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eae 52/09 EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTIONS: ADDED MASS COMPUTATIONS FOR INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUID by JAMES SHAW-HAN KUO. ‘COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. | UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA « Berkeley, California FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTIONS: ADDED MASS COMPUTATIONS FOR INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUID by James Shaw-Han Kuo Report to the National Science Foundation Report No. UCB/EERC-B2/09 Earthquake Engineering Research Center College of Engineering university of California Berkeley, California August 1982 ABSTRACT This report consists of Part I of the dissertation submitted by ‘the author to the Graduate Division of the University of California, Berkeley, in partial satisfaction of the requirenents for the dagree of Doctor af Philosophy in Engineering. In this report, the dam-reservoir interaction effects considering incompressible fluid are presented. The hydrodynanic effect represented by’ an added-nass matrix 1s evelusted by two basically different. procedures-~ 2 Generalized Nestergaard Formila and the Galerkin Finite Elenent Method. Pressure solutions acting on gravity dane, cylindrical arch dams and general arch dams are compared for the different procedures. Rigorous wmode shape and frequency correlations are carried out, and based on the results of the correlation studies most efficient procedure 4s suggested, which 1s shown to be adequate for engineering purposes. a ACKNOMLEDGENENTS ony people have assisted ne during the course of my graduate studies. 1 am most thankful to Professor Ray H. Clough, my thesis advisor and the Chairman of my dissertation comntttee.His inspiration, patience ané guidance are deeply appreciated, and I will always renenber his fine example. T am also grateful to Professors E. L. iiTson and C.D. Hote, menbers of ay dissertation comittee, for their valuable suggestions, encosragenent and frfencly guidance. T wish to express ny gratitude to Dr. John F. Hall for many vélvable discussions during the first part of my research, and to Professor R. L. Taylor for making his computer progran FEAP available. This research has been part of the U.S.-R.0.C. Cooperative Research Progran. Financial support fron the National Science Foundation ts gratefully acknowledged. Conputer faciTities were provided by the Lavrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley. I also wart to thank Toni Avery for her excellent typing. 1 am greatly indebted to Ors. BI11 & Lydia Yap and Don & Nancy Mangold, ‘tio Christian couples, who provided care concern and encouragenent throughout my graduate studies. Above all, T wish to express ny gratitude to py family for their unfailing support, understanding,encouragenent and love. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page MSTA. ee ee eee 4 ACKNORLEDOEHENTS. ws... eee 8 TABLE OF cONTENTS . ee UST OF FIOWRES foe ee eee wt Ve RODUETION eee eee aa VT Ofectives eee veces 1 1.2 State of the Wt eee 2 VB Sep eee eee 4 GENERALIZED MESTERGAARD FORWWLA eee 8 2.1 Review of the Classical Westergaard Formula ne 5 | 2.2 Generalized Westergeard formla, os. seeee 6 2.3 Teibutery Area Lanping Process « 8 : 3. GALEREIN FIOITE ELEMENT HETIOD. ee sok S.1 Galerkin Method for Nave Equation... . « fice 4.2 Finite Clenent Formulations. ©. 0.22... 8 3.4 Consistent Lumping Process ©... eee 9 COMPUTER THPLEMENTATIONS AND RUMERICAL SOLUTIONS... 2... 2 4.1 Computer toplenentations ©... vee ee eee 2 4.1.1 Generalized Westergaard Formula Procedure... 22 4.1.2 Galerkin Finite Element Procedures... 8 Formation of matrix gg... cee ee 2h Formation of matrix hy... ee eee 26 4.2 tydrogynante Pressure Solutions and Their Comparisons... 27 4.201 Gravity Dane. eee 28 4.2.2 Cytinarieat hreh Dams ee Rese eee areas ee an RE Se aaa sf 5.2 Correlation of Frequencies and Mode Shapes... ... 2. 34 | a ee ce | re 5 ee ee as Beg nC oorraTnecunencee ‘ Base Earthquake (DBE) Excitation. . . a pe a ees er ee ene E APPENDIX B: Finite Element Interpolation Functions and Their f eee ee : ee aca ee aes acceler ea eee ee a er ypauseaeacue cornneeeenne i Figure i 1-2 13 LIST oF Froures Pictorial added-nass according to Westergaard. ... . Galerkin discretization of the reservoir... 2... Lunping hydrodynamic pressures into eq nodal forces . ivalent hydrodynamic Normal direction cosines of curvitinear surface... . . Finite elements: 2-D and 3-0 in natural coordinates. . . Gravity dam with vertical upstream face... 2.2... Arch dam with cylindrical upstream face... 22... oe Arch dan with cylindrical upstream face and different abutment angles Arch dam with general geometry upstream face... . Foundation rock and dam body of Techi dam model (x2-projection) Foundation rock and dam body of Techi dam mode] {ye-projection at crown section cut)... ee ee Finite elenent mesh of dam bo face projected on xz-plane . . Finite element mesh of dam boc face projected on xz-plane . . dy (Techi dam) upstream dy (Techi dam) downstream Effect of inconpressible reservoir on the fundanental Frequency of vibration of the dan-reservoir systems... . Comparison of effects of incompressible reservoir on the fundamental frequency of vibration of Techi damt-reservoir system. Frequencies of first four modes of Techi dam according to different reservoir model for various water levels. . . Frequency correlations of experiments with nunerical analyses... Frequency spectra correlations of various water levels (echt dam). 55 56 57 58 59 a 63 6 Cl cy 1 n n 73 % % ” Figure 1-20 ra 1-22 1-23 1-28 1-25(a) 1-25(b) 1-25(e) 1-26 vit Mole, shape (radia) correlations for SO raservotr ier nee eee eee ers Bose Node shape (radial) correlations for 85% reservoir depth ee ee eee eee an Cantilever stress and arch stress in Techi dam due to static Toads Cantilever stress and arch stress envelopes for upstream face of Techi dam due to static Toads and design base esrthquake eee eta eran tas eee Cantilever stress and arch stress envelopes for dounstrear face of Tech! dan due to static Toads and design base earthquake. ee 5x danping elastic response spectra for Operation Base Earthquake and Design Base Earthquake, based on Newnark's basic spectra with amplification factors for acceleration and velocity taken to be 2.6 and 1.9, respectively... Relation between ground acceleration and probability of exceedance in fifty years, P, and return period T . . Relation between ground velocity and probability of exceedance in fifty years, P, and return period T. . . . Variable water level... eee eer rte 78 a1 90 98 106 107 108 108 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 objectives hydrodynamic effects induced by the impounded water may have signi- Ficant influence on the response of a dam subjected to earthquake excitation. Current technique is well capable of analyzing » Tinear dam-reservoir interaction system, taking into account the hydrodynamic effects. (4-7, 9-13,16,18,19). But the responses of dam-reservoir systens to most Design Base Earthquake (D8E)” are Itkely to be nonlinear, so that we can no Tonger employ the frequency domain solution technique to deat with hydrodynamic effects as in many of the works being done up to date. (4-7,16,18,19). Time domain solution is left as the only alternative. While to economically ‘include the water compressibility of infinite reservoir® in time domain solution is still under research, the hydrodynamic effects due to an incompressible water reservoir can be readily taken into account in the ‘time domain solution of a dan-reservoir interaction system. The easiest way to deal with the hydrodynamic effects of an imcompressible water reservoir is by employing the “added-mass" concept (1). It is the objective of this work to investigate and select most reasonable and economical method that can count for the hydrodynamic effects of incompressitle water reservoir in the form of added-mass. For the general geomezry of concrete dams, the Generalized Westergaard Formula and the Galerkin Finite Element Method are among the candidates. Rigorous analyses of node shapes and frequencies are compared with the field experimental work, ané the results serve as the major indication of the validity of the method. DBE is an earthquake intensity corresponding to a return period of 100 years (also see Section 5.3) * Infinite reservoir has been used in general for easier analytical solution similating out-bound energy radiation condition for a very large reservoir. 1.2 State of the Art The Finite Element Method with the aid of high speed digital conputer has enabled us to analyze a11 types of complex civil engineering structures. But one of the difficulties remained in today's structural analysis techniques 1s to evaluate the effects of various kinds of loadings arise from the environment where the structures are Tocated. The hydrodynanic loading effects upon the daus are few anong then, Since the early part of the twenties, the influence of hydrodynamic effects on the responses of the dans have Tong been an interested topic, especially in the event cf earthquake. In 1933, professor H. M. Westergeard (1) firstly established a rational standard procedure to take into account the hydrodynamic loadings ‘on gravity dans during earthquakes. Although the case he studied was Vinited to rigid dans with vertical upstrean face, and infinitely Tong reservotrs, ignoring surface waves and considering only sna11 displacements of Flufd particles, this work was regarded as a milestone. Especially the concept of added-nass, hich he introduced for the inconpressible water reservoir, greatly simplified the enslysis procedure of tie response of a dam considering hydrodynamic effects during earthquakes. Srahtz and Heilbron (2) followed up with a discussion on the effects of a finite reservoir, compressibility of the water and flexibility of the dans. In 1952, Zangar (3) furthered Hestergaard's works by using an electric analog he investigated the effects of a sloping upstrean face and provided results on added-nass representations of hydrodynamic effects for a broader class of dans that can be ideal ized as 2-dimenstonal monoliths. Zienkiewicz and Nath (13) Tater used the sane technique to apply Zangar's work to 3-dimensional arch dans. ‘ 3 Lately, Chopra has carried out a series of investigations (4-7) on various aspects of hydrodynamic effects in the earthquake response of gravity dams; in the more recent work he included also effects of the Foundation modelled as an elastic half-space (24). Following pretty: much the same path, Porter (18) extended the work of Perumalswani (25) to formulate explicit mathematical solutfons for the fluid domain reteined by ‘an arch dam considering the vesponses to a1 components of ground notion. The reservoir considered was defined by a cylindrical dam face of constant radius, a horizontal floor, and vertical radial banks enclosing a central angle of 90°. Recently, Hall (19) has developed a numerical sehen to deal with arbitrary geonetries of reservoir of arch dams. Effects of water compressibility, flexibility of the dam, energy radiation in infinite reservoir and vertical ground motion contributions (14) are thorouchly treated by his procedure, At the same tine, in modelling an infinite reservoir, Saini etal.(16) used an infinite elenent and obtained similar results as Chopra; Nath (17) employed a conformal mapping technique and ‘obtained economical and reasonably good accuracy. However, ali these works are restricted to solutions in frequency domain. Priscu et al. (8) used a finite difference method to solve for arch dam-reservoir system responses in the tine domain, considering compressible water reservoir. Contrary to Chopra, he concluded that the water compress- ibility could change significantly the seismic response of a slender dam (e.g. arch dan). In the particular case he studied, the dam displacements could reduce up to 50% if water compressibility 1s not neglected. This discrepancy in findings concerning the effects of water compressibility implies the need for further research. Nore recently, Muller (26) attenpted an approximation method in the time domain, taking into account the water compressibility of the reservoir by a 4 "second added mass" concept; the idea is good, but it stil] falls short fn its ability to handle a large reservoir 1.3 Scope In Chapter 2, the sinpliest representation of hydrodynamic effect, ‘that is, the added-nass derived from Westergoard's classical solution, is reviewed and generalized, considering arbitrary geometry and orfentation of the upstream face of arch dams. Also an appropriate lumping process is described ‘The Galerkin Finite Elenent Discretization of the wave equation that governs the pressure behavior in an imconpressible fluid davain is presented ‘in Chapter 3. A consistent lumping process for this procedure that maintains symmetry of the resulting added-nass is also presented. Chapter 4 describes conputer implenentations of the preceding concepts, and also presents numerical solutions for pressures given by the various schenes and conpares their results. The range of applicability of each rethod is indicated. Jn Chapter 5, numerical solutions of the mode shapes and frequencies obtained by each method are correlated with results of field measurenents on Techi Arch Dan; variable water level is considered. From these correlation studies, a most reasonable and economical method 1s suggested. Finally, stress responses of Techi Arch Dam due to static Toadings, the Design Base Earthquake and hydrodynamic effects calculated by the suggested method are presented. Final conclusions and renarks concerning the needs in further research ‘on the tine domain solutions of infinite compressible water reservoir are discussed in Chapter 6. 5 2. GENERALIZED MESTERGAARD FORPULA 2.1 Review of the Classical estergaard Formula In Westergaard's classical work (1), dealing with water pressures on dams during earthquakes, he did not try to consider every possible effects rather, as a good engineer will do, he made reasonable assumptions for the case he studied, and was able to obtain reasonable solutions for engineering use. The assumptions he made are the following: (1) dam was idealized as a 2-dinensional rigid monolith with vertical upstream faces (2) the reservoir extends ta infinity in the upstrean directfon; (3) displacements of fluid particles are small; (4) surface waves are ignored; (5) only horizontal ground motion in the upstream-downstream direction is considered. Acrarding ta these ascimptions, he posed an initial boundary value problem, and obtained pressure solutions on the upstrean face of the dam. for the purpose of practical engineering use, he approximated the pressure solution (For an incompressible reservoir) with a parabola, which he felt t> be better than a quadrant of an ellipse. Later, he observed that "the pressures are the same as if a certain body of water were forced to move bacc and forth with the dam while the remainder of the reservoir is left inactive’. The amount of the water included was determined by equating the inertia forces of this body of water to the pressures that actually were exerted upon the face of the dam under the sane motion of the dam: Thus, Westergaard suggested (Fig, I-1(a}), that the dynamic pressure could be expressed as: : Pon «Fg wen where horizontal ground acceleration, in units of g (gravitational acceleration) unit weight of water Yi * horizontal ground acceleration unit mass of water depth of reservoir above the base of the dam distance from the base of the dan hydrodynamic pressure at height Z from the base of the ém, applied normally to the dam face. Equation (2.1) indicates that the hydrodynamic pressure exerted normally on the upstrean face of the dam, et hetght 7 above the base of the den, due to around acesTeration (that 4s, the total acceleration of dam face at height Z, because the dam ts rigtd), 1s equtvalent to the inertia force of a prismatic boay ot water of mt cross-section and tength 2 MACHZTs attached firmly to the face of the dam, and moving with the dom Bick and forth in the direction normal to the face of the dam (that is, horizontally) without fetetfon, Tis body of water attached to the dan face and moving with the dan, is the ‘addedsmass" applied hy the reservotr to the dan, 2 concept First Ineroudced by Westergaard, that has greatly staplitied the dynanic response analysis of dans with hydrodynamic effects. 2.2 Generalized Westergaard Formula (9,10,27) Employing the concept of “added-mass" as mentioned in Secticn 2.1 above, we now generalize it by applying the following assumption: The hydrodynanie pressure exerted on any point of the upstream ace of a dan, due to the total acceleration # normal to the din face at that point, 1s equa) to the inertia force produced by @ Be gear where Z is the height of that point above the base of the dan, that ee back and forth withthe dam in the normal direction without friction. (Fig. 1-1(b)). According to thts definition, the "added-mass* 1s generalized to be applicable to the general geometry of the upstren face of flexible atch dans, because it depends only on the tot normal acceleration at Tecal points. You in the Finite elenent analysis of the response of the dan, if we have dtscretized the dan body tnto finite eTenents, then, at a certain node "1" on the upsrean face of the don, the hydrodynamic pressure ts: Be uty (2) where pj * hydrodynamic pressure at node "i", compression as positive total normal acceleration at node "i t= Westerguard pressure coefictent F oA-QT ness density of the water p= depth of water at the vertical section that includes node “i 2; = height of node "i above the base of the dam But the total normal acceleration FE, can be represented in tems of cartesian coordinate conpoents of the ground acceleration and xt Faye Fon of acceleration components at node i relative to the base of the dan #4 Fy; and Pye at node i, we have: Making use of direction cosines with respect to the normal direction (2.3) where att HE HET totan acoeteration of degrees of freedom at node # Ay 7 Ay Ay Argo normal direction cosines at node * a (3 x 3) displacement transformation matrix of which the entry 8 yy Stands for the acceleration of node "i" in J-direction (J,k = 1,2,3 representing x,y,z-direction, respectively) due to & unit ground acceleration in k-direction while the din is undergoing rigi¢ body notion. Substituting £q. (2.3) into Eq. (2.2) leads to the hydrodynamic pressure at node { expressed in terns of ground accelerations and relative accelerations at nade i: P, ah Hee (648; Fy) (2.4) Hydrodynamic pressures at any point on the face of the dam can be found in a similar way. Sut in the finite elenent solution procedure, these ‘external pressures must be integrated over the appropriate surface of the dam to obtain the nodal Toads. In this Tunping process, the hydrodynamic nodal Forces are expressed in terms of nodal accelerations, by Eqs. (2.2) and (2.3). thus, the coefficient in this expression will be the equivalent added-nass. 2.3 Tributary Area Lumping Process ‘The easiest way to Tunp hydrodynamic pressures into equiva’ent hydro~ dynamic nodal forces, 1s to multiply by the tributary area associated with a node 13 thus Fagg 7PM (2.5) where ‘ni = equivalent normal hydrodynamic nodal force, outward normal from ‘the dam face as positive P; = hydrodynamfc pressure at node i, compression as positive A; = tributary area associated with node 1. Note here, that the hydrodynamic pressure was assuned to be constant over the tributary area, and to have the magnitude as at node 4. Also, since the hydrodynamic pressures act normal to the dam face, so 1s the equivalent hydrodynamic nodal force, in the average sense, also normal to the din face. Hence, the 3 components of the equivatent hydrodynamic forces at node 4 tm Rectangular Cartesian Coordinate (RCC) frame can be found as before. Prenultiplying F,y by normal direction cosines at node 4, thus leads to the cartesian coordinate values 7 at 3 (2.6) where 4 oT Fe Fy FG Oy Substituting Eqs. (2.4)and (2.5) into Eq. (2.6), leads to: (2.7) (2.8) 10 Mag, 1% te Addedemass matrix associated with node f and folTovirg the direct stiffness assenbly procedure, the equivalent hydrodynamic nodal force equations for the dam became: or, sammy "C3I) ~ es am) C2M3) “Hpayn) 29) were m = total nunber of nodes of the dan on its upstresn face. Hyg in Eq. (2.9) fs the added-mass coefficient matrix for the dam resulting from the hydrodynamic pressures upon the upstream face of the dam. It 45 uncoupted between nodal points. Also, notice that the sane vesterguard pressure coefficfent {5 used, regardless whether the total nodal acceleratfons cane from the vertical or horizontal component of groune acceterattons. The equivalent hydrodynamic nodal force F from Eq. (2.9) is an adgitionat Toading vector to be incorporated into the right hand side of the equation of motion of the dam: Maan)! (mat) * Stnan) Yonxt) * Stmxn) Yemaa) * 2¢mxt) (2.10) weve mass, damping and stiffness matrices respectively of the dan structures 4, v= velocity and displacement vectors respectively of the entire dam, including internal degrees of freedon of the dam structure; total acceleration vector of the dan structures u ° e { =- | where F is obtained from Eq. (2.9)3 Esme), n= total number of degrees of freedom of the entire dam structure. Alternatively, if we write Eq. (2.9) as follows: 0 0 0 ¥ th . ‘| ] tal var a eT total acceleration of internal degrees of freedom of the dan; a + # = E(aaaay + Bigs from Ea, (2.9). ‘Then, Eq. (2.10) can be rewritten as: (M+) eee +kye0 (2.12) | E 12 3. GALERKIN FINITE ELEMENT METHOD 3.1 Galerkin Hethod for Nave Equation (11,12,27 In this formilation of reservoir interaction, the hydrodynamic pressures In the reservotr are assuned to be governed by the pressure wave equation (Fig. I-2(a)): Wolaanzst) » Uy Blasys2st) aa) were plsy.2.t) = pressure distributions in the reservoirs c k WRTp is the sonic wave velocity; bulk modulus of the fluids p= mass density of the fluid. In order to find the hydrodynamic pressures acting on the face of a dam, Eq. (3.1) mist be solved with appropriate boundary conditions. Since our interest 1s in finding added-mss representations of the hydrodynamic effects, after we have found the hydrodynamic pressures due to accelerations at face of the dam, they must be lumped into equivalent hydrodynamic nodal forces. Thus, the hydrodynamic forces are related to accelerations at the nodal degrees of freedom on the face of the dam leading to the added-mass coefficient matrix. For this purpose, the boundary conditions to be inposed fon the reservoir boundaries (Fig. I-2(b)) are as follows: (1) at damreservotr interface: $B = - if. 3 y t (2) at Moor or reservoir: B= 0, or vt = 0: a Oo (3) at upstream end of reservoir: $2-= 0, or vt = 0 s 's (4) at free surface of reservoir: p + oF surface waves are neglected ; 2) (5) at canyon watts: 22 any or, of s where ng is the outvard normal direction from the reservoir surface, and b UE, te the total nom acceleration of the flutd at the bounartes of the reservoir. The acceleration 1s positive when fluté soves oubard from ee ee Surface waves, then, condition (4) becomes a Bs if we want te consider ‘the flexibility of the floor and canyon walls, conditions (2) and (5) vecone 32-« - oot, where the acceteration Vt is detined as was rentioned stoves 1f'we want to investigate the effects due to relative motion at upstream end of the reservoir, condition (3) becomes $2 - fy , ete. 's Now we proceed to seek the hydrodynamic pressure solution of Eq. (3.1) with the boundary conditions of Eq. (3.2). But because the geonetry of the reservoir generally 1s irregular, it will be extremely difficult to find a closed form solution; therefore, we seck 2 numerical solution based on the Galerkin Finite Element Method. ‘The Galerkin Method is a weighted residual method; its residual is weighted in such 2 way that the approximate numerical solution wilT be orthogonal to the error of the nunerical solution; and thus, in the energy norm, the nunerical solution minimizes the residual caused by the error. Letting B be the approxinate nunerical solution of Eq. (3.1) with boundary conditions Eq. (3.2), then the residual of Eq. (3.1) due ts the error in approximate solution p is, o per 3.3) ae where R is @ residual of very smal magnitude. The Galerkin Method is expressed as, re Nt z wv (3.4) here Nis a row vector of weighting functions. Applying Green's ‘Theorem (or integration by parts) to Eq. (3.4), we have, W g at Bean Leste nl bev - ssn) pao (3.5) mye foe" oa a: The first term of Eq. (3.5) only exists along the boundaries; applying the boundary condition £9. (3.2) to it, we have, lB Tot YBa -ogs ah ot an (3.6) which no arly exists along dam-reservir interface, because ot vanishes along all other boundaries according to Eq. (3.2). To relate this to the mtion of dam face, we observe that at the sane point on the dam-reservoir interface,the fluid acceleration vt can be expressed in terms of the acceleration of the dam ", face. ower, ft mst be noticed that # ts positive wen outard : normal from the dam face (Fig. 1-2(a)), while ie ‘is positive when outward normal from the reservoir (Fig. 1-2(b)). thus, {in terms of the normal direction cosines and three ROC components; that 1s, (3.8) where 's FUE UT total acceleration of the dan face im RCC components, Substituting Eqs. (3.6), (3.7) and (3.8) into (3.5), we have, oop ot a EM i 18 For conpressible water, C = 4720 ft/sec, but for incompressible water, C+, thus Eq. (3.9) becomes, fgg WB av = ost NT Ut an (3.10) lies Secreted ‘This is the Galerkin weak form of pressure wave equation; for an incompressible reservoir, it relates liquid pressures to the accelerations of the face of the dan, 3.2 Finite elenent Formulations According to Galerkin Finite Element Method, after the Galerkin form of the field differential equation has been obtained, we discretize the donain by Finite Elenent Method, using as weighting functions the baste ‘interpolation functions of the elenents. Examine again Eq. (3.10), nwt wp evs oss nt a it an (3.10) eave Ms ad Uihere V is the fluid domain, 5 is the dam-reservoir interface. We now discretize the fluid donain into 3-0 finfte elenents, and the interface correspondingly into 2-0 finite elenents(the interface ts 2-0 in natural coor- dinates, but 3-D in RCC space). For @ point within the clement ¢ in the fluid domain, its appropriate hydrodynamic pressures (can be expressed as follows, according to the Finite Element Method: pled = yled pfed an) where ul) = row vector of interpolation functions associated with todes of the elenent e, (©) = column vector of nodal pressures of the elenent e. 16 Then, substituting Eq. (3.11) into the left hand side of Eq. (3.10), we have for element e: 1 1 sap onlMe oplal®) « rrp aul) oyledgyledg(ed ye) ye” or, o sr syle). gpleayle) « (3.12) yer were tea) * ara al) (3.13) KD = nunber of nodes of 3-D fluid elenent e. For 2-0 interface elements, the accelerations iit can be approxinated in a similar way. For 2-D interface elenent i, we haves c : art. 6G) a =a te os 8 seo) “matin of Interpolation funtion: asocinted wich mol eareos of freadon of interface etenent + , t 107 yey) * tums vector oF totat pada accelerations of £-D interface element 1 in RCC components , ND = nunber of nodes of 2-0 interface element i. Substituting Eq. (3.14) into the right hand side of Eq. (3.10), we have for element #1 CTC) GE™ gal (074) lye sink ADE AG) GE gD ne” if an may Bey Pay te Pgs Bag AGOT AG) GCE Q(D gl (3.15) s(t) > here alt) eT of Daal) “S(wOx3KD) (4) “$ e9) ay " i = the part of the 3-0 fluid elenent interpolation function ~$(1x4D) that reduce to its 2-D interface boundary only, vhich 4s corresponding ta the 2-0 interface element 4. Now assembling Eq. (3.12) for all 3-0 fluid elenents in the reservoir, and assenbling £9. (3.15) for all 2-0 interface elements on the dam-reservoir interface, we have the discretized form of Eq, (3.10): x gle) ple) 5 enie) oe (a7) Ser Sirs Be 9 a a (NERXNER) (NERXNES)] )(NERXT) (WERXNLL) Ser es |) Be (P10 hy mf G1) (NESXNER) (NESxNES)] / (NESx1) (NESXNLL)] (NLLXI) where = nodal pressures of fluid elenents that are not on an interface nor on a free surfaces nodal pressures of fluid elenents that are on the dan-reservoir interface, but not at a free surface; Gor, Seg? Sop Sag * Submatrices of g partitioned according to p, and Pst 4 = assenbled matrix of Eq. (3.13) over the entire fluid domains hh, = assenbled matrix of Eq. (3.16) over the dan-reservoir interfaces EE = nodal total accelerations of dam face, including those nodes at free surfaces NER nunber of nodes of fluid elenents that are not on an interface nor on a free surfaces ry NES = number of nodes of fluid elenents that are on an interface, but not on free surfaces NERINES = NEQ, total nurber of nodes in the reservoir, excluding al? ‘ree surface nodes; NLL = total nunber of nodal acceleration RCC conponents on the interface including those at the free surface. ‘The pressures on the free surface vanish according to boundary condition (4) of €q. (3.2), therefore, they do not enter into the assenbling process of matrix g. Since we are only interested in finding the hydrodynamic pressures acting upon the interface, that is the vector p., we don't have to solve the entire system of equations of £4. (3.18); rather it is convenient and more economical to do a static condensation on Eq. (3.18) first, to condense out NER equations that are associated with p,. Since there fs nothing on the right hand side associated with p,. we need only to do static condansation operations on the 1aft hand side of fa. (3.18), that ts, on matrix g. Thus we hoves e Bs Oh, Fe xe) were % Ses “Sen Ser Ors (3.20) (Nesotes) is a symetric matrix, and, so git hg &t (2.21) After pz, that 4s the hydrodynamic pressures acting upon the dan-reservoir interface, have been found from Eq. (3.21), the next step 1s to Tum the hydrodynamic pressures into equivalent nodal hydrodynamic forces, ard thus ‘to obtain the added-nass coefficient matrix. This operation is equivalent 19 to that described in Chapter 2. 3.3 Consistent Lumping Process The consistent lumping process making use of the virtual displacement method is the most appropriate procedure for converting the hydroiynantc pressures of &9.(3.21) into equivalent nodal forces (Fig. 1-3(c)); that is, by introducing virtual displacenent field into the domain and equating to zero the virtual work. Let's now consider a 2-D interface elenen: #, which corresponds to a 3+D fluid clement e; in other words, element i overlaps the upstrean surface of concrete elenent ¢ of the dan at dan-reservoir ‘interface. From Eq. (3.21) we can obtain pressure values at discrete nodal Points that is, for element 1, we can obtain its nodal pressures. Then, the pressure distributions over the domain of elenent { can be expressed as, pet alt) 9) (3.22) where BLT) ~ pressure at any point on Interface etenent 1 5 a part of fluid elenent © interpolation functions that are veduced to its 2-D interface boundary only, that 1s, nonvanishing only on the surface corresponding to interface element 1 5 pli) = nodai pressures of interface element i. °5(NDx1) Now we introduce a virtual displacenent field, oul") at any point, into the domain of interface elenent 1 by introducing nodal displacenents st nodal points of element 1, ér(t), and, as in Eq. (3.14), with the interpolation functions of, ve have, ay) 2 gf) gpl) (3.23) 20 Then, equating the virtual work done by the hydrodynamic pressures to ‘the virtual work done by their equivalent hydrodynamic nodal forces, we have, 1 el TBD 5s gy yt) 9D gd (3.24) . sli) Ms where Foe) = equivalent hydrodynamic nodal forces of 2-D interface elenent i trl!) « norma virtua? dtsplacenent at the potnt snare Fl!) applies. Notice here that the negative sign is due to the fact that wis positive for compression and cy is positive when the interface moving outward normal from the dam fcesterefoesresulting Hn negative virtual work. Furthermore, as in Eq. (3-8), we can express srl!) in tems of sult), tnat is, : en sel) ng gfe (7 F (3.25) where \ is the normal direction cosines at the point where su") tocates. Substituting Eqs. (3.22), (3.23) and (3.25) into Eq. (3.24), we have el PANS Sg Ty DT TCAD gd 90) 3) or, : 2. tat i fa Hf of (3.26) iw ed in where n{') is defined in Eq. (3.16). Assenbling Eq. (3.26) over the entive dam-reservoir interface, we have, z F 8 p (3.27) SHLD) “Sy Lates) “5 (eS) a Then, introducing Eq. (3.21) into Eq. (3.27), we find, or, (3.28) where (3.29) is the symetric eddedonass coefficient matrix for the dan, resuiting from the hydrodynante prasuras acting upon the upstrean face of the can. Notice that the added-mass coefficient matrix of Eq. (3.29) whict came from the Galerkin Finite Element discretization of the wave equation in the reservofr using a consistent lumping process, is in generat a full matrix, coupled not only Between nada points but also anong nodet degrees of freedom that are perpendicular to each other. Expressing total acceterations # in tems of relative and ground accelerations, we can rewrite £q. (3.28) in the form similar to Eq. (2.9), shu, =e t - a Fomtaa) ~~ Moseuucauey Se ~ scurry 206t29) f¢350) (3.30) As before, the equivalent hydrodynamic nodal force vector F of Eq. (3.30) is ready to be incorporated into the right hand side of the equation of motion of the dan as an additional effective loading vector. 2 4. COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATIONS AND NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS 4.1 Computer _Inplementations In order to illustrate the efficiency and validity of the schene for added-nass coefficient matrix computation presented in Chapter 2 and 3, a Fortran program RSVOIR (28) was developed. It serves as a general purpose incompressible fluid added-nass preprocessor for arch dans of general geometry. The added-mass coefficient matrix can be computed from this preprocessor and then assenbled with the concrete mass matrix of the dam at appropriate locations, so that the response of the dam including incompressible hydrodynamic effects can be obtained. The computational procedures (20,21,22) for obtaining the added-mass matrix with each schene are detailed in the following sections. 4.1.1 Generalized Westergaard Formula Procedure From Eq. (2.8) we have the added-mass coefficient matrix according to the Generalized Westergeard formula. Tor the computation of added mass coefficients associated with node 1, three pieces of infomation are necessar (a) Westergaard Pressure Coefficient a, = § ov, (b) tributary ares A; (c) normal direction cosines 2, = ©, Ly ae ‘The First item, a;, may be calculated readily when the location of node 1 1s known. The second, A,, is a collection of the arez contributions from every interface elenent associated with node 1, that is (Fig. 1-3(b)). aah) @ay k fencer te eteenea ante yact 23 AME) = Al) pxoca (4.2) where A(K) = area of interface elenent k ND(k) = number of nodes of interface k The norm direction cosines, 2; (Fig. I-4), can be found from the properties of the interface finite elements assoctated with node 4 (Appendix A). Due to the finite element discretization, the normal direction cosines of the same node may differ from elenent to element. Therefore, ‘the nodal mass {s obtained through elenent by elenent assenbly: tay EA te vere 2{8) « normal divection cosines of interface elenent ky at rede f. by element, globally. Therefore, the local assembly of Eq. (4.3) is ee ee carried out for every interface elenent on the dan-reservoir interface. 4.1.2 Galerkin Finite Elenent Procedure The added-mass matrix of Eq. (3.29) is not obtained from the assenbly process; rather, it coves from the solution at the global level. fut its ingredient matrices, g, and h,, are the result of assenbling elenental contributfons. In order to find added-nass matrix of Eq. (3.29), it is necessary to form the matrices g. and h, first. 4 Formation of matrix g, ‘As shown by Eq. (3.20), matrix g, is a product of static conden- sation operating on matrix g, which in turn is the global assenbled form of the elenent coefficient matrices gl) of Eq. (3.13). For 3-0 fluid element e, the integral of Eq. (3.13) 1s computed numericatly, thus, recall 1 ane) aye) ay ae) ae anf (2) 6 sry CO y(e) Se oe meer) (2) ayle) aul) aye) aye? aye) anle) anf®) —an(®) aule) —aule) an 9 oe ee aay Enploying Gaussian Quadrature to numerically integrate Eq. (4.4), we have, fe) 8) = Em ty My Dry ssysty)l9fedL (4.5) BM Me where (rpSgity) = Sausstan Quadrature Integration points in natural coordinates (r,5,t) Mcnily * Gaussian Quadra weighting fimctfons anfe) aule) —ayle) ule) —anfe) ane) i i 1 Be i a ae at clement ©, evaluated at (ry sSqity)> HDC aSpety) = ja{2)] = determinant of Jacobian matrix of elenent e,a(°), evaluated at (rjsSpst,)» where pe a Teele af) =] yfe) gle ged yO), zl ne) xf2d gg) ye) gle) gfe) 28 fn wnten ayle)—gyled—gyfed LO ALE), gee en a respectively, and xl), le), 22) « x, y, 2 components, respectively, of coordinates of all the nodes pertaining to element e. Finally, on(e) on(e) a a fe) . (e) pe ger © 9 ME wwf mo ale eo ae) aE Now, the nunerical calculations (Ea. (6.5) Jare carried out for alt fluid elements in the reservoir, and the results are assenbled according to the direct stiffness method to forn the global matrix g. But so far, we have not mentioned what kind of 3-0 fluid elenent should be used and how Dig should be the domain of reservoir included in the discretization. Jn general, 13 to 20 node 3-0 elenents (Fig. 1-6(D) and Appendix 8) allowing quadratic variation in upstrean-downstream direction are appropriate to be used as fluid elements, because they provide possible exponential decay of pressure solutions in the upstream direction. As for the size of reservoir donain to be included, it is clear that it's impossible to model an infinite reservoirs therefore, the reservo'r ‘extent in the upstrean direction should be found by studies on the convergence of hydrodynamic pressures white gradually increasing reservoir domain. It has been found that for an incompressible reservoir, the hydrodynantc pressures converge adequately when the reservoir donain extends in the upstream direction three tines the height of the dan. Now, after g has been formed, using appropriate 13 to 20 node 2% 3D fluid elements and an adequate reservoir domain, we statically condense out those nodal degrees of freedom in the reservoir that are not on the dan-reservoir interface. The nurber of equations eliminated is NER as defined in Section 3.2, resulting in matrix g, of dinension (NES x NES), where number NES is also defined in Section 3.2 Formation of Matrix hy The matrix he in Eq. (3.28) fs the assenbled form of Hi") in Eq. (3.16). The integration of Eq. (3.16) is only appropriate to be carried out numerically as ahove. Therefore, Tet us recall? nt egy DT GD (A) galt 3.16) Bony ee ‘and apply Gaussian Quadrature integration to the integral, to obtain ' (D Ah) = 2 2 uy My alr arg) (4.6) where gM = weighting functions of Gaussian Quadrature (rgeSq) = Saussian Quadrature integration points in natural coordinates (r,s) 1 afang) = nb AC of? evatuated at the Integration goints (rqpSq) AW) eal al oan, normal direction cosines at (rqs5q) of element { (Fig. 1-4 and Appendix A) 2 yt tye ay = pal] = OLMS DS LD evatunted at (rgesq) (Ref. 29) a aster nf") in €q. (4.6) has been numerically evaluated, it is assenbled ‘nto the global matrix h,. These calculations and assenbly operations are carried out for all 2-0 interface elenents on the dan-reservoir interface. Thus far we have not considered what kind of 2-D element should be used, but 6 to & nodes 2-0 elenents (Fig. I-5(a) and Apoendix 8) seen to be appropriate Now, after the matrices , and h, have been fomed as above, We can proceed to carry out the computations for the global added-nass matrix My. of Eq. (3.28). Because inversion of a matrix 1s very inefficient, the conputation of Eq. (3.29) 4s carrted out as fottews: (a) Solve 9, 0 = hg, for 9 an using any suitable equation sotvers () Form the matrix preduct i = » ig thus, the global added-nass matrix Hof Eq. (3.29) fs obtained. 4.2 Hydrodynamic Pressure Solutions and Their Comparisons Although the added-nass coefficient matrix is the most convenient vay to account for the hydrodynamic effects, it is hard to tell whether {2 schene 1s good or not just by looking at the added-mass matrix coefficients. In order to evaluate an added-nass matrix schene, ue have to examine it with respect to the hydrodynamic effects it produces. If we recall the procedures to formulate the added-mass matrix, it is clear that the hydrodynamic pressures are the quantities of interest. The definition of added-nass coefficients can be termed as nodal resisting forces caused by unit nodal accelerations acting into the reservoir. Yet, tthe nodal accelerations actually cause distributed hydrodynamic pressures to act on the dan face, and the nodal forces are obtained through processes of lunping the pressures. Therefore, the hydrodynamic effects 28 represented by the added-nass coefficient matrix can be evalucted by the studies on the pertinent hydrodynamic pressures. Now, we can impose any pattern of accelerations on the upstream face of the dam and obtain, from Eq. (2.4) or Eq. (3.21), the hydro= dynamic pressures distributed over the dam face. The simplest pattern of accelerations that can be applied is unit uniform motions in the Uupstrean-dovmstream direction. Physically, this is just the rigi¢ body motfon of the dam with unit accelerations acting in the upstream downstream direction, while the reservoir Floor and canyon walls are fixed. Figures 1-6 through I- 9 show the hydrodynamic pressure distri butions over the upstream face of dams of various geometries subjected to unit unfform acceleration in the upstrean-downstrean direction. ‘The cases studied included a gravity dam with vertical upstrean face, cylindrical arch dans, and a general doubly curved arch dam. Notice that in all cases, the y-dimensfons of successive fluid elements have a ratio of 1.25 in the upstream direction. 4.2.1 Gravity Dans Figure 1-6(a) shows the reservoir of @ gravity dam with yertical upstream face, discretized into 16-node 3-0 fluid elenents and 8-node 2-0 interface elements. Since the geouetry of the reservoir and the excitations of the interface boundary do not vary with x, this is a 2-0 problem and the pressure solutions are independent of x. Actually, this 4s exactly the case Westergaard (1) studied, and the exact solution is available. As shown in Fig. 1-6(b), the hydrodynamic pressure solutions from finite elenent method converges sufficiently when L/H = 3. Also, ‘the figure indicates that both Westergaard approximate solution and the Finite elenent solution with L/H = 3 are good approximations to the exact solution. Due to the discretization error, it is seen that the finite elevent solution converges to a value lover than the exact result. Tt can be shown that 20-node 3-D fluid elenents will yield a better solution because they are more flexible, but the additional computational cost my not be justified. In this case study, the Finite elenent method is demonstrated to be a reasonably accurate and efficient method to evaluate hydrodynamic effects; the Westergaard approximate solution is expected to be good for this case only, because it was derived from the closed form solution for this case. 4.2.2 Gylindrica?_ Arch Dams As a bridge from the study of gravity dans to the case of general arch dans, several cylindrical arch dans were studied. Fig. I-7(a) shows ‘the reservoir of a cylindrical arch dam with vertical upstream fice. The reservoir has parallel vertical side walls and horizontal bottom Fig. 1-7(b) shows the hydrodynamic pressure distributions at the crom section due to unit upstream acceleration. The finite elenent solution converges sufficiently when L/H = 3, and the Nestergaard approximate solution is virtually fdentical to that for the gravity dan in Fig. I-6(b). Fig. 1-7(e) shows that similar results are found halfway between the crown and abutment, although the finite element results are increased slightly while the modified Westergaard results are decreased. In Fig. I-7(d), ‘the hydrodynamic pressure distribution at the vertical section next to ‘abutment shows significant changes: increases for finite elenent and decreases for Westergzard. The latter results are unacceptable; the 30 Finite element results are effectively converged at L/H The underestimations of hydrodynamic pressures by the Westergaard epproxi- mate solutions can be attributed to the fact that it only recognizes the water depth and normal direction cosines of the dam face; it is not anare of the existence of the bank which forms sharp angle with the dan thus restricting the lateral direction flow of the reservoir water, If we now enlarge the angle between the bank and the dan, by introducing diverging reservoir walls as shown in Fig. I-8(a), it can be seen from Fig. 1-8(d) that the Westergaard approximate solution 1s again close to finite elenent solution, It should be noticed that in Figs. I-7(d) and 1-8(4), the Westergaard epproxinate solutions do not change, but the finite element solution varies due to the boundary restrictions imposed by the bank. In general, the Westergaard approximate solution overestimates hydrodynamic pressures if the abut rent angle between bank and dam {s reasonably wide as shown in Figs T-8(b) and (c). These Figures also compare the effects of the reservoir bank flare angles for the finite element solutions. 4.2.3 General Arch Dams In Fig. 1-9(a) we present the reservoir of a general arch dan, where the reservoir has constant section (prismatic form) in the up- stream direction. Because of the discretization approximation in the Finite element method, the normal direction cosines for nodes at the face of the dam, may not be calculated accurately especially for the corner nodes. A general conclusion of this comparison as depicted in Fig. 1-9 {3 that the Westergaard approximate solution is too conservative and overestimates hydrodynamic effects. Its chief advantage 1s that it is the Teast expensive means to represent hydrodymanic effects. However, a by actually carrying out computations of hydrodynamic pressures by both methods on Techi Arch Dan, an existing nonsynmetric arch dam (Fig. 1-10), we found that it was not very expensive to use Galerkin Finite Element Hethod. Results obtained by the two methods, shown in Fig, 1-9(d), demonstrate the significant overestimation given by the Mestergaard approach. From the cases studied, it is evident that the Generalized Westergaard approxination can be used for crude preliminary analysis purposes taking advantages of its relative economy. The Galerkin Finite Element Method with its competitive Tow cost should be usec to represent incompressible hydrodynamic effects for final design studies. The validity of this method will be strengthened by the correlation studies presented in the following chapter. 32 5. NUMERICAL CORRELATIONS WITH EXPERIMENTS ON TECHI ARCH OAM 5.1. Properties of Techi Arch Dam The Techi Dan, located in the middie part of Taiwan in a moderately active seismic zone, was completed in Septenber 1974. It is 160 min height, with @ crest 290 m long at an elevation of 1411 m above sea. The thickness of the dam is 4.5 m at the crest and 20m at the base. It is a double curvature arch dam with total concrete volume of 420,000 m?. A perinetral joint surface has been provided between the dam body and the pulvino block; the dam body has 22 vertical cantilever monoliths with a contraction joint between each monolith (Fig. 1-10). ‘The mechanical properties of the dan and its foundation are as follows Young's Modutus Potsson Ratio Thermal Coefficient Mass Density Compressive Strength Tensile Strength Young's Modulus Poisson Ratio Mass Density Compressive Strength Tensile Strength Dam Body E 5.6774 x 10° psi Fgynamte * v = 0.21 (0.19 ~ 0.23) a= 5.6 x 106 150 inet? e jc 5965.15 pst re 500 psi Foundation E = 8.516 x 10° psi v= 0.21 p= 162 16/ft? og: 2:1 x 108 pst 042 930 psi In 1979, several sets of dynamic experiments were carried out on ‘the dam, including measurenents of both ambient vibrations and forced 3 vibrations. Numerical modeling of the dynanic behavior of Techt Dam was carried out on the CDC 7600 machine at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. A certain volume of massless foundation rock was included (Fig. 1-11, 1-12) in the model, and both the dan body and foundation rock were discretized by 3-0 finite elements. Thick shell elements, transition elements and 3-D shell elements as described in the conputer program ADAP (23) were used for the dam body whereas 8-node brick elenents were used for the foundation rock. (Figures I-11 through I-14). Various added-nass matrix representations of hydrodynantc effects were comuted from the preprocessor RSVOIR (28), and assenbled with the concrete mass matrix computed by the program ADAP. The added-nass matrices tha: were considered included the Generalized Mestergaard approximation solution, a consistent added-mass matrix fron Galerkin Finite Element Method, and a diagonalized added-nass matrix obtained by diagonalizing the consistent added-mass matrix. (22). Also, various different water levels were considered in the study (Appendix C). The vibration Frequencies and mode shapes were calculated by the ADAP program for each case including foundation and hydrodynamic effects. Also, stresses in the dam due to the static Toads, namely hydrostatic and gravity, were evaluated. Because there was no information on temperature changes, no thermal load was included. Finally, a response spectrum dynamic analysis was carried out. The first 8 modes of the case considering the diagonalized added-nass matrix from Galerkin Finite Element Method were used in the dynamic response analysis, and stresses envelopes were obtained for the dam-foundation-reservoir system subjected to hydrostatic load, gravity load, plus the Design Base Earthquake excitations. Mode shape and frequency correlations with the experimental results are shown in Section 5.2, and the stress responses including earthquake effects are presented in Section 5.3, 5.2 Correlation of Frequencies and Node Shapes Because of heavy rainfall that occurred during the field measure- nent program, the vibration measurements ware taken at differert water Tevels. Therefore, munerical solutions were also calculated for various water levels using different methods of approxination; by curverfitting we can interpolate frequency values at intermediate water levels. 5.2.1 Frequency Correlations Various types of frequency correlations are presented in Figures 1-16 through 1-19. Fig. I-18 shows the variation of fundamental frequency of Techi Dan with changes of reservotr height, calculated with the modified Westergaard reservoir approxination and with the finite eTenent nrodel. Also shown is corresponding information on frequency changes in a typical gravity dam. This Figure shows that the decrease in Fundanental frequency of an arch dan is more rapid than that of @ gravity dam wen the water level in the reservoir increases. This shows that the Added-nass which represents the hydrodynamic effects has a greater ‘influence on the fundanental frequency of the arch dan than on that of the gravity dan, This 1s obvious because the arch dans are in general nore Flexible and have Tess conerete mass. The figure also shows that when the water level is close to the crest, the added-aass has similar influence on the fundamental frequency for both gravity dam and arch dam. However: ‘this cannot be taken as a general rule, because it depends on tre geonetry of the reservoir and of the dan being considered. If the reservoir cross section is of a wide V-shape, it is expected that the influence of the % added-nass upon the fundamental frequency will be much greater on arch dams. Tt 48 also interesting to see that the added-mass cause almost ‘the sane rate of change of fundanental frequency of the arch dan, whether 1 was computed from General ized Mestergeard approximate sclutfon or from the Galerkin Finite Elenent Method, but the significant over- estinate of reservoir effects given by the Hestergaard model is obvious. ‘The correlations between the analytical procedures and also with the experinental results are presented in a different form in Fig. I-16, where the changes due to water level are based on the full reservoir condition. The similar slopes among all 3 curves, i.e., the rates of ‘increase in the fundamental frequency per unit decrease in water death show that the analytical procedures for taking account of hydrodynanic effects are fairly accurate. The sharp drop on the curve of the Finite elenent solution shows that the hydrodynamic effect has negligible ‘influence on the fundanental frequency of the dam when the water level 4s below 40z of the height of the dan. The increase in fundanental frequency of the dam without water over that of the dam with full reservoir, 15 approxinately 38% when the added-nass is computed by Finite element method. Expressed in the context of Fig. I-16, if the fundamental frequency of the dan without water 4s 100%, the fundamerta? Frequency of the dam with full reservoir is about 742, In general, a full reservoir will reduce the fundamental frequency of an arch dam by 20% to 308. Figure 1-17 shows comparisons between results of the two numerical representation of added-nass for the frequencies of first 4 modes of vibration of the reservoir-dam system when the water level varies. This Figure again shows that the rate of change of Frequencies with water % level is similar for both numerical representations of added-mass. But obviously the added-mass obtained by Generalized Westergaard solution is greatly overestimated conpared to that computed by Galerkin Finite Element Nethod. The difference between different schenes 1s greater than between different water levels for the same schene. | The correlation with forced vibration experimental results shown in i Fig. 18, demonstrates that the hydrodynante effects evaTuated by Finite Elenent Method in the form of eiagonalized added-mass netrix ofves better agreenent than the Mestergaard procedure. Although the finite clement analysis underestinates the added-nass effect for the fundamental node, it overestimates it for the second mode and gives quite cood agreement for the third and fourth modes. Therefore, as a whole, it may be E concluded that hydrodynamic effects are well evaluated by Finite Element, Nethod. A #inal comparison of all experimental and analytical results for E ‘the various water levels that have been studied fs presented fr Fig. 1-19. On this comparison the question has to be raised as to how to identity ‘the ode nunber corresponding to a given Frequency. Secause of the possibility of missing mages in the experinents, as wiTl be seen in the following section, we have to be sure that the frequency correlatfons actually apply to the sase mode nunber. We know that in solution of an eigenproblen, any errors in the computational procedure affects eigen vectors nore than eigenvalues; that 1s, the computed eigenvalues tend to be mate accurate than the computed eigenvectors. However, because the frequency errors also may be due to inaccurate material properties, in this study it was necessary to identify the mode nunber by similarity in mode shape; i.e., if the associated frequencies are different, it 1s presumed to be because the material properties are not modelled I Ea accurately. In the following section, mode nunbers are identified by wmode shapes, considering both radial and tangential components; in this way sone missing modes {n the experiments were discovered. On this basis the correlations of frequencies associated with the sane node number are proven to be valid. 5.2.2 Mode Shape Correlations The correlations of mode shapes are illustrated in Figures 1-20 and 1-21. Fig. 1-20 shows the correlatfons between experiments (36) and numer ical solutions using the Galerkin Finite Element Hethod for the case when water level is at 90% of dam hefght. Fig. 1-21 presents the cor-elations for the case when water level is at 85% of the dam height, excep: that the analysis in this case used the Generalized Westergaard reservoir model. As mentioned above, the correlations should be done for the same mode number as identified by sinilar node shapes (because some tangential components were not measured, only radial components are comparee in the Figures). Some different modes, as shown by Figures 1-20(b) and (e), say have similar radial components of the node shapes; but they are indeed different modes because displacement shapes on vertical sections are different. This is far more evident for higher modes. In Figures 1-20 and 1-21 we only show the node shapes of the crest, but for the higher modes it may be necessary also to show the mode shapes of selected sections below the crest in order to differentiate mode nunbers. In Fig. 1-20, we see that the correlations of mode shapes ar very Good for the first several modes, but some modes were missed in ‘the experimental results. The measured Frequencies associated with ‘those missing modes are listed on the Figures, although the node shapes Were not measured. The measured and calculated frequencies for the 8 similar mode shapes are within Si, indicating the hydrodynamic effects represented by the added-nass matrix computed by Galerkin Finite Elenent Method are reasonable, while also considering the uncertainties in the concrete material modelling. It is interesting to see that the 3rd mode shape may not be easy to obtain in the forced vibration test because its crest nodes are so close to those of the 2nd mode. In general, because the behavior of a structure is normally dominated by its Tower modes, Fig. 1-20 shows that the hydrodynanic effects represented by the diagonal ized added-nass matrix conputed fron the Galerkin Finite Element Method are certainly adequate for engineering purposes. Although they ave not shown, it is worthwhile to mention that the rode shapes given by the consistent added-nass matrix are almost identical to those according to the diagonalized added-nass matrix for both radial and tangential con- ponents, except for mode numbers above the Sth. Fig. 1-21 shows that the correlations of mode shapes for 5% water depth are good up to 4th mode with the 3rd mde missing from excerinental results. This indicates that the added-mass matrix conputed according to the Generalized Hestergaard Formula has good relative distribution on the dan face. However, frequencies of similar mde shapes have errers of up to 205 thus, the added-mass matrix according to the General izec liester~ gaard Formila averestinates the hydrodynamic effects in magnituce. One may notice from Figures I-21(d) and (e) that the crest mode shares are similar for modes 4 and 5 of the numerical solution in both radial and tangential components. If only the crest made shapes were coupered in this case they would appear to represent the same mode number, Gut they are truly different mades because the vertical crown section shepes (not shown) are completely different from each other, Nhen we examine correlations of 30 node shapes and their associated frequencies of mode 9, in Fig. I-21(1) we can only say that this is a beautiful note in the melody played by Generalized Hestergaard Formula. Fron the correlation studies on frequencies and mde shapes present in this section, ft may be concluded that the hydrodynamic effects represented by the diagonalized added-nass matrix from the Galerkin Finite Element Method can be considered as a good approximation of the true behavior. Nevertheless, the Generalized Westergaard approxinate solution stil] can be useful for crude preliminary studies. 5.3 Stress Response Representations Stresses calculated in a structure subjected to specified Joadings provide the basis for the design of the structure. According ‘to the assumed mechanical properties of the structural material, the structure is designed so that when subjected to the design loads, it won't develop excessive stresses that will lead to damage. Because of the potential disaster associated with the failure of a dam, it is very inportant to analyze the stresses in the dam accurately. when it is subjected to the maximum expected loadings. For arch dans, tho critical stresses may be represented conveniently in terms of normal components ‘in the horizontal and vertical directions, usually called arch and cantilever stresses Three intensity loads of earthquakes often are used in the design of a dam: (1) Maximum Credible Earthquake (HCE): This is the maximum possible earthquake that might occur at the site of the dan. When subjected to the NCE, the dam may suffer damages, but must retain the reservoir, 40 (2) Design Base Earthquake (DBE! This is an earthquake intensity corresponding to a return period of 100 years, (Fig. 1-25(b) and (c)), tthe expected life of the structure. hen subjected to the DBE, ‘the dam should sustain only repairable damages, and its equipment should be able to operate normally. (3) Operation Base Earthquake (08E): This is an earthquake intensity corresponding to a return period of 25 years. (Fig. 1-25(b! and (c))+ it is very likely to occur during the life of the structure. hen subjected to the OBE, the dam should not sustain any damage. The Design Base Earthquake was used for this study. Figures 1-22 to I-24 present the stress responses of Tech Dam when subjected to ‘various types of loadings. In the figures, SIG-Xx denotes horizortal normal stress (arch stress) while SIG-YY denotes vertical nomal stress (cantilever stress). ALI cases presented in Figures 1-22 to 1-2 are discussed in the following sections. 5.3.1 Stress Response to Static Loadings Because no tenperature change data was available, the only static Joads considered were hydrostatic and gravity. Figs.1-22 shows the static stress results in the form of contour plots; a1l the tension zones are shaded. Four separate plots are presented (Figs.1-22(e) (b), (c), and (4)), showing arch and cantilever stresses on the upstream and downstream faces. Obviously, all the tensile stresses, either cantilever or arch, due to the static loads, are well below the tensile strength of the concrete (which is assumed to be 500 psi here, see Section 5.1) The compressive stresses are also well below the material strength. The static compressive cantilever stresses shown on the downstream face. a at the foot of the dan in Fig. 1-22(d) while it 1s subjected to static Joads are beneficial because they compensate for dynamic tensile stresses which may be quite high in this region. 5.3.2 Stress Response to Combined Static Loads and Design Base Earthquake (OBE). Excitation The response spectra for the DBE are shown in Fig. J-25(a). From Fig. 1-19, the fundanental frequency of Teché Arch Dam, with 90% reservoir depth, is approximately 2.7 Hz according ta finite elenent solution with diagonalized added-mass matrix, it corresponds to approx ‘imately 2 g of the pseudo-acceleration intensity on the response svectra for the DBE in Fig. 1-25(a). If we consider pseudo-acceleration intensity of 0.2 g and above as significant (10% of the intensity of fundamental node) , ‘then the DBE has important intensity associated with excitation frequencies up to 7 Hz, which wiTl excite the first 8 modes of the Techi Dam considering hydrodynamic effects (see Fig. 1-19). Thus, the first © modes were included in the response spactrum dynamic analyzic. Secause ‘the dynante stresses resulting from the response spectrum dynamic analysis are in absolute value, we present the stress response due to conbined static and dynamic loadings in terms of maximum and minimus stress envelopes. The stress envelopes have minimum values obtained by subtracting response spectrum dynanic stresses from corresponding static stresses, ‘and the maximum values are evaluated by adding response spectrum dynamic Stresses to the corresponding static stresses. Fig. I-23 illustrates the stress envelope contours on the upstream face while Fig. 1-24 presents the stress envelope contours on the downstream face, AS before, SIG-KX indicates arch stresses and S1G-¥¥ represents cantilever stresses: and here, minimun stresses show the largest possible compressive stresses a whereas maxinun stresses show the largest possible tensile stresses. Fron Figures 1-23 (a},(b),(e) and (f), it fs evident that tre macinum arch and cantilever compressive stresses on the upstream face due either to upstrean-dowstrean excitations or cross-canyon excitations, are all well below the conpressive strength of the concrete, which is about 5000 psi. Similarly, Figures 1-23(d) and (h) show that the maxtmun tensile cantilever stresses are well below the tensile strength of the material; hence, no cantilever cracking will occur. However, in Figures I-23(c) ‘and (g), it is clear that the tensile arch stresses indicated near the rest ave beyond the tensile strength of the material; thus cracks are ‘expected to be formed there. But it must be renenbered that vertical contraction joints were built into the structures; thus the tensile arch stresses will merely open these Joints. Therefore, no cracking 4s expected from these indicated tensite stresses in the crest region ‘and the dam will be able to withstand the earthquake without significant Gamage. Figures 1-24(a) to (h) present. the corresponding stress results for the downstream face. Figs. 1-24(c) and (g) indicate that tensile arch stresses on the dovnstrean face also exceed the tensile strength of the material, and again it may be assumed that the contraction joints \iT1 open to release the tensile arch stresses. Figs. 1-24(d) and (h) show that cantilever cracking also is unlikely on the downstream face, and Figs. 1-24(a), (b), (e) and (F) show that the conpressive stresses fare wel] within the compressive strength of the concrete. Thus, the discussions in this section have shown that Techt Oam wil1 not have significant damage when it is subjected to hydrostatic 3 ‘oad and gravity Toad combined with the Design Sase Earthquake excitations, taking account of incompressible hydrodynantc effects and foundation flexibility. However, one other aspect of the dynantc behavior should be considered: the nonlinear response mechantsn associated with the opening of the contraction Joints due to the action of dynante tensile arch stresses. It is evident that such Joint opening on one face of the arch dam wiTl be acconpanied by the modification of the arch stresses on the other face (and vice versa), and also the possibiTity of changes in the state of stresses in the cantilever direction. This type of nonlinear response mechanism is the subject of the second part of this thesis. 6. CONCLUSIONS AND RENARKS. The hydrodynapic effects represented by an added-ness matrix associated with incompressible fluid reservoir of arch dans are reported here. Two basically different conputational procedures, nanely Generalized Mestergaard Formula and Galerkin Finite Elenent Method, are described in detail, and pressure solutions obtained with each are compared. Rigorous vibration frequency and mode shape analyses are carried out, and based on their comparisons with eld measurenents, a best suitable standard procedure is proposed, i.e., Galerkin Finite Element Method with diagonal ized added-nass matrix safety evaluations of Techi Dan, that subjected to either static oads alone or to conbined static and dynamic earthquake Toads, are discussed. [t 4s shown that Techi sm won't sustain major darages ue to these loading conditions, but that minor darages might occur near the crest spitlway. This condition may need further study that includes Joint opening nonlinear response, it nevertheless should not prohibit ‘the normal operation of the gates. It was found that hydrodynanic effects of an incompressible liquid reservoir were represented adequately by e reservoir model that extends ‘in upstream direction 3 tines the height of the dan. This greatly reduces the cost of the finite elenent analysis of the reservoir inter- action, but the corresponding conclusion may not apply to compressible water. Inclusion of the water compressibility greatly complicates the reservoir analysis, and {t 1s not known at present whether or not the results neglecting water compressibility conservative. Further veserach {5 needed to verify the significance of the influence of water compressibility on the rea? time response of an arch dem, especially when superposition procedure 4s not valid. 6 However, the results of the analyses and of the correlations with field measurements contained in this report have shown that the hydro- dynanic effects represented by added-mass of incompressible water should bbe satisfactory for engineering purpose in the analysis and design of an arch dom In view of nontinear dynamic response analysis of arch dans, diagonalization of the full addeéonass matrix was deened necessary to | reduce the computational cost. This diagonalization has neverthetess destroyed the coupling effectsof added-nass, whether these coupling effects are important or not require further research. 46 APPENDIX A: COMPUTATIONS OF NORMAL DIRECTION cOSINES The normal direction cosines at any point on a curvilinear surface, as on the 2-D interface elenents, can be found (23) from the intrinsic property of finite elenent interpolation functions which use the natural coordinates as curvilinear coordinates. Figures 1-4(b) and (c) show 2 kinds of possible 2-0 interface element (2-0 in natural coordinates, but 3-D in RCC space), where points pare regular points and point q is 2 degenerate corner point. The ‘computations of normal direction cosines for points p are different from that for point 9. Normal Direction Cosines for a Regular Point p Fron basic finite elenent property, we have, rs) (aay where Xj = 2% Yy B+ the coordinates of node i of tha atamant The unit normal vector at point p, n, can be found as, (A.2) where 2 3: Fhe (r,s)X;. vector tangent to r-curve at point > PB any eis met target to secure at pont» or, in finite elenent formation, a i i k Cp Tay FEM Mle EM alma, 2m rele, |.) EM sles EM sls Fay clelay Thus, ; nr By = THT (yy Pt yp 3+ ayy (aay a re exe and 5 2) «2, v8, «eB Bx B= O82 ky (as) A.2: Normal oirection Cosines for a Degenerate Corner Potnt 2% Because 0 at the degenerate corner point q (Fig. I-4(b)), we cannot find ng as above. 4 Tnstead,the unit normal vector n, can be found most conveniently as follows: By 7 EMC) (.6) (a.7) and {A.8) ‘The sequence of the cross-product 1s expressed in Eq. (A.?) according to ‘the convention that the connectivity of the elenent is defined in the counterclockwise direction (Appendix 8). In finite elenent formula:ion, 48 Eq. (A.7) becomes i i é EM gl TOs), ENG gM-Ooshyg FM) c(1.0.8)25 | (8.9) BM TOF, FM 6(-1.0,8)94 and, (A.10) (AT) 43 APPENDIX Bs FINITE ELEMENT INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS ‘AND THEIR DERIVATIVES (21,22) Variable node finite elements are used in the analysis described in this reports the convention of their connectivities is shown in Fig. 1-5. Interface Elenents (Fig. 1-5(a) For interface elements, 2-0 in natural coordinates and 3-D in RCC space, their interpolation functions and the derivatives of their ‘interpolation functfons with respect to the natural coordinates are as foVows 1 1725+ 5) raat a) 4 55-8 where ty + 0 $F node k fs not factuded 5 * Gl rar, 6(5.5,) 88.0) = } (1488). B= £1, 8 = rs 6(8,0,) and derivatives Sg =O pltorIGl508,) + Gran )Geg(545,) -1 Bg (88) = J Bs 8 = 41 (3-8) = -28 5 8, = 0 For degenerate elenents, if several nodes are degenerated into one node, their associated interpolation functions also have to be degenerated into one function, and similarly the derivatives of the interpolation 50 functions. B.2 3-0 Fluid Elements (Fig. 1-5(b For 3-0 fluid elenents, the suggested interpolation func: ns and the derivatives of the interpolation functions with respect to natural coordinates are as follows: 1 Nyt > 7 Gy # Bg * 7) 1 2 (ier * Sian? Siete) Ta pag, eee Ng = % - 2 (S13 * Se * G7) 5° 2 Cpa * Syeat Sora) 5 68 Ny 7 k= 920 tq 7 Orff node m 15 not included Gq = SlrorQ)6U5,5_)6( tt) G8) =F (1+ 88) oy ET, Be SAE 6(e08,) = 1-82 Bq 20 and derivatives Gasp 7 SogltsrgiOlSs5q)6(t, ty) + Glr, rylGy (5. 5q )ECEaty) + G(r, Fg) B(5, 5q)5 g(t t) 51 I For degenerate elements, if several nodes are degenerated into one node, their associated interpolation functions also have to be degenerated into one function, and similarly for the derivatives of the internolation functions. 52 APPENDIX C: VARIABLE WATER LEVELS When the dam is discretized in such a way that its element bound= aries on the upstrean interface do not match the boundaries of the fluid elements at the interface, the added-nass matrix found ty the rnethods presented in Chapter 3 cannot be assenbled directly with the concrete mass matrix of the dam, This is because different nodal points or degrees of freedom apply to the water and the concrete elenents. This is most likely to occur when the dam fs discretized so that the water surface fs Tocated between the horizontal boundaries of the dan elenent: This problem presents no difficulty for the added-nass matrix forned by Generalized Westergaard Formla. But in using Galerkin Finite Element Method, the difficulty arises in the integration of Eq. (3.16): t gy Ha af) al 3.6) 4 1A lho x a0) sane donin, rather the domain of 1") is fncluded inthe donsin of gl!) (Fig. 1-26). The integration only can be carried out for in the domain (4) ; (4), pecause 1") are discontinue of ul") and cannot be in the domain of 9"), pecause 1") are discontin ous functions in the domain of gf!) (they vanish above the water Tevel, see Fig. 1-26). Therefore, Eq. (3.16) can be written, in this case, as follows: t nfs 4 ars) a6) (ras) of eEGrs), nbesy) al) (6.1) s or, in the form of quadrature integrations: 58 t i Gi 4 (i) afd Bem PCr; 8 9 Mp) AM Eley s Iantry s DIT 51] (C.2) AN] the terms in &q. (C.2) are defined similarly to those in Eq. (4.6). The task 45 tn eveluating vues of of"? at Antegration pots (ryosy)e wintTe al") are functions of (Eyn). Naturally, we have to Find coordinates (5,n) at points where (r;,5,) locates, and they are only related through the RCC coordinates of the nodes that associate with each clenent respectively. Therefore, Firstly we denote the RCC coordinates of fluid eTenent nodes as x, y. 2 and RCC coordinates of concrete elements as X.Y, Z- Then, we can have the expression: (c.3) where x-coordinate of node n of the fluid element at the interface X = vector of X-coordinates of nodal points of concrete elenents at interface 15 = vector of shape functions associated with nodes of the concrete elements. X, and X are known, and if we position x, properly, that is, at the Vocations where & values are - +0) #1, then, Eq. (C.3) will reduce to 2 simple form of a quadratic equation with n as unknown. Then if we solve n, for the corresponding xy, knowing -1 < nq <1, we can find the coordinates (Eyn) for all nodes of the fluid elenent on the interface. Furthermore, the integration points (1,454) has an x-coordinate, x,, given by, Nelrye5Q) (c.a) lihere x = vector of x-coordinates of nodal points of the fluid element at interface (1.€., %'5) relating Eq. (C4) to &q. (C23), we have, ak (c.5) vihere y= collection of 4, tn Eq. (C.3) with known (