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Scoruri standard

Curba normal (Gauss)


M. Popa

Scoruri standard
cunoatere evaluare, msurare
evaluare comparare (Gh. Zapan)
comparare raportare la un sistem de referin

Povestea Scufiei Roii...


70 de puncte la un test de limba englez....

Certitudinea bunicii
doar bucuria fetiei...

Nedumeririle bunicii
ce nseamn scorul 70?
este mai bun sau mai slab dect ceilali colegi?
dac da, ct de bun sau ct de slab?

ntrebrile bunicii
care este scorul mediu la examen?
care este abaterea standard a scorurilor?

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

Scorul standard z
(scor normat z, not standard z)
- distana dintre o anumit valoare i media distribuiei din
care face parte, msurat n abateri standard
Distribuia I

Distribuia II

s=20

s=5
m=60

xm
z
s

70

70 60
z
2
5

45

m=60

70

70 60
z
0.5
20

45 60
z
0.75
20
Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

Transformarea z a unei distribuii


X

14

+0.50

11

-0.75

10

-1.17

16

+1.34

13

+0.08

N=5
X=64
m=12.8
s=2.38

N=5
z=0
m=0
s=1

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

x m 14 12.8

s
2.38

Calcularea valorii (x)


din parametrii scorului z
z

xm
s

x=z*s+m
X

x=+0.50*2.38+12.8=14

14

+0.50

x=-0,75*2.38+12.8=11

11

-0.75

10

-1.17

16

+1.34

13

+0.08

N=5
X=64
m=12.8
s=2.38

N=5
z=0
m=0
s=1

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

Proprietile scorurilor z
Media unei distribuii z este ntotdeauna
egal cu 0
rezult din proprietile mediei

Abaterea standard a unei distribuii z este


ntotdeauna 1
rezult din proprietile abaterii standard

Ca urmare:
transformarea n z nseamn transformarea
ntr-o distribuie cu m=0 i s=1
Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

Interpretarea scorurilor z
x

14

+0.50

14 este la o jumtate de abatere standard peste medie

11

-0.75

11 este la 0.75 abateri standard sub medie

10

-1.17

10 este la 1.17 abateri standard sub medie

16

+1.34

16 este la 1.34 abateri standard peste medie

13

+0.08

13 este la 0.08 abateri standard peste medie

N=5
X=64
m=12.
8
s=2.38

N=5
z=0
m=0
s=1

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

Alte tipuri de scoruri standardizate


z

T (Thurstone)

H (Hull)

QI (Binet)

QI (Wechsler)

SAT

T=50+10*z

H=50+14*z

QI=100+16*z
QI=100+15*z

SAT=500+100*z

X m
s

mz=0; sz=1

T 50 10 *

X m
s

mT=50; sT=10

H 50 14 *

X m
s

mH=50; sH=14

X m
s

mQI=100; sQI=16

QI 100 16 *

QI 100 15 *

X m
s

SAT 500 100 *

X m
s

mQI=100; sQI=15

mSAT=500; sSAT=100
8

Observaii
Toate variantele sunt obinute prin
transformarea operat pe distribuia de note z
La nici una dintre variante nu mai avem valori
negative (cu condiia ca distribuia s nu aib o
variabilitatea aberant).
Zecimalele nu mai sunt semnificative (ele rezult
din calcule, dar pot fi ignorate)
Distribuiile variantelor oscileaz n jurul unei
valori medii specifice, sub care se afl 50% din
valori i peste care se afl restul de 50% dintre
valori.
Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

Inversarea scorului standard


scor mare = valoare mare
Uneori, un scor mare are o semnificaie
invers
timpul de reacie
numr de erori

ntr-un astfel de caz se calculeaz un scor


standard invers (cu minus n formul)

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

10

Inversarea scorului standard


Exemplu: un test de timp de reacie

x=0.15
m=0.11 sec
s=0.05
T(direct)=50+10*(0,15-0,11)/0,05=58
T(invers)=50-10*(0,15-0,11)/0,05=42

att 58 ct i 42 exprim acelai lucru


8 uniti standard fa de medie (+ respectiv -)

Scoruri T MMPI
Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

11

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

12

Distribuia normal
(Gauss)

distribuie teoretic,
caracteristic
populaiilor mari
form de clopot
perfect simetric
linia curbei se apropie
la infinit de axa X, fr
a o atinge vreodat
de fiecare parte a
mediei se afl exact
jumtate dintre valorile
distribuiei

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

Karl Friedrich Gauss 1777-1855

media
modul
mediana

13

Distribuia normal=familie de distribuii

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

14

Curba normal standardizat


(curba normal z)
valorile sunt exprimate n scoruri z
util pentru a descrie orice distribuie
normal, indiferent de expresia valorilor
o singur tabel a distribuiei normale

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

15

Aria - frc(1)

.000

-3.00

.001

-2.33

.01

-2.00

.02

-1.65

.05

-1.28

.10

-1.00

.16

-.84

.20

-.52

.30

-.25

.40

.00

0.50

.25

.60

.52

.70

.84

.80

1.00

.84

1.28

.90

1.65

.95

2.00

.98

2.33

.99

3.00

.999

1.00
+ Scoruri standard.
Curba normal.

16

Tabelul
distribuiei z

.00

.01

.02

.03

.04

.05

.06

.07

.08

.09

0.0

.0000

.0040

.0080

.0120

.0160

.0199

.0239

.0279

.0319

.0359

0.1

.0398

.0438

.0478

.0517

.0557

.0596

.0636

.0675

.0714

.0753

0.2

.0793

.0832

.0871

.0910

.0948

.0987

.1026

.1064

.1103

.1141

0.3

.1179

.1217

.1255

.1293

.1331

.1368

.1406

.1443

.1480

.1517

0.4

.1554

.1591

.1628

.1664

.1700

.1736

.1772

.1808

.1844

.1879

0.5

.1915

.1950

.1985

.2019

.2054

.2088

.2123

.2157

.2190

.2224

0.6

.2257

.2291

.2324

.2357

.2389

.2422

.2454

.2486

.2517

.2549

0.7

.2580

.2611

.2642

.2673

.2704

.2734

.2764

.2794

.2823

.2852

0.8

.2881

.2910

.2939

.2967

.2995

.3023

.3051

.3078

.3106

.3133

0.9

.3159

.3186

.3212

.3238

.3264

.3289

.3315

.3340

.3365

.3389

1.0

.3413

.3438

.3461

.3485

.3508

.3531

.3554

.3577

.3599

.3621

1.1

.3643

.3665

.3686

.3708

.3729

.3749

.3770

.3790

.3810

.3830

1.2

.3849

.3869

.3888

.3907

.3925

.3944

.3962

.3980

.3997

.4015

1.3

.4032

.4049

.4066

.4082

.4099

.4115

.4131

.4147

.4162

.4177

1.4

.4192

.4207

.4222

.4236

.4251

.4265

.4279

.4292

.4306

.4319

1.5

.4332

.4345

.4357

.4370

.4382

.4394

.4406

.4418

.4429

.4441

1.6

.4452

.4463

.4474

.4484

.4495

.4505

.4515

.4525

.4535

.4545

1.7

.4554

.4564

.4573

.4582

.4591

.4599

.4608

.4616

.4625

.4633

1.8

.4641

.4649

.4656

.4664

.4671

.4678

.4686

.4693

.4699

.4706

1.9

.4713

.4719

.4726

.4732

.4738

.4744

.4750

.4756

.4761

.4767

2.0

.4772

.4778

.4783

.4788

.4793

.4798

.4803

.4808

.4812

.4817

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

17

pentru z=1.65

.00

.01

.02

.03

.04

.05

.06

.07

.08

.09

0.0

.0000

.0040

.0080

.0120

.0160

.0199

.0239

.0279

.0319

.0359

0.1

.0398

.0438

.0478

.0517

.0557

.0596

.0636

.0675

.0714

.0753

0.2

.0793

.0832

.0871

.0910

.0948

.0987

.1026

.1064

.1103

.1141

0.3

.1179

.1217

.1255

.1293

.1331

.1368

.1406

.1443

.1480

.1517

0.4

.1554

.1591

.1628

.1664

.1700

.1736

.1772

.1808

.1844

.1879

0.5

.1915

.1950

.1985

.2019

.2054

.2088

.2123

.2157

.2190

.2224

0.6

.2257

.2291

.2324

.2357

.2389

.2422

.2454

.2486

.2517

.2549

0.7

.2580

.2611

.2642

.2673

.2704

.2734

.2764

.2794

.2823

.2852

0.8

.2881

.2910

.2939

.2967

.2995

.3023

.3051

.3078

.3106

.3133

0.9

.3159

.3186

.3212

.3238

.3264

.3289

.3315

.3340

.3365

.3389

1.0

.3413

.3438

.3461

.3485

.3508

.3531

.3554

.3577

.3599

.3621

1.1

.3643

.3665

.3686

.3708

.3729

.3749

.3770

.3790

.3810

.3830

1.2

.3849

.3869

.3888

.3907

.3925

.3944

.3962

.3980

.3997

.4015

1.3

.4032

.4049

.4066

.4082

.4099

.4115

.4131

.4147

.4162

.4177

1.4

.4192

.4207

.4222

.4236

.4251

.4265

.4279

.4292

.4306

.4319

1.5

.4332

.4345

.4357

.4370

.4382

.4394

.4406

.4418

.4429

.4441

1.6

.4452

.4463

.4474

.4484

.4495

.4505

.4515

.4525

.4535

.4545

1.7

.4554

.4564

.4573

.4582

.4591

.4599

.4608

.4616

.4625

.4633

1.8

.4641

.4649

.4656

.4664

.4671

.4678

.4686

.4693

.4699

.4706

1.9

.4713

.4719

.4726

.4732

.4738

.4744

.4750

.4756

.4761

.4767

2.0

.4772

.4778

.4783

.4788

.4793

.4798

.4803

.4808

.4812

.4817

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

18

pentru z=1.96

.00

.01

.02

.03

.04

.05

.06

.07

.08

.09

0.0

.0000

.0040

.0080

.0120

.0160

.0199

.0239

.0279

.0319

.0359

0.1

.0398

.0438

.0478

.0517

.0557

.0596

.0636

.0675

.0714

.0753

0.2

.0793

.0832

.0871

.0910

.0948

.0987

.1026

.1064

.1103

.1141

0.3

.1179

.1217

.1255

.1293

.1331

.1368

.1406

.1443

.1480

.1517

0.4

.1554

.1591

.1628

.1664

.1700

.1736

.1772

.1808

.1844

.1879

0.5

.1915

.1950

.1985

.2019

.2054

.2088

.2123

.2157

.2190

.2224

0.6

.2257

.2291

.2324

.2357

.2389

.2422

.2454

.2486

.2517

.2549

0.7

.2580

.2611

.2642

.2673

.2704

.2734

.2764

.2794

.2823

.2852

0.8

.2881

.2910

.2939

.2967

.2995

.3023

.3051

.3078

.3106

.3133

0.9

.3159

.3186

.3212

.3238

.3264

.3289

.3315

.3340

.3365

.3389

1.0

.3413

.3438

.3461

.3485

.3508

.3531

.3554

.3577

.3599

.3621

1.1

.3643

.3665

.3686

.3708

.3729

.3749

.3770

.3790

.3810

.3830

1.2

.3849

.3869

.3888

.3907

.3925

.3944

.3962

.3980

.3997

.4015

1.3

.4032

.4049

.4066

.4082

.4099

.4115

.4131

.4147

.4162

.4177

1.4

.4192

.4207

.4222

.4236

.4251

.4265

.4279

.4292

.4306

.4319

1.5

.4332

.4345

.4357

.4370

.4382

.4394

.4406

.4418

.4429

.4441

1.6

.4452

.4463

.4474

.4484

.4495

.4505

.4515

.4525

.4535

.4545

1.7

.4554

.4564

.4573

.4582

.4591

.4599

.4608

.4616

.4625

.4633

1.8

.4641

.4649

.4656

.4664

.4671

.4678

.4686

.4693

.4699

.4706

1.9

.4713

.4719

.4726

.4732

.4738

.4744

.4750

.4756

.4761

.4767

2.0

.4772

.4778

.4783

.4788

.4793

.4798

.4803

.4808

.4812

.4817

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

19

Proprietile distribuiei normale


permit aflarea rspunsului la unele
ntrebri practice...

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

20

Procentul oamenilor al cror scor


QI este ntre 100 i 110?
x m 110 100
z

0.63
s
16

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

21

.00

.01

.02

.03

.04

.05

.06

.07

.08

.09

0.0

.0000

.0040

.0080

.0120

.0160

.0199

.0239

.0279

.0319

.0359

0.1

.0398

.0438

.0478

.0517

.0557

.0596

.0636

.0675

.0714

.0753

0.2

.0793

.0832

.0871

.0910

.0948

.0987

.1026

.1064

.1103

.1141

0.3

.1179

.1217

.1255

.1293

.1331

.1368

.1406

.1443

.1480

.1517

0.4

.1554

.1591

.1628

.1664

.1700

.1736

.1772

.1808

.1844

.1879

0.5

.1915

.1950

.1985

.2019

.2054

.2088

.2123

.2157

.2190

.2224

0.6

.2257

.2291

.2324

.2357

.2389

.2422

.2454

.2486

.2517

.2549

0.7

.2580

.2611

.2642

.2673

.2704

.2734

.2764

.2794

.2823

.2852

0.8

.2881

.2910

.2939

.2967

.2995

.3023

.3051

.3078

.3106

.3133

0.9

.3159

.3186

.3212

.3238

.3264

.3289

.3315

.3340

.3365

.3389

1.0

.3413

.3438

.3461

.3485

.3508

.3531

.3554

.3577

.3599

.3621

1.1

.3643

.3665

.3686

.3708

.3729

.3749

.3770

.3790

.3810

.3830

1.2

.3849

.3869

.3888

.3907

.3925

.3944

.3962

.3980

.3997

.4015

1.3

.4032

.4049

.4066

.4082

.4099

.4115

.4131

.4147

.4162

.4177

1.4

.4192

.4207

.4222

.4236

.4251

.4265

.4279

.4292

.4306

.4319

1.5

.4332

.4345

.4357

.4370

.4382

.4394

.4406

.4418

.4429

.4441

1.6

.4452

.4463

.4474

.4484

.4495

.4505

.4515

.4525

.4535

.4545

1.7

.4554

.4564

.4573

.4582

.4591

.4599

.4608

.4616

.4625

.4633

1.8

.4641

.4649

.4656

.4664

.4671

.4678

.4686

.4693

.4699

.4706

1.9

.4713

.4719

.4726

.4732

.4738

.4744

.4750

.4756

.4761

.4767

2.0

.4772

.4778

.4783

.4788

.4793

.4798

.4803

.4808

.4812

.4817

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

22

Procentul oamenilor al cror scor


QI este ntre 100 i 110?
x m 110 100
z

0.63
s
16
23.57%

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

0.63

23

Procentul oamenilor al cror scor


QI este mai mare de 125?
x m 125 100
z

1.56
s
16

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

24

Procentul oamenilor al cror scor


QI este mai mare de 125?
x m 125 100
z

1.56
s
16

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

1.56

25

.00

.01

.02

.03

.04

.05

.06

.07

.08

.09

0.0

.0000

.0040

.0080

.0120

.0160

.0199

.0239

.0279

.0319

.0359

0.1

.0398

.0438

.0478

.0517

.0557

.0596

.0636

.0675

.0714

.0753

0.2

.0793

.0832

.0871

.0910

.0948

.0987

.1026

.1064

.1103

.1141

0.3

.1179

.1217

.1255

.1293

.1331

.1368

.1406

.1443

.1480

.1517

0.4

.1554

.1591

.1628

.1664

.1700

.1736

.1772

.1808

.1844

.1879

0.5

.1915

.1950

.1985

.2019

.2054

.2088

.2123

.2157

.2190

.2224

0.6

.2257

.2291

.2324

.2357

.2389

.2422

.2454

.2486

.2517

.2549

0.7

.2580

.2611

.2642

.2673

.2704

.2734

.2764

.2794

.2823

.2852

0.8

.2881

.2910

.2939

.2967

.2995

.3023

.3051

.3078

.3106

.3133

0.9

.3159

.3186

.3212

.3238

.3264

.3289

.3315

.3340

.3365

.3389

1.0

.3413

.3438

.3461

.3485

.3508

.3531

.3554

.3577

.3599

.3621

1.1

.3643

.3665

.3686

.3708

.3729

.3749

.3770

.3790

.3810

.3830

1.2

.3849

.3869

.3888

.3907

.3925

.3944

.3962

.3980

.3997

.4015

1.3

.4032

.4049

.4066

.4082

.4099

.4115

.4131

.4147

.4162

.4177

1.4

.4192

.4207

.4222

.4236

.4251

.4265

.4279

.4292

.4306

.4319

1.5

.4332

.4345

.4357

.4370

.4382

.4394

.4406

.4418

.4429

.4441

1.6

.4452

.4463

.4474

.4484

.4495

.4505

.4515

.4525

.4535

.4545

1.7

.4554

.4564

.4573

.4582

.4591

.4599

.4608

.4616

.4625

.4633

1.8

.4641

.4649

.4656

.4664

.4671

.4678

.4686

.4693

.4699

.4706

1.9

.4713

.4719

.4726

.4732

.4738

.4744

.4750

.4756

.4761

.4767

2.0

.4772

.4778

.4783

.4788

.4793

.4798

.4803

.4808

.4812

.4817

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

26

Procentul oamenilor al cror scor


QI este mai mare de 125?

5044.06=5.94%

44.06%

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

1.56

27

Care este scorul minim pe care trebuie s-l obin o


persoan pentru a fi ntre primii 5% din populaie?

45%
5%

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

100

28

.00

.01

.02

.03

.04

.05

.06

.07

.08

.09

0.0

.0000

.0040

.0080

.0120

.0160

.0199

.0239

.0279

.0319

.0359

0.1

.0398

.0438

.0478

.0517

.0557

.0596

.0636

.0675

.0714

.0753

0.2

.0793

.0832

.0871

.0910

.0948

.0987

.1026

.1064

.1103

.1141

0.3

.1179

.1217

.1255

.1293

.1331

.1368

.1406

.1443

.1480

.1517

0.4

.1554

.1591

.1628

.1664

.1700

.1736

.1772

.1808

.1844

.1879

0.5

.1915

.1950

.1985

.2019

.2054

.2088

.2123

.2157

.2190

.2224

0.6

.2257

.2291

.2324

.2357

.2389

.2422

.2454

.2486

.2517

.2549

0.7

.2580

.2611

.2642

.2673

.2704

.2734

.2764

.2794

.2823

.2852

0.8

.2881

.2910

.2939

.2967

.2995

.3023

.3051

.3078

.3106

.3133

0.9

.3159

.3186

.3212

.3238

.3264

.3289

.3315

.3340

.3365

.3389

1.0

.3413

.3438

.3461

.3485

.3508

.3531

.3554

.3577

.3599

.3621

1.1

.3643

.3665

.3686

.3708

.3729

.3749

.3770

.3790

.3810

.3830

1.2

.3849

.3869

.3888

.3907

.3925

.3944

.3962

.3980

.3997

.4015

1.3

.4032

.4049

.4066

.4082

.4099

.4115

.4131

.4147

.4162

.4177

1.4

.4192

.4207

.4222

.4236

.4251

.4265

.4279

.4292

.4306

.4319

1.5

.4332

.4345

.4357

.4370

.4382

.4394

.4406

.4418

.4429

.4441

1.6

.4452

.4463

.4474

.4484

.4495

.4505

.4515

.4525

.4535

.4545

1.7

.4554

.4564

.4573

.4582

.4591

.4599

.4608

.4616

.4625

.4633

1.8

.4641

.4649

.4656

.4664

.4671

.4678

.4686

.4693

.4699

.4706

1.9

.4713

.4719

.4726

.4732

.4738

.4744

.4750

.4756

.4761

.4767

2.0

.4772

.4778

.4783

.4788

.4793

.4798

.4803

.4808

.4812

.4817

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

29

Convertim scorul z=1.64 n valoare brut

X=m+z*s=100+ (+1.64)*16=126.24
Pentru a fi n primii 5%
QI=126.24

45%
5%

100

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

126.24

30

Care este scorul care indic cei


mai slabi 33%?

33%

17%

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

100

31

.00

.01

.02

.03

.04

.05

.06

.07

.08

.09

0.0

.0000

.0040

.0080

.0120

.0160

.0199

.0239

.0279

.0319

.0359

0.1

.0398

.0438

.0478

.0517

.0557

.0596

.0636

.0675

.0714

.0753

0.2

.0793

.0832

.0871

.0910

.0948

.0987

.1026

.1064

.1103

.1141

0.3

.1179

.1217

.1255

.1293

.1331

.1368

.1406

.1443

.1480

.1517

0.4

.1554

.1591

.1628

.1664

.1700

.1736

.1772

.1808

.1844

.1879

0.5

.1915

.1950

.1985

.2019

.2054

.2088

.2123

.2157

.2190

.2224

0.6

.2257

.2291

.2324

.2357

.2389

.2422

.2454

.2486

.2517

.2549

0.7

.2580

.2611

.2642

.2673

.2704

.2734

.2764

.2794

.2823

.2852

0.8

.2881

.2910

.2939

.2967

.2995

.3023

.3051

.3078

.3106

.3133

0.9

.3159

.3186

.3212

.3238

.3264

.3289

.3315

.3340

.3365

.3389

1.0

.3413

.3438

.3461

.3485

.3508

.3531

.3554

.3577

.3599

.3621

1.1

.3643

.3665

.3686

.3708

.3729

.3749

.3770

.3790

.3810

.3830

1.2

.3849

.3869

.3888

.3907

.3925

.3944

.3962

.3980

.3997

.4015

1.3

.4032

.4049

.4066

.4082

.4099

.4115

.4131

.4147

.4162

.4177

1.4

.4192

.4207

.4222

.4236

.4251

.4265

.4279

.4292

.4306

.4319

1.5

.4332

.4345

.4357

.4370

.4382

.4394

.4406

.4418

.4429

.4441

1.6

.4452

.4463

.4474

.4484

.4495

.4505

.4515

.4525

.4535

.4545

1.7

.4554

.4564

.4573

.4582

.4591

.4599

.4608

.4616

.4625

.4633

1.8

.4641

.4649

.4656

.4664

.4671

.4678

.4686

.4693

.4699

.4706

1.9

.4713

.4719

.4726

.4732

.4738

.4744

.4750

.4756

.4761

.4767

2.0

.4772

.4778

.4783

.4788

.4793

.4798

.4803

.4808

.4812

.4817

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

32

33%
Convertim nota z n valoare brut:

17%

X=m+z*s=100+(-0.44)*16= 92.96

93

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

100

33

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

34

Aria de sub curba normal vzut ca probabilitate

definiii ale probabilitii


1. ansa teoretic a unui eveniment binar ntr-o serie posibil (1/2=0.5)
2. ansa real n cazul repetrii extragerii (tinde spre 0.5 cnd n )
3. ansa de apariie a unui eveniment complementar ansei de
neapariie

valorile de pe curba normal nu rezult dintr-un proces de


msurare
ele sunt valori teoretice
pot rezulta ca unui proces aleatoriu
extrgnd la infinit numere aleatoare distribuie normal
frecvena relativ a fiecrui numr este similar cu
probabilitatea sa de apariie - fr(1)=p
Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

35

Exemplificri ale probabilitilor de


sub curba normal z
Pentru z=1.65 aria=0.95 p=0.05

p=0.95

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

p=0.05

1.65

36

Pentru z=1.95 aria=0.975 p=0.025

p=0.975

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

p=0.025

1.95

37

z=-1 z=+1 p=0.68

p=0.68

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

-1

38

z=1

aria=0.84 p=0.16

p=0.16

p=0.84

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

39

z=-2 z=+2 p=0.95

p=0.95

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

-2

40

z=-3 z=+3 p=0.99

p=0.99

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

-3

41

Distribuii reale i distribuii


normale z
distribuia standardizat z reprezint transformarea n z
a distribuiei normale teoretice
distribuia z a unei distribuii reale PSTREAZ FORMA
DISTRIBUIEI REALE
x
2
5
6
7
3
8
9
2
3
1

z
-,92963
,14302
,50057
,85812
-,57208
1,21566
1,57321
-,92963
-,57208
-1,28717

curba x

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

curba z

42

Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

43

Concluzii importante
O distribuie de scoruri z
are ntotdeauna media egal cu 0
are ntotdeauna abaterea standard egal cu 1
convertirea unei distribuii reale n scoruri z nu schimb form
distribuiei (scorurile z nu normalizeaz distribuia)

Indiferent dac distribuia este normal sau nu, scorul z


exprim cu precizie poziia fa de medie n abateri
standard
Dac o distribuie este normal, se pot gsi rspunsuri la
mai multe ntrebri interesante
Scoruri standard. Curba normal.

44

Pentru sntatea dvs.,


Cnd traversai, uitai-v spre
partea de unde pot veni maini!