Sunteți pe pagina 1din 119
Transformer Protection This document is the exclusive property of Alstom Grid and shall not be

Transformer Protection

This document is the exclusive property of Alstom Grid and shall not be

transmitted by any means, copied, reproduced or modified without the prior written consent of Alstom Grid Technical Institute. All rights reserved.

without the prior written consent of Alstom Grid Technical Institute. All rights reserved. GRID Technical Institute
without the prior written consent of Alstom Grid Technical Institute. All rights reserved. GRID Technical Institute
without the prior written consent of Alstom Grid Technical Institute. All rights reserved. GRID Technical Institute

GRID

Technical Institute

without the prior written consent of Alstom Grid Technical Institute. All rights reserved. GRID Technical Institute
Transformer Fault Categories 1. Winding and terminal faults 2. Sustained or uncleared external faults 3.

Transformer Fault Categories

1.

Winding and terminal faults

2.

Sustained or uncleared external faults

3.

Abnormal operating conditions such as overload,

overvoltage and overfluxing

4.

Core faults

2

conditions such as overload, overvoltage and overfluxing 4. Core faults 2 > Transformer Protection

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Protection (1)  Transformer Connections  Overcurrent Protection  Directional Protection of

Transformer Protection (1)

Transformer Connections

Overcurrent Protection

Directional Protection of Parallel Transformers

Earth Faults on Transformer Windings

Unrestricted Earth Fault Protection

Restricted Earth Fault Protection

Biased Differential Protection of 2 and 3 Winding

3

Earth Fault Protection  Biased Differential Protection of 2 and 3 Winding 3 Transformers > Transformer

Transformers

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Protection (2)  Combined Differential and Restricted Earth Fault Protection  Protection of

Transformer Protection (2)

Combined Differential and Restricted Earth Fault

Protection

Protection of Auto-Transformers

Inter-Turn Faults and Buchholz Protection

Overfluxing Protection

Overload Protection

Transformer Feeder Protection

4

 Overfluxing Protection  Overload Protection  Transformer Feeder Protection 4 > Transformer Protection

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Connections 5 > Transformer Protection

Transformer Connections

5

Transformer Connections 5 > Transformer Protection

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Protection (3) I A2 Ø V E P A1 6 > Transformer Protection

Transformer Protection (3)

I A2 Ø V E P A1
I
A2
Ø
V
E P
A1

6

Transformer Protection (3) I A2 Ø V E P A1 6 > Transformer Protection

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Protection (4) I A2 a2 V E E P S A1 a1 7 >

Transformer Protection (4)

I A2 a2 V E E P S A1 a1
I
A2
a2
V
E
E P
S
A1
a1

7

Transformer Protection (4) I A2 a2 V E E P S A1 a1 7 > Transformer

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Protection (5) I A2 a2 I P S V E E P S A1

Transformer Protection (5)

I A2 a2 I P S V E E P S A1 a1
I
A2
a2
I
P
S
V
E
E P
S
A1
a1

8

Transformer Protection (5) I A2 a2 I P S V E E P S A1 a1

> Transformer Protection

9 A C1 A2 C2 A1 C B B1 B2 A A2 a1 a2 A1

9

9 A C1 A2 C2 A1 C B B1 B2 A A2 a1 a2 A1 B
A C1 A2 C2 A1 C B B1 B2
A
C1
A2
C2
A1
C
B
B1
B2
A A2 a1 a2 A1 B B2 B1 b1 b2 C C2 C1 c1 c2
A
A2
a1
a2
A1
B
B2
B1
b1
b2
C
C2
C1
c1
c2

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Connections

a a2 a1 c1 b1 b2 c2
a
a2
a1
c1
b1
b2
c2

c

b

“Clock face” numbers refer to

a

b

c

position of low voltage phase - neutral vector with respect to high voltage phase - neutral vector.

Line connections made to highest numbered winding terminal available.

Line phase designation is same as winding.

Transformer Vector Groups Group 1   Yy0 Dd0 0 Phase displacement Zd0 Group 2  

Transformer Vector Groups

Group 1

 

Yy0

Dd0

0

Phase displacement0 Zd0

Zd0

Group 2

 

Yy6

Dd6

180

Phase displacement180 Dz6

Dz6

 

Yd1

Group 3

30

Lag phase displacementGroup 3 30 Dy1 Yz1

Dy1

Yz1

Group 4

 

Yd11

Dy11

30

Lead phase displacement30 Yz11

Yz11

10

Dy1 Yz1 Group 4   Yd11 Dy11 30 Lead phase displacement Yz11 10 > Transformer Protection

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Connections  “Clock Face” numbers refer to position of low voltage phase-neutral vector with

Transformer Connections

“Clock Face” numbers refer to position of low voltage

phase-neutral vector with respect to high voltage phase

neutral vector

Line connections made to highest numbered winding terminal available

Line phase designation is same as winding

Example 1 : Dy 11 Transformer

High Low Voltage Voltage Windings Windings A Phase Windings A2 A1 a1 a2 B Phase
High
Low
Voltage
Voltage
Windings
Windings
A Phase
Windings
A2
A1
a1
a2
B Phase
Windings
B2
B1
b1
b2
C Phase
Windings
C2
C1
c1
c2

Question : How to connect windings ?

11

B2 B1 b1 b2 C Phase Windings C2 C1 c1 c2 Question : How to connect

> Transformer Protection

Dy 11 12 11 30° 12 > Transformer Protection

Dy 11

12 11 30°
12
11
30°

12

Dy 11 12 11 30° 12 > Transformer Protection

> Transformer Protection

13 Dy 11 1. Draw Phase-Neutral Voltage Vectors A a  Line Designation  30

13

13 Dy 11 1. Draw Phase-Neutral Voltage Vectors A a  Line Designation  30 °

Dy 11

1. Draw Phase-Neutral Voltage Vectors

A

a

Line Designation

30 °
30
°
13 Dy 11 1. Draw Phase-Neutral Voltage Vectors A a  Line Designation  30 °
13 Dy 11 1. Draw Phase-Neutral Voltage Vectors A a  Line Designation  30 °
13 Dy 11 1. Draw Phase-Neutral Voltage Vectors A a  Line Designation  30 °

C

13 Dy 11 1. Draw Phase-Neutral Voltage Vectors A a  Line Designation  30 °

B

c

> Transformer Protection

b

2. Draw Delta Connection 14 C A > Transformer Protection B Dy 11 a c

2. Draw Delta Connection

14

2. Draw Delta Connection 14 C A > Transformer Protection B Dy 11 a c b

C

A
A

> Transformer Protection

B

Dy 11

a

2. Draw Delta Connection 14 C A > Transformer Protection B Dy 11 a c b
2. Draw Delta Connection 14 C A > Transformer Protection B Dy 11 a c b
2. Draw Delta Connection 14 C A > Transformer Protection B Dy 11 a c b

c

b

3. Draw A Phase Windings 15 C A A2 A1 > Transformer Protection B Dy

3. Draw A Phase Windings

15

3. Draw A Phase Windings 15 C A A2 A1 > Transformer Protection B Dy 11

C

A

A2 A1
A2
A1

> Transformer Protection

B

Dy 11

a a2 a1
a
a2
a1

c

b

4. Complete Connections (a) 16 C A C1 A2 C2 A1 B1 B2 > Transformer

4. Complete Connections (a)

16

4. Complete Connections (a) 16 C A C1 A2 C2 A1 B1 B2 > Transformer Protection

C

A

C1 A2 C2 A1 B1 B2
C1
A2
C2
A1
B1
B2

> Transformer Protection

B

Dy 11

a a2 a1 c1 b1 b2 c2
a
a2
a1
c1
b1
b2
c2

c

b

17 Dy 11 4. Complete Connections (b) A2 a1 A1 a2 B2 b1 B1 b2

17

17 Dy 11 4. Complete Connections (b) A2 a1 A1 a2 B2 b1 B1 b2 C2

Dy 11

4. Complete Connections (b)

A2 a1 A1 a2 B2 b1 B1 b2
A2
a1
A1
a2
B2
b1
B1
b2

C2

C1

c1

17 Dy 11 4. Complete Connections (b) A2 a1 A1 a2 B2 b1 B1 b2 C2

c2

17 Dy 11 4. Complete Connections (b) A2 a1 A1 a2 B2 b1 B1 b2 C2

A

B

C

> Transformer Protection

a

b

c

11kV Distribution Transformers Typical Fuse Ratings Transformer rating   Fuse kVA Full load current (A)

11kV Distribution Transformers

Typical Fuse Ratings

Transformer rating

 

Fuse

kVA

Full load current (A)

Rated current (A)

Operating time at 3 x rating(s)

100

5.25

16

3.0

200

10.5

25

3.0

300

15.8

36

10.0

500

26.2

50

20.0

1000

52.5

90

30.0

18

300 15.8 36 10.0 500 26.2 50 20.0 1000 52.5 90 30.0 18 > Transformer Protection

> Transformer Protection

19 Traditional Small Transformer Protection Package 3.3kV 51 50 51 50 N N 200/5 1500/5

19

19 Traditional Small Transformer Protection Package 3.3kV 51 50 51 50 N N 200/5 1500/5 51

Traditional Small Transformer

Protection Package

3.3kV

19 Traditional Small Transformer Protection Package 3.3kV 51 50 51 50 N N 200/5 1500/5 51
51 50 51 50 N N
51
50
51
50
N
N

200/5

1500/5 51 N 64
1500/5
51
N
64

1MVA

3.3/0.44kV

1500/5

> Transformer Protection

20 Traditional Medium Transformer Protection Package 11kV 51 50 64 1000/5 51 N 64 5MVA

20

20 Traditional Medium Transformer Protection Package 11kV 51 50 64 1000/5 51 N 64 5MVA 11/3.3kV

Traditional Medium Transformer

Protection Package

11kV

20 Traditional Medium Transformer Protection Package 11kV 51 50 64 1000/5 51 N 64 5MVA 11/3.3kV
51 50 64
51
50
64
1000/5 51 N 64
1000/5
51
N
64

5MVA

11/3.3kV

1000/5

3.3kV

> Transformer Protection

21 > Transformer Protection Overcurrent Protection

21

21 > Transformer Protection Overcurrent Protection

> Transformer Protection

Overcurrent Protection

Transformer Overcurrent Protection Requirements  Fast operation for primary short circuits  Discrimination with

Transformer Overcurrent Protection

Requirements

Fast operation for primary short circuits

Discrimination with downstream protections

Operation within transformer withstand

Non-operation for short or long term overloads

Non-operation for magnetising inrush

22

Non-operation for short or long term overloads  Non-operation for magnetising inrush 22 > Transformer Protection

> Transformer Protection

Use of Instantaneous Overcurrent Protection23 H V Source LV 50 51 50 set to 1.2 - 1.3 x through

23

Use of Instantaneous Overcurrent Protection 23 H V Source LV 50 51 50 set to 1.2

HV

Source LV 50 51
Source
LV
50
51
Overcurrent Protection 23 H V Source LV 50 51 50 set to 1.2 - 1.3 x

50 set to 1.2 - 1.3 x through fault level

> Transformer Protection

Transient Overreach Concerns relay response to offset waveforms (DC transient) 24 Definition I 1 -

Transient Overreach

Concerns relay response to offset waveforms (DC transient)

24

relay response to offset waveforms (DC transient) 24 Definition I 1 - I 2 I 2
relay response to offset waveforms (DC transient) 24 Definition I 1 - I 2 I 2

Definition

I 1

-

I 2

I 2

x 100

I

1
1

I 2

D.C

.
.

I 1 = Steady state rms pick up

current

I 2 = Fully offset rms pickup current

> Transformer Protection

25 Instantaneous High Set Overcurrent Relay Applied to a Transformer 51 51 51 HV2 HV1

25

25 Instantaneous High Set Overcurrent Relay Applied to a Transformer 51 51 51 HV2 HV1 LV

Instantaneous High Set Overcurrent

Relay Applied to a Transformer

51 51
51
51
High Set Overcurrent Relay Applied to a Transformer 51 51 51 HV2 HV1 LV HV1 HV2
High Set Overcurrent Relay Applied to a Transformer 51 51 51 HV2 HV1 LV HV1 HV2
High Set Overcurrent Relay Applied to a Transformer 51 51 51 HV2 HV1 LV HV1 HV2
High Set Overcurrent Relay Applied to a Transformer 51 51 51 HV2 HV1 LV HV1 HV2
51
51
Set Overcurrent Relay Applied to a Transformer 51 51 51 HV2 HV1 LV HV1 HV2 Time

HV2

HV1 LV HV1 HV2 Time LV Curren I F(LV) I t F(HV) 1.2I F(LV)
HV1
LV
HV1 HV2
Time
LV
Curren
I
F(LV)
I
t
F(HV)
1.2I F(LV)

> Transformer Protection

26 2-1-1 Distribution (1) I 3Ø I 3Ø I 3Ø 0.866 I 3Ø > Transformer

26

26 2-1-1 Distribution (1) I 3Ø I 3Ø I 3Ø 0.866 I 3Ø > Transformer Protection

2-1-1 Distribution (1)

I 3Ø I 3Ø
I 3Ø
I 3Ø

I

26 2-1-1 Distribution (1) I 3Ø I 3Ø I 3Ø 0.866 I 3Ø > Transformer Protection
0.866 I 3Ø
0.866 I

> Transformer Protection

2-1-1 Distribution (2) HV relay 0.4 sec LV relay 0.866 I I 3Ø 3Ø 27

2-1-1 Distribution (2)

HV relay 0.4 sec LV relay 0.866 I I 3Ø 3Ø
HV relay
0.4 sec
LV relay
0.866
I
I

27

2-1-1 Distribution (2) HV relay 0.4 sec LV relay 0.866 I I 3Ø 3Ø 27 >

> Transformer Protection

28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51

28

28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >

Parallel Transformers

Directional Relays (1)

28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
51
51
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
67 51
67
51
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >

Grid supply

Feeders

28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
67
67
51
51
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
28 Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (1) 51 67 51 Grid supply Feeders 67 51 51 >
51
51

> Transformer Protection

Parallel Transformers Directional Relays (2) 51 51 Bus Section Grid supply Feeders 51 51 51

Parallel Transformers

Directional Relays (2)

51 51 Bus Section Grid supply Feeders 51 51 51
51
51
Bus
Section
Grid supply
Feeders
51
51
51

29

Transformers Directional Relays (2) 51 51 Bus Section Grid supply Feeders 51 51 51 29 >

> Transformer Protection

30 > Transformer Protection Earth Fault Protection

30

30 > Transformer Protection Earth Fault Protection

> Transformer Protection

Earth Fault Protection

PR
PR

Transformer Earth Faults

3 p.u. turns

1 p.u. turns

Faults  3 p.u. turns 1 p . u . t u r n s x
x I F
x
I F

R

I P
I P
3 p.u. turns 1 p . u . t u r n s x I F
3 p.u. turns 1 p . u . t u r n s x I F
3 p.u. turns 1 p . u . t u r n s x I F
3 p.u. turns 1 p . u . t u r n s x I F
3 p.u. turns 1 p . u . t u r n s x I F
3 p.u. turns 1 p . u . t u r n s x I F
3 p.u. turns 1 p . u . t u r n s x I F

Protective

Relay

p . u . t u r n s x I F R I P Protective

Resistor limits E/F current to full load values

For a fault at , Fault current =

·I FL

Thus, primary current, I

P

=

=

FLcurrent =   · I FL Thus, primary current, I P = = FL 31

FL=   · I FL Thus, primary current, I P = = FL 31 Effective

31

Effective turns ratio = √3:

current, I P = = FL FL 31 Effective turns ratio = √3: > Transformer Protection

> Transformer Protection

If CT ratio (on primary side) is based on full load current of transformer, then

CT secondary circuit =

2  . I 3
2
.
I
3

FL

Overcurrent Relay Sensitivity to Earth Faults (1) 32 I f as multiple o f I

Overcurrent Relay Sensitivity

to Earth Faults (1)

32

I f as multiple

of I F.L.

to Earth Faults (1) 32 I f as multiple o f I F.L.  I F
to Earth Faults (1) 32 I f as multiple o f I F.L.  I F

Faults (1) 32 I f as multiple o f I F.L.  I F 51 Overcurrent
Faults (1) 32 I f as multiple o f I F.L.  I F 51 Overcurrent
Faults (1) 32 I f as multiple o f I F.L.  I F 51 Overcurrent
Faults (1) 32 I f as multiple o f I F.L.  I F 51 Overcurrent
Faults (1) 32 I f as multiple o f I F.L.  I F 51 Overcurrent
Faults (1) 32 I f as multiple o f I F.L.  I F 51 Overcurrent

I F

(1) 32 I f as multiple o f I F.L.  I F 51 Overcurrent Relay
51
51

Overcurrent

Relay

multiple o f I F.L.  I F 51 Overcurrent Relay 1.0 Star Side 0.9 0.8

1.0

Star Side
Star Side

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

Delta Side

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

p.u

Overcurrent Relay Setting > I F.L.

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 p.u Overcurrent Relay Setting > I

> Transformer Protection

Overcurrent Relay Sensitivity to Earth Faults (2) I f as multiple o f I F.L.

Overcurrent Relay Sensitivity

to Earth Faults (2)

I f as multiple

of I F.L.

to Earth Faults (2) I f as multiple o f I F.L.  I F 51
to Earth Faults (2) I f as multiple o f I F.L.  I F 51

Earth Faults (2) I f as multiple o f I F.L.  I F 51 Overcurrent

I F

Faults (2) I f as multiple o f I F.L.  I F 51 Overcurrent Relay
51
51

Overcurrent

Relay

multiple o f I F.L.  I F 51 Overcurrent Relay 10 9 Star Side 8
10 9 Star Side 8 7 6 5 4 Delta Side 3 2 1 
10
9
Star Side
8
7
6
5
4
Delta Side
3
2
1
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

p.u

33

Side 8 7 6 5 4 Delta Side 3 2 1  0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

> Transformer Protection

Overcurrent Relay Sensitivity to Earth Faults (3) I f as multiple o f I F.L.

Overcurrent Relay Sensitivity

to Earth Faults (3)

I f as multiple

of I F.L.

I F  I I P N
I
F
I
I
P
N
10 I 9 F 8 7 6 I P 5 4 3 2 I N
10
I
9
F
8
7
6
I
P
5
4
3
2
I
N
1
0.1
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

0.9 1.0

p.u

34

9 F 8 7 6 I P 5 4 3 2 I N 1 0.1 0.2

> Transformer Protection

Earth Fault on Transformer Winding  I Differential Relay Setting = I S I =

Earth Fault on Transformer Winding

 I Differential Relay Setting = I S
I
Differential
Relay
Setting = I S

I =

 2  3
 2
 3

For relay operation, I > I S

e.g. If I S = 20%, then

 2  3
 2
 3

> 20% for operation

i.e. > 59% Thus 59% of

3 > 20% for operation i.e.  > 59% Thus 59% of winding is not protected

winding is not protected

Differential Relay Setting

% of Star Winding Protected

10%

58%

20%

41%

30%

28%

40%

17%

50%

7%

35

Protected 10% 58% 20% 41% 30% 28% 40% 17% 50% 7% 35 > Transformer Protection

> Transformer Protection

Unrestricted Earthfault Protection (1) 51N 51 51 51  Provides back-up protection for system 

Unrestricted Earthfault Protection (1)

Unrestricted Earthfault Protection (1) 51N 51 51 51  Provides back-up protection for system  Time
51N 51 51 51
51N
51
51
51

Provides back-up protection for system

Time delay required for co-ordination

36

51  Provides back-up protection for system  Time delay required for co-ordination 36 > Transformer

> Transformer Protection

Unrestricted Earthfault Protection (2) 51 51 51 51N 51N  Can provide better sensitivity (C.T.

Unrestricted Earthfault Protection (2)

Unrestricted Earthfault Protection (2) 51 51 51 51N 51N  Can provide better sensitivity (C.T. ratio
51 51 51 51N 51N
51
51
51
51N
51N

Can provide better sensitivity (C.T. ratio not related to full load current) (Improved “effective” setting)

Provides back up protection for transformer and system

37

“effective” setting)  Provides back up protection for transformer and system 37 > Transformer Protection

> Transformer Protection

Star Winding REF Protected Zone REF  Relay only operates for earth faults within protected
Star Winding REF Protected Zone REF  Relay only operates for earth faults within protected

Star Winding REF

Protected Zone REF
Protected
Zone
REF

Relay only operates for earth faults within protected zone.

Uses high impedance principle.

Stability level : usually maximum through fault level of transformer

38

principle.  Stability level : usually maximum through fault level of transformer 38 > Transformer Protection

> Transformer Protection

Restricted E/F Protection Low Voltage Windings (1) A B C N LV restricted E/F protection

Restricted E/F Protection

Low Voltage Windings (1)

A B C N LV restricted E/F protection trips both HV and LV breaker Recommended
A
B
C
N
LV restricted E/F
protection trips
both HV and LV breaker
Recommended setting : 10%
rated

39

restricted E/F protection trips both HV and LV breaker Recommended setting : 10% rated 39 >

> Transformer Protection

Restricted E/F Protection Low Voltage Windings (2) A B C N LV restricted E/F protection

Restricted E/F Protection

Low Voltage Windings (2)

A B C N
A
B
C
N

LV restricted E/F protection trips both HV and LV breaker Recommended setting : 10% rated

40

LV restricted E/F protection trips both HV and LV breaker Recommended setting : 10% rated 40

> Transformer Protection

Delta Winding Restricted Earth Fault Source Protected zone REF  Delta winding cannot supply zero

Delta Winding Restricted Earth Fault

Source Protected zone REF
Source
Protected zone
REF
Winding Restricted Earth Fault Source Protected zone REF  Delta winding cannot supply zero sequence current
Winding Restricted Earth Fault Source Protected zone REF  Delta winding cannot supply zero sequence current
Winding Restricted Earth Fault Source Protected zone REF  Delta winding cannot supply zero sequence current
Winding Restricted Earth Fault Source Protected zone REF  Delta winding cannot supply zero sequence current
Winding Restricted Earth Fault Source Protected zone REF  Delta winding cannot supply zero sequence current
Winding Restricted Earth Fault Source Protected zone REF  Delta winding cannot supply zero sequence current
Winding Restricted Earth Fault Source Protected zone REF  Delta winding cannot supply zero sequence current
Winding Restricted Earth Fault Source Protected zone REF  Delta winding cannot supply zero sequence current
Winding Restricted Earth Fault Source Protected zone REF  Delta winding cannot supply zero sequence current
Winding Restricted Earth Fault Source Protected zone REF  Delta winding cannot supply zero sequence current

Delta winding cannot supply zero sequence current to system

Stability : Consider max LV fault level

Recommended setting : less than 30% minimum earth fault level

41

max LV fault level  Recommended setting : less than 30% minimum earth fault level 41

> Transformer Protection

42 High Impedance Principle Protected Circuit Z M R CT R L I F Z

42

42 High Impedance Principle Protected Circuit Z M R CT R L I F Z M

High Impedance Principle

Protected

Circuit

42 High Impedance Principle Protected Circuit Z M R CT R L I F Z M
42 High Impedance Principle Protected Circuit Z M R CT R L I F Z M
42 High Impedance Principle Protected Circuit Z M R CT R L I F Z M
42 High Impedance Principle Protected Circuit Z M R CT R L I F Z M

Z M

R CT

R

L

I

F

Z M R CT R L
Z M
R CT
R
L
I S V S R ST R R L R L
I S
V S
R ST
R
R L
R L

Voltage Across Relay Circuit

Stabilising resistor R ST limits spill current to I S (relay setting)

V S = I F (R CT + 2R L )

R ST =

V S

I S

- R R

where R R = relay burden

CT knee point

V KP = 2V S = 2I F (R CT + 2R L )

> Transformer Protection

Non-Linear Resistors (Metrosils)  During internal faults the high impedance relay circuit constitutes an excessive

Non-Linear Resistors (Metrosils)

During internal faults the high impedance relay circuit constitutes an excessive burden to the CT‟s.

A very high voltage develops across the relay circuit and the CT‟s.

Causes damage to insulation of CT, secondary winding and relay.

Magnitude of peak voltage V P is given by an approximate formula (based on experimental results)

V P

=

2 2V K (V F - V K )

Where V F = Swgr. Fault Rating in amps x Z of relay circuit

CT ratio

Metrosil required if V P > 3kV

43

Rating in amps x Z of relay circuit CT ratio  Metrosil required if V P

> Transformer Protection

Non-Linear Resistors (Metrosils) I OP R ST V M V S R R Metrosil Characteristic

Non-Linear Resistors (Metrosils)

I OP R ST V M V S R R
I OP
R ST
V M
V S
R R

Metrosil Characteristic

V

=

C I

Suitable values of C & chosen based on :

Max secondary current under fault conditions

Relay setting voltage

44

based on :  Max secondary current under fault conditions  Relay setting voltage 44 >

> Transformer Protection

REF Protection Example 1MVA (5%) 1600/1 11000V 415V R CT = 4.9 80MVA 1600/1 R

REF Protection Example

1MVA

(5%) 1600/1 11000V 415V R CT = 4.9 80MVA 1600/1 R S MCAG14 R CT
(5%)
1600/1
11000V
415V
R CT = 4.9
80MVA
1600/1
R S
MCAG14
R CT =
4.8
I S = 0.1
Amp

2 Core 7/0.67mm

(7.41/km)

100m Long

Calculate :

1)

Setting voltage (V S )

2)

Value of stabilising

resistor required

3)

Effective setting

4)

Peak voltage developed by CT‟s

for internal fault

45

3) Effective setting 4) Peak voltage developed by CT‟s for internal fault 45 > Transformer Protection

> Transformer Protection

46 Solution (1) Earth fault calculation :- Using 80MVA base Source impedance = 1 p.u.

46

46 Solution (1) Earth fault calculation :- Using 80MVA base Source impedance = 1 p.u. Transformer

Solution (1)

Earth fault calculation :-

Using 80MVA base

Source impedance = 1 p.u.

Transformer impedance = 0.05 x 80 = 4 p.u.

1

1 P.U.

p.u. 1 4 I 1 4 I 2 4 I 0
p.u.
1
4
I
1
4
I 2
4
I 0

Sequence Diagram

Total impedance = 14

I 1

=

1

14

=

0.0714 p.u.

Base current = 80 x 10 6 3 x 415

I F

= 111296 Amps

=

3 x 0.0714 x 111296

=

23840 Amps (primary)

=

14.9 Amps (secondary)

> Transformer Protection

(1) Setting voltage V S = I F (R C T + 2 R L

(1) Setting voltage

V S

=

I F (R CT + 2 RL )

Assuming “earth” CT saturates,

R CT = 4.8 ohms

2 RL =

2 x 100 x 7.41 x 10 -3 = 1.482 ohms

Solution (2)

Setting voltage = 14.9 (4.8 + 1.482)

47

Solution (2)  Setting voltage = 14.9 (4.8 + 1.482) 47 = 93.6 Volts (2) Stabilising

= 93.6 Volts

(2) Stabilising Resistor (R S )

R S

=

R S

V

S

I

=

S

-

1

I S 2

93.6

0.1

-

Where I S = relay current setting

1

0.1 2

= 836 ohms

> Transformer Protection

1.6 1.2 0.8 0.4 0 0.04 0.08 0.12 AT/mm (multiply by Ki to obtain total
1.6 1.2 0.8 0.4 0 0.04 0.08 0.12 AT/mm (multiply by Ki to obtain total
1.6
1.2
0.8
0.4
0
0.04
0.08
0.12
AT/mm
(multiply by Ki to obtain total
exciting current in Amps)
48
> Transformer Protection
Weber/m2
(multiply
by Kv to (Tesla)
obtain RMS
secondary
volts)

Solution (3)

 

Kv

Ki

Line & Neutral CT

158

0.341

Earth CT

236

0.275

Solution (4) (3) Effective setting I P = CT ratio x ( I S +

Solution (4)

(3) Effective setting I P = CT ratio x (I S + I MAG )

Line & Neutral CTs

Flux density at 93.6V = 93.6 = 0.592 Tesla

158

From graph, mag. Force at 0.592 Tesla = 0.015 AT/mm

Mag. Current = 0.015 x 0.341 = 0.0051 Amps

„Earth‟ CT

Flux density at 93.6V = 93.6 = 0.396 Tesla

236

From graph, mag. Force at 0.396 Tesla = 0.012 AT/mm

Mag. Current = 0.012 x 0.275 = 0.0033 Amps

Thus, effective setting = 1600 x (0.1 + [(4 x 0.0051) + 0.0033])

Effective setting = 198 Amps

Transformer full load current = 1391 Amps

49

= 198 Amps Transformer full load current = 1391 Amps 49  Effective setting = 198

Effective setting = 198

1391

> Transformer Protection

x 100% = 14.2% x rated

(4) Peak voltage = 2  2V K (V F - V K ) V

(4)

Peak voltage = 22V K (V F - V K )

V F

=

14.9 x V S

I S

=

14.9 x 936 =

13946 Volts

Solution (5)

For „Earth‟ CT, V K = 1.4 x 236 = 330 Volts (from graph)

V PEAK = 22 x 330 x (13946 - 330) = 6kV

Thus, Metrosil voltage limiter will be required.

50

= 2  2 x 330 x (13946 - 330) = 6kV Thus, Metrosil voltage limiter

> Transformer Protection

51 Parallel Transformers N A B C T1 Bus Section T2 > Transformer Protection 415

51

51 Parallel Transformers N A B C T1 Bus Section T2 > Transformer Protection 415 Volt

Parallel Transformers

N A B C T1 Bus Section T2
N
A
B C
T1
Bus Section
T2

> Transformer Protection

415 Volt

Switchboard

52 Parallel Transformers CT in Earth N A B C T1 51N Bus Section Open

52

52 Parallel Transformers CT in Earth N A B C T1 51N Bus Section Open T2

Parallel Transformers

CT in Earth

N A B C T1 51N Bus Section Open T2 51N 415 Volt Switchboard
N A B C
T1
51N
Bus Section
Open
T2
51N
415 Volt
Switchboard

> Transformer Protection

53 Parallel Transformers CT in Earth and Neutral N A B C T1 51N Bus

53

53 Parallel Transformers CT in Earth and Neutral N A B C T1 51N Bus Section

Parallel Transformers CT in

Earth and Neutral

N A B C T1 51N Bus Section Open T2 51N 415 Volt Switchboard
N A B C
T1
51N
Bus Section
Open
T2
51N
415 Volt
Switchboard

> Transformer Protection

Parallel Transformers Residual Connections T1 N A B C F2 Bus section Will maloperate if

Parallel Transformers

Residual Connections

T1 N A B C F2 Bus section Will maloperate if bus section is open
T1
N A B C
F2
Bus section
Will maloperate if bus section is open
for fault at F1
T2
F1
415 volt switchboard

No maloperation for fault at F2 (but setting must be greater than load neutral current)Will maloperate if bus section is open for fault at F1 T2 F1 415 volt switchboard

54

No maloperation for fault at F2 (but setting must be greater than load neutral current) 54

> Transformer Protection

Traditional Large Transformer Protection Package 33kV 51 50 200/5 10MVA 51 33/11kV N 87 600/5

Traditional Large Transformer

Protection Package

33kV

51 50 200/5 10MVA 51 33/11kV N 87 600/5 64 600/5 5/5A
51
50
200/5
10MVA
51
33/11kV
N
87
600/5
64
600/5
5/5A

55

Protection Package 33kV 51 50 200/5 10MVA 51 33/11kV N 87 600/5 64 600/5 5/5A 55

> Transformer Protection

56 > Transformer Protection Differential Protection

56

56 > Transformer Protection Differential Protection

> Transformer Protection

Differential Protection

Differential Protection  Overall differential protection may be justified for larger transformers (generally >

Differential Protection

Overall differential protection may be justified for larger transformers (generally > 5MVA).

Provides fast operation on any winding

Measuring principle :

Based on the same circulating current principle as the

restricted earth fault protection

However, it employs the biasing technique, to maintain stability for heavy through fault current

Biasing allows mismatch between CT outputs.

It is essential for transformers with tap changing facility.

Another important requirement of transformer differential protection is immunity to magnetising in rush current.

57

of transformer differential protection is immunity to magnetising in rush current. 57 > Transformer Protection

> Transformer Protection

Biased Differential Scheme Differential Current I 1 - I 2 BIAS BIAS I 2 I

Biased Differential Scheme

Differential

Current

I 1 - I 2 BIAS BIAS I 2 I 1 I 1 - I
I 1 - I 2
BIAS
BIAS I 2
I 1
I 1 - I 2
OPERATE
OPERATE RESTRAIN I 1 + I 2 Mean Through 2 Current
OPERATE
RESTRAIN
I 1 + I 2
Mean Through
2 Current

58

BIAS I 2 I 1 I 1 - I 2 OPERATE OPERATE RESTRAIN I 1 +

> Transformer Protection

Differential Protection PROTECTED ZONE HV LV R Correct application of differential protection requires CT ratio

Differential Protection

PROTECTED ZONE HV LV R
PROTECTED ZONE
HV
LV
R

Correct application of differential protection requires CT ratio

and winding connections to match those of transformer.

CT secondary circuit should be a “replica” of primary system.

Consider :

(1)

Difference in current magnitude

(2)

Phase shift

(3)

Zero sequence currents

59

Difference in current magnitude (2) Phase shift (3) Zero sequence currents 59 > Transformer Protection

> Transformer Protection

60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C >

60

60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer

Differential Connections

P1

P2

A2

A1

a1

a2

P2

P1

60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
60 Differential Connections P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 A B C > Transformer
A
A
B
B
C
C

> Transformer Protection

Use of Interposing CT P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 S1 S2 S2

Use of Interposing CT

P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 S1 S2 S2 S1 S2 S1 P1
P1
P2
A2
A1
a1
a2
P2
P1
S1
S2
S2
S1
S2
S1 P1
P2
R
R
R

Interposing CT provides :

Vector correction

Ratio correction

Zero sequence compensation

61

CT provides :  Vector correction  Ratio correction  Zero sequence compensation 61 > Transformer

> Transformer Protection

2 Winding Transformer Differential Protection (1) 15MVA 66kV / 11kV 150/5 800/5 P1 P2 A2

2 Winding Transformer Differential Protection (1)

15MVA

66kV / 11kV 150/5 800/5 P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 S1 S2
66kV / 11kV
150/5
800/5
P1
P2
A2
A1 a1
a2
P2
P1
S1
S2
S2
S1
Dy1

Given above: Need to consider -

(1) Winding full load current

(2) Effect of tap changer (if any)

(3) C.T. polarities Assuming no tap changer Full load currents:-

11kV: 787 Amp = 4.92 Amps secondary However, require 11kV C.T.‟s to be connected in Thus, secondary current = 3 x 4.92 = 8.52A

66kV: 131 Amp = 4.37 Amps secondary

62

 3 x 4.92 = 8.52A 66kV: 131 Amp = 4.37 Amps secondary 62  RATIO

RATIO CORRECTION IS REQUIRED

> Transformer Protection

2 Winding Transformer Differential Protection (2) 150/5 800/5 P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2

2 Winding Transformer Differential Protection (2)

150/5 800/5 P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 S1 S2 S2 S1 4.37A
150/5
800/5
P1
P2
A2
A1
a1
a2
P2
P1
S1
S2
S2
S1
4.37A
4.92A
S1
S2 P1
P2
(5)
R
(2.56)
R
R

It is usual to connect 11kV C.T.‟s in

(this method reduces lead VA burden on the line C.T.‟s)

Current from 66kV side = 4.37 Amp

Thus, current required from

Current input to

side = 4.37 Amp Thus, current required from Current input to and utilise a / interposing

and utilise a

/
/

interposing C.T.Thus, current required from Current input to and utilise a / winding of int. C.T. =

from Current input to and utilise a / interposing C.T. winding of int. C.T. = 4.37

winding of int. C.T. = 4.37 Amp

utilise a / interposing C.T. winding of int. C.T. = 4.37 Amp winding of int. C.T.

winding of int. C.T. = 4.92 Amp

Required int C.T. ratio = 4.92 / 4.37 = 4.92 / 2.52

3

May also be expressed as : 5 / 2.56

63

int C.T. ratio = 4.92 / 4.37 = 4.92 / 2.52  3 May also be

> Transformer Protection

Effect of Tap Changer e.g. Assume 66kV +5%, -15% Interposing C.T. ratio should be based

Effect of Tap Changer

e.g. Assume 66kV +5%, -15%

Interposing C.T. ratio should be based on mid tap position

Mid Tap (-5%)

Primary current (15 MVA)

Secondary current

= 62.7 kV

= 138 Amp

= 4.6 Amp

Interposing C.T. ratio required = 4.92 / 4.6

3 ( = 4.92 / 2.66 / )
3
(
= 4.92 / 2.66
/
)

May also be expressed as : 5 / 2.7

Compared with 5 / 2.56 based on nominal voltage

64

/ ) May also be expressed as : 5 / 2.7 Compared with 5 / 2.56

> Transformer Protection

65 Autotransformer Differential Protection (1) 175/145/30 MVA 230/115/13.8 kV 230kV +5%/-15% YNynd1 19 taps

65

65 Autotransformer Differential Protection (1) 175/145/30 MVA 230/115/13.8 kV 230kV +5%/-15% YNynd1 19 taps

Autotransformer Differential Protection (1)

175/145/30 MVA

230/115/13.8 kV

230kV

+5%/-15%

YNynd1

19 taps 2000:5 800:5 A a 1200:5 A B b B C c C Grounding
19 taps
2000:5
800:5
A
a
1200:5
A
B
b
B
C
c
C
Grounding
transformer
inside the
protection zone
a
a a
a
a
B
B
b
b
b
b
b
B
B
c
c
c c
c
B
B
Yd11 software
Ydy0 software
interposing CT
interposing CT
a
a
a
B
b
b
b
B
c c
c
B
D
D
D
Ydy0 software
interposing CT
P645
> Transformer Protection
66 Autotransformer Differential Protection (2) (a) System configuration > Transformer Protection (b) Differential

66

66 Autotransformer Differential Protection (2) (a) System configuration > Transformer Protection (b) Differential

Autotransformer Differential Protection (2)

66 Autotransformer Differential Protection (2) (a) System configuration > Transformer Protection (b) Differential

(a) System configuration

> Transformer Protection

(2) (a) System configuration > Transformer Protection (b) Differential protection  Use the mid tap position

(b) Differential protection

Use the mid tap position for the HV nominal

voltage:

Mid tap position

100

(5

15)

= 2

100

230

=

218.5

kV

Autotransformer Differential Protection (3) 67 ► Calculation of Full Load Currents: I FLC HV ,

Autotransformer Differential Protection (3)

67

Calculation of Full Load Currents:

I

FLC HV

,

I

FLC TV

,

=

=

175

10

6

= 462.41

A

Currents: I FLC HV , I FLC TV , = = 175 10 6  =

218.5

10

175

6

10

3

= = 175 10 6  = 462.41 A  218.5 10 175   6

13.8 10

3

= 7321.47

A

Calculation of ratio correction factors:

K

K

7321.47 A ► Calculation of ratio correction factors: K K amp HV , amp TV ,

amp HV

,

amp TV

,

=

=

I nom HV

,

I

FLC HV

,

=

800

462.41

I

nom LV

,

I

FLC LV

,

=

2000

7321.47

> Transformer Protection

= 1.730

= 0.273

I

FLC LV

,

=

175  10 6 3  115  10 3
175
 10
6
3
115
10
3

= 878.58

A

K

amp LV

,

=

I

nom LV

,

I FLC LV

,

=

1200

878.58

= 1.366

Autotransformer Differential Protection (4) No mal-operation due to tap changer errors: 2.5 Bias characteristic CT

Autotransformer Differential Protection (4)

No mal-operation due to tap changer errors:

2.5 Bias characteristic CT and tap changer errors 2 nominal MVA, tap 1 nominal MVA,
2.5
Bias characteristic
CT and tap changer errors
2
nominal MVA, tap 1
nominal MVA, tap 19
1.5
66.7% of nominal MVA,
tap 1
66.7% of nominal MVA,
tap 19
1
0.5
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
Ibias/Inom
Idiff/Inom

68

nominal MVA, tap 19 1 0.5 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

> Transformer Protection

Autotransformer Differential Protection – Delta Delta

not connected (1)

175/175/30MVA

230/115/13.8kV YNynd1 230kV - +5%/-15% - 19 taps 1200:5 1200:5 a 1200:5 A b B
230/115/13.8kV
YNynd1
230kV - +5%/-15% - 19 taps
1200:5
1200:5
a
1200:5
A
b
B
c
C
a
a
a
a
B
B
b
b
b
b
B
B
c
c
c
c
B
B
Yy0 software interposing CT
Yy0 software interposing CT
a
a
B
b
b
B
c c
B
Yy0 software interposing CT
D
D
D
P643

69

interposing CT a a B b b B c c B Yy0 software interposing CT D

> Transformer Protection

Autotransformer Differential Protection – Delta Delta

not connected (2)

Differential Protection – Delta not connected (2) (a) System configuration 70 > Transformer Protection (b)

(a) System configuration

70

– Delta not connected (2) (a) System configuration 70 > Transformer Protection (b) Differential protection

> Transformer Protection

– Delta not connected (2) (a) System configuration 70 > Transformer Protection (b) Differential protection

(b) Differential protection

Connections Check Arbitrary Current Distribution P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 S1 S2

Connections Check

Arbitrary Current Distribution

P1

P2

A2

A1

a1

a2

P2

P1

S1 S2 S2 S1 S2 S1 P1 P2 R R R
S1
S2
S2
S1
S2
S1
P1
P2
R
R
R

71

Current Distribution P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 S1 S2 S2 S1 S2 S1

> Transformer Protection

Connections Check Add Delta Winding Current P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 S1

Connections Check

Add Delta Winding Current

P1

P2

A2

A1

a1

a2

P2

P1

S1 S2 S2 S1 S2 S1 P1 P2 R R R
S1
S2
S2
S1
S2
S1
P1
P2
R
R
R

72

Add Delta Winding Current P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 S1 S2 S2 S1

> Transformer Protection

Connections Check Complete Primary Distribution P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 S1 S2

Connections Check

Complete Primary Distribution

P1

P2

A2

A1

a1

a2

P2

P1

S1 S2 S2 S1 S2 S1 P1 P2 R R R
S1
S2
S2
S1
S2
S1
P1
P2
R
R
R

73

Primary Distribution P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 S1 S2 S2 S1 S2 S1

> Transformer Protection

Connections Check Complete Secondary Distribution P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 S1 S2

Connections Check

Complete Secondary Distribution

P1

P2

A2

A1

a1

a2

P2

P1

S1 S2 S2 S1 S2 S1 P1 P2 R R R
S1
S2
S2
S1
S2
S1
P1
P2
R
R
R

74

Secondary Distribution P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1 S1 S2 S2 S1 S2 S1

> Transformer Protection

In-Zone Earthing Transformer a1 a2 P1 P2 A1 A2 P2 P1 S2 S1 S2 S1

In-Zone Earthing Transformer

a1 a2 P1 P2 A1 A2 P2 P1 S2 S1 S2 S1 T2 T1 P1
a1
a2
P1
P2
A1
A2
P2
P1
S2
S1
S2 S1 T2 T1
P1 P2

75

In-Zone Earthing Transformer a1 a2 P1 P2 A1 A2 P2 P1 S2 S1 S2 S1 T2

> Transformer Protection

76 In-Zone Earthing Transformer P1 P2 > Transformer Protection A1 A2 Alternative (1) a1 a2

76

76 In-Zone Earthing Transformer P1 P2 > Transformer Protection A1 A2 Alternative (1) a1 a2 P2

In-Zone Earthing Transformer

P1

P2

76 In-Zone Earthing Transformer P1 P2 > Transformer Protection A1 A2 Alternative (1) a1 a2 P2

> Transformer Protection

A1

A2

Alternative (1)

a1

a2

P2

P1

S2

S1

Earthing Transformer P1 P2 > Transformer Protection A1 A2 Alternative (1) a1 a2 P2 P1 S2
Earthing Transformer P1 P2 > Transformer Protection A1 A2 Alternative (1) a1 a2 P2 P1 S2
Earthing Transformer P1 P2 > Transformer Protection A1 A2 Alternative (1) a1 a2 P2 P1 S2
Earthing Transformer P1 P2 > Transformer Protection A1 A2 Alternative (1) a1 a2 P2 P1 S2
Earthing Transformer P1 P2 > Transformer Protection A1 A2 Alternative (1) a1 a2 P2 P1 S2

S2 S1 P1 P2

In-Zone Earthing Transformer Alternative (2) 300/1 EARTHING TRANSF. 900/1 77 > Transformer Protection TO

In-Zone Earthing Transformer

Alternative (2)

300/1 EARTHING TRANSF. 900/1
300/1
EARTHING
TRANSF.
900/1

77

Earthing Transformer Alternative (2) 300/1 EARTHING TRANSF. 900/1 77 > Transformer Protection TO DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

> Transformer Protection

TO DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

In-Zone Earthing Transformer Alternative (3) 300/1 EARTHING TRANSF. 300/1 1/0.33 78 > Transformer Protection TO

In-Zone Earthing Transformer

Alternative (3)

300/1 EARTHING TRANSF. 300/1 1/0.33
300/1
EARTHING
TRANSF.
300/1
1/0.33

78

Transformer Alternative (3) 300/1 EARTHING TRANSF. 300/1 1/0.33 78 > Transformer Protection TO DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

> Transformer Protection

TO DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

Combined Differential and Restricted Earth Fault Protection 79 A2 A1 a1 a2 P1 P2 S1

Combined Differential and

Restricted Earth Fault Protection

79

Differential and Restricted Earth Fault Protection 79 A2 A1 a1 a2 P1 P2 S1 S2 S1

A2

A1

a1

a2

P1

P2

and Restricted Earth Fault Protection 79 A2 A1 a1 a2 P1 P2 S1 S2 S1 P2
S1 S2 S1 P2 REF S2 P1 S1
S1
S2
S1
P2
REF
S2
P1
S1
79 A2 A1 a1 a2 P1 P2 S1 S2 S1 P2 REF S2 P1 S1 S2
S2
S2

P1

P2

To differential relay

> Transformer Protection

Combined Differential and Earth Fault Protection  Using Summation Auxiliary Current Transformer Restricted earth

Combined Differential and

Earth Fault Protection

Using Summation Auxiliary Current Transformer

Restricted earth fault relay 64 Bias windings 87 87 87 Differential relay operating windings
Restricted earth
fault relay
64
Bias windings
87
87
87
Differential relay
operating windings

80

earth fault relay 64 Bias windings 87 87 87 Differential relay operating windings 80 > Transformer

> Transformer Protection

81 > Transformer Protection Z X T 1 PHASE a A PHASE b A PHASE

81

81 > Transformer Protection Z X T 1 PHASE a A PHASE b A PHASE c

> Transformer Protection

Z X T 1 PHASE a A PHASE b A PHASE c A N B
Z
X
T 1
PHASE a
A
PHASE b
A
PHASE
c
A
N
B
G
G
G
BEF
BEF

Rb

T J J H H
T
J
J
H
H

J

H

2

T 3

T 4

T 1

F

A N B G G G BEF Rb T J J H H J H 2
2 Rb 2 Rb 2 Ro Ro Ro
2
Rb
2
Rb
2
Ro
Ro
Ro

OVERALL DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

Three Winding Transformer 63MVA 25MVA 132KV 11KV 300/5 1600/5 50MVA 33KV 1000/5 5.51 4.59 10.33

Three Winding Transformer

63MVA 25MVA 132KV 11KV 300/5 1600/5 50MVA 33KV 1000/5 5.51 4.59 10.33 5 2.88 2.88
63MVA
25MVA
132KV
11KV
300/5
1600/5
50MVA
33KV
1000/5
5.51
4.59
10.33
5
2.88
2.88
5
All interposing C.T. ratio’s refer to
common MVA base (63MVA)

82

10.33 5 2.88 2.88 5 All interposing C.T. ratio’s refer to common MVA base (63MVA) 82

> Transformer Protection

Traditional Use of Interposing CT Dy1(-30°) R R R Yd11(+30°) Interposing CT provides : 

Traditional Use of Interposing CT

Dy1(-30°)

Traditional Use of Interposing CT Dy1(-30°) R R R Yd11(+30°) Interposing CT provides :  Vector
Traditional Use of Interposing CT Dy1(-30°) R R R Yd11(+30°) Interposing CT provides :  Vector
Traditional Use of Interposing CT Dy1(-30°) R R R Yd11(+30°) Interposing CT provides :  Vector
Traditional Use of Interposing CT Dy1(-30°) R R R Yd11(+30°) Interposing CT provides :  Vector
Traditional Use of Interposing CT Dy1(-30°) R R R Yd11(+30°) Interposing CT provides :  Vector
Traditional Use of Interposing CT Dy1(-30°) R R R Yd11(+30°) Interposing CT provides :  Vector
R R R
R R
R
Traditional Use of Interposing CT Dy1(-30°) R R R Yd11(+30°) Interposing CT provides :  Vector

Yd11(+30°)

Interposing CT provides :

Vector correction

Ratio correction

Zero sequence compensation

83

CT provides :  Vector correction  Ratio correction  Zero sequence compensation 83 > Transformer

> Transformer Protection

84 Integral Vectorial and Ratio Compensation Power transformer Ratio correction Numeric Relay Vectorial correction

84

84 Integral Vectorial and Ratio Compensation Power transformer Ratio correction Numeric Relay Vectorial correction

Integral Vectorial and Ratio

Compensation

84 Integral Vectorial and Ratio Compensation Power transformer Ratio correction Numeric Relay Vectorial correction
84 Integral Vectorial and Ratio Compensation Power transformer Ratio correction Numeric Relay Vectorial correction

Power transformer

Integral Vectorial and Ratio Compensation Power transformer Ratio correction Numeric Relay Vectorial correction
Integral Vectorial and Ratio Compensation Power transformer Ratio correction Numeric Relay Vectorial correction
Integral Vectorial and Ratio Compensation Power transformer Ratio correction Numeric Relay Vectorial correction
Integral Vectorial and Ratio Compensation Power transformer Ratio correction Numeric Relay Vectorial correction
Integral Vectorial and Ratio Compensation Power transformer Ratio correction Numeric Relay Vectorial correction
Integral Vectorial and Ratio Compensation Power transformer Ratio correction Numeric Relay Vectorial correction
Integral Vectorial and Ratio Compensation Power transformer Ratio correction Numeric Relay Vectorial correction
Integral Vectorial and Ratio Compensation Power transformer Ratio correction Numeric Relay Vectorial correction
Integral Vectorial and Ratio Compensation Power transformer Ratio correction Numeric Relay Vectorial correction
Integral Vectorial and Ratio Compensation Power transformer Ratio correction Numeric Relay Vectorial correction
Integral Vectorial and Ratio Compensation Power transformer Ratio correction Numeric Relay Vectorial correction
Integral Vectorial and Ratio Compensation Power transformer Ratio correction Numeric Relay Vectorial correction
Integral Vectorial and Ratio Compensation Power transformer Ratio correction Numeric Relay Vectorial correction
Integral Vectorial and Ratio Compensation Power transformer Ratio correction Numeric Relay Vectorial correction
Ratio correction Numeric Relay Vectorial correction Differential element Virtual interposing CT Virtual
Ratio
correction
Numeric
Relay
Vectorial
correction
Differential
element
Virtual interposing CT
Virtual interposing CT

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Magnetising Characteristic Twice Normal Flux Normal Flux Normal No Load 85 > Transformer Protection

Transformer Magnetising

Characteristic Twice Normal Flux Normal Flux Normal No Load
Characteristic
Twice
Normal
Flux
Normal
Flux
Normal
No Load

85

Twice Normal Flux Normal Flux Normal No Load 85 > Transformer Protection Current No Load Current

> Transformer Protection

Current

Normal Flux Normal Flux Normal No Load 85 > Transformer Protection Current No Load Current at

No Load Current

at Twice Normal Flux

Normal Flux Normal Flux Normal No Load 85 > Transformer Protection Current No Load Current at
86 Magnetising Inrush Current +  -  m m Steady State V  I

86

86 Magnetising Inrush Current +  -  m m Steady State V  I m

Magnetising Inrush Current

+

-

m

m

Steady State

V  I m
V 
I
m

> Transformer Protection

Magnetising Inrush Current Switch on at Voltage Zero - No residual flux 87 I m

Magnetising Inrush Current

Switch on at Voltage Zero - No residual flux

87

I m 2  m  V > Transformer Protection
I
m
2
 m
V
> Transformer Protection
Transformer Differential Protection Effect of Magnetising Current  Appears on one side of transformer only

Transformer Differential Protection

Effect of Magnetising Current

Appears on one side of transformer only

Seen as fault by differential relay

Normal steady state magnetising current is less than

relay setting

Transient magnetising inrush could cause relay to operate

88

is less than relay setting  Transient magnetising inrush could cause relay to operate 88 >

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Differential Protection Effect of Magnetising Inrush  SOLUTION 1 : TIME DELAY  Allows

Transformer Differential Protection

Effect of Magnetising Inrush

SOLUTION 1 : TIME DELAY

Allows magnetising current to die away before relay can operate

Slow operation for genuine transformer faults

89

to die away before relay can operate  Slow operation for genuine transformer faults 89 >

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Differential Protection Effect of Magnetising Inrush  SOLUTION 2 : 2ND (and 5TH) HARMONIC

Transformer Differential Protection

Effect of Magnetising Inrush

SOLUTION 2 : 2ND (and 5TH) HARMONIC RESTRAINT

Makes relay immune to magnetising inrush

Slower operation may result for genuine transformer faults if CT saturation occurs.

CT saturation detection algorithm to avoid long operating times

External fault detection algorithm to maintain stability during external faults.

90

 External fault detection algorithm to maintain stability during external faults. 90 > Transformer Protection

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Differential Protection Effect of Magnetising Inrush  SOLUTION 3 : GAP MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE 

Transformer Differential Protection

Effect of Magnetising Inrush

SOLUTION 3 : GAP MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE

Inhibits relay operation during magnetising inrush

Operate speed for genuine transformer faults unaffected by significant CT saturation

91

 Operate speed for genuine transformer faults unaffected by significant CT saturation 91 > Transformer Protection

> Transformer Protection

Protection of Auto-Transformer by High Impedance Differential Relays  (a) Earth Fault Scheme A B

Protection of Auto-Transformer by

High Impedance Differential Relays

 (a) Earth Fault Scheme A B C 87 High impedance relay
 (a) Earth Fault Scheme
A
B
C
87 High impedance
relay

92

Differential Relays  (a) Earth Fault Scheme A B C 87 High impedance relay 92 >

> Transformer Protection

Protection of Auto-Transformer by High Impedance Differential Relays  (b) Phase and Earth Fault Scheme

Protection of Auto-Transformer by

High Impedance Differential Relays

(b) Phase and Earth Fault Scheme

A B C a b c 87 87 87 n
A
B
C
a
b
c
87
87
87
n

93

Differential Relays  (b) Phase and Earth Fault Scheme A B C a b c 87

> Transformer Protection

Inter-Turn Fault Protection 94 > Transformer Protection

Inter-Turn Fault Protection

94

Inter-Turn Fault Protection 94 > Transformer Protection

> Transformer Protection

95 Inter-Turn Fault CT E Shorted turn Nominal turns ratio Fault turns ratio Current ratio

95

95 Inter-Turn Fault CT E Shorted turn Nominal turns ratio Fault turns ratio Current ratio -

Inter-Turn Fault

CT E
CT
E
Shorted turn
Shorted
turn

Nominal turns ratio Fault turns ratio Current ratio

- 11,000 / 240

- 11,000 / 1

- 1 / 11,000

Requires Buchholz relay

> Transformer Protection

Load

Fault current (multiples of rated current) 100 80 60 40 20 0 Interturn Fault Current

Fault current (multiples of rated current)

100

80

60

40

20

0

Interturn Fault Current / Number

of Turns Short Circuited

Fault current in short circuited turns Primary input current 5 10 15 20 25
Fault
current in short
circuited turns
Primary input current
5
10
15
20
25

10

8

6

4

2

Primary current (multiples of rated current)

Turn short-circuited (percentage of winding)

96

Primary current (multiples of rated current) Turn short-circuited (percentage of winding) 96 > Transformer Protection

> Transformer Protection

97 Buchholz Relay Installation 3 x internal pipe diameter (minimum) Conservator 5 x internal pipe

97

97 Buchholz Relay Installation 3 x internal pipe diameter (minimum) Conservator 5 x internal pipe diameter

Buchholz Relay Installation

3 x internal pipe diameter (minimum)

Conservator

5 x internal pipe diameter (minimum) Oil conservator 3 minimum Transformer
5 x internal pipe
diameter (minimum)
Oil conservator
3 minimum
Transformer

> Transformer Protection

98 Buchholz Relay Petcock Drain plug Deflector plate Alarm bucket Mercury switch To oil conservator

98

98 Buchholz Relay Petcock Drain plug Deflector plate Alarm bucket Mercury switch To oil conservator Trip

Buchholz Relay

Petcock
Petcock

Drain plug

Deflector plate

Alarm bucket

Mercury switch

To oil conservator

Trip bucket

> Transformer Protection

Counter balance weight

Oil level

From transformer

Aperture adjuster

99 > Transformer Protection Overfluxing Protection

99

99 > Transformer Protection Overfluxing Protection

> Transformer Protection

Overfluxing Protection

 Generator transformers  Grid transformers Overfluxing Usually only a problem during run-up or shut

Generator transformers

Grid transformers

Overfluxing

Usually only a problem during run-up or shut down, but can be caused by loss of load / load shedding etc.

Flux

V

caused by loss of load / load shedding etc. Flux   V f  Effects

f

Effects of overfluxing :

Increase in magnetising current

Increase in winding temperature

Increase in noise and vibration Overheating of laminations and metal parts (caused by stray flux)

Protective relay responds to V/f ratio

Stage 1

-

lower A.V.R.

Stage 2

-

Trip field

100

to V/f ratio  Stage 1 - lower A.V.R.  Stage 2 - Trip field 100

> Transformer Protection

Overfluxing Basic Theory V = kf   CAUSES  Low frequency  High voltage

Overfluxing Basic Theory

V = kf

CAUSES

Low frequency

High voltage Geomagnetic disturbances

EFFECTS

2

m

m

 Geomagnetic disturbances  EFFECTS 2  m  m I e  Tripping of differential

I e

Tripping of differential element (Transient overfluxing)

Damage to transformers (Prolonged overfluxing)

101

element (Transient overfluxing)  Damage to transformers (Prolonged overfluxing) 101 > Transformer Protection

> Transformer Protection

V/Hz Overfluxing Protection V f  K  Trip and alarm outputs for clearing prolonged

V/Hz Overfluxing Protection

V
V

f K

Trip and alarm outputs for clearing prolonged overfluxing

Alarm : Definite time characteristic to initiate corrective action

Trip : IDMT or DT characteristic to clear overfluxing condition

Settings

Pick-up 1.5 to 3.0

i.e.

110V x 1.05 = 2.31

50Hz

DT setting range 0.1 to 60 seconds

102

Pick-up 1.5 to 3.0 i.e. 110V x 1.05 = 2.31 50Hz DT setting range 0.1 to

> Transformer Protection

V/Hz Characteristics  Enables co-ordination with plant withstand characteristics 103 t = TMS (M -

V/Hz Characteristics

Enables co-ordination with plant withstand characteristics

103

co-ordination with plant withstand characteristics 103 t = TMS (M - 1) 2 operating time (s)

t =

TMS

(M - 1)