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Running head: SPECIFIC PROGRAM PLAN

Saddle Up, Giddy Up!


A Therapeutic Horseback Riding Program
Ashley Ramphal
Florida International University

Table of Contents

SPECIFIC PROGRAM PLAN

Implementation
4
Introduction
.. 4
Population
.. 4
Program
Purpose
5
Number, Length, and Frequency of
Services.. 7
Facilities and
Equipment
.. 8
Staff
. 8
Program
Evaluation
. 9
Client
Evaluation
10

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Program
Plan
. 11
Program
Title
11
Statement of
Purpose
11
Program
Objectives
. 11
Terminal Program Objective
1 12
Terminal Program Objective
2 13
Terminal Program Objective
3 14
Content and
Process
.. 15

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Session
1
15
Session
2
16
Session
3
18
Session
4
20
Session
5
.. 21
Session
6
.. 22
Session
7
.. 24

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Session
8
.. 25
Session
9
.. 26
Sequence
Sheet
28
References
.. 33
Appendix A

. 34
Appendix
B
.. 37
Appendix
C
.. 38
Appendix
D
.. 39

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Appendix
E
40

Implementation
Introduction
Horseback riding is a well-known sport. It is common around the
world, and attracts many different kinds of people, from young children
to adults. Besides being a sport that attracts worldwide media
attention, horseback riding can serve other purposes. One of these
purposes is helping people with disabilities become stronger, more
tolerant, and better adapted and adjusted to their daily lives. Using
horseback riding in this form is known as therapeutic horseback riding.

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According to the Professional Association of Therapeutic


Horsemanship International (2015), also known as PATH International,
therapeutic riding uses equine-assisted activities for the purpose of
contributing positively to cognitive, physical, emotional and social wellbeing of people with disabilities. Therapeutic horseback riding is
considered a form of animal-assisted therapy, which has been shown
to promote positive feelings, outcomes, and an overall healthier wellbeing.
Population
Saddle Up, Giddy Up! Therapeutic Horseback Riding Program is
designed for disabled children aged 5-17. According to Brault (2010),
of the 53.9 million children aged 5-17 that live in the United States, 2.8
million have a disability. In other words, disabilities affect 5.2 percent
of the school-aged children population. These disabilities include
physical, cognitive, behavioral, and emotional conditions. Equine
Therapy (n.d.) asserts that therapeutic horseback riding gives a
disabled child a physically enjoyable experience (learning to ride a
horse) that also helps develop muscle tone, balance, and
coordination. Additionally, therapeutic horseback riding can promote
independence, self-confidence, and an increase in other positive
attributes. Learning to care for the horse can aide disabled children in
their comprehension of the importance of caring for other living
beings. Over time, this simple task can grow into an activity that the

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child can perform independently, which increases self-confidence


decision-making and problem-solving activity. This program is
designed to encompass many different kinds of disabilities, including
but not limited to: cerebral palsy, down syndrome, multiple sclerosis,
spina bifida, spinal cord injuries, brain injuries, attention deficit
disorder, cognitive and behavioral disorders, and visual impairment.
The needs of persons with disabilities include a safe environment
where they can freely express themselves. The program addresses the
needs of disabled children to improve social skills, as well as cognitive
and physical health and wellbeing.
Program Purpose
Horseback riding serves many purposes as a therapeutic activity.
Not only can it help a disabled person to become stronger physically,
but it can also strengthen their cognition. It also helps the person to
form a personal bond with the horse, thereby strengthening emotional
connections. As stated in the introduction, PATH International (2015)
asserts that therapeutic horseback riding contributes physical,
cognitive, social, and emotional benefits to a person with a disability,
thereby positively influencing their overall well-being.
Therapeutic horseback riding is considered a form of animalassisted therapy. According to a study by Cherniack and Cherniack
(2014), animal-assisted therapy can provide intangible benefits to the
mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and

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boredom. The study also mentions the physical health benefits that
animal assisted therapy can provide, like lowering cardiovascular
disease and regulating blood pressure. Other physical benefits of
therapeutic horseback riding include improving posture, and
strengthening and building muscle tone. According to the Ismael Pinto
Equine Therapy Association (2015), through the use of therapeutic
horseback riding a person can improve his/her vertical and horizontal
balance, muscle tone, and improve motor coordination. For persons
whose disability hinders their ability to walk, therapeutic horseback
riding can improve independent movement of the pelvis and
shoulders, which are essential for enabling healthy walking habits.
Therapeutic horseback riding can also stimulate movement of the
upper limbs (through using reins, for example), thereby helping those
with limited movement in those areas (for example, stroke patients
with limited arm mobility).
The cognitive benefits of therapeutic horseback riding include
alertness, ability to concentrate, as well as a rise in confidence and
self-esteem. According to Therapeion (2007), riders with disabilities
increase their self esteem and self confidence, learn problem solving
skills, and increase their ability to focus and stay on task. Therapeutic
horseback riding can increase independence, attention span, as well as
the riders ability to direct and control the situation.

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In addition to the physical and cognitive benefits of therapeutic


horseback riding, there are also social benefits. A person with a
disability may have a limited social circle. In certain cases, the circle
includes family and close friends, as well as any medical or health
personnel, but there lacks an opportunity for more connections to be
made and thus, relationships to be formed. According to Bream and
Spangler (2015), this can result in a a lack of communication and
interpersonal skills. Engaging in a therapeutic horseback riding
activity can open the door for new social relationships to be made. A
person participating in therapeutic horseback riding has the
opportunity to meet a variety of people. Depending on the setting,
they not only can meet new instructors, but also fellow peers that also
participate in horseback riding. A connection and bond can even be
made with animals. Horses are loyal, intelligent creatures with calm
temperaments, making them an ideal animal for the therapeutic field.
Bonds between animals and humans can strengthen will power,
provide a sense of normalcy, as well as make that person feel
supported and loved, which in turn encourages them to achieve their
goals.
Saddle up, Giddy Up! Therapeutic Horseback Riding Program is
designed to encompass all these different aspects of the participants
well-being, with the aim to strengthen and improve upon existing
physical, cognitive, emotional, and/or social conditions.

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Number, Length, and Frequency of Services


This program is designed to have nine sessions over the course
of nine weeks. Each week is dedicated to one session, once a week.
The length of each session is 90 minutes, for a program total of 810
minutes. All of the program sessions dedicate 30 minutes to forming a
bond with a horse through non-riding activities like grooming and horse
care. Throughout each session, the child is introduced to different
activities of adaptive riding, which utilizes on and off horse activities
to positively contribute to the cognitive, physical, and emotional wellbeing of individuals with special needs (National Center for Equine
Facilitated Therapy, 2015).
Facilities and Equipment
The facility must include an indoor and outdoor area that can
comfortably provide shelter for the horses used in the therapy
program. The indoor area must include a barn with horse stalls for
each horse, and must also be accessible for all disabled persons
(ramps, even-surfaced grounds, etc.). The outdoor area must also be
accessible for all disabled persons, including even-surfaced pathways
that mobile-impaired persons can utilize. The outdoor area also must
include gated areas for the horses to roam within, as well as an open
space for which program participants can utilize with the horse.
Required equipment includes all riding equipment used for the
horses, such as reins, saddles, saddle cushions, and therapeutic riding

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pads. All riding equipment must be custom-suited for therapeutic


horseback riding. Additionally, protective gear must be provided for
riders, such as helmets, boots, and knee and elbow pads. Horse
grooming equipment such as curry combs, stiff and soft body brushes,
and hoof picks, as these help to provide a bonding experience between
the program participant and horse. Lastly, items that aid in activity
participation are also required, such as beanbags and foam shapes,
and fruits and other horse snacks.
Staf
Saddle Up, Giddy Up! employs various professionals that aid in
the implementation and evaluation processes of the program. The staff
is kept to a small number, as to make the program experience more
meaningful to the participants. Saddle Up, Giddy Up! is under
direction of a Certified Therapeutic Recreation Specialists (or CTRS)
with a certification from the National Council for Therapeutic
Recreation Certification (NCTRC). Additionally, the program requires
recreational therapy assistants that oversee sessions (the number of
which fluctuates depending on the amount of program participants).
Both the CTRS and RT assistants must also certified by the Professional
Association of Therapeutic Horsemanship International (PATH
International) as a therapeutic riding instructor. Additional staff
members include a horse caretaker, who oversee the horses grooming
and overall health, as well as an event and volunteer coordinator to

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13

plan special events, overlook administrative duties, and screen and


retain volunteers. Several volunteers (kept to a maximum of four) also
aide the program by overlook the horses wellbeing during each
session, as well as being responsible for preparing any needed
equipment for sessions. Volunteers must have a background in
horsemanship.
Program Evaluation
Program evaluation is essential in order to maintain and improve
upon the efficiency, effectiveness, and overall quality of the program.
Saddle Up, Giddy Up! observes two types of evaluation formative,
and summative. Stumbo and Peterson (2009) explain formative
evaluation to be an ongoing process that occurs while the activity or
program is in progress (pg. 355). To keep track of the data during a
session, the program uses a Post-Session Report Form during each
session (see Appendix A). A Post-Session Report Form allows the staff
to document whether how the program was implemented, if any
changes were made to the design of the program, what those changes
were if any, what materials were available for use and were used, and
whether or not the staff was enough for the session, among other
things (pg. 367-368).
Summative evaluation is conducted at the end of the program
and provides data that can be used to (a) compare programs with one
another or (b) provide information for the next season of

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programming (Stumbo and Peterson, 2009, pg. 355). Summative


evaluation uses the Post-Session Analysis Form (see Appendix B),
which utilizes information from several Post-Session Report Forms.
Summative evaluation is imperative when deciding if the program
offered was well worth it after it ends. It helps to analyze the overall
program by fine-tuning and improving any quality and/or quantity
issues (accessibility, staffing, group sizes, program outcomes being
met/not met, etc.) so that the program is a more beneficial experience
during the next season of implementation.
Client Evaluation
Client evaluation is imperative, as it helps assess whether or not
the provided program sessions, and activities within the sessions are
beneficial to the client. When assessing the client, documentation and
data is taken in about the clients current condition. The program is
designed with those conditions in mind, in order to improve upon them.
As Stumbo and Peterson (2009) state, the focus of client evaluation is
on the intervention designed on the behalf of the client (pg. 363).
The programs uses a Performance Sheet (see Appendix C) in order to
determine whether or not the program is benefitting the client and
helping them to achieve targeted client outcomes (see Appendix D for
a sample list of client outcomes). Outcomes are determined by the
initial client assessment, and all client assessments made during and
after each session. Some questions that are posed at the beginning

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and end of each session include whether or not the client understands
the purpose of the session, whether or not the client is forming a
connection to the horse, peers, and/or staff, whether or not the activity
as a whole was
beneficial to the clients existing condition, and if the activity
motivates, excites, or enthuses the client. These pre-assessment and
post assessment questions help determine if the sessions are doing
their intended job of helping the client reach
targeted outcomes, or not. Client evaluations are conducted at the end
of each session, and at the end of the program.
Program Plan
Program Title: Saddle Up, Giddy Up! Therapeutic Horseback Riding
Program
Statement of Purpose
Through the use of therapeutic horseback riding, the program
plan aims to improve upon a clients existing physical, cognitive,
behavioral, and social conditions, and positively contributing to their
overall wellbeing by offering a network of support.
Program Objectives The program objectives are based upon the
statement purpose. There are three Terminal Program Objectives
(TPOs) that are expanded upon by

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Enabling Objectives (EOs) and Performance Measures (PMs). TPOs,


EOs, and PMs are developed using the statement of purpose as a
guideline.
Enabling Objectives
EO 1.1
To decrease social
anxiety and become
comfortable in a group
setting

Performance Measures
Upon completion of the
program, the client should:
Be able to introduce
themselves to others
and formulate a
conversation when in
group circles
Have self-confidence
during social
interactions between
themselves, peers, and
staff

EO 1.2
To improve ability to
interact with group
members and build social
network

Upon completion of the


program, the client should:
Be able to
communicate
effectively with peers
during and outside of
sessions
Have an increased
confidence in engaging
in group activities and
conversations during
sessions

EO 1.3
To improve ability to
work with others,
thereby strengthening
teamwork skills and
ability to build
relationships

Upon completion of program,


the client should:
Demonstrate
confidence in building
relationships with
others while
participating in group
tasks
Demonstrate teamwork
skills and ability to
follow direction during
sessions

TPO 1: To
enhance
clients social
awareness
and social
skills

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Enabling Objectives
EO 2.1
Increase physical fitness
and overall
physical health

EO 2.2
Improve hand-eye
coordination and fine
motor skills

EO 2.3
Improve mobility and
balance

Performance Measures
Upon completion of program,
the client
should:
Have improved ability to
breathe during fitness
exercises implemented in
each session
Be able to perform 20
minutes of physical
exercise
Upon completion of program,
the client
should:
Be able to perform more
detailed work, such as
grooming a horse
Accurately aim when
throwing (ex: throwing a
rope around a pole)
Upon completion of program,
the client
should:
Have improved balance
while walking and riding
Be able to walk the horse
around an
obstacle course

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TPO 2: To
enhance
the
clients
physical
health and
wellbeing

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Enabling Objectives
EO 3.1
Have improved problemsolving skills and ability to
make decisions

EO 3.2
Have increased
participation skills and
independence

EO 3.3
Increased self-awareness
and positive self-image

behavioral conditions

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Performance Measures
Upon completion of this
program, the client
should:
Be able to make informed
decisions during each
session
Solve given problems
practically and timely
Understand the concepts
behind each session
Upon completion of this
program, the client
should:
Have improved ability to
independently participate
in activities during
sessions
Upon completion of this
program, the client
should:
Be able to stand up
during group circles and
list three positive facts
about themselves

TPO 3: To
strengthen
clients
cognition,
and
improve

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Content and Process


Session 1: My Name Is
Purpose: The purpose of this activity is to introduce group members
to each other.
TPO 1: To enhance clients social awareness and social skills.
EO 1.1: To decrease social anxiety and become comfortable in a group
setting.
Set Up:

Target Number: Group of six


Copies of activity: See Appendix E.
Clients should be seated in a circle.

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Materials: Clients should bring one item to represent them.


Markers, index cards, and craft supplies are used in this session
to create nametags.
Content

Orientation Activity: Show


and Tell
Introduction to the
group.
Icebreaker activity (see
Appendix E).

Introduction:
Introduces the objective
of the session.
Goals are explained.
Presentation and Discussion:
Present materials.
Describe activity.
Discuss activity with
group.

Learning Activity:
See Appendix E for the
activity My Name Is
The purpose of this
activity is to introduce
participants to their
peers.

Debriefing/Processing:
Can you explain the purpose
of the activity?

Process
This activity is to be used as an
icebreaker to introduce
participants to one another.
Participants introduce themselves,
then show the object they brought
to the group and explain why it
represents them. The object may
be passed around the circle with
the owners permission.
Introduce the session. Participants
will introduce themselves during
the session and get to know one
another through a craft activity of
making nametags.
Participants sit at a table. Craft
materials such as pom-poms,
glitter, and stickers are laid out in
the center of the table.
Participants are asked to create
unique nametags that will be worn
for the duration of the program.
Participants are encouraged to ask
any questions regarding the
activity.
Implement the activity. The
directions include writing out the
participants name on the index
card, then decorating it using craft
supplies. Participants can decorate
their nametags uniquely, and are
encouraged to share supplies and
engage in conversation.
Participants will wear nametags
for the remainder of the program.
Conduct debriefing questions
located within the Content.

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Were you able to express


yourself creatively?
Did you get to know your
peers and converse with
them?
Conclusion:
List of barriers:
Trouble pronouncing names.
Cultural/language barriers.
Participants unable to
overcome social anxiety.
List of ways to overcome
barriers:
Encourage participants to
ask for help with
pronunciation.
Encourage participants to
interact with peers, even if
in small ways, to help
overcome anxiety.

The purpose of this session is to


introduce participants to their
peers, through using icebreakers
and an arts and crafts activity to
encourage conversation. The
activity helps to eliminate any
unfamiliarity and anxiety
participants may experience,
while becoming better acquainted
and more comfortable with their
peers.

Session 2: Scavenger Hunt


Purpose: The purpose of this activity is to build upon connections
made during session one through group activity.
TPO 1: To enhance clients social awareness and social skills.
EO 1.2: To improve ability to interact with group members and build
social network.
Set Up:

Target Number: Group of six


Copies of activity: See Appendix E.
Group members will be provided with a map of the facility that
has certain highlighted areas, a list of hidden items, and a
marker. Leadership will hide a variety of items throughout the
facility to be found by the group. Group members will work as

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22

one team to complete the scavenger hunt tasks assigned by


leadership within a set timeframe.
Content
Introduction:
Introduces the objective
of the session.
Goals are explained.

Presentation and Discussion:


Present materials.
Describe activity.
Discuss activity with group.

Learning Activity:
See Appendix E for the
activity Scavenger
Hunt
The purpose of this activity is
to promote group unity and
improve social skills.
Debriefing/Processing:
Can you explain the purpose
of this activity?
What were some challenges
you faced during this
activity?
Were you able to build
relationships and strengthen
connections with fellow
participants?
Conclusion:
List of barriers:
Group members unable to
overcome social anxiety.
Group members finding it

Process
The objective of this session is to
improve social skills and build
upon connections made during
session one. Goals include
becoming more comfortable in a
social setting, and building
relationships within the group.
The group is presented with a map
of the facility that highlights the
areas they must search within, a
list of items to find, and markers
to cross off their lists. Items are
hidden within highlighted areas,
and the group should work
together collectively to find all the
hidden items within the
timeframe. Any questions and
other discussion is encouraged.
Implement the activity. The group
should work as a team to
complete the scavenger hunt by
finding all the items on the
provide list within the given
timeframe.
Conduct debriefing questions
located within the Content.

The purpose of this activity is to


build upon existing connections
and strengthen them into
relationships between group
members. The activity serves not

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challenging to work as a
team.
List of ways to overcome
barriers:
Encourage participants to
rely on each other for advice
and help.
Have group members take
turns leading the group, so
that participants can
experience both leading and
following.

23
only to enhance social skills, but
also to provide a setting in which
participants can interact
comfortably and have a unifying
experience.

Session 3: Meet & Treat


Purpose: The purpose of this activity is to build and strengthen
teamwork skills acquired during session two.
TPO 1: To enhance clients social awareness and social skills.
EO 1.3: To improve ability to work with others, thereby strengthening
teamwork skills and ability to build relationships.
Setup:

Target number: Group of six.


Copies of activity: See Appendix E.
Group members will meet a horse owned by the facility. The
session focuses on meeting the horse for the first time, and
learning how to properly care for the horse. Participants will use
grooming tools to care for the horse and feed the horse using
fruits and vegetables.

Content
Introduction:
Introduces the objective
of the session.

Process
The purpose of this activity is to
build teamwork skills acquired in
session two. Goals include

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Goals are explained.

Presentation and Discussion:


Present materials.
Describe activity.
Discuss activity with group.

Learning Activity:
See Appendix E for the
activity Meet and Treat
The purpose of this activity is
to build teamwork skills.
Debriefing/Processing:
What team skills did you
learn through this session?
What is your your comfort
level working with the
horses?
What is your comfort level
working as part of a group?
Conclusion:
List of barriers:
Participants may be afraid of
the horse.
Participants may struggle to
cooperate.
List of ways to overcome
barriers:
Introduce the horse to
participants under direct
supervision to eliminate
fear.
Implement smaller tasks to
build cooperative skills.

24
learning to cooperate with team
members and equally share
duties.
For this activity, participants meet
horses for the first time. The
group will be provided with
grooming tools such as brushes
and combs, as well as fruits and
vegetables to feed the horse.
Leadership will demonstrate
proper care and feeding routines,
which participants will then
replicate. The group is encouraged
to ask questions and discuss the
activity.
Implement the activity. The group
should begin by observing the
proper care for the horse as
demonstrated by leadership. The
group will then demonstrate the
care using teamwork to feed,
wash, dry, and groom the horse.
Conduct debriefing questions
located within the Content.

The objective of this session is to


build teamwork skills. Participants
should cooperate with one
another to oversee the wellbeing
of the horse. In doing so, expected
outcomes include stronger team
relationships, increased sense of
responsibility, and improved
regard for the wellbeing.

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Session 4: Walk The Trail


Purpose: To improve upon participants existing fitness routine and
overall physical health.
TPO 2: To enhance the clients physical health and wellbeing.
EO 2.1: Increase physical fitness and overall physical health.
Setup:

Target number: Group of six.


Copies of activity: See Appendix E.
Participants will walk along a riding trail. Required supplies
include loose comfortable clothing, comfortable walking shoes,
and a water bottle. Participants are also encouraged to bring sun
protection (sunscreen, hats, sunglasses, etc.).

Content
Introduction:
Introduces the objective
of the session.
Goals are explained.
Presentation and Discussion:
Present materials.
Describe activity.
Discuss activity with group.

Learning Activity:
See Appendix E for the
activity Walk The Trail
The purpose of this activity is
to introduce a simple fitness

Process
The objective of this session is to
encourage participants to adopt a
simple fitness routine. Goals
include improved overall physical
health and development of
personal fitness routines.
Participants will be asked to dress
in comfortable clothing and shoes.
Water and sunscreen will be
provided for the duration of the
session. Leadership will explain
the purpose of the walk, and the
group is encouraged to discuss
and ask questions.
The activity will begin by prepping
all necessary supplies for the walk
(water, sunscreen, etc.).
Participants and leadership will
walk along a trail for 30 minutes,

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routine to participants.
Debriefing/Processing:
Did you have any physical
issues while walking for that
period of time?
Can you develop a personal
routine after completing this
session?
Conclusion:
List of barriers:
The walk is too lengthy.
Participants are
unaccustomed to fitness.
List of ways to overcome
barriers:
Implement smaller walks at
first.
Introduce alternative simple
fitness exercises.

26
then take a 10 minute break and
retreat back to the facility.
Conduct debriefing questions
located within the Content.

The objective of this session is to


improve upon participants
existing physical health, and to
introduce fitness into their daily
lives. An expected outcome would
be for participants to create and
maintain a personal simple fitness
routine in their lives.

Session 5: Needle In The Haystack


Purpose: The purpose of this session is to improve upon existing
hand-eye coordination and fine motor skills.
TPO 2: To enhance the clients physical health and wellbeing.
EO 2.2: Improve hand-eye coordination and fine motor skills.
Setup:

Target number: Group of six.


Copies of activity: See Appendix E.
Participants will be provided with small buckets of hay. Each
bucket contains ten toothpicks within the hay. Participants must
pick out the ten toothpicks and use them to created a picture on
a piece of paper using glue.

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Content
Introduction:
Introduces the objective
of the session.
Goals are explained.
Presentation and Discussion:
Present materials.
Describe activity.
Discuss activity with group.

Learning Activity:
See Appendix E for the
activity Needle In The
Haystack
The purpose of this activity is
to improve fine motor skills
and hand-eye coordination.
Debriefing/Processing:
On a scale of 1-10, rate your
ability to identify the
toothpicks within the hay.
Do you understand the
purpose of this activity?
Conclusion:
List of barriers:
Participants found it difficult
to locate the toothpicks.
List of ways to overcome
barriers:
Implement a broader task to
improve hand-eye
coordination, and increase
requirement of detail with
each task thereafter.
Session 6: Giddy Up

27
Process
The objective of this session is to
improve upon hand-eye
coordination and fine motor skills.
Goals include better ability to
distinguish and identify between
objects.
Participants will be presented with
the materials for this session: a
small bucket full of hay, with ten
toothpicks mixed in. They will also
be provided with paper to create a
picture on using found toothpicks.
The activity will be discussed with
the group. Questions are
encouraged.
Implement the activity.
Participants will be asked to
located ten toothpicks in a small
bucket, and then use them to
create a picture on paper.

Conduct debriefing questions


located within the Content.

The objective of this session is to


increase fine motor skills and
hand-eye coordination. Expected
outcomes include greater
attention to detail, and increased,
precise hand-eye coordination.

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28

Purpose: The purpose of this session is to improve existing mobility


and balance.
TPO 2: To enhance the clients physical health and wellbeing.
EO 2.3: Improve mobility and balance.
Setup:

Target number: Group of six.


Copies of activity: See Appendix E.
Participants will be asked to lead a horse through an obstacle
course, as well as mount one, in order to improve mobility and
balance. Required supplies include comfortable walking shoes
and a helmet.

Content
Introduction:
Introduces the objective
of the session.
Goals are explained.

Presentation and Discussion:


Present materials.
Describe activity.
Discuss activity with group.

Learning Activity:
See Appendix E for the
activity Giddy Up
The purpose of this activity is
to improve mobility and
balance.
Debriefing/Processing:
Do you understand the
purpose of this activity?
What challenges did you

Process
The objective of this session is to
improve participants mobility and
balance through using the
guidance of a horse and trained
specialist. Expected outcomes
include improved balance and
mobility.
Participants will be asked to wear
comfortable clothing and shoes.
Helmets, shoulder pads, and
kneepads will be provided.
Leadership will demonstrate the
activity first. Discussion and
questions are encouraged.
Implement the activity.
Participants will learn to mount a
horse to improve balance, as well
as lead the horse on foot through
an obstacle course to improve
mobility.
Conduct debriefing questions
located within the Content.

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29

face in this session?


Conclusion:
List of barriers:
Inability to mount the horse.
List of ways to overcome
barriers:
With the help of leadership,
use exercises to improve
physical ability.

The purpose of this activity is to


improve mobility and balance
through using a horse. Expected
outcomes include better mobility
and overall balance.

Session 7: A-Mazement
Purpose: Through this activity, participants should achieve improved
problem-solving skills.
TPO 3: To strengthen clients cognition, and improve behavioral
conditions.
EO 3.1: Have improved problem-solving skills and ability to make
decisions.
Setup:

Target number: Group of six.


Copies of activity: See Appendix E.
This activity requires paper and pencils. Participants are asked to
design an obstacle course based on previous experiences from
past sessions.

Content
Introduction:
Introduces the objective
of the session.
Goals are introduced to
the group.
Leadership should

Process
The objective of this session is to
improve cognition. Goals include
improved problem-solving skills.

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30

explain the process of


goal achievement.
Presentation and Discussion:
Present materials.
Describe activity.
Discuss activity with group.

Learning Activity:
See Appendix E for the
activity A-Mazement
The purpose of this activity is
to stimulate and improve
problem-solving skills.
Debriefing/Processing:
What prior knowledge
helped you design your
obstacle course?
What issues did you have
designing your course?
Conclusion:
List of barriers:
Participants unable to
imagine a design.
List of ways to overcome
barriers:
Leadership should work with
participants to help them
analyze previous sessions
and incorporate them into
their design.

Participants will be provided with


paper and pencils. They will be
asked to draw an obstacle course
to lead a horse through.
Leadership will supervise, and the
group is encouraged to ask for
feedback throughout the session.
Implement the activity.
Participants will be asked to
design an obstacle course.

Conduct debriefing questions


located within the Content.

The objective of this session was


to improve participants cognition.
Through designing an imaginary
obstacle course, participants
cognition is stimulated. Expected
outcomes are increased problemsolving skills.

Session 8: Imagination to Reality


Purpose: This session helps to increase the participants participation
skills as well as their individual independence.
TPO 3: To strengthen clients cognition, and improve behavioral
conditions.

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31

EO 3.2: Have increased participation skills and independence.


Setup:

Target number: Group of six.


Copies of activity: See Appendix E.
Using the imaginary obstacle courses designed in session 7, the
group will collaborate to create a real obstacle course. Included
materials include hurdles, bales of hay, and barrels that the
group will use to construct the obstacle course.

Content
Introduction:
Introduces the objective
of the session.
Goals are explained.
Presentation and Discussion:
Present materials.
Describe activity.
Discuss activity with group.

Learning Activity:
See Appendix E for the
activity Imagination to
Reality
The purpose of this activity is
to improve participation skills
while maintaining
independent thought process.
Debriefing/Processing:
How did creating individual
plans help to create a
collaborative plan?
What challenges were faced
when creating a real course
based on group
collaboration?

Process
The objective of this session is to
increase participation skills
through use of problem-solving
skills. Goals included increased
participation skills and
independence.
The group will use plans drawn
during the last session to develop
a real obstacle course. Materials
such as barrels, bales of hay, and
hurdles are provided. The group is
urged to discuss and ask
questions.
Implement the activity. During this
session, the group will construct
an obstacle course using
previously made plans.

Conduct debriefing questions


located within the Content.

SPECIFIC PROGRAM PLAN


Conclusion:
List of barriers:
Possible conflict over
individual designs.
List of ways to overcome
barriers:
Leadership should act as a
facilitator in resolving
conflict and suggest ways to
cooperate.

32
The purpose of this session is to
fuse together independent skills
and participation skills. Expected
outcomes would be improved
collaboration and teamwork skills
while still maintaining
independence.

Session 9:
Purpose: Best In Show
TPO 3: To strengthen clients cognition, and improve behavioral
conditions.
EO 3.3: Increased self-awareness and positive self-image.
Setup:

Target number: Group of six.


Copies of activity: See Appendix E.
Participants will take turns leading a horse through the
collaboratively designed obstacle course from session 8. Supplies
include comfortable shoes, helmets, shoulder-pads and
kneepads.

Content
Introduction:
Introduces the objective
of the session.
Goals are explained.
Presentation and Discussion:
Present materials.

Process
The objective of this session is to
increase self-awareness and
positive self-image. Goals include
culminating learned knowledge
from previous sessions into an
overall positive self-image.
Using the obstacle course
designed from the last session,

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Describe activity.
Discuss activity with group.

Learning Activity:
See Appendix E for the
activity Best In Show
The purpose of this activity is
to culminate knowledge into
overall positive self-image.

Debriefing/Processing:
Conclusion:
List of barriers:
Participants may feel selfconscious.
List of ways to overcome
barriers:
Leadership should talk to
participants and reassure
them of the work theyve
completed over time, and
serve as a boost of
confidence to participants.

33
participants will each walk a horse
through it, demonstrating
knowledge and skills learned from
previous sessions. The group is
encouraged to ask questions and
discuss the activity.
Implement the activity. The
participants will lead a horse
through the collaboratively
designed obstacle course. At the
end, they will receive a ribbon as a
reward for demonstrating
independence, leadership,
collaboration, and completing the
program.
Conduct debriefing questions
located within the Content.
Session 9 concludes the program.
At the end of the session,
expected outcomes should include
improved social skills, improved
physical health, improved
cognition and problem-solving
skills, and improved self-image of
the participant.

Sequence Sheet
TPO
1

EO
1.1

Description
Session No.
1. Orientation
1
Introduction
Icebreakers Show
and Tell
2. Introduction
Objective
Goals

Time (Min)
20

10

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1.2

1.3

3. Presentation &
Discussion
Hand out materials
Describe purpose
of activity
Take questions
4. Learning Activity
My Name Is...
Give instructions
Perform activity
5. Debriefing/
Processing
Discuss activity
after
implementation
6. Conclusion
Discuss barriers
Conclusion
Conclusion
1. Introduction
Objective
Goals
2. Presentation &
Discussion
Hand out materials
Describe purpose
of activity
Take questions
3. Learning Activity
Scavenger Hunt
Give instructions
Perform activity
4. Debriefing/
Processing
Discuss activity
after
implementation
5. Conclusion
Discuss barriers
Conclusion
1. Introduction
Objective
Goals

34
15

30

10
5

10

60

10
5

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2.1

2.2

2. Presentation &
Discussion
Hand out materials
Describe purpose
of activity
Take questions
3. Learning Activity
Meet & Treat
Give instructions
Perform activity
4. Debriefing/
Processing
Discuss activity
after
implementation
5. Conclusion
Discuss barriers
Conclusion
1. Introduction
Objective
Goals
2. Presentation &
Discussion
Hand out materials
Describe purpose
of activity
Take questions
3. Learning Activity
Walk The Trail
Give instructions
Perform activity
4. Debriefing/
Processing
Discuss activity
after
implementation
5. Conclusion
Discuss barriers
Conclusion
1. Introduction
Objective
Goals
2. Presentation &

35
10

60
10

70

15

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2.3

3.1

Discussion
Hand out materials
Describe purpose
of activity
Take questions
3. Learning Activity
Needle in the
Haystack
Give instructions
Perform activity
4. Debriefing/
Processing
Discuss activity
after
implementation
5. Conclusion
Discuss barriers
Conclusion
1. Introduction
Objective
Goals
2. Presentation &
Discussion
Hand out materials
Describe purpose
of activity
Take questions
3. Learning Activity
Giddy Up
Give instructions
Perform activity
4. Debriefing/
Processing
Discuss activity
after
implementation
5. Conclusion
Discuss barriers
Conclusion
1. Introduction
Objective
Goals
2. Presentation &

36

50

15

15

60

5
5

10

SPECIFIC PROGRAM PLAN

3.2

3.3

Discussion
Hand out materials
Describe purpose
of activity
Take questions
3. Learning Activity
A-Mazement
Give instructions
Perform activity
4. Debriefing/
Processing
Discuss activity
after
implementation
5. Conclusion
Discuss barriers
Conclusion
1. Introduction
Objective
Goals
2. Presentation &
Discussion
Hand out materials
Describe purpose
of activity
Take questions
3. Learning Activity
Imagination to Reality
Give instructions
Perform activity
4. Debriefing/
Processing
Discuss activity
after
implementation
5. Conclusion
Discuss barriers
Conclusion
1. Introduction
Objective
Goals
2. Presentation &
Discussion

37

60

10

65

10
5

SPECIFIC PROGRAM PLAN

Hand out materials


Describe purpose
of activity
Take questions
3. Learning Activity
Best In Show
Give instructions
Perform activity
4. Debriefing/
Processing
Discuss activity
after
implementation
5. Conclusion
Discuss barriers
Conclusion

38

60

10

10

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39

References
Adaptive riding. (2015). Retrieved from http://nceft.org/ourservices/adaptive-riding/
The benefits of equine therapy. (n.d.). Retrieved from
http://www.asocequinoter
apia.org/english/Beneficios.htm
Brault, M. (n.d.). School-aged children with disabilities in u.s.
metropolitan statistical
areas: 2010. American community survey briefs, 11.
Bream, J., & Spangler, W. (n.d.). Therapeutic horseback riding: An
overview.
Retrieved from http://www.catra.net/info/overview.html
Cherniack, P., & Cherniack, A. (n.d.). The benefit of pets and animalassisted therapy to the health of older individuals. Current
Gerontology and Geriatrics
Research, 2014.
Equine therapy for disabled teens. (n.d.). Retrieved April 1, 2015, from
http://www.equ
ine-therapy-programs.com/disabled.html

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40

Learn about eaat. (n.d.). Retrieved from PATH International website:


http://www.
pathintl.org/ resources-education/resources/eaat/27
resources/general/

198-learn-about-therapeutic-riding

Stumbo, N.J., Peterson C.A. (2009). Therapeutic recreation program


design: Principles
& procedures. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Education, Inc.
The benefits of therapeutic riding. (n.d.). Retrieved from Therapeion
website:
http://www.therapeiontrc.com/Benefits.html

Appendix A
Post-Session Report Form

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42

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43

Appendix B

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44

Post-Session Analysis Form

Appendix C

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45

Blank Performance Sheet

Appendix D

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46

Sample Client Outcomes

Appendix E

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47

Orientation Activity
Activity: Show and Tell
Purpose: This activity serves as an icebreaker to introduce
participants to one another.
Materials: Participants must bring an item that represents them.
Directions: Participants should sit in a circle. The first person should
begin by introducing themselves and holding up the item they brought
to represent them. Participants should briefly explain to the group why
this item represents them. After they are done, the following
participant should follow suit.

Activity 1
Activity: My Name Is
Purpose: The purpose of this activity is to promote a positive group
setting, enhance participants social skills, and build connections within
the group.
Materials: This activity requires index cards to make nametags, as
well as craft supplies to decorate the nametags. Craft supplies can
include markers, yarn, glue, glitter, and stickers.
Directions: Craft supplies should be placed in the center of the table,
so that they are easily accessible by all participants. Participants will
be given index cards, upon which they will write their name.
Afterwards, participants may decorate their nametag using the craft

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48

supplies provided. These nametags will be used for the duration of the
program.
Activity 2
Activity: Scavenger Hunt
Purpose: The purpose of this activity is to build social skills, as well as
strengthen the relationships between the group members and build
teamwork skills.
Materials: Participants will be given a map of the facility, with
designated search areas highlighted. They will also be provided with
a list of hidden items, and a marker to cross off found items. Group
members will also be given walkie-talkies to communicate throughout
the session.
Directions: Leadership will set a time limit of 60 minutes, during
which the group must find all the items on the list. The group works as
a whole; however it is up to the group how they would like to divide the
items (for example, pairs of two). Group members can communicate
through the use of walkie-talkies provided.

Activity 3
Activity: Meet & Treat
Purpose: The purpose of this activity is to increase teamwork skills, as
well as introduce horses into the program, and have group members
build a comfort level with them.

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49

Materials: Horse-care materials will be provided for participants.


Materials include brushes, combs, buckets, and sponges for grooming
purposes, and fruits and vegetables for feeding purposes.
Directions: Participants will learn proper horse care through this
activity. The group will work together as a team to care for the horses
needs. Leadership will demonstrate proper care routines for the horse,
and participants should use this knowledge to groom another horse
under leadership supervision. Grooming can include brushing the horse
and combing its mane, caring for its hooves. Participants may also
feed the horse snacks (leadership should demonstrate proper feeding
methods and types of food).

Activity 4
Activity: Walk The Trail
Purpose: The purpose of this activity is to introduce physical fitness
into participants daily routine.
Materials: Participants should wear comfortable shoes and clothing
appropriate for outdoors. The program will provide water bottles and
sunscreen. Participants should also wear other sun protecting items,
such as hats and/or sunglasses.
Directions: The group will participate in an outdoor walking activity
along with leadership. After preparing for the walk (filling water bottles,
applying sunscreen, etc.), the group will walk along a scenic riding trail

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50

for 30 minutes. After a 10-minute break, the group will retreat back
towards the facility.

Activity 5
Activity: Needle In The Haystack
Purpose: The purpose of this activity is to improve upon participants
existing fine motor skills and hand-eye coordination.
Materials: The participants will each be given a small bucket filled
with hay. The bucket also will contain ten toothpicks within the hay.
This activity also requires paper and glue.
Directions: Participants will be asked to find ten toothpicks with their
buckets of hay, to promote improvement of fine motor skills. When
they have found all ten, they will be asked to create a picture on paper
using the toothpicks and glue, to promote improvement in hand-eye
coordination.

Activity 6
Activity: Giddy Up
Purpose: The purpose of this activity is to promote increased skill in
balance and mobility within participants through using a horse.
Materials: Participants will be provided with safety equipment, such
as helmets, kneepads, and shoulder-pads.

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51

Directions: With the assistance of leadership, participants will learn to


mount a horse to improve balance. Participants will also walk the horse
through an obstacle course, using reins to direct the horse. This will
help increase direction and mobility within the participants own life.

Activity 7
Activity: A-Mazement
Purpose: The purpose of this activity is to increase and improve upon
the participants existing cognition and problem-solving skills.
Materials: The required materials for this activity include paper and
pencils.
Directions: Participants will be asked to design a hypothetical
obstacle course for a horse and rider. Designs should include the use of
riding trails, as well as therapeutic horseback riding equipment like
hurdles, barrels, and bales of hay. Leadership should work with
participants to ensure creativity as well as the use of existing
knowledge from previous sessions.

Activity 8
Activity: Imagination to Reality
Purpose: The purpose of this activity is to promote participation skills
as well as independent thought process.

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52

Materials: Participants will be provided materials such as barrels,


hurdles, and bales of hay to utilize when creating a real obstacle
course.
Directions: This session requires collaborative effort from all
participants. Participants must use their designs from the previous
session, and work together to create a comprehensive design. That
design is then to be implemented using the given materials.
Leadership should act as a support system for the group, as well as
give suggestions on how to efficiently create an obstacle course within
a given time frame.

Activity 9
Activity: Best in Show
Purpose: The purpose of this activity is to promote positive self-image
and self-awareness within participants, through utilizing knowledge
gained during previous sessions.
Materials: Comfortable clothing and shoes are required for this
activity. Helmets and other safety equipment will be provided for the
activity.
Directions: This activity utilizes the obstacle course created by
participants in session 8. Participants will walk a horse through the
obstacle course one at a time. At the end of the obstacle course, they
will be given a ribbon, signifying completion of the program. This

SPECIFIC PROGRAM PLAN


session is designed to reward participants for their improvement on
and acquisition of skills.

53