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RICHARD SRBU

PRINCIPII TEORETICE I PRACTIC TRADUCIONAL


(Suport de curs)
Cercetrile din ultima vreme situeaz teoria traducerii, ca disciplin de sine
stttoare, n cadrul lingvisticii aplicate, singura n msur s ptrund esena
complexului proces de traducere, care n egal msur presupune att analiza textului surs n vederea desprinderii invariantei de coninut, ct i sinteza i incorporarea acestei
invariante n limba textului de receptare.
Situarea problematicii traducerii, din perspectiv lingvistic i pragmatic, pe o baz
exact, tiinific, a fost susinut i de reprezentanii colii de traductologie din Leipzig1.
Aceast perspectiv de abordare a traducerii ni se pare a fi mai potrivit i din
punctual de vedere al definirii traducerii textelor de specialitate, cci, pe de o parte, se are
n vedere exactitatea transpunerii invariantei de coninut din original, chiar i cu unele
modificri compensatorii, iar pe de alt parte se iau n consideraie nu numai mijloacele
lingvistice corespondente sau echivalente propriu-zise, ci si situaiile concrete la care se
refer textul original, care n esen nu difer de la o limb la alta, dar care presupun
modaliti diferite de descriere a faptelor din textul-surs, chiar dac se menine
fidelitatea celor dou texte n planul coninutului. Bunoar expresiile sau enunurile
romneti din limbajul medical curent, ca retina intereseaz vederea, miopiile oculare
traduc un process distrofic, migrarea chiagului, abolirea reflexelor i multe altele sunt
expresii specifice romneti care nu i regsesc echivalena perfect ntr-un text tradus,
dar astfel de expresii fr nicio dificultate pot fi perifrazate, compensate sau nlocuite cu
altele specifice uzanelor din registrul medical al oricrei limbi n care acestea se
transpun.
Traducerea este o activitate practic presupunnd un act mental prin care se face o
selecie a unitilor componente necesare pe baza confruntrii celor dou sisteme
lingvistice. Aadar activitatea de traducere este /trebuie s fie precedat de o ampl i
temeinic analiz contrastiv, prin care se pot pune n eviden att asemnrile, ct i
deosebirile interlingvistice. Pe aceast cale se pot distinge elemente sistemice care pot
coincide ca form i coninut, ori numai ca i coninut.
Evident sunt mult mai rare cazurile de coinciden i formal i semantic. n
asemenea situaii avem de-a face cu ceea ce numim traduceri directe sau traduceri
ad literam. Acest tip de traducere este posibil cnd exist o coinciden a coninutului
semnificativ i a mijloacelor de expresie, dar i o convergen, din punct de vedere
stilistic, ntre cele dou texte.
Traducerea de tip mot a mot, de regul, din raiuni lesne de neles, se ntlnete
mult mai des n traducerea textelor de specialitate, inclusiv n cele medicale, dect n
textele beletristice. Adesea, ns, traductorul constat o lacun lingvistic (absenta
unui element) n limba receptoare, pe care trebuie s o competeze prin mijloace
echivalente, astfel nct receptarea s fie n concordan cu coninutul mesajului din
1

Vezi, n acest sens, lucrrile lui Otto Kade, citate de Ioan Kohn n cartea sa Virtuile compensatorii ale
limbii romne n traducere, Timioara, Editura Facla, 1983, p. 14 - 84 [Kohn 1983:14].

noriginal. Adesdea, ns, datorit divergenelor sistemice interlingvistice, unele


efecte/nuane ale mesajului din textul-surs nu poate fi redat cu fidelitate prin mijloace
lingvistice echivalente, proprii. n astfel de situaii se impune traducerea indirect,
care cere din partea traductorului abilitatea de a efectua o seam de transformri
transformri traducionale prin care s ajung la o versiune a textului tradus ct mai
apropiat semantic i cu o informaie complet, absolut convergent cu cea din original.,
dar cu respectarea riguroas a normelor limbii receptoare.
Dei nu poate fi vorba de o clasificare atotcuprinztoare a acestor tipuri de
transformri, datorit multitudinii de situaii contextuale n care acestea se mpletesc ori
se completaz reciproc, dintre procedeele corespunztoare domeniului nostru de referin,
le remarcm pe urmtoarele: traducerea antonimic, perifraza, transpoziia,modulaia
adaptarea i compensarea 2.
Traducerea antonimic presupune nlocuirea unui cuvnt din original cu
antonimul su ori cu o construcie antonimic, respectiv restructurarea enunului original
n transpunere printr-unul avnd o semnificaie opus, dar cu condiia meninerii
neschimbate a coninutului mesajului. n fapt acest procedeu implic i o transformare a
enunului dintr-unul afirmativ ntr-unul negativ, sau invers. Exemplele noastre vor avea
ca punct de plecare textul original.
Iat un exemplu din care rezult o asemenea modificare formal cu meninerea
aceluiai coninut: n textul original apar construcia afirmativ (de ex., !) iar n
traducere una negativ (cum ar fi Nu-i ru), sau Nu avea prini etc.
. n oraul meu natal nu s-a
schimbat nimic.
1917 .
S.U.A. nu a intrar n rzboi dect n 1917.
. Ea nu este ocolit de atenia
dumneavoastr.
Perifraza, sau traducerea unui cuvnt printr-o sintagm sau printr-o propoziie,
este un procedeu de traducere indirect dintr-o limb strin n romn foarte des ntlnit.
Prin perifraz se precizeaz coninutul conceptual al cuvntului din original. La perifraz
se recurge, de regul, atunci cnd n limba receptoare romna, n cazul nostru nu
exist mijloace de expresie analogice pentru redarea elementelor corespunztoare. De
exemplu n rusa exist construcii care n romn nu au un echivalent perfect i atunci se
recurge la perifraz, cu care se explic noiunea din original. De exemplu...s zelenovatymi
volosami (I. Bunin) cu prul btnd leietic( t,Aug. Doina). i alte adjective ruseti
care au n componena lor sufixe specifice precum evat -, -enjk-, -onjk- necesita n
translerea lor apelul la perifraz: , de ex., zdorovehonek sntos tun
n rus, de pild, n traducerea unor verbe prefixate este tiut c n aceast limb
formaiunile prefixate abund pentru acurateea translrii, se recurge la perifraz:
zazvigal a scos un sunet slbatic
2

O prezentare mai ampl a acestor procedee de traducere indirect, cu referire special la traducerile
beletristice, ntlnim n cartea lui Valentin Moldovan Teoria traducerii artistice, Timioara, Editura
Eurostampa, 2000, p.25-48. Problema transformrilor gramaticale i lexicale n traducera fost pe larg
aprofundat ntr-o multitudine de luvcrri aprute pn n prezent. Vezi, de exemplu, T.R Levickaja, A.M.
Fiterman, Problemz perevoda, Moscova, Edutura Mezdunarodnye otnosenija, 1976, p..7-68.

O serie de substantive abstracte ( cu sufixele enie, -izm, oct : zadumivost=


stare de visare, pogrebenie = punere in mormnt, mertvennost = ncremenire
funebr) se redau prin acest procedeu.
n foarte multe cazuri cu ajutorul perifrazei se redau substantivele compuse:
exemple rus. potmajster = diriginte de pot; naalstvoljubie = dragostea fata de
sefi, dubinogolovaja = capatana de lemn,
Alteori se ntlnete fenomenul invers, i anume, n textul tradus, printr-un singur
cuvnt pot fi redate mai multe cuvinte, sintagme construcii mai complexe, care semantic
sunt echivalente celor din traducere. Acesta este un procedeu opus perifrazei, care
presupune omiterea unor uniti lexicale, considerate redundante pentru comunicare, i se
ntlnete adesea n traducerile romneti. n asemenea cazuri semnificaia global a
unor sintagme mai dezvoltate din original poate rezulta din context fr dificultate i fr
ele. De exemplu, .... Dama... tak i okamenela na meste, poblednela, poblrdnele kak
smert i tono potrvojilas ne na shutku = Doamna..., auzind-o, incremeni, alba ca varul
si-n adevar tulburata...
Pentru a ilustra utilizarea p e r i f r a z e i n traduceri este relevant echivalarea
verbelor de micare ruseti prin expresii verbale romneti, n care semnificaia exact a
acestora este redat perifrastic cu ajutorul unor termeni de extensiune sintagmatic, de
tipul pe jos, cu un vehicul /tren, main etc./, ntr-o direcie, n mai mute direcii etc. De
exemplu, Ja idu v park, a sestra edet za gorod Eu merg (pe jos) n parc, iar sora mea
merge (cu maina) n afara oraului. Tot la perifraz recurg taductorii i atunci cnd
transpun n romnete verbele ruseti de aspect perfectiv i imperfectiv o categorie
lexico-gramatical care lipsete n sistemul verbal romnesc, precum i un mare numr de
verbe care exprim cu ajutorul prefixrii multiple semnificaii ale modului aciunii
(aktionsart): caracterul incoativ (nceputul aciunii), iterativ (repetabil), insuficient ori
saturativ al aciunii verbale etc. De ex., zagovorit ( a ncepe a vorbi), zamoleat (a
tcea), zaigrat(a ncepe a se juca sau a ncepe a cnta la un instrument), naestsja (a se
stura de mncat), napitsja (a se stura de but) .a.
....
Transpoziia const n nlocuirea unor structuri gramaticale din original cu alt tip
de structuri n traducere. De pild, n locul unor verbe, n textul tradus pot s apar
substantive deverbale, n locul unor adjective, pot s apar substantive sau verbe. (Vezi V.
Moldovan, Teoria traducerii artistice; Timioara, 2000, p.32 i urm.) : Iat cteva din
situaiile mai frecvent ntlnite:
Substantivele pot fi redate prin
verbe (exemple),
adjective...
adverbe
gerunzii...
Adjective care pot fi redate prin :
Substantive :
- Verbe.
participii i alte categorii gramaticale
Verbele pot fi redate prin:
-substantive
- adjective

- gerunzii
-adverbe i alte pri de vorbire:
Adverbele pot fi redate prin:
- substantive
- adjective
- verbe
Adesea transpoziia se combin cu perifraza, rezultnd uneori deosebiri privind
mrimea enunurilor din original i traducere. Exemple...
Modulaia este un procedeu prin care traductorul i construete textul plecnd
de la sensul ntregului enun i nu de la sensul diferitelor componente ale textului
original. Prin modulaie se red acelai coninut, dar considerat din unghiuri
diferite, este o variaie a comunicrii prin schimbarea unghiului de vedere. Este cu
precdere ntlnit n traducerile literare, n care apar mai multe transformri
lexicale. La acest procedeu se recurge pentru evitarea ndeprtrii prin mijloacele
specifice de echivalare de care dispune limba int, fa de substana semantic a
mesajului. n cazul traducerilor de specialitate, acest prodeu se ntlnete foarte
rar, numai n cazul unor expresii clieu, de tipul am fcut un stomac, furt
sangvin, ea turceasc, mers cosit, mna care privete cu faa sa palmar spre...
i multe alte sintagme cu caracter fix, idiomatic, specific limbajului medical
romnesc. Modulaia se ntlnete mai mult n frazeologie i n paremiologie.
Uneori frazeologismele au corespondente perfecte n traducere direct chiar pe
componente (a arunca cuiva praf n ochi brosit komu-l. pl v glaza), dar de
cele mai multe ori forma intern a corespondentelor difer printr-un component
sau prin mai multe (a face din nar armsar zdelat iz muhi slona).
Accentuarea, ntlnit cu precdere n traducerile literare, presupune
utilizarea unui echivalent cu o for sugestiv mai mare, ori cu nuane semantice
suplimentare, n msur s precizeze ct mai bine noiunea din original i s o
redea cu mai mult intensitate.. Astfel, n traducere ntnim echivalente cu o
relevan mult mai mare dect corespondentele lor din original.
Exemple de tipul

glgie, zgomot (n original) i balamuc (n traducere).

Adaptarea este aplicabil atunci cnd o situaie, o realitate social etc.,


despre care se relateaz n original nu exist n limba n care se face traducerea i
care trebuie s fie redat printr-o alt situaie pe care traductorul o consider
drept echivalent. Avem n vedere mai ales denumirea unor realiti i relaii
culturale ori sociale strict specifice unor anumite realiti din cultur i
civilizaie, care lipsesc la alte popoare, n alte arealuri lingvistice. Exemple de
tipul subef de birou, magistru i asistent universitar, meneger/director... etc.
De menionat c aceste procedee de traducere, dintre care unele sunt mai
mult sau mai puin utilizate i n traducerea textelor medicale, nu se aplic de
cele mai multe ori n mod izolat, ci se combin unele cu altele, mai ales
transpoziia i perifraza, modulaia i accentuarea.

Procedeul compensrii n traducere se recomand a fi utilizat atunci


cnd traductorul, din diferite motive (lipsa de concordanta intre sistemele
lingvistice A si B, intentia stilistica a traducatorului, selectiam sinonimica
preferata de acesta etc.) nu poate transpune intreaga informaie coninut de un
cuvnt din textul original El compenseaza aceast pierdere utiliznd un alt mijloc
de expresie, de cele mai multe ori n alt segment al textului tradus. Prin
compensaie se reface aproape n totalitate informaia din original. Acest procedeu
este pe larg utilizat n traducerile literare, unde se pune acut problema echivalrii
TO i TT din punctul de vedere al meninerii expresivitii3.
ntruct limbajul medical romnesc s-a mbogit cu multe mprumuturi, n
spe din englez, nu se mai pune problema compensaiilor n traduceri din
aceast limb, dect n foarte rare situaii.
TEM:De cutat exemple din care s rezulte compensarea rus. rom. ,
adica cnd un cuvnt din rusa nu este redat prin echivalent, este chiar omis, n
schimb, n acelai context ori n alt segment de text apare un cuvnt romnesc
prin care se acoper contextual semnificaia cuvntului omis. V., de ex.,
echivalentele analitice din rusa pentru cuvinte ca glbui, roietic, prostu, csoaie
etc. /probabil.
nlocuirea sau compensarea unui termen din original, care nu are o funcie
central n organizarea textului, poate fi fr niciun fel de consecine efectuat,
cci, n ultim instan, un text nu se traduce element cu element, ci textul n
ntregime. Chiar dac sunt anumite cuvinte i expresii n textul original, care nu
pot fi traduse, nu se poate admite imposibilitatea traducerii chiar i n astfel de
situaii. E drept pot exista segmente intraductibile ntr-un text oarecare, dar texte
intraductibile nu exist tocmai graie virtuilor compensatorii ale limbii
receptoare.

FORMAREA I DEZVOLTAREA DEPRINDERILOR I PRICEPERILOR DE


TRADUCERE
Recomandam dou tipuri de aplicaii.
1)
Se dau contexte texte mai mici sau mai mari n paralel RUS. i
ROM i se cere studenilor s precizeze ce procedeu s-a utilizat n
traducere;
2)
Se propun exerciii lexico-gramaticale cu polisemie, sinonimie,
antonimie i cu serii derivative i familii de cuvinte. De ex. se d un
cuvnt i se cere precizarea derivatelor i compuselor lui SAU se d un
cuvnt i se cere indicarea familiei lui lexicale.

Aceast chestiune este amplu examinat de Ioan Kohn, n cartea sa Virtuile compensatorii ale limbii
romne n traducere, Timioara, editura Facla, 1983, 11-84.

Dup ce se parcurge aceast etap se scoate n eviden, drept concluzie, ideea


necesitii efecturii unor asemenea aplicaii n vederea pregtirii studenilor
pentru efectuarea de traduceri n limba romn.!!!
Parshin
PROBLEMA TRADUCERII EXPRESIILOR FRAZEOLOGICE


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11

Parshin Andei, Teorija i praktika perevoda




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22

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.

23

.

. . " "
,
:
My mother had left her chair in her agitation, and gone behind it in the
corner.
to leave to go
.

,
.
:

.

:
My old dear bedroom was changed, and I was to lie a long way off.
, ,
.
. -
? , ,
.
-:
,
.
"" to say to
tell,
, , , ,
, , , , ..:
"So what?" I said. - ? - .
He told me I should always obey my father. -
.
The boss told me to come at once. -
.

24

, ,
, .. ,
. ,
:
He visits me practically every week-end. -
.

, ,
"-".
-
:
Jane used to drive to market with her mother in their La Sane convertible.
- .
He showed us his old beat-up Navaho blanket. -
.

.
,
, young man of 6 feet 2 inches

.

:
Then this girl gets killed, because she's always speeding. -
, . (.
"" : .)
"Who won the game?" I said. "It's only the half." - ? . - . (. " ":
.)

: foot - ; wrist watch - ..

,
.
-

25

: I don't blame them. - . ( :


, ). He's dead now. - . ( ,
, .) He always made you say everything twice. -
. ( ,
.) -
,
:
Manson slung his bag up and climbed into the battered gig behind a tall,
angular black horse. (A. Cronin) -
,
.
,
behind horse, - : .
slung his bag up , behind horse
angular
, ,
.
, " ",
", ":
He would cheer up somehow, begin to laugh again and draw skeletons all
over his slate, before his eyes were dry. - ,

, .
( ) - ,

. "" ,
.

:
I always remember his words. - .
, ,
.
, , , -,
,
:
One of the greatest events in the period following World War and the
Russian Revolution, and closely connected with them both was the growth
of the world Communist movement. -

26

,
, ,
.
,
, ,
, .
, ,
.
,
,
.
- .
, ,
.
- ,

.
,

:
The annual surveys of the Labour Government were not discussed with the
workers at any stage, but only with the employers. -

. .
Both engine crews leaped to safety from a collision between a parcels
tram and a freight train near Morris Cowley, Oxfordshire. -

.
, .


.

leaped to safety
( ,
).
claim for substantial wage increase and improved conditions for
about 70,000 municipal busmen in the provinces was yesterday referred to
a joint wages committee of the unions and employers which will meet on
January 12. - 70,000 ,

27

,

.
,
, .
12- .
, -

.
,
.
- ,

. - :
That was long time ago. It seemed like fifty years ago. -
- , .
The only thing that worried me was our front door. It creak like a bastard.
- -
.

, ..
-
,
:
But occasionally an indiscretion takes place, such as that of Mr. Woodrow
Wyatt, Labour MP, when Financial Secretary to the War Office. He
boasted of the prowess of British spies in obtaining information regarding
armed forces of the USSR. -
. , , ,

,
.
- ,

. :
, , , .
, .

, ,

28

, ,
( ). ,
, ,
,
, ,
(money - ;
ink - ..)
(struggles - ; outskirts - ..).

:
We are searching for talent everywhere. - .
The invaders resorted to violence and atrocity to crush the resistance of
the native population. - ,
.
They left the room with their heads held high. -
.

. -
.
( -er)
(.
, , , .),
"".
:
He is poor swimmer. - .
She is no good as a letter-writer. - .
I am very rapid packer. - .
,
.
:
It is our hope, that an agreement will be reached by Friday. -
, .
, ,
:

29

Australian prosperity was followed by a slump. -


.
. the British Government - ; the American
decision - ; the Congolese Embassy - .

,
:
The stoppage which is in support of higher pay and shorter working
hours, began on Monday. -

.

.
. ,
.

, . -
,
, , ,
, ,
( ):
Visitors are requested to leave their coats in the cloak-room. .
( ):
The last week saw an intensification of diplomatic activity. -
.
( ):
The little town of Clay Cross today witnessed a massive demonstration. -
.
( ):
The crash killed 20 people. - 20
.

30

,
.
(It was so
dark that I could not see her. - .);
(While I was eating my
eggs, these two nuns with suitcases came in. - ,
.);
(I didn't sleep too long, because I think it was only
around ten o'clock when I woke up. I felt pretty hungry as soon as I had a cigarette. , , .
, .);
(It was as hot
as hell and the windows were all steamy. - , . Had
the decision been taken in time, this would never have happened. -
, .).
- - ,

, ,
:
Nothing changed in my home town. -
.
- ,
,
:
She is not unworthy of your attention. -
.

until unless:
The United States did not enter the war until April 1917. -
1917 .
Additional expenditures shall not be made unless authorized.
.

, ,
:

31

The railroad unions excluded negroes from their membership. .


, ,
, without:
He never came home without bringing something for the kids. -
, - .

( ):
Their house had no screen doors. - . (

screen doors.)
The people are not slow in learning the truth. -
. (
- .)
- -
, ,
, ..
.
: conservationist -
; whistle-stop speech -
.
.
,
:
Car owners from the midway towns ran a shuttle service for parents
visiting the children injured in the accident. -
, ,
, ,
.
- , ,
, -
, ,
. , ("") , ,
, .
.
. " "
, :

32

"Serve him right," said Sir Pitt; "him and his family has been cheating me
on that farm these hundred and fifty years". Sir Pitt might have said, he
and his family to be sure; but rich baronets do not need to be careful
about grammar as poor governesses must be.

- .
.
,

() :
"
!"... , ,
,
, , .

, , ,
(-singing, -going, hit 'it, 'appen
.), (I was, you was
.) - .
. .
"" : I'm nothing to you - not so much as them slippers.
: those slippers. them those
. "" ,
. :
, , : .
,
:
You could tell he was very ashamed of his parents and all, because they
said "he don't" and "she don't" and stuff like that. - ,
, ""
"" .
- ,
.

Andrei Parshin, Teorija I praktika perevoda


33




.

,
,
.
,
, ,
.


.
,
.
,
, .
, , ,
,
, . ,
, ,
.
-
, ,
.
, ,
,
, .

.
.
(
) . ,

,
, .
,

:
One of the fundamental aspects of the greatly strengthened United States
imperialism following World War I was its tightening grip upon the other

34

countries of the Western hemisphere. This was especially the case in Latin
America. -

,
.
. ,
,
, ""
, .
,
,
,
.
,
.

,
, .
,
,
.
.
, ,
.
,
.
,
. -
.
"
". ,
,
,
,
.
,
"".
,
.
-
, ,
. ,

35

, :
.
""
. ,
, .
it is important to get clear which are the structural and institutional
impediments that prevent Britain from making the best use of its resources
institutional.
institution, institutional
, institution
(, , .). ,
, ,
, .
,
,
.
(, , ).
,
, "" :
Since F.D. Roosevelt was bolted and frustrated by the right and adopted
by the left, his political ego was enlisted in support of the popular view.
,
bolted, frustrated adopted, his political ego , ..
""
. ,
,
:
The level of future supplies depends on the farmers' decisions taken well
in advance and not always on the best information and advice.
, -
, on.
to depend,
, ,
, ,
. on
to take decision on the best of information,
, ,
"
".

36


:
Many remedies are suggested for the avoidance of worry and mental
overstrain by the people who have to bear exceptional responsibilities for
a long period of time or to perform duties on a large scale.
by the people
to suggest,
, avoidance.
, ,
, - ,
, ,
.
.
, ,
"" , .

,
, .
, The Foreign Secretary will make
another voyage to Washington, -
, .
,
,

.
He had his son educated at Oxford ,
,
:
.
-
- .

, .
, ,
.

.
, ,
(, ),
,
, .

37

- ; -, ..
, , ,
(, , , ,
..).
, five days
.
,
, .
,

.
.

, ,
,
.
.
,
,
.
, .
,
,
. ,
:
The United States worked out a formula which later came to be known as
dollar diplomacy.
formula: , ,
,
.
:
1) : ,
. - ;
2) (
- ):
- , , .
:

38

,
" ".

:
In few days' time this war criminal will be writing articles demanding
that the German Army be praised and not blamed for its attitude in the
last war.
, -
attitude, .
,
. , - ,
, , , :

,
, .
,
. ,

.
:
The r leaders, skilful opportunists that they are, immediately changed
the tune and began to pose as great champions of peace.
opportunist ,
. opportunism
- , , ,
.
:
,
,
.

.
,
,
.

39

, ,
. ,
:
The United States are confronted in world affairs with an increasing
number of nations that are violently ambitious in their desires to raise
their living standards.
,
.
- ,
:
.... -
,
. , , . , ,
affairs
?
...?
(? ?). ,
, . ,
? , ,
? violently
ambitious in their desires?
. ,
?
- . ?
? ?
,

.
,
,
.
,
. , -
. ,

,
. ,
, .
, , ,
, , ,
, ,
. ,

40

, ,
"" . "-",
,
, .
. "Jabberwocky":
'Twas brillig, and the stithy toves did gyre and gamble in the wabe; all
mimsy were the borogoves, and the mome raths outgrabe. - .
,
. (. . )
" ", , .
, ,
, .
" - " .
, ,
" , "
.
, :
,
(
) ,
.
, ,
,

. ", "

, .. ,
.
He is regular ass
, , regular,
, . ""
, regular ,
.
,

. ,
, , "
",
.
.

41

, .
-
,
:
The other shoe has been dropped by the company in its push into the
computers market. -
.
-
,
,
( ).
, , ,
:
The weight penalty of the automatic unit to the traditional gear box must
be small. -
, ,
.

penalty, .
()
. ,

-.

.
:
"Can you herd sheep?" "Do you mean have I heard sheep?" (O. Henry) ? - ?
herd heard
- .

. . " " ,
, ,
, . ,
:
"Dead Dufton," I muttered to myself. "Dirty Dufton, Drear Dufton,
Despicable Dufton" - then stopped.

42


.
, "":
, - . - ,
, ... - . (. .
. )
,
,
.
,
,
.
, ,
,
, .
,
,
,
( ), " ":
"Isn't it nice here," she said. "All Dickensy. And look at that little waiter
there with the funny quiff. He is utterly squoo." (J. Braine) -
, ? - . - - .
, ,
. -. (. . .
)
, (
) ,
.
,
. , ,
, , ,
, .
, , ,
,
,
" " (translatese),
. , ,
, ,
, " ,
, ". ,

43

,
, :
The tire bumped on gravel, skeetered across the road, crashed into
bonier and popped me like a cork onto pavement. (rr Lee). -
, , ,
-,
. (. . . )
, , (
, , - )
.

,
,
.
,
.

,
- ( , -
) , :
Having corrupt alliance with the employers the AFT leaders sabotaged all
efforts to organize the workers of other industries.
corrupt .
- - , .
corrupt alliance .
, ,
, .
,
, .. :
,

.

:
Even today, after twenty centuries of Christian Enlightment, half man's
family goes hungry. -
.

44

( ),
,
.
:
I put on this hat that I'd bought in New York that morning. It was this red
hunting hat, with one of those very long peaks. - ,
-.
.

, ,
.

. , ,
,
.

"" .
,
. -

:
The amendment received 3,622,000 votes, while the Executive resolution
received 4,090,000. Thus the Executive majority was only 468,000 in a
vote of nearly eight million.
,
-, .
Executive
Committee resolution, .. , ,
Executive Committee resolution majority, .. ,
. ,
,

.

: wage strike -
; gun licence - ; oil countries - .

45


,
:
The Labour Movement will never forgive those who defy an overwhelming
Labour Party conference decision. -
, ,
.
,
. , - ,
.

: The President's energy message -
; The Tory pay laws -
;
The Watergate special prosecutor - ,
.
-
:
The new American Secretary of State has proposed a world conference on
food supplies.
has proposed a world conference to call
- .
:

.
,
,
.

of:
The culmination of Naval hydrofoil technology, "Tucuncary" is one of the
most advanced surface craft. - "",
-
,
.

46


, :
No one would think now that Millicent had been the prettier of the two. ,
.
,
Past Perfect.

,
: workers of all industries -
; defences - ; modern weapons ..
,
:
She never used scent, and she had always thought it rather fast, but Eau
de Cologne was so refreshing. - ,
, - ,
.

, .
,
:
"The exclusiveness, the pride, the form, the ceremony," - exclaimed the
general, emphasizing the articles more vigorously at every repetition.
"The artificial barriers set up between man and man; the division of the
human race into court cards and plain cards of every denomination - into
clubs, diamonds, spades, anything but hearts." (Ch. Dickens). -
, , , ,
"", - -
;
- , , , , !
! (. . )

, ,
.

" " -

47

. ,
, , :
The treaty was pronounced null and void. -
.
The proposal was rejected and repudiated. -
.
The government resorted to force and violence. -
.

.
:
Judging by all external appearances, this session of our Assembly is
regular and normal. Yet the atmosphere is neither usual nor seasonal, for
this session stands outside the pattern of the sessions held since the days
of San Francisco. The fateful events that are rushing into the international
area are neither of a usual character nor of an ordinary nature. It is a
unique session - happily and fortunately led by a unique President.
,
.. :
, - .
, , ,
,
-. ,
, . , , ,
.
- .

:
Burning or combustion is the process of uniting a fuel or combustible with
the oxygen in the air.
combustion combustible,
, ,
burning fuel.
,
:

48

- ,
.
.
:
So I paid my check and all. Then I left the bar and went out where the
telephones were. - .
I left the bar went out
; ,
.

.
, ,
.. , :
About gallon of water was dripping down my neck, getting all over my
collar and tie. - , ,
.

, , , ,
, ,
,
. , ,
,
, .
, ,
, .
,
,
.
, ""
,
. ,
:
new excitement has been added to the queer race that man has run
against himself throughout ages trying to produce food fast enough to feed
his fast-growing family. (P. Lyons)
, ,
,

49

.

, ,
.
,
, ,
,
, , .
,
. , ,
, ,
. ,
, -, ,
( ), . ,
, . ,
,
.
, ..
, .. ...
() .

. , race
, (has run), -
, , .,
.
, , ,
.
: ,
; ,
.. ,
.

, ,

.
, .
,
, "
". :
1) , ,
: Unless
such policy for peace is fought for, and won, the post-war gains of the working
class will be completely lost;

50

2) : He was fond of,


and interested in, music;
3)
: Not only Sandra but Bertine and Jill and Gertrude were to be
attentive to, and considerate of him.

:
The Atlantic Pact had never been reported to, or sanctioned by, the
Security Council. -
.


.
.

,
, ,
.
, - , -
. ,
,
,
.
12

, ,
, - (),
, .
,
, .
.
,
- ,
.
.
, ,
- .
, ,
, ,

51


() .

.

, ,
-, ,
, .
,
.
,

. ,
(" ,
, , "). ,
,
, .

, , , ,
, ,
.

, "" .

, .


.



.
,
, ,
,
"" .
, ,
, , ,
.
,
.

52

,

.
.

. ,
, ,
, .
,
, ,
.

,
.
,
- .

Massachusetts, Oklahoma, Virginia, Alberta, Manitoba
Middlesex, Surrey ., , , ,
, , ,
: , ,
..

, , ..:
The ecological movement in Spain is on the increase, "Newsweek" reports.
- "",
.

, :
... for desert you got Brown Betty, which nobody ate ... - ... " ", , .

" ", .

:
Against my will I felt pleased that he should have considered my remarks
interesting, though I knew that it was Dale Carnegie stuff, a small

53

apparently casual compliment. (J. Braine). -


, , ,
-
.
, ,
- "
".

,
:
There were Pius and medicine all over the place, and everything smelled
like Vicks' Nose Drops. - - , ,
.
Vicks - ,
. ,
,
.


,
, . ,
:
The Prime-Minister spoke few words from a window in No. 10.
, 10 -
-.
,
, :
- .
, ..
,
:
... "swept" yard that was never swept where johnson grass and rabbittobacco grew in abundance. - ... "" ,
.

54

"The temperature was an easy ninety," he said. - , .


,
. ,
,
, , ,
, , , ..,
. ninety
. .
, - .
, ,
. , -
, ,
.
(
) ,
:
Parked by solicitor's office opposite the cafe was a green Aston-Martin
tourer. -
.
,
, -.


-
. , ,
"" .
" ", " ",
,
- ,
, , ,
, , .
, ,
,
,
,
.
-
. ,

55

, ,
( , ..),

, .

, .

.
, , ,
,
. ,
, ,
, , ,
, ..

.

- , ,

.
, ,
, ,
..
,
. ,
, , .

.
:
,
. ,
,
,
.
, ,
.

,
. ,


, , -

56

, - ,
.
,
, .
. ,
- .
, ,
,
( , ,
). ,
( , )
,
, .
,

.
"" h ,
, ,
(He 'as good hear He has good ear),
,
(, ' ?!), .
-
,
() . , ,
, , ( )
,
.

,
.
, ,
- .
,
, ,
, .
,
, . ,

, ,

.

57

,
,
"" (markers).

:
He do look quiet, don't 'e? D'e know 'oo 'e is, Sir? - -
, ? , , ?
(don't doesn't) ('
he, 'oo who) ,
, :
?
,
.
. ,
, , .

.
, ,
, ""
. ,

.

.
,
.
,
.
, ,

.
,
.
,
. ,
, -,
( ) ,
.

:
We blingee beer. Now you play. - ,
. ( ).

58


,
,

, .
.
:
Eel ees the story of a leetle Franch girl, who comes to a beeg ceety, just
like New York, and falls een love wees a leetle boy from Brookleen. - ,
, -, -
. ( ).

:
When you see him 'quid then you quick see him 'perm whale. -
, - . (
).

,
( ,
.). ,

, , ,
-.

.

( ) .
, ,
.

, .
,
,
- .
,
, ,
, .
,
.

59

.
,
(
) , , (
,
).
- ,
.


.

,
. ,
.

, .

. , -
,
, ,
, ,
.

.
,
.
,
,
. ,
. ,
,
,
. , ,
, ,
(-writing),
.

.
.
, ,
,
- .

60

, ""
.
"" ,

, ,
,
.
,
, ,
, .
, , , ,
,
.
.

,
.

.
, ,
,
.
.
()
.

,
.
- , -
, ,
, -
.
,
.
He is running down the street
;
He is as cool as cucumber miss is as good as a
mile
, ;

: They locked the door to keep thieves out. -
. ,

61

""
"" ""
.

,
" ", .. -
, -
- . ,

.

.
,
,
.
. ,
, ,
,
. , ,
. , ,
- .

,
, .
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", .. ,
.
, ""
,
,

, .
, , , , XIV
, , ; ; ;
; ; ;
; ;
..
, ,
,
,
, .

62

,
, ,
, .
, .
, ,
(greeted one another with holy kiss),
(gave one another hearty handshake all
around). ,
, ,
, , .. ,
, , ,
.

,
.

, , - ,

. ,
, ,
, ,
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,
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.

63


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64

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65


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.

66

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67

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68

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75