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NicolAE BATACA

NicolAE BURNETE * ISTVAN


BARABAS * AURicACAZILA
NicolAE FILIP * ALEXANdRU
NACHIU * FLoRiANDAN

COMBUSTIBILI,

LUBRIFIANTI ~I

MATERIALE SPECIALE PENTRU


AUTOMOBILE
ECONOMICITATE ~I POLUARE

ALMA MATER
Cluj.,NAPOCA,200~

PRof.dR.iNq.
NicolAE BArAGA
Poof.dR.iNG. NicolAE BURNETE

* ~Ef IUCR.iNG.ISTVANBARABAS *

Pnof.dR.iNG.AURiCAcAZII..A

CoNf.dR.iNG.
NicolAEFILIP* PRof.dR.iNG.
AIEXANdRU
NAGHIU * iNG.floRiANDAN

COMBUSTIBILI, LUBRIFIANTI~I
MATERIALESPECIALEPENTRU
AUTOMOBILE

ECONOMICITATESI
, POLUARE
.

ALMAMATER
Cluj...NApOCA,
200}

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Nationale a Romaniei


Combustibili, lubrifianti, materiale speciale pentru automobile:
economicitate, poluare, / Nicolae Biitaga,Nicolae Burnete,
Istvan Barabas, ...- Cluj-Napoca:AlmaMater,2003.
Bibliogr.
ISBN 973-8397-17-5
1.Biitaga,Nicolae A.
II. Burnete, Nicolae
III. Istvan Barabas
662.75:629.33

Tipar executat la Print Art


Clui.Napoca, Str. Rahovei nr. 2
Tel. /Fax: 0264-193903

PftF~'A
#

Combustibilii $i lubrifiantii. precum $i problemele legate de economicitate $i


paluareaprodusa de motoarele cu ardere interna intereseaza un cerc foarte larg
de beneficiari, care prefera ca automobilele sa fie cat mai performante In aceasta
privinta.
Combustibilii clasici (benzina # motorina) # cei neconventionali (compu#i
arganicioxigenati, gaze Ie naturale, hidrogenul, uleiurile vegetale etc.) sunt trata/i
in lucrare sub aspectul influentei asupra formarii # arderii amesteeului atat la motaruleu aprindere prin scanteie cat # la cel cu aprindere prin comprimare. Se prezintiistarea fizica a amestecului combustibil-aer $i evolutia acestuia pe parcursul
dezvaltiiriiproceselor de lucru din motoare.
Solufiile de marire a eficientei energetice pentru amestecurile combustibil-aer
suntaxatepe

ionizarea amestecului precum # pe utilizarea unor dispozitive pentru

ultrasanareaaeestora.

Lubrifiantii se trateaza sub aspectul proprietatilor fizice, reologice, tensioactive~i termice precum $i a aditivilor folosifi pentru sporirea eficienfei uleiurilor In
funclionareamotoarelor.
Se face clasificarea uleiurilor dupa viscozitate $i tipul serviciului # se precizeaziiuleiurile multigrade cu durata lunga de utilizare.
Uleiurile pentru tran.fmisii mecanice $i automate precum $i unsorile eonsistentesuntcore/ate cu particularitatilefunctionale

ale motoarelor.

Consumul de ulei, degradarea acestuia, aprecierea degradarii lui respeetiv


regenerareauleiurilor sunt prezentate sub aspectul unor directii care trebuie dezvaltateprin cereetari ulterioare.
Eeonomicitatea motoarelor cu ardere interna este axata pe mijloacele fundamentalede marire a economicitatii atat la MAS cat # la MAC.
Se prezinta conditiile de optimizare a eonsumului de combustibil la limita
norme/orde antipoluare.
Lichidele speciale pentru exploatarea motoarelor de autovehicule se refera la
celepentruracire, la lichidele de frana

$i la electrolitiipentru acumulatoare.

-.

\,

Materialele plastice # adezivii sintetici sunt tratate sub aspectul eompozitiei


i earaeteristici/or principa/e. Se exemplifiea # lJne/epiese fabricate din materia/e
plastice.
fA materialele pentru pneuri se prezinta proprietati/e fizico-mecanice
cauciucu/ui $i unele caracteristici $iforme de cauciucuri.

ale

Se trateaza materialele ceramice # utilizarea aeestora pentru fabriearea unor


piese $i echipamente din construetia motoarelor $i autovehicu/e/or.
Poluarea produsa de motoare/e eu ardere interna cuprinde cea ehimica $i eea
sonora.
Poluarea ehimica se reJera la producerea $i combaterea poluanti/or /a geneza pentru MAS $i MAC.
Se trateaza geneza oxidu/ui de carbon, oxizi/or de azot $i hidrocarburi/or,
precum

injluenta dozajului

asupra acestor poluanti.

Reducerea poluanti/or se face prin intermediul combustibilului, prin neutra/izare in reactori termici $i eatalitici.
Geneza, masurarea $i redueerea fumu/ui este exemp/ifieata pentru motoare/e
de putere mica, mij/oeie $I mare.
Parametrii de control ai emisiilor poluante sunt corelati eu norme/e reeente
eare limiteaza po/uarea produsa de motoare/e cu ardere interna.
Se trateaza'ciclurile de incercare la poluare: ciclul Federal, ciclul Europa $i
ciclul eu 13 punete de testare. Se prezinta sistemu/ de pre/evare a probelor $i masurarea poluanti/or.
Poluarea sonora euprinde: sursele de zgomot, reglementari/e $i unele tehnici
de reducere a zgomotului la motoarele pentru autovehicule rutiere. Se face calcuful unor atenuatoare de zgomot $I apoi se prezinta traductoarele, analizoarele de
zgomot $i unele rezultate ale masurarii zgomotului.
Lucrarea se adreseaza studenti/or de fa specializari/e de Autovehicu/e rutiere
$i Automobi/e, putand fi consultata $I de a/ti studenti sau speciali$ti care au tangen/a eu motoare/e eu ardere interna respeetiv eu autovehicule/e rutiere.

Autoni

CUPRINS

USfA PRINCIPALELOR SIMBOLURI ~I ABREVIERI


1. SISTEMULTEHNIC COMPLEX
AUTOVEIDCUL COMBUSTIBIL MATERIALE
2. REZERVEDE COMBUSTIBIL (PETROL)
3. CORELATIACARACTERISTICIWR COMBUSTIBILILOR CU
PARTICULARITATILE FUNCTIONALE LA MAI
3.1. CERINTEGENERALEIMPUSE COMBUSTmILILORPENTRUMAS
3.2.INFLuENTA PROPRIETATILORCOMBUSTmILILORASUPRA
FORMARIIAMESTECULUILA MAS

3.2.].StareafizicAa amesteculuicombustibil-aer

3.2.2.Evolutia amestecului combustibil-aer


3.3. CERINTEGENERALEIMPUSE COMBUSTIBILILORPENTRUMAC
3.3.]. Starea fizicila amesteculuicombustibil+aerpentru MAC
3.3.2. Influentaproprietilplorcombustibilului
asupraformilriiamestecului
3.4. COMBUSTIBILllSTANDARDIZATI PENTRU
MAS~l MAC DIN TARA NOASTRA
3.4.1. Calitateabenzinelor standard
3.4.2. Caracteristicide calitate standard ale motorinelor
3.4.3. Tendinteactuale privind combustibiliipentru autovehicule
BmUOGRAFIE
4. COMBUSTIBILINECONVENTIONALI
4.1. COMPU~IIORGANICIOXIGENATI
4.2. GAZELENATURALE
4.3. HIDROGENUL
4.4. ULEIURIVEGETALE
4.5. SUSPENSIIDE CARBUNE iN MOTORINA
4.6. EFIClENTA ENERGETICA ~I PRETUL PENTRU
COMBUSTIBILIINECONVENTIONALI
BffiLIOGRAFIE
S. SOLUTIIDE MARIRE A EFICIENTEI ENERGETICE PENTRU
AMESTECULCOMBUSTIBIL-AER
5.1. POSmILIT

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ATI DE MAR1RE A EFICIENTEI ENERGETlCE PENTRU

~TECUL
COMBUSTIBIL-AER
5.2. IONIZAREACOMBUSTIBILULUI
5.3. IONIZAREAAMESTECULUICOMBUSTIBIL-AER

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5.4. ULTRASONAREACOMBUSTIBILULUI
5.4.1. Principalele efecte ale ultrasunetelor
5.4.2. Dispozitivede ultrasonare a amesteculuicombustibil-aer
5.5. ALIMENTAREA MOTOARELORCU ARDEREINTERNA cu
EMULSn DE COMBUSTffiIL ~I APA
"
BffiLIOGRAFIE
6. ULEIURI LUBRIFIANTE
6.1. ULEIURIDE BAZA
6.2. PROPRIETATILE ULEIURILORLUBRIFIANTE
6.2.1. Puritatea fIzica
...
6.2.2. Proprietap reologice...
6.2.3. Proprietap tensioaetive
6.2.4. Proprietati termiee..
6.2.5. Alte proprietap ale uleiurilor
6.3. ADITIVIPENTRU ULEIURI LUBRlFIANTE
6.4. ULEIURIPENTRU MOTOARECU ARDEREINTERNA
6.4.1. Clasifieareauleiurilor dupa viseozitate~itipul servieiului
6.4.2. Specifieapi ~ievaluari de uleiuri pentru diferitesolicitari
6.4.3. Vleiuri multigrade ~ieu durataiunga de utilizare
6.5. ULEIURIPENTRUTRANSMISn
6.5.1. Uleiuri pentru transmisii mecanice
6.5.2. Uleiuri pentru transmisii automate
6.6. UNSOR! CONSISTENTE
0.6.1. Proprietatiale unsorilor consistente
6.6.2. Unsori eonsistente lubrifiante ~ide protecpe antieorosiva
6.6.3. Lubrifiantisolizi ~ipaste lubrifiante
6.7. ASPECTETEHNICO-ECONOMICEPRIVIND
UTILIZAREALUBRIFIANTILOR
6.7.1. Consumul de ulei in motoarele eu ardere intema
6.7.2. Degradareauleiului in motoareleeu ardere intema
6.7.3. Regenerareauleiurilor
6.7.4. Apreciereadegradarii ~ia sehimbariiuleiurilor
BffiLIOGRAFIE
7. ECONOMICITA TEA MOTOARELOR CU ARDERE INTERNA

7.1. NOTIUNIGENERALE

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7.2. ECONOMICITATEAMOTOARELORCU
APRINDEREPRIN SCANTEIE
7.2.1. Posibilitatifundamentalede marire a eeonomicitatiila MAS
7.2.2. Alte mijloaee de marire a economicitatiiMAS
7.3. ECONOMICITATEAMOTOARELORCU APRINDERE
PRIN COMPRIMARE
7.4. OPTIMIZAREACONSUMULUIDE COMBUSTmIL iN CONDITIILE
LA LIMITA DEFINITE DE NORMELE ANTIPOLUANTE
BffiUOGRAFIE
:
8. LICHIDE SPECIALE PENTRU EXPLOATAREA AUTOVEHICULELOR
8.1. UCHIDE (FLUIDE)PENTRU RACIREAMOTOARELOR

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8.2. LICHIDEDE FRANA


8.3. ELECTROLlTIPENTRU ACUMULATOARE
BffiUOGRAFlE
9. MATERIALE PLASTICE ~I ADEZIVI SINTETICI UTILIZATI iN
cONSTRuCTIA AUTOVEHICULELOR
9.1. MATERIALEPLASTICE
9.1.1. Clasificarea~icompozitia materialelorplastice
9.1.2. Principalelecaracteristici ale materialelorplastice
9.1.3. Piese auto fabricate din mase plastice
9.2. ADEZlVISINTETICI
BffiLIOGRAFlE
10. MATERIALE PENTRU PNEURI ~I ALTE PlESE DIN CAUCIUC
10.1. PROPRIETATILE FIZICO-MECANICEALE CAUCIUCULUI
JO.2.PNEURIPENTRU AUTOVEHICULE
10.3. ALTEPlESE DE CAUCIUCDIN
CONSTRUCTIAAUTOVEHICULELOR
10.3.1.Tuburi, man~oane~icoturi de cauciuc pentru
sistemul de rAcireal autovehiculelor
10.3.2.Furtune flexibile pentru sistemulde franare hidraulic
al autovehiculelor
10.3.3.Garnituride cauciuc pentru franele hidrauliceale autovehiculelor
10.3.4.Lame de ~tergerea parbrizelorautovehiculelorrutiere
BffiLIOGRAFIE
11. MATERIALE DE FRICTIUNE PENTRU AUTOVEIDCULE
11.1.CLASIFICAREA~l COMPOZITIAMATERIALELORDE FRICTIUNE
11.2.CARACTERISTICILEPRINCIPALEALE
MATERIALELORDE FRICTIUNE
11.3.MONTAREA GARNITURILORDE FRICTIUNEPE PIESA SUPORT
BffiLIOGRAFlE
12. MATERIALE CERAMICE ~I COMPOZITE
:
12.1. MATERIALE CERAMICE
12.1.1.ProprietAplematerialelorceramice
12.1.2.Utilizareaceramicii la motoarelecu ardere intern! convenponale
12.].3. Utilizareaceramicii la echipamentelemotoarelorcu ardere intern!

12.1.4.Utilizareaceramiciiin perspectivii

D9

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12.2. MATERIALECOMPOZITE
12.2.1.ProprietAplematerialelorcompozite
12.2.2.Utilizareamaterialelor compozite la motoarelecu ardere interna
BIBLIOGRAFlE
13. POLUAREACHIMICA A MOTOARELOR CU ARDERE INTERNA
13.1. ASPECTEGENERAlE
13.2. PRODUCEREA~I COMBATEREA POLUANTILORLA
GENEZAiN MAS
13.2.1.Geneza CO ~iNO
13.2.2.Geneza hidrocarburilor(CmHn)

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13.2.3.Influenta dozajului asupra concentratieipoluanplor


in gazele de evacuare
13.2.4.Posibilitati de funcponare cu dozaje sarace prin
modificarea carburatorului
13.2.5.Reducerea neuniformitapi dozajului
13.2.6.Recircularea gazelor de ardere
13.3. GENEZA ~I COMBATEREAPOLUANTILORiN MAC
13.3.1.Geneza fumului
13.3.2.Geneza NOx.CO. Cn,Hn.aldehidelor.S02 ~ia
produ~iIorodoranp..
13.3.3.Influenta unor factori asupra genezei poluanplorin MAC
13.4. REDUCEREAPOLUANfILOR EMI~I DE MAC
PRIN INTERMEDruL COMBUSTIBILULUI
13.4.1.Benzine ~imotorine reformulate
13.5. REDUCEREAPOLUANTILORPRIN NEUTRALIZAREALOR
13.5.1.Neutralizarea poluantilorprin reactori termici
13.5.2.Neutralizarea poluantilorprin reactori catalitici
13.5.3.Aspecte constructive ~ide exploatarea catalizatorilor
13.5.4.Solupi recente pentru reducerea poluiiriimediuluiambiant
de clltre motoarele cu ardere intemii
13.5.5.Parametrii de control ai emisiilorpoluante
13.6. DETERMINAREAEMISm..ORPOLUANTE
.13.6.1. Aparatura utilizata pentru determinareaemisiilorpoluante
BIBUOGRAFIE
14. POLUAREA SONORA A MOTOARELOR CU ARDERE INTERNA
14.1. PERCEPEREAZGOMOTULUI ~I A VIBRA"fIlLOR.
ACTfUNEA ~I EFECTELE LOR
14.1.1.Perceperea zgomotului ~ia vibratiilor
14.1.2.Acpunea ~iefectele zgomotului~ia vibrapilor
14.2. SURSE DE ZGOMOT ALE MOTOARELORCU ARDEREINTERNA
14.3. REGLEMENTARIPRIVINDZGOMOTUL ADMISLA
MDLOACELEDE TRANSPORT
14.4. TEHNICI DE REDUCERE A ZGOMOTULUILA MAI
14.4.1.Reducerea globalii
14.4.2.Reducerea prin intervenpe locala
14.5. CALCULULATENUATOARELORDE ZGOMOT
14.6. MASURAREAZGOMOTULUIPRODUSDE
MDLOACELEDE TRANSPORT
14.6.1.Traductoare ~ianalizoare de zgomot
14.6.2.Condipile de miisurare.azgomotului
14.6.3.Rezultatele miisuriiriizgomotului
BIBLIOGRAFIE

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

LISTOF MAIN SYMBOLS AND ABREVIATIONS


1. THECAR-FUELS-MATERIALS COMPLEX SYSTEM
2. FUELRESOURCES
3. THECORRELATION OF THE FUEL CHARACTERISTICS
WITHTHE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE'S
FUNCTIONINGPARTICULARITIES
3.1. GENERALREQUIREMENTSOF THE PETROLENGINEFUELS
3.2. THE FUELPROPERTIES INFLUENCEON THE
MIXTUREFORMATION IN THE DIESEL ENGINE CASE
3.2.1.The fuel-air mixture physical state
3.2.2.The fuel-air mixture evolution
3.3. GENERALREQUIREMENTS OF THE FUELS
3.3.1.The fuel-air mixture in the physical state case
3.3.2.The influenceof the fuel's parameterson the mixtureformation
3.4. STANDARDIZEDFUELS FOR MAC AND MASIN ROMANIA
3.4.1.The standard gasolines quality
3.4.2.The gas oils standard quality characteristics
3.4.3.The automotivefuels present tendencies
Literature
4. NONCONVENTIONAL FUELS
4.1. OXIDIZEDORGANIC COMPOUNDS
4.2. NATURALGASES
4.3. HYDROGEN
4.4. VEGEfABLEOILS
4.5. CARBONSUSPENSIONSIN GAS OIL
4.6. THE ENERGETICALEFFICIENCYAND THE COST OF THE
NON CONVENTIONALFUELS
Literature
:
5. THEIMPROVEMENT SOLUTIONS OF THE
AIR-FUELMIXTURE ENERGETICAL EFFICIENCY
5.1. THE IMPROVEMENTPOSSffiILITIESOF THE
AIR-FUELMIXTURE ENERGETICALEFFICIENCY
5.2. THE FUEL IONIZATION
5.3. THE AIR-FUELMIXTURE IONIZATION
5.4. THE FUELULTRASONATION

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5.4.1. The ultrasoundsmain effects


5.4.2. The fuel ultrasonationdevices
5.5. INTERNALCOMBUSTIONENGINE ALIMENTATIONWITH
FUEL-WATER..EMULSION
Litera.ture

6. LUBRICATINGOILS

6.1. BASIS OILS


...
6.2. THE LUBRICATINGOILS PROPERTIES
6.2.1. Physical purity
6.2.2. Reological properties
...
6.2.3. Tensioactiveproperties
6.2.4. Thermal properties
6.2.5. Other properties for the lubrificatingoils
6.3. ADDITIVESFOR THE LUBRICATINGOILS
6.4. OILSFOR INTERNALCOMBUSTIONENGINES
6.4.1. The viscosityand working type oils classification
6.4.2. The specificationsand the oil evaluationsfor different loads
6.4.3. Multigrade and long-life oils
6.5. OILSFOR TRANSMISSION
6.5.1. Mechanical transmissionsoils
6.5.2. Automatictransmissionsoils
6.6. CONSISTENTGREASES
(5.6.1.The consistentgreases properties
6.6.2. Lubricant and anticorrodantconsistentgreases
6.6.3. Solid lubricantsand lubricatingpastes
6.7. TECHNICALAND ECONOMICALASPECTSOF THE
LUBRICANTSUSE ...
6.7.1. The oil consumption in the internalcombustionengines
6.7.2. The oil degradation in the internalcombustionengines
6.7.3. The oils regeneration
6.7.4. The degradation and of the oil changeestimation
Literature
7. THE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES ECONOMICITY
7.1. GENERALNOTIONS
7.2. THE PETROL ENGINE ECONOMICITY
7.2.1. The main possibilitiesfor the
petrol engine economicityimprovement
7.2.2. Other ways for the petrol engine economicityimprovement
7.3. THE DIESEL ENGINE ECONOMICITY
7.4. FUELCONSUMPTIONOPTIMIZATIONAT THE
ANTI-POLLUTIONREGULATION'S LIMITS
Literature
8. SPECIAL LIQUIDS FOR THE
AUTOMOTIVE ENGINES EXPLOITATION
8.1. ENGINECOOLING FLUIDS
8.2. BRAKEFLUIDS
,

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I
803.BATTERYELECTROLYTES
Literature
9. PLASTICMATERIALS AND SYNTHETIC ADHESIVES IN THE
AUTOMOTIVESCONSTRUCTION
9.1.THEPLASTICMATERIALS
9.1.1. The plastic materials classificationand composition
9.1.2. The plastic materials main characteristics
9.1.3. Automotivepieces made of plastic materials
9.2. SYNTHETICADHESIVES
Literature
10.TIREMATERIALS AND OTHER RUBBER PIECES
10.1.PHYSICALAND MECHANICALPROPERTIESOF THE RUBBER
10.2.AUTOMOTIVETIRES
10.3.OTHERPIECES MADE OF RUBBER
.

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10.3.1.Tubes,sleevesandrubberelbowsforthe

cooling system of automobiles


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10.3.2.Flexible hoses for the hydraulic break system of automobiles
176
10.3.3.Rubber packing for the hydraulic breaks of automobiles
177
10.3.4.Wiping blades for the screen of automobiles
179
Literature
180
11.FRICTIONMATERIALS FOR THE AUTOMOBILES
181
11.1.THEFRICTIONMATERIALSCLASSIFICATIONAND COMPOSITION..182
11.2.THE FRICTIONMATERIALS' MAIN CHARACTERISTICS
184
llo3.ASSEMBLINGOF FRICTION PACKINGON THE SUPPORTPIECE
186
Literature
189
12.CERAMICMATERIALS AND COMPOSITE
190
12.1.CERAMICMATERIALS
...
190
12.1.1.The ceramic materials' properties
190
12.1.2.The ceramics use in the conventional
internal combustionengines
195
12.1.3. The ceramics use in the internal
combustionengine'sequipment
197
12.1.4.The ceramics use in the future
198
12.2.COMPOSITESMATERIALS
198
12.2.1.The composite materials' properties
200
12.2.2.The compositematerials use in the
internal combustion engines
204
Literature
......
207
13.THEINTERl'lAL COMBUSTION ENGINES CHEMICAL POLLUTION
208
13.1.THE INTERNALPOlLUTION GENERALASPECTS
208
131. THE POlLUTANTS PRODUCTIONIN THE
PETROLENGINE AND THEIR GENESISCONTROL
209
13.2.1.The CO and No genesis
209
13.2.2.The hydrocarbons (CmHn)genesis
214
13.2.3.The pollutant's concentrationdosagesinfluence
in the exhaust gases
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11

13.2.4. The possibilitiesoffunctioning with lean dosages


modifying the carburetor
13.2.5. The non-uniformityreduction dosage
13.2.6. The exhaust gas recirculation
13.3. THE POLLUTANTS GENESIS AND CONTROL
IN TIfE DIESEL ENGINE
13.3.1. The smoke generation
13.3.2.The NOx,CO, CmHn,adhesives, S02 and odorantproducts genesis
13.3.3.The influence of some factors on the
pollutant genesis in Diesel engine
13.4. THE POLLUTANTSREDUCTIONWITHTIfE FUEL
13.4.1. Refonnulated gasolines and gas oils
13.5. THE REDUCTION OF TIfE POLLUTANTSWITH
THEIR NEUTRALIZATION
13.5.1. The pollutants neutralization withthermal converters
13.5.2. The pollutants neutralizationwithcatalytic converters
13.5.3. Aspects concerning the catalyticconverters
constructionand exploitation
13.5.4. Recent solutions
13.5.5. The control parametersof the emissions
13.6. TIfE POLLUTANTS EMISSIONSDETERMINATION
13.6.1. The used devices
Literat\lre
:...
14. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES ACOUSTIC POLLUTION
14.1. NOISE AND VIBRATION PERCEPTION.
THEIR AcrION AND EFFECTS
14.1.1. The noise and vibrations perception
14.1.2. The noise and vibrations action and effects
14.2. IN TIfE INTERNALCOMBUSTIONENGINESNOISE SOURCES
14.3. REGULATIONS CONCERNINGTHE NOISELIMIT IN THE
TRANSPORTATIONVEHICLES
14.4. NOISE REDUCTION METHODS AT THE AUTOMOBILES
14.4.1. Global reduction
14.4.2. Local reduction
14.5. THE SILENCERSCALCULUS
14.6. THE TRANSPORT VEHICLESNOISE MEASUREMENT
14.6.1. Noise transducers and analyzers
14.6.2.The noise measurementconditions
:
14.6.3.The noise measurementresults
Literature...

12

219
221
223
224
224
227
228
235
235
235
235
239
240
242
247
248
250
262
263
263
263
267
276
280
282
283
286
295
298
298
308
312
314

ABSTRACT

The fuels and the lubricants. as well as the problems concerning the
economicityand the pollution of internal combustion engines regard a great numberof users, which prefer performant vehicles from this point of view.
The classic fuels (gasoline and diesel oil) and those non-conventionals (organic-oxidecomplexes, natural gases, hydrogen, vegetable oils, etc.) are treated
regardingthe aspects of mixture formation and burning, at the spark ignition engine as well as

at the Diesel engine. There are presented the physical state of the

fuel-airmixture and its evolution during the engine's processes.


The solutions for the improvement of the energetical efficiency of the fuel-air
mixturesare pointed on the mixture ionization and to the use of some devices to
ultrasonatethis mixture too.
The lubricants are treated under the aspects of their physical, reological. tensioactivand thermal properties. The additives used for the improvement of the oil's
efficiencyalso are treated.

The oils are grouped accordingly to their viscosity and the type of service and
therearepresentedthe multigrade oils, with a

long term of life.

The oils used in the hydraulic and mechanical transmissions and the consistentgreases are correlated with the functioning parameters of the engines.
The oil consumption, its degradation, the degree of this degradation and the
oil's regeneration are presented under the aspects concerning the directions of
laterresearches.
The economicity of internal combustion engines is pointed on the basic methods
for improving the spark ignition engine and the compression ignition engine
economicity.
There are presented the conditions
atthe limits of anti-pollution norms.

of the optimization

of the fuel consumption

The special liquids used in the vehicles engines cover the area of the cooling
andbraking fluids. and ,the electrolyte for the batteries.

13

-The plastic materials and synthetic adhesives are treated under the aspect of
their structure and their main characteristics. There are given some examples for
pieces made of plastic materials.
At the materials for the tires there are presented the physical and mechanical
properties of the rubber and some of its characteristics and shapes.
There are treated the ceramic materials and their use in some parts of the engines and automotive vehicles.
The pollution of the internal combustion engines includes the chemical and
acoustic pollution.
The chemical pollution refers to the pollutants production and elimination.
There are treated the carbon oxide, the nitrogen oxide and the hydrocarbons
genesys as well as their dependence with the airjuel ratio.
The pollutants are reduced using fuels with special characteristics and using
thennal and catalytic converters.
The origin, the measurement and the diminution of the smoke is illustrated for

the low, medium and high power engines.

The pollutants control parameters are correlated with the recent nonns,
which limit the pollution of the internal combustion engines.
There are treated the pollution test cycles: the Federal cycle, the European
cycle and the cycle with 13 test points. There are presented the drawing-off of the
specimens and the measurement of the pollutants.
.

The acoustic pollution includes: the noise sources, the regulations and some
noise reduction methods for the automotive vehicle's engines. There are made calculations for some silencers. Also, the transducers, the sound analyzers and some
results in noise measurement there are presented.
This book is dedicated to the students from the Automotive Engineering Department. It could be used also by other students and specialists, whom work is
related to the internal combustion engines or the automobiles.

14

Lista principalelor simboluri ~i abrevieri


A

c
J

I-

aria suprafetei,,~g,
tr~e de gaze;atenuare

viteza sunetului;p
ciUduraspecific1i
eonsumspecific efectiv
de eombustibil

"~

concentratie

(]a

eonsumde aer~"

~,

'~,

I-

',w

.~

consumorarde

,gr

eombustibil~,

grad de rotape arbore cotit


presiune

punct mon superior

punet mon inferior


e1ildura

c1ildurapierdutAprin

"'!#,,

hidrocarburi

sistemul de rncire

1-

rk'

gradient de vitez1i

saureopanta

t()

oxid de carbon
bioxid de carbon

D'
t
'F

diametrulcilindrului
tTeeventa
deoscilatie
fortA

In

M~C

I-

IS:'

nominal1i

ciildur1i
latenta
de

,,-

capacitate a electric1i

L. ,IiI
M,

"F&

ft.

vapori~e

'

"

num1iru1
Mach

cursapistonului
temperatura,in K

temperatura, in C

'.'f

tensiuneaelectric1i

'

,I!

motor cu aprindere prin

raza
rezistentaintem1i

.,
,~

masa~,

't'

unitati
Bosch

,
~I '

u~itap Hartridge

. -

Ylteza

volum

comprimare

MASI -

motoreuaprindereprin.ki~
scanteie

; ",1;

\{g

mi~carea gazelor

owr

:-.

turape

tAria sunetului

It'

N
NOs -

oxizi deazot

- -""if;r.f

-.

AIf3tieful,gr~;
.., 1$..
",..
.
~
~
t
- rapondecomprimare
tj
- Yiscozitate
dinamic1i

unghi de rotatie

"
...
~.,,;p

vitezadeinaintareaa
~I

autovehieulului

viteza de reactie

indicele de viscozitate

energiaacustic1i

~tl~~-.r:J ~# ~~ ~
.
I5V
-..:'_ ~
viscozitate cinematicA
densitate

;;1f,J%~,
';,au;

-.

.....

arbore cotit

tensiune, timp
sarcina

coeficient de exces de aer,


lungime de und1i

viteza unghiulara de rotatie


a arborelui cotit

15

List of symbols and abreviations

surface area, gas block,


attenuation
sound velocity,
specific heat
fuel specific consumption
concentration
air consumption
fuel consumption
hydrocarbons
carbon oxide
carbon dioxide
cylinder diameter
vibration frecvency
force
nominal electrical capacity
boiling heat
mass
Mach number
compression ignition
engine
spark ignition engine
gas movement
number of revolutions
sound strength
nitrogen oxides

16

crankshaft rotation degree

pressure
upper dead center
lower dead center
heat
heat lost in the
cooling system
velocity gradient
radius
internal resistance
stroke
temperature, K
temperature, C
voltage
Bosch units
Hartridge units
speed
volume
vehicle's speed
reaction speed
acoustic energy
viscosity number

compression ratio
dynamic viscosity
crankshaft
rotation angle

kinetic viscosity
density
strain, time
load

air-fuel ratio, wavelength

crankshaftangular speed

CAPITOLUL
1

SIS'fEJ\AUt
'rEHi'UCCOMPLEX
AU'fOVEa-UtUl- COJ\AaUS'flBll- MAJERIAtE
Problemele ehimotologiee" prineipale se analizeaza prin intermediul unui
sistem<,:U
trei elemente: motor (autovehieul) - eombustibil
materiale (Iubrifiant
etc.) sau a unui sistem eu patru elemente: motor (autovehieul) - eombustibil lubrifiant- exploatare [1, 2, 3].
Problemele chimotologice secundare se refera la necesitatea modificarii eali!Apimaterialelor de exploatare auto, datorita urmatoarelor cauze:
. tehnice- legatede imbunatatireafiabilitiitii~idurabilitiipiautovehiculelor;

economice

.
.
.

energetice- pentru reducerea consumului de produse ~ia maririi resurselor;


ecologice- in scopul reducerii toxicitapi produsului ~ipoluarii mediului ambiant;
internationale - pentru punerea de acord a calitAtii materialelor de exploatare
autoell normele intemationale.

- in scopulscaderiicosturilorproduselorpetroliere;

Bibliografie
1. BATAGA,N., BURNETE, N.: Motoare cu ardere intern". Vol. I ~i II. Cluj-Napoca,
UTCN,1995.
2. MARlNCA~,D. ~.a.: Combustibili, lubrifianfi # materiale speciale pentru automobile.Bucure~ti,Editura Didacticii~iPedagogica, 1983.
3. AADULESCU, G.A., PETRE, I.: Combustibili. uleiuri ~i exploatarea autovehiculelor.Bucure~ti,Editura Tehnica, 1986.
, Chimotologiaeste tiinta care studiaza teoria ~i practica utilizarii rationale a combustibililor ~imaterialelor lubrifiante la motoare, in stransii dependentii cu producpa materialelor
deexplpatare auto.

17

.....

CAPITOLUL 2

REZERVE
DE COJ'i\BUS'f8aat
tPE'fROU

Confonn ultimelor evalum-i, rezervele certe de petrol sunt de 1053 miliarde de


barili., dintre care 40-45 % in platforme marine [1, 2].
La nivelul actual de exploatare, rezervele de petrol pot acoperi necesarul omenirii pentru circa 44 de ani. Potrlvit statisticilor, rezerveie mondiale de petrol sunt
repartizate dupa cum unneaza:
Orientul Mijlociu - 66,4 %;
America
-15,5 %;
Europa de Vest
Europa de Est
celelalte state

- 1,4 %;
- 5,7 %;
- 11 %.

La nivelul anilor '90 producpa ~i consumul mondial de petrol erau de 3,1 miliarde de tone pe an.
Petrolul provine din unnatoarele zone geografice:
tfu'ile din OPEC - 37% (Irak 7%, Kuweit, Algeria, Arabia Saudita,
Emiratele Arabe Unite, Venezuela);
tacile fostei URSS, China ~iEuropa de Est - 25%;
tarile occidentale industrializate - 23%;
alte tan in curs de dezvoltare - 15%.
Evolutia necesarului de petrol pe plan mondial rezulta din tabelul 2.1.

1 baril de petrol

= 158,98 litri.