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Student: Gorea Vlad Marius

Grupa: XM 31

Tema 2
Q1 - Consider the following as systems and indicate the input and
output from each when considered as an entity:(a) a calculator,(b)a
lowdspeaker,(c)a radio.
Answer INPUT
(a)-calculatorPressure on keys,
(b)-lowdspeaker- electrical signal,
-radioradio signals,

display of calculated value,.

Q2 - Explain the difference between open- and closed-loop control

Answer Open-loop
In an open-loop control system the output from the system has no effect on
the input signal to the plant or processes.The output is determined solely by
the initial setting.Open-loop system have the advantage of being relatively
simple and consequently cheap with generally good reliability.However,they
are often inaccurate since there is no correction for errors in the output
which might result from extraneous disturbances
In a closed-loop control system a signal indicating the state of the output of
the system is fed back to the input where it is compared with what was
required and the difference used to modify the output of the system so that it
maintains the output at the required value.The term closed-loop refers to the
loop created by the feedback path.Closed-loop system have the advantage of
being relatively accurate in matching the actual to the required values..They
are,however,more complex and so more costly with a greater chance of
breackdown as a consequence of the greater number of components.
And a comparation between Open- and Closed- loop is:
Open- no feedback, closed- feedback

Q3 - Identify the basic functional elements that might be used in the

closed-loop control system involved to:
-A temperature-controlled water bath
-A speed-controlled electric motor
Answer(a) - Measurement- temperature sensor, controller- thermostat, correctionheater, process - water bath
(b)- Measurement- rotary speed sensor, controller- motor, process- shaft
Q4 - Draw a black diagram of a domestic central heating system which
has the following elements: