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qarTveluri memkvidreoba (akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo

universitetis qarTveluri dialeqtologiis samecniero-kvleviTi


institutis perioduli samecniero Jurnali) tomi XII, gv., 88-91

eka dadiani,
maia miqautaZe

qarTul-Turquli enobriv-kulturuli
urTierTobebisaTvis imerxeulSi
(dalocva-wyevlis formulebis mixedviT)

saqarTvelos istoriuli provincia - imerxevi oTx saukuneze metia


mowyvetilia dedasaqarTvelos da Turqulenovani saxelmwifos
SemadgenlobaSi uxdeba arseboba. Turqul enobriv velSi xangrZlivi
Tanacxovrebis pirobebSi imerxeulSi dRemde SenarCunebebulia qarTuli
ena da tradiciebi, Tumca TandaTan gansxvavebul elfers iZens; xdeba
qarTuli da Turquli enebis, zogadad, kulturaTa interferencia.
sxvadasxva enis, mrwamsis, tradiciebis mqone qarTveli da Turqi xalxis
mravalsaukunovani urTierToba aisaxa ara mxolod imerxevelTa socialur
Tu eTnografiul yofaze, aramed maT metyvelebazec.
imerxeul dialeqtSi, miuxedavad Turquli enis Zlieri gavlenisa,
sakmaodaa Semonaxuli arqauli qarTuli sityvaformebi. amavdroulad
TandaTan mkvidrdeba Turquli sityvebi da gamoTqmebi. Turqulis gavlena
met-naklebad yvela doneze SeimCneva: fonetikaSi, morfologiaSi, sintaqsSi,
leqsikaSi... Turquli enobrivi elementebis moZaleba gansakuTrebiT
leqsikaSi igrZnoba; am TvalsazrisiT aRsaniSnavia qristianuli
terminologia. sarwmunoebriv cvlilebas, bunebrivia, mohyva axali
ritualebisa da maTi Sesabamisi sityva-gamoTqmebis gaCena. qristianul
leqsikas TandaTan islamTan dakavSirebuli sityvaformebi enacvleba.
bibliuri sityvebi Tu frazebi, xSir SemTxvevaSi damaxinjebuli formiT,
magram mainc dRemde cocxlobs; isini ZiriTadad swored frazeologiur
erTeulebSi gvxvdeba. zogma qarTulma sityva-gamoTqmam gansxvavebuli
Sinaarsic SeiZina, Tumca amosaval viTarebasTan formobrivi kavSiri ar
daukargavs.
zogadad, enobriv elementebs Soris SedarebiT mdgradobas
inarCuneben myari frazeologiuri erTeulebi, idiomaturi gamoTqmebi,
romlebSic naTlad Cans eris enobrivi xedva Tu cnobiereba. isini, sxva
sityvebisa Tu Tavisufali sityvaTSexamebebisagan gansxvavebiT, ucxo
formebTan urTierTobisas ufro gamZleni arian da naklebad emorCilebian
gavlenebs. amgvar gamoTqmebs miekuTvneba: locva-dalocvis, wyevla-ginebis,
ficilis, misalmeba-damSvidobebis... formulebi (l. xaWapuriZe, 2005).
am tipis gamoTqmebSi qarTul da Turqul formaTa Widili dResac
grZeldeba; konstruqciaSi gverdigverd gvxvdeba dalocvis (an wyevlis)
Sinaarsis Semcveli qarTuli da Turquli variantebi, rac qarTul-
Turqul enaTa mWidro kontaqtis maCvenebelia.
naSromSi SevexebiT qarTul-Turqul enobriv kontaqtebs imerxevelTa
qarTul metyvelebaSi gamoyenebul dalocva-wyevlis semantikis Semcvel
sityva-gamoTqmaTa mixedviT.
kvlevisas veyrdnobodiT akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universitetis
qarTveluri dialeqtologiis samecniero-kvleviTi institutis mier
(xelmZRvaneli prof. t. futkaraZe) 2006-2007 wlebSi imerxevSi (soflebi:
iveTi, bzaTa, qoqlieTi, imfxrevli, imnieTi, wyalsimeri, surevani,
daviTeTi, ziosi, bazgireTi, farnuxi...) mowyobili eqspediciis periodSi
mopovebul dialeqtur masalas; gamoyenebuli gvaqvs agreTve n. marisa (1911)
da S. futkaraZis imerxeuli teqstebi (1993).
zogadad, dalocva-wyevlis Sinaarsis gamoTqmebi diferencirebulia
asakis, naTesauri damokidebulebis, situaciis... mixedviT. maTi struqtura,
Sinaarsi imerxeulSi ZiriTadad msgavsia qarTul saliteraturo enasa da
dialeqtebSi gavrcelebuli formulebisa. xalxuri dalocvis formebSi
aucilebel komponentad warmodgenilia RmerTi (dasturdeba fonetikurad
saxecvlili "merTi" an misi sinonimebi: gamCeneli, RmerTgamCeneli...). masTan
dakavSirebuli zmna-Semasmeneli umTavresad kavSirebiTis mwkriviT
gadmoicema. iSviaTia wyvetilis forma. qarTul masalasTan erTad
dasturdeba Turquli enisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli sityvaformebi (allah,
inSallah...).
I dalocvis formulebi
imerxeveli qarTveli xSirad locavs axlobels, moyvass da usurvebs:
janmrTelobas, dRegrZelobas, xvavs:
bevri icocxle, RmerTma kargoba~ moqces; amas bevri dRe misces
RmerTma... rome moxuel da gvnaxe, mogvikiTxe, RmerTma salameToba moqces
(S. futk., 610); Cuen sanaxavad rom meicale, RmerTma sisaRe moqces! (S.
futk., 610).
sof. qoqlieTis mkvidrma, 70 wlis qalbatonma xatije demirma ase
dagvloca: "gagaxaros, Svilo, RmerTma moqces bevri dRe~, jani saRi, Temqa
yuri ugdeiT, varioRa (=yvelanair) saqmes nu iqT, varioRa insan nu
CeebiT fexSi, varioRa borjSi (=vali, gadasaxadi) nu SexvalT..."
dalocvisas xSirad usurveben gamravlebas, xvavsa da baraqas:
RmerTma gagaxaron, Svilebi moqcen... RmerTma saxlSi orfexi
gimbravlos da axorSi - oTxfexi (S. futk.); RmerTma bereqeTi micon! (S.
futk., 397).
dalocva sxvadasxva saqmianobis dros:
RmerTma huqumeTma (=mTavrobam) maamatos fuli da fara-fasi
agaRebios... RmerTma Belebi igiyuavos, Belebi (S. futk., 216).
kai muSaoba Tqvena! RmerTma bevri xarmanoba maguaswras - ase daloca
sof. manatbaSi saqmianobis procesSi, kerZod, kaloobis dros puris
mlewavebi Semoswrebulma (S. futk., 480) (sp. harman - kalooba, puris
lewva).
mgzavris dalocva:
RmerTma SvidobiT wigiyvanos, mogiyuanos; RmerTma gza-kvali
gigirCios; RmerTma SvidobiT gidigiyvanon... RmerTma gamSvidobos;
selameTiT (=sikeTe, usafrTxoeba) migiyuanos RemrTma saxlSi, selameTiT
gamcxovros iqSi (S. futk., 225).
dalocva zogadad:
RmerTma karga gamyofnos, RmerTma kargoba mogces, RmerTma kargaT
gacocxlon; RmerTma gagaxaros; RmerTma gigigonos; RmerTma mTqmeli da
damweravi sefa aRirsos (n. mari); RmerTma beTaridam (=cudi)
Sigvibralos (S. futk., 396); RmerTma jeneTi (=samoTxe) moqvces, iSiRebi
(=sinaTle) moqvces (anu: RmerTma samoTxeSi dagvamkvidros da
gagvanaTlos). dalocvis amgvar variants qristiani qarTvelebi, rogorc
wesi, micvalebulis mimarT viyenebT: RmerTma sasufeveli daumkvidros,
RmerTma gaanaTlos misi suli...
micvalebulis moxseniebisas davadastureT Turqulenovani dalocva:
alla gunani afersin! respondentma teqsti ase gviTargmna: merTma codvebi
emeqnaso (anu: Seundos, miutevoso).
dasturdeba iseTi samadlobeli frazebi, romlebic dalocvis
gamomxatvelicaa: allah razi olsun, gadmoxuel da gvnaxe, mogvikiTxe
(arab. allah razi olsun - RmerTi madlobeli gagixdeba, RmerTi gadRegrZelebs)
(S. futk., 378).
II. wyevlis formulebi
imerxeul metyvelebaSi arcTu iSviaTia wyevlis nimuSebi. im
SemTxvevaSi, "Tu insani ar uyvarT, siyvaruli ar ari, daswyevlian". aqac
konstruqcia ZiriTadad qarTulia, magaliTad:
RmerTma dagsxrukos (=dagkrunCxos), ra ijebi, ras?! (S. futk., 610);
RmerTma gagawynaros, ratom gaaCeCe (=dayare) firinji?! (S. futk., 609);
Cem insnobas (=adamianobas) rome ver xedav, RmerTma Tualebi Cegiqoros
(=dagibrmaos) (S. futk., 610); Seni uinsnoba (=araadamianoba) RmerTma
mogkiTxos (S. futk., 610)...
merTma ar migiyuanos saxSi; mexi degeces Tavze; RmerTma gawyvitos
magaTi sinsila; RmerTma dila aRar gigiTenos; RmerTma jani Sigiwuxos!
RmerTma dagxarCos (anu: RmerTma imqveynad jojoxeTis cecxlSi, mduRareSi
mogxarSos)...
RmerTma ar gagaxaros; RmerTma hkiTxos (mohkiTxos); RmerTma ori
keti Cigisos (saflavze ori sari CagirWos - roca sikvdils usurveben);
RmerTma xelebi gagixmos; RmerTma Tualebi dagiqoros (=dagibrmaos)...
(masala mogvawoda imerxevis mkvidrma SoTa jafariZem).
wyevlis semantikis Semcvel gamoTqmebSi, gansxvavebiT dalocvis
formulebisagan, iSviaTad moixsenieba alahi; mag.:
RmerTi inSalah gaafaqebs magasa am dunidama (S. futk.). e. i. RmerTi
gaaqrobs (dakargavs) mas amqveynidan. moyvanil nimuSSi RmerTi da alahi
gverdigverd ixsenieba.
wminda Turqulenovani wyevlis nimuSebi ar Segvxvedria.
amgvarad, imerxeveli qarTvelis cnobierebaSi myaria locva-dalocvisa
da wyevlis tradiciuli, RmerTis Semcveli qarTuli formulebi. amasTan,
Turqul enobriv-kulturul samyarosTan mWidro kontaqtis Sedegad
arqaul gamoTqmebs emateba alahis Semcveli muslimanuri locvebis
formulebi; muslimanTa wminda wignebSi mocemuli alahis Semcveli
locvebi myari Sesityvebebis saxiT zepir metyvelebaSi gadadis da
TandaTan dalocvis formulebSic mkvidrdeba, Tumca am ukanasknelis
xvedriTi wili SedarebiT mcirea. Turqulenovani sityva-gamoTqmebi
jerjerobiT srulfasovnad ver cvlis Sesabamis qarTul formulebs.

damowmebuli literatura

n. mari, 1911 - Марр Н.Я., Дневник поездки в Шавшетию и Кларджетию:


«Гиорги Мерчулею Житие св. Григория Хантдзтийского», с. - Петербургь, 1911.
S. futkaraZe, 1993 - S. futkaraZe, Cveneburebis qarTuli, baTumi, 1993.
S. futkaraZe, 1995 - S. futkaraZe, qarTuli enis samxrul-dasavluri
dialeqtebis Taviseburebani istoriuli tao-klarjeTisa da muhajiri
qarTvelebis metyvelebis mixedviT, sadoqtoro disertacia, Tb., 1995.
l. xaWapuriZe, 2005 - l. xaWapuriZe, bibliuri frazeologiuri
erTeulebi qarTveli marTlmadidebeli mrevlis metyvelebaSi, quTaisi,
2005.

EKA DADIANI, MAIA MIKAUTADZE

ON THE GEORGIAN-TURKISH CULTURAL RELATIONSHIPS IN IMERKHEVIAN


DIALECT
(According to blessing and curse patterns)

In spite of the strong influence of the Turkish language on the Imerkhevian dialect
the latter still preserves archaic Georgian word forms. At the same time Turkish words
and expressions have gradually been encroaching and establishing in it. Turkish language
forms are felt intensely tangible in the vocabulary; of particular interest in this respect is
the terminology related to Christian religion. Religious conversion obviously resulted in
the emergence of the new rituals with their concomitant verbal expressions. Biblical
words and phrases, although often with distorted forms, are still alive in the language,
chiefly in the phraseology units.
In general, bound phraseology units, idiomatic expressions, convey visions of the
speaking community reflected in the language forms… the struggle between the Turkish
and Georgian language forms in the blessing and curse patterns continues to these days.
Language patterns are found side by side in the parallel structures of the Georgian and
Turkish variants that can, by and large, be viewed as the consequence of the close
contacts of the Georgian and Turkish languages and of cultural interferences.
In general the structure of the blessing and curse contents conveyance are basically
analogous in Imerkhevian and the Georgian literary language and of other Georgian
dialects. The permanent component of the phrase is ghmerti (god) or its synonyms, like
gamcheneli (creator), ghmertgamcheneli (god-the-creator...). Alongside the Georgian
patterns Turkish variants (comprising Alah) are also in use; however, they are less
frequent and cannot substitute yet its Georgian parallel forms with the same degree.