedure that was employed among some Christian
groups during the second century CE. Today, it is followed by members of The Church
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day saints -- the Mormons. Ancestors who died outside the
church can be baptized by their descendents who are alive today.
Baptists: A group of Protestant Christian who, according to religious historians,
originated in the English Separatist movement of the 1600s. In the U.S., they consist of
dozens of denominations that do not baptize infants, but who baptize individuals by
immersion after they have personally professed their faith. Baptist congregations are
independent; full authority resides in the membership of each church. The largest
American Protestant denomination is the Southern Baptist Convention,
Beltane: One of the four major Sabbats celebrated annually by Wiccans and other
pagans on the evening of APR-30. It is based on an ancient Celtic seasonal day of

Bhagavad-Gita: The "Song of the Lord" -- a holy text revered by followers of Hinduism
and Iskcon.
Bible: This word has many meanings:
-The holy text used by Christians. It is includes Hebrew Scripture (Old Testament),
Christian Scripture (New Testament). Some faith groups also include a group of
writings called the Apocrypha. The word originated in the Greek word "biblos," which
means "book." The Greek word came from the ancient Phoenician port city of Byblos
(now Jubayl in Lebanon).
-It is sometimes used to refer to the holy texts of other religions.
-It is sometimes used to refer to an all-embracing book on a specific topic, from
computers to fly fishing to astronomy.
Bishop: (From the Greek word episkopos: supervisor). In the early church, he was a
chief priest at a church. Later, the role became that of a priest with administrative
duties over a group of churches within a geographical area called a diocese.
Blasphemy: Swearing in the name of God, denying the existence of God, saying evil
things about God, asserting incorrect beliefs about God, etc. One religion's affirmation
of their God is another religion's blasphemy about their God.
Blessed be: A frequently used greeting-blessing by Wiccans and other Neopagans.
Bodhi Day: The day when Buddha decided to sit under the bodhi tree, and remain
there until he reached enlightenment.
Bon Festival: This is a day when the followers of Shinto honor the souls of their
ancestors. People visit graveyards.
Book of Mormon: One of four texts considered to be divinely inspired and
authoritative scripture by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the
Mormons) and other Mormon denominations. Mormons believe that Joseph Smith,
their founder, translated the Book of Mormon from golden plates left by an early
American society. Some researchers believe the Book to have been written by Smith,
and partly based on an earlier book "View of the Hebrews" by Ethan Smith (no
Born again: The process by which a person repents of their sins and trusts Jesus of
Nazareth as Lord and Savior. Conservative Protestants believe that this is the only way
that one can get to heaven. Some of these denominations do not require that a person
repent first.
Brahma: The creator God and member of the Hindu trinity of deities, which also
includes Shiva and Vishnu.
Brahmin: A member of the priestly class in Hinduism -- the highest caste in India.

Buddha: A Buddhist term used to refer to Prince Siddhartha, (560 - 480 BCE) after his
Buddha Day: A celebration of the birthday of the Buddha.
Buddhism: A world religion, founded in the 6th century BCE by a Hindu: Siddhartha
Gautama, His followers called him "the Buddha" or "the enlightened one." It has about
300 million followers, almost all located in Asia. Buddhism is experiencing a rapid
growth in North America. It is perhaps the least violent of the world's major religions.
Cabala (also spelled Cabalah, Caballa, Caballah, Cabbala, Cabbalah, Cabballa,
Cabballah, and various spellings starting with the letters K or Q): A Jewish mystical
tradition with roots in Palestine during the 1st century CE and which developed during
the 12th century. It uses occultic (hidden) knowledge to interpret the Torah. In the early
21st century, it is enjoying a surge in popularity.
Caliph: Muslim term for community leader.
Calvinism: A system of Christian belief laid down by John Calvin. It emphasizes
predestination -- that certain people are fated to be saved and others are selected by
God to be not saved and spend eternity in Hell. The selection is not done on the basis
of any action that they have performed during their life on earth.
Canonization: The process by which a Christian becomes a saint.
Cardinal: Bishops in the Roman Catholic church who advise the pope. They meet as a
group to elect a new pope when needed.
Catechism: From the Greek "katecheo" -- to sound aloud. A training program to
educate a person in the fundamentals of Christianity. It is often organized in a question
and answer format.
Catholic: This came from the Greek word Katholikos which means "throughout the
whole" or "universal." This implies a world-wide faith, rather than a local one. The
Nicene Creed, recited in the churches of many Christian denominations, speaks of
"one holy catholic and apostolic church." Many faith groups refer to themselves as
Catholic: the Roman Catholic Church, centered in the Vatican; Anglo-Catholics (within
the Anglican Communion); and Evangelical Catholics (among Lutherans).
Christadelphianism: A small Christian religious group with non-traditional beliefs.
They teach that Jesus was a created being, that the Holy Spirit is a power or energy
rather than the third personality in the Trinity. They deny the traditional concepts of
heaven and hell
Christian: This term was derived indirectly from the Greek word for Messiah. It has
many meanings:
-Census offices consider any person or group to be Christian if they devoutly, seriously

regards themselves to be Christian. Thus, Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormons, Roman

Catholic, and members of the Unification Church are Christians. Many groups,
particularly conservative Christians, regard many of these denominations as "cults"
and not part of Christianity.
-Webster's New World Dictionary: "A person believing in Jesus as the Christ, or in the
religion based upon the teachings of Jesus."
Christian Science: A Christian denomination founded in 1879 in Boston, MA, by Mary
Baker Eddy. It promotes spiritual healing, that sickness and matter is not real, and that
one should avoid medical help. The life expectancy of Christian Scientists appears to
be significantly shorter than for the general population.
Church: The Greek word ekklesia (to call out) in the Bible is generally translated as
"church." It may refer to all those, living or dead, who are Christians. it may refer to a
specific Christian group in a specific area.
-A Christian ritual, sometimes called the Eucharist, or Mass, or Lord's supper.
-A group of believers or a group of denominations..
- The sharing of bread and wine (or a wine substitute) during a Christian service..
Alternative names for communion are: Eucharist, Divine Liturgy, Last Supper.
Comparative religion: The study of world religions to determine their points of
similarity and differences. In practice, this is difficult to do on an impartial basis.
Students often consider their own branch of their own religion to be "true," and all other
branches of their religion, and all other religions to be "false."
Confucianism: An indigenous system of thought which originated in China about 500
BCE. It is considered by some to be a religion, by others a humanistic philosophy.
Founded by Confusious (551-479 BCE)
Conversion: the act of changing one's beliefs from one religion to another.
Cosmology: (From the Greek: "cosmo" meaning universe; "logos" meaning study).
Beliefs about the structure of the universe. Many religious texts have a pre-scientific
view of the makeup of the earth, the solar system and the rest of the universe.

Counter reformation: A reform movement within the Roman Catholic church taken
shortly after -- an in response to -- the Protestant Reformation.
Coven: a local group of Wiccans or other Neo-pagans. During the "burning times"
when Christian groups were tracking down and exterminating Witches, it was believed
that each coven held 13 members. This was and is not true; covens can be of any
size, but are most often perhaps about a half-dozen.
Covenant: "Berith" in Hebrew and "diatheke" in Greek: An agreement between two

persons which are obligatory on both parties. Most commonly used to refer to various
covenants between God and the Hebrews.
Creed: Fropm the Latin word "credere" -- to believe. A short statement of religious
belief, usually motivated by a desire to emphasize church teaching as opposed to a
heresy. There are a number of creeds within the Christian religion: the Apostles creed,
Nicene creed are the most popular. However, the former is little used in Eastern
Orthodox churches.
Cult: From the Latin word "cultus" -- meaning worship. Cult is a word with many
religious meanings (and some secular as well) which should be used with great care to
avoid misunderstanding. We recommend the neutral term "new religious movement"
be used in its place. Even better is to refer to a religious group by its name:
Dalai Lama: The spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhism.
Dar-e-Mehr: A North American term used by the Zoroastrian faith to refer to their
house of worship. It literally means "a portal to all that is good: charity, devotion,
kindness and love."
Deacon: From the Greek word diakanos (servant). Originally a church administrator.
Currently, the term may refer to a low-ranking member of the clergy, a lay minister, or
a lay administrator.
Dead, cult of the: Worship of the deceased. Unlike ancestor worship, cult of the
dead involves the worship of the deceased by all, not just by the kin of the ancestors.
Deist: a person who believes in the existence of a remote, unknowable deity, usually
male, who created the universe, but has not been involved with it since. Most of the
politicians who founded America were Deists.
Deity: a generic term used to refer to one or more supernatural beings. It can refer to
a single God, as is Judaism and Islam& Zoroastrianism; a Trinity as in Christianity
and Hinduism; a God and a Goddess as in Wicca and other Neopagan religions, etc.
Plural form is "deities."
Demon: Originally an angel, it joined with Satan to oppose God. Many conservative
Christians believe that a person can be possessed by a demon; some think that only
non-Christians can be possessed. Mental health professionals abandoned the
concept of demonic possession centuries ago.
Denomination: an established religious group, which has usually been in existence
for many years and has geographically widespread membership. It typically unites a
group of individual, local congregations into a single administrative body.
Devil: Christian synonym for Satan: an all-evil former angel.

Dharma: This term has multiple meanings: The teachings of the Buddha, truth; that
which is established, customary, or proper; natural law - the way the universe works;
one's duty and responsibility, etc.
Diaspora: The forced exiles of the Jewish people from Palestine by the Babylonians
in the sixth century BCE and by the Roman Empire in the middle of the 2nd century

Diocese: a geographical area under the jurisdiction of a bishop.

Disciples: In Christian usage, followers of Jesus. At one time, Jesus had 12
disciples; at another time, 70 are mentioned. Although those followers who were
mentioned by name often in the gospels were evenly split between women and men,
only conflicting lists of male disciples survive.
Disfellowshipping: A practice of some Christian faith groups in which a member has
certain privileges removed in order to force them to give up certain behaviors and
beliefs. Within the Mormon church, a disfellowshipped member has certain privileges
removed, but still remains a member. Among the Jehovah's Witnesses, a person is
shunned. This can have devastating consequences to persons in a high-intensity
religious group whose entire support system involves fellow members.

Diwali: A Hindu Festival of Lights. Gifts are exchanged; fireworks are enjoyed

Dogma: From the Greek word "dogma" (a decree). A revealed truth defined by a faith
group. It is important to realize that one group's dogma is often another group's

Druids: A professional class of individuals in ancient Celtic society who had various

teaching, priestly, legal, and ambassadorial functions. They are often portrayed as
engaging in human sacrifice. However, the only source for this belief are a single
reference in the wartime writings of Julius Caesar, who relied on hearsay.

Dussehra: Hindus celebrate the victory of Lord Rama over the Demons.
Easter: This is the most important holy day of the Christian calendar. Easter Sunday
commemorates the day in the springtime when the resurrection of Jesus is believed
to have occurred. The date is calculated by one formula by most Eastern Orthodox
churches, and by another formula elsewhere in Christianity. Easter Sunday falls on
the first Sunday after the first full moon after MAR-20, the nominal date of the Spring
Equinox. It can be on any Sunday from March 22 to April 25th. Eastern Orthodox
churches sometimes celebrate Easter on the same day as the rest of Christianity.
However if that date does not follow Passover, then the Orthodox churches delay
their Easter - sometimes by over a month.
Eid ul-Adha: Muslims celebrate this Feast of Sacrifice at the conclusion of the Hajj.
It recalls Abraham's willingness to ritually murder his son in response to a command
of God.
Eight adversities: A term used in Buddhism to refer to rebirth: in Hell, as a hungry
ghost, as an animal, in Uttarakuru (a very pleasant place where there is little
motivation to practice the Dharma), in a long-life heaven, also where one is not
motivated), with a disability, as an intelligent but skeptical person, or in the period like today - between a Buddha and his successor.
Eightfold Path: A Buddhist list of the path which one must follow to escape
suffering. They include:
-Panna (Wisdom): Right view and right thought.
-Sila (Morality): Right speech, action and livelihood.
-Samadhi (Meditation): Right effort, mindfulness and contemplation.

-A Buddhist term which means to have grasped the ultimate reality and escaped the
endless repetition of birth, life, death and rebirth.
-A name given to the Age of Reason in the Americas and Europe during the 17th
and 18th centuries. It was marked by great advances in science, democracy,
industry, human rights and religious tolerance.

Epiphany: Christians recall the visit of the Magi to the baby Jesus on JAN-6. (aka:
12th day of Christmas, Twelfth Night & Three Kings Day). Eastern orthodox
churches celebrate Theophany on this day in commemoration of Jesus' baptism.
"Epiphany" means "to make known" or "to reveal." Christians believe that the Magi
made the divinity of Jesus known to the world.
-Part of the name of the Espicopal Church, USA - the national church in the U.S.
which is affiliated with the Anglican Communion.
-Any religious denomination governed by bishops.
Equinox: The date and time when the sun crosses the equator. On that day, the
daytime and nightime are both very close to 12 hours. This happens about March 21
and September 21. Many religious holy days are synchronized to the equinoxes,
including the Jewish Passover, and Christian Easter. Wiccans, other Neopagans,
Native Americans and followers of many aboriginal religions worldwide celebrate the

Evangelical: "Evangelical" is not a well-defined term with a universally accepted

meaning. It normally refers to a major portion of the conservative "wing" of
Protestant Christianity. In a study comparing Evangelical and mainline
denominations, a Princeton University study included the following as Evangelical
denominations: Assemblies of God, Southern Baptists, Independent Baptists, black
Protestants, African Methodist Episcopal, African Methodist Episcopal Zion; Church
of Christ, Churches of God in Christ, Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod, National
Baptist Church, National Progressive Baptist Church, Nondenominational,
Pentecostal denominations, and the Presbyterian Church in America.
Fundamentalists comprise the most conservative wing of Evangelicalism. Most

Evangelicals tend to be less anti-scientific and less literal in their interpretation of

Biblical passages than are Fundamentalists. Evangelicals generally believe in the
historical doctrines of the Christian church: Anglican, Catholic and Orthodox
Evangelize: To explain ones beliefs to another in the hope that they might wish to
adopt them. The word is sometimes used as a synonym for "Proselytize" - to
actively attempt to convert another person to your beliefs.

Excommunication: The enforced separation of a Christian from her or his

denomination, done for the good of the individual and the faith group, with the intent
of changing the individual's behavior so that they can be welcomed back.
Unfortunately, in many high-intensity/high commitment religious groups, where a
member's entire support network consists of fellow members, excommunication
can lead to depression and occasional suicide.

Exodus: A mass movement of people from an area or country. It often refers to the
alleged departure of Hebrews from slavery in Egypt, variously dated as 1440 to
1290 BCE. "Exodus" is the name of the second book in the Pentateuch - the first
five books of the Hebrew Scriptures.
Exorcism: The act of driving one or more evil spirits from the body of a person.
Hades: A Greek term generally translated "Hell" in the King James Version of the
Bible. Beliefs about Hades are divided:
-Some Christians believe that Hades is a place where the spirits of unsaved persons
and of believers who died before the ascension of Christ temporarily reside until the
day of judgment. Then, the unsaved will be thrown into the lake of fire; the believers
will attain heaven.
-Others believe that Hades and Sheol are Hell where the unsaved are tortured for all
Hadith: Sayings and practices of Mohammed. They were collected after his death.
Hajj: A pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina in Saudi Arabia which every Muslim is
expected to perform at least once during their lifetime, if they are physically and
financially able.
Hajji: A Muslim who has performed a Hajj. The term is used as a pejorative by U.S.
troops in Iraq.
Halacha: Jewish law, derived from the 613 laws of Moses in the Hebrew Scriptures.

Halal: A set of Islamic dietary laws which regulate the preparation of food.
Hallelujah: A shout or song of praise to God. "Hallel" means "praise." "Jah" is an
abbreviation of "YWVH."
-Pagan meaning: Wiccans and other Neopagans celebrate the major Sabbat of
Samhain on this day. It is the end of the Wiccan year, marking the transition between
the warm and the cold season.
-Christian meaning: All Hallow's Eve, a Roman Catholic observance of the night
before All Saints' Day.
Handfasting: A Neopagan wedding. Some religious traditions assign it a length of a
year and a day. It can be registered with the government as a marriage if the
priest/priestess performing the handfasting is registered to perform weddings.
Haram (a.k.a. haraam): An Islamic term for a forbidden action.
Harg: A stone altar in Norse Heathenism.
Heathen: Originally people of the heath or moor. Originally, it was a Christian term to
denigrate followers of the old, pre-Christian Religion. Followers of Asatru and other
ancient reconstructed aboriginal religions have embraced the term.

Hell: one of two destinations for an individual after death in the Christian, Muslim and
some other religions. Various groups within Christianity believe that a person goes
there because of their beliefs or their actions, or some combination of beliefs and
actions. Up to the early part of the 20th century, Hell was generally believed to be a
place of eternal punishment and torment. Lately, more groups describe it as a simple
isolation from God. Liberal religious groups generally treat biblical passages on Hell as
symbolic. See also Universalism. In the King James Version of the Bible, the Hebrew
word sheol and Greek word hades (two very different concepts) are both generally
translated as Hell.

Heresy: beliefs that are forbidden by the policy-deciding body of a faith group.

Hijab: A scarf that many Muslim women use to cover their hair.
Hijrah: The flight of Muhammad and fellow believers from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE.
The Islamic calendar dates from this time.
Hinduism: The third largest religion in the world, after Christianity and Islam. It is a
henotheistic faith which exists in many hundreds of variations. It has about 750 million
followers and is largely concentrated in India and Sri Lanka. Hinduism does not have a
single founder, a specific theological system, a single system of morality, or a central
religious organization. It consists of "thousands of different religious groups that have
evolved in India since 1500 BCE." 2
Holocaust: From the Greek: "holos" (completely) and "kaustos" (burned sacrificial
offering). When capitalized, the term usually refers to the Shoah, (a.k.a. Shoa and
Sho'ah) the killing of five to seven million of European Jews by the Nazi government
during World War II. Sometimes used to refer to the total Nazi extermination program,
which included Jews, Roma (a.k.a Gypsies), Russians, Poles, other Slavs,
homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, etc. totaling ten to fourteen million humans.

Hudud: Punishments within Islam for spiritual or religious crimes.

Humanism, Secular: a non-theistic philosophy which promotes man as the measure

of all things. It had its roots in the rationalism of the 18th Century and the free thought
movement of the 19th Century.
Ihram: Clothing worn by a male Muslim during the Hajj (pilgrimate to Mecca). It
consists of two pieces of plain, white, unsewn cloth.
-An acronym for Isis, Horus, and Seb - the Egyptian trinity consisting of the Mother,
the Child and the Father.
-The first three letters of the name Jesus, the Greek version of Yeshua.
Illuminati: (a.k.a. the enlightened ones)
-A group or individual who claim to be unusually enlightened.
-A secret philosophical and political society established by Adam Weishaupt in
Germany in 1776. They promoted free thought and democracy.

Imam: A Muslim term for a national leader or the leader of worship in a mosque.
Indulgence: The practice by which a person could pay money to the church or do a
good deed and obtain remission of the temporal punishment due to sin. After the
Protestant Reformation, cash no longer became an acceptable way to obtain an

Infidel: a person who does not believe in your particular religion, denomination or
religious tradition. Similar to "Unbeliever".
Inquisition: An organization within the Roman Catholic Church which was
responsible for the elimination of heretics. They were the final court of appeal for
those charged with heresy. Those who could be proven to be heretics were turned
over to the civil authority for execution. This arm of the church was created in 1542 as
the "Sacred Congregation of the Universal Inquisition." It went through a name
change, being called the "Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei" (Sacred Congregation for
the Doctrine of the Faith) in 1965. It was headed by Cardinal Josef Ratzinger until his
election as pope in 2005.
INRI: An acronym for the Latin phrase "Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaeorum" which
means: "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews"