Sunteți pe pagina 1din 12
‘Apparent Colors Colors derived fom ight, ithe natura or arti With tle gh te ono colar present ‘With lot of ght comes Lots of oo, Strong ight produce intense coo. Singin color Our eyeshave thre types of eoloreeptor cel, cones: re greer, and blue. Asa esl al incoming itis edued to these thre colors. Al perceived colors ae generated bya mixture of these twee cols. However, not evry color canbe seen ‘byhumans; thos that an are therefore called the vise specu. People can distinguish approxitely 10 milion colors this vise spectrum isalled the uma colar space ot everyone's coorsensing cls rerpnd alike, sentation fa pecs colori igh subjective ‘he study of colors where at and since meet, with numerous theories from oth dsiplines coming int play. 1ecan thse difeut to comprehend. To understand colar prception, we ned to understand the physi of ah, which causes and affects ur ideas of primary coos, Primary olrs ‘There ate two types of primary color adv and subtractive. As noted, cur ees have ed, geen, nd Bue (RB) clo receptors RB aze the primary ‘oles of pe ight and ate eee toa date pwimary colors. The ubracive primar cols, ade rom feted ight, ale two ype: the printers primaries, which re yan, magenta, aad yellow CH), ad teats primaries, whieh sree yell, and blue (YB). Ast eimai, ‘ovgh nonslentif ae used asthe bass for mst color teary (chapter to), Designers lie al thee types of prinary clos ‘They select colors using YB and color theories, ‘Then they generate layouts on computer sceens in RB, and then perhaps translate ther nto ink on paper with CHY-—pus or ack—to form the CHYK of fourcolor process lithography. ‘basal The RB Pines eh) ‘gent neater aie priate ela wht gt produced Ts, hte ovens Wecl hem aaivedeause loge thes primase whe, Fae actn bmn correc 4 sutacve Clo The CMY Primes (rampart Pome) (hve) -and ne rier get, (CHY) sparks Subtractive Mixing (RYB Model | sotoncte calor Tee | (opaueiens) (bul) an ta on yl The Properties of Color ‘Whether sing the ative or subtractive primaries, cach oar must be described in terms ofits pial opeties. These properties are independent of each othe, and each one must be measured ot Aefinod in oder toflly describ the clr. Scientific Aescitions of clo, or clrimetyinvave the specfeaton ofthese color properties in either a subjective or objective system of measurement. The subjective system describes colorin terns of hu, saturation, and brightness (HSB), wile the objective ‘system menses the dominant wavelength, purity, and luminance of cols, ‘ives th common name ofa cla thatindiates its postion nthe visible spectrum oon the colar eel. Huei determined by the specific wavelength of the color ina ray of ight. he description of hue ‘an be made more precise in comparison tothe next ‘nv (eg a certain bie might be move accurately called blue geen). Satuation refers to the intensity, strength, purty oF ceoma—the absence of Back, ‘uit, gray—in clr. Aviv oar has high ofl saturation, whereas dl one ie desaturated. Saturation isa measure ofthe riches of cola. Brighness,orvaue, isthe relative degre of ight ‘ess or datknes of clots fective quality blanc, A clorcan be mace nario described as ele gt or dark (ight Bue oda Be). ‘he bightes ofa cular changed by mixing it with ‘ute (fom ain or with lack (a form a sha) ‘in varying proportions. Graphic design software rogram have tools or varying the HSB of les Objective color notation was devtoped by the Ca lilo Internationale de UElaage (CE) to provide mathemati model for esting enor. The CIE (Gn Eels, the Internationa Commision an ‘Muminaton isan iternatonl techn sie tif and eultaral nonprofit omanization that ets “standards on the scence aadat of lighting, visio, and clorimetry. Though CE notation isnot use, by designers it underpins ele management in oder digital devices. bint tory When weed bighethevae sigh on he ‘esting slexstuaed. Aing lth tothe etna dred srt he py Sade he stations wee, bathevaie unhanre > ecceece be used to create harmo color combinations. These ideas are represe color wheels, triangles, understand color intera din a variety of diagrams— charts that help designers ions, select and combine colors, and construct pleasing and effective palettes. Diagrams suchas this color wheel, which shows pure hues a well as tints and shades, serve as a guide for selecting and combining colors beyond the pure hues, Different color theory diagram have diferent ‘purposes. Some are simple and some are complex, but all ae useful references when thinking about color and choosing color palettes * corte ABrief History of Color Theory ‘Woofer this rit acount to familiarize designer withthe alo color theorists and thelr significant findings We encourage further exploration ofthis top to gain a deeper understanding of olor theory, Since ancient times, colar theortshave developed nd iter etations of enor eationships. Attempts to formalize an ecognine der date back atleast to Arisa (384-322 BCE) but began in mest with Leonard da Vin (1452-1518) and have progesed ver ce, Lana ote that etal cols en each the, ‘sonerng cour complementary clas. he fst oar whee. as vented by Ba’ Sr ae Newton (1542-1727), host whe gk into ed, range, yew eee, be, Indien and vile ‘beams the oa the toed ofthe specu to form a le Sori the tural progression of alors. When Newton created the clo hel, he noticed that bing two clo fram oppeite peta produced a newt r anonymous oa. Moye than a century ates, while studying the pyehoogal effet of eolr, Germany’ famed pet and playwright abana ‘Wallgang von Goethe (1749-1832) furthered colar theory Goethe Aivided all colors into two groups. On the plus side he put the warm clos (ed to orange to yellow) and on the mins sie the ‘ool eal (green to ue to violet. He noted Ut ele on the Plus side produced excitement in viewers, wile he aoa the minus colors with unsettled feelings. In 1810 Goethe published ur arene (ory of Cl) in which he disagreed with Newtons conclusions about color. He bev that scien tic approach lone did not enabe one to fully understand oor Goethe's observations ofthe human perception of clr rather than just the physics of ight, allowed him to discover important aspects of color theory, ncuding simultaneous contrat and Colrs relationship to erection. Luis Prag (1826-1909) was an inftuertipioneer f American chromoithographs anda nated educator whose 1876 book They of aor beet popslrie the theory of ed, yllow, ad ue primary colarsin American art education Will Ostwald (0353-192), a Russian-German Nobel Prize-winning chemist, Aeveloped a color system elated to pychologial asmany and ‘der inthe 196 ie abel (The oo Prine). His ides about Color harmony iftenced future olor theorists andthe Dutch fe Silat movement (seepage 10), ‘Many measurement systems, but all color theory has one goal: to explain color relationships with an aim to create harmony. ‘The next major set of theories ames from the Bauhaus, he ‘highly in uential German art and desig schoo (1919-1655) that focused onthe integration of art and industry, encouraging an ‘ideology of functional design. Bauhaus member Johannes ten (18-1067 wae a Swiss color and at theorist wha developed coor ‘ards and madi the color hel Iter olor wheel is based on a primary Wiad of ed, yellow, and ue and indes twelve hus. He tue color in terms af both design and scence, and his cexperinents with Ught waves explored cla lationship and sual effets, Following Goethe's lan, Iten delved into the syelogcal and spitua aspects of cola His most important ‘rok, The Arf Cl is summarized in hls ease called te ‘The Elements of Clr ten’ theories stil form the core of mast at school colt information, Te Geeecoarange ‘son eooatet ante Joel Alber (1868-1976) studied under ten and alsa taught at | besa oe Uterine. Theta primers ei Snceace)aearangede hetero thee dar ples tn te) andra SSrandsoee lnctoemetin de sing denonntesthse the Bauhaus ls abstract art used mathematical proportions to achleve balance and unity. After immigration tothe United ‘ates, his teachings at Yale Univer ld to his Book tration of olor, a erucal text ancl theory. Albee focus ison what happens when clos interact, and his experiments are a esource for creating subte color compositions. aber Biren (1900-1988) explored the celationship between color and expression. Hs restarch helped aif the histori development ofthe tae color syste, The Amen art lr Hansel (68-98) reated a ew {Seve cw Amen cs per ac (890), ‘evens and German painter Philip Otto Runge (1777-1810) to develop a Sei iecene ttoedimenon cor moll tat dance ltrs, Sm MC betwen lpm huss la int ad shades Most ane imo eatin as tht he use hs se mere trove an ters ecco iere whe Croton Mists wk mas epee is {sister and nag sae trecdopre nein eC Camerata setteaie Artists, scientists, and schlas continue to contribute to olor ‘theory, a yamic and fascinating subject. shows awhel i, ‘ied fe pinay minigame Rent ‘ete.yeryelon ee) Laslett nif he sung pecs leyenda hie i ses mbes al betiad b nel e ‘eagle in man the Heer be feeapd fren rie "hana ‘olrconintins, mide) itaebe pied starr espns on tees ‘aes Tecra eh seb Tay » mem SDE ‘Sucesfl color elatioships can be fered to One of the best tools for visualizing color relationships is the color wheel. This wheel, originally developed by Sir Isaac Newton, can be constructed “i Mmonie! wists hey consi of with just a few colors, or can be quite complex incorporating many color (Mur wens eam variations. Pethaps the most useful version is the twelve-step color wheel gr iter subj to penonal teen. owner, containing twelve equidistant pure hues, as shown below. ‘he stu of aan design hs given us sae spect coer theres, o guiding eines, that s“colorharmonie,” Whether they consi of sia ttn us make effective decisions about elo usage We recommend the ws ofthe clo wheel called the ‘bration Artist Primary Clore (YB), because picking coors is easiest with this set of primaries, he color whee wil pt select elo combinations hat balance each other. This blance ares ofall he colors ina chosen composition dng up to gray fe reultwileaze cor neutrality, nthe ee/brin 7 he wart just fel ight” tothe viewer. ‘coor by tet will an emotions nd physica rerpone, but the nate ofthe reponse canbe altered by placing itincontert with ne or more colors. Color perceptions shift dyranically when aligned with other ola Designers can vary oot combinations to reduce elatonships that ze edo eortzating and therefore can affect ewer impression, Cre) (Gem) Cem) Couto