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Power Supply Project

By

Mehulkumar Chaudhari

Course Code: CAD 1133


Course Name: CAD for Electronics

Date: 17/03/2015

Submitted to: Professor Lois Bertrand

To: Professor Lois Bertrand


From: (Mehulkumar Chaudhari
Date: 3/17/2015
Re: Power Supply
I am pleased to submit this report in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the CAD1133CAD for
Electronics course in the ElectronicsEngineering Technician program at Durham College. The report
details the design, construction and testing of an electronics workbench power supply.
The attached report is of my own creation. It includes the work of others used by permission and
properly attributed, and I have reviewed its entire contents before submitting it for grading. I
understand what is meant by the terms "academic integrity" and "plagiarism" and guarantee that I am
abiding by Durham College's Academic Integrity Policy #ACAD-101.
Sincerely,
(Signature of student)
Mehulkumar Kanubhai Chaudhari

Abstract
This project is about building the variable voltage regulated power supply by using different software
and components like Multisim, Eagle. The circuit deals with changing the Alternating current to Direct
current by using transformer and regulated diodes circuit. By using three different regulators we will
get a constant 5v voltage and 0-15 variable voltages.
The basic schematic is done in Multisim and after checking the whole circuit, the same circuit is
designed again in Eagle schematic by using Eagle software. PCB layout is designed and checked in
eagle and the final layout is fabricated on the PCB. But still some work required to complete power
supply project for example soldering, testing etc. after finishing all this it will ready to use.

Acknowledgements
I would like to express my special appreciation and thanks to my lab Professor Mr. Louis Bertrand, you
have been a tremendous mentor for me. I would like to thank you for helping me in the lab. Your help
on both project and labs have been priceless. And also because of creating report templates, which is
very useful to write a report. I would also like to thank my classmates and friends who helped me in
labs and classes. And also, dear Dave, whose one which helped me a lot to design a PCB.
A special thanks to my family. Words cannot express how grateful I am to my mother, father, and my
brother, my family for all of the sacrifices that youve made on my behalf. Your prayer for me was
what sustained me thus far. I would also like to thank all of my friends (Yash patel, Hardik Patel) who
supported me in writing, and incented me to strive towards my goal.

Contents
ABSTRACT..................................................................................................................................................III
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.........................................................................................................................IV
CONTENTS...................................................................................................................................................V
LIST OF FIGURES.....................................................................................................................................VI
1

INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................................1

1.1

THE POWER SUPPLY PROJECT................................................................................1

1.2

PURPOSE OF A POWER SUPPLY...............................................................................1

1.3

OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT.................................................................................2

1.4

LAYOUT OF REPORT...............................................................................................2

DESIGN AND THEORY OF OPERATION.....................................................................................3

2.1

DRAFT SCHEMATIC.................................................................................................3

2.2

CIRCUIT SIMULATION SOFTWARE...........................................................................6

2.3

PRIMARY CIRCUIT AND TRANSFORMER.................................................................6

2.4

FIXED 5V REGULATOR.........................................................................................11

2.5

VARIABLE POSITIVE REGULATOR.........................................................................13

2.6

TRACKING NEGATIVE REGULATOR........................................................................13

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD.........................................................................................................15

3.1

PCB DESIGN SOFTWARE (EAGLE).......................................................................15

3.2

COMPONENTS AND LIBRARIES.............................................................................16

3.3

SCHEMATIC CAPTURE...........................................................................................18

3.4

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD PRODUCTION..............................................................18

WORKS CITED...........................................................................................................................................22

List of Figures

Figure 2.1 Half schematic of power supply.........................................................................3


Figure 2.2: : Initial schematic circuit...................................................................................4
Figure 2.3: Power supply circuit in Multisim......................................................................5
Figure 2.4: Power supply circuit output result displayed in Oscilloscope..........................5
Figure 2.5: full wave rectifier without capacitor.................................................................7
Figure 2.6: Oscilloscope waveform when no capacitor connected at output......................8
Figure 2.7: Full wave rectifier with capacitor.....................................................................9
Figure 2.8: Oscilloscope result when capacitor connected at output.................................10
Figure 2.9: Fixed 5V regulator..........................................................................................12
Figure 2.10: Fixed 5V shows on Oscilloscope.................................................................12
Figure. 2-13: Functional block detail for the negative voltage regulator..........................14
Figure 3.1: Schematic circuit in eagle...............................................................................15
Figure 3.2:Board file of eagle schematic...........................................................................16
Figure 3.3: Bottom view of PCB.......................................................................................17
Figure 3.4: Schematic circuit bottom in eagle...................................................................18

Introduction

1.1 The Power Supply Project


This project will help to students learn about the fundamentals of Multisim, PCB designing use of the
Eagle software, characteristics of electronics for example how capacitor block AC supply, resistors
resist the flow of current, work of ICs etc. In addition, it will gave us some of information about how
to 120VAC signals converts into the 5VDC at the output of 7805 IC which we already learnt in the
Multisim but also we will see it at the end of my power supply box which includes digital display as
well.

1.2 Purpose of a Power Supply


Power supply is an Electronic device which supply power to an electrical load. In addition, the main
function is to convert one form of energy to another form of energy. Next, every power supply must
obtain energy from main outlet and then its transfer to the load, during this process energy consumes,
from an energy source. Its used during performing practical in lab, at home we required 120VAC so
we can take it from big source of power means from 3-phase line convert it to 120VAC which is used at
home. It is important in the study of electronics because there are different types of power supply
available which we can use as per our requirement for example in the lab we work with lower voltage
(5V-15V), household we need 120VAC etc.
A transformer is used in power supply to step down the AC voltage to convert in DC voltage. In
addition, during that time step down voltage goes to the input of the bridge rectifier circuit which is
basically of diodes. This process is known as Rectification. After that we can get DC voltage. And we
can use it for any purpose where DC voltage need. If there is no transformer at the starting we cannot
step down the voltage.

1.3 Objectives of the Project


The main objectives of this project are:
9

(i) To Design a PCB layout design without errors using Eagle software.
(ii)

To Produce a Printed Circuit Board with all holes drilled and all components soldered ideally, and

(iii) To produce three regulated voltage sources from the power supply board.
First two objective finished and Im working on creating a metal box and later I will do
soldering of components on the PCB board.

1.4 Layout of Report


The report is divided into six sections. Chapter 1 contains introductory material pertaining to
the study. Chapter 2 covers the creation of the schematic diagram. Chapter 3 is about PCB
layout. Chapter 4 is about power supply box. Chapter 5 is on final assembly and testing.
Finally, Chapter 6 concludes the work and suggests areas for future investigations.

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Design and Theory of Operation

This section deals with the step by step operations done in schematic drawing and how the power
supply circuit works. The whole circuit is tested first by using Multisim software.

2.1 Draft Schematic


The initial schematic circuit is shows in below figure, and it is not completed circuit.

Figure 2.1 Half schematic of power supply


This section is not complete circuit of the power supply, there are some missing parts which is not
displayed on it. In addition, it's not expanded circuit so you don't have complete idea about the circuit.
And so, if we want to design complete power supply circuit following circuit needed for that, which is
very useful. But, we can get some overview so it should help us to next designing step.

11

Figure 2.2: : Initial schematic circuit


To complete the circuit, some missing components values must be added. Coming from the left
side of the circuit, capacitor C1 and C2 values not mentioned above but it actual value are 2200F.
Resistors R8 which have 220 placed next after fixed 5V regulator. This section have five functional
block diagram and it's interconnected as well. In addition, each have their own inputs and output which
are internally interconnected with each other. Final circuit is shown in below figure:

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XSC1
Tektronix
P
G

VPOS

FIXED5V

SW1

F1

REG1
LM7805CT

0.5A

Key = Space

AM1

+
-

0.078

D1
1N4004GP

C1
2200F
+

VM1
+
-

T1

COMMON

PH1-

C5
10F

D10
1N4004GP

5.005

RL
100

VM3
+

13.948

VM4

LINE
VREG
VOLTAGE

D2
1N4004GP

VM2
V1
120Vrms
60Hz
0

1 2 3 4

V
-

18.687

REG2
LM117HVH

VPOS

Vin

119.984 V

VARPOS

VARPOS

Vout

VM6

ADJ

R2
120

4.3 PH2
T1 Sec. = 28V(RMS)

D3
1N4004GP

D4
1N4004GP

D6
1N4004GP

C2
2200F

VNEG

R5
10k

VPOS

D5
1N5232B

680

R1

R3

R4
1k

VNEG

U5
3

VM5

741

R6
10k

R7
120
VNEG

16.117

D8
1N4004GP

1.5k 100 %
Key=A

D7
1N4004GP

VARPOS

C3
10F

REF
VIN VOUT

C4
10F

D9
1N4004GP
VARNEG

VREF

REG3
LM337

-16.113

Durham College
School of Science & Engineering Technology
Oshawa, ON
http://durhamcollege.ca
Title:

CAD1133 Winter 2015 COMPLETE Rev A

Designed by:

L. BERTRAND

Desc.: CAD1133 Winter 2015 COMPLETE Rev A

Document No:

Revision: A

Checked by:

Date: 2015-03-16

Approved by:

Sheet

of

Size:

Figure 2.3: Power supply circuit in Multisim


Source: Designed by Professor Louis Bertrand

Figure 2.4: Power supply circuit output result displayed in Oscilloscope


The circuit is split into 3 parts for analysis(Figure:2.1).
1. The first part is AC circuit, which is left side of the board.
2. The middle part is PCB shown in a rectangular box is the initial schematic
13

3. The last one is the DC output voltage at the right side of the schematic.
The 120V AC, 60 Hz source voltage is given through a fuse and switch to a step down transformer
which gives a 28V secondary voltage to the 3 inputs of PCB, the three regulators in the PCB produces
DC as the output. LM7805 produces a constant 5V DC and LM317 and LM337 produce a positive and
negative regulated voltage of 0-15V, respectively. A LED is placed at the right side of the circuit to saw
that the board is working correctly.

2.2 Circuit Simulation Software


Main function of the Power supply is to convert AC to DC. As I mentioned above the first section of it
is AC section which transferred through a step down transformer and the secondary voltage is given to
full wave rectifier which converts AC to pulsating DC.
Then, it passed through filtering capacitors. By using the three regulators we get a constant 5V voltage
from LM7805 and variable voltages of 0-15V both positive and negative from the other two regulators.

2.3 Primary Circuit and Transformer


1. AC section:
Line cord/Line voltage: Line voltage have 120VAC which is supplied to the primary side of the
transformer.
Fuse: Fuse is a type of low resistance device that acts as a device to provide over current protection to
our circuit. So, there is less chance of circuit damage due to fuse.
Switch: Switch is used as general switch purpose like ON/OFF means if switch is closed power goes to
our circuit otherwise not.
Transformer: There are various types of transformer available but here we used step-down
transformer and it function have to convert 120VAC to 28VAC.

1. Full wave rectifier and filter


14

XSC1

U1
AC 10MOhm

Ext Trig
+
_
B

A
+

+
-

119.665 V

+
-

SW1

0.5A
V1
120Vrms
60Hz
0

13.913

D1
1N4004GP

Key = Space

F1

U2
AC 10MOhm

RL
1000
T1

D2
1N4004GP

4.3
T1 Sec. = 28V(RMS)

Mehulkumar Chaudhari
100572759
Tuesday/ 4:10PM-6:00PM
2015-01-06
AC and Rectifier

Figure 2.5: full wave rectifier without capacitor

15

Figure 2.6: Oscilloscope waveform when no capacitor connected at output

16

XSC1

U1
AC 10MOhm

Ext Trig
+
_
B

A
+

+
-

120.115 V

+
-

SW1

0.5A
V1
120Vrms
60Hz
0

13.966

D1
C1
2200F

1N4004GP

Key = Space

F1

U2
AC 10MOhm

RL
1000
T1

D2
1N4004GP

4.3
T1 Sec. = 28V(RMS)

Mehulkumar Chaudhari
100572759
Tuesday/ 4:10PM-6:00PM
2015-01-06
AC and Rectifier

Figure 2.7: Full wave rectifier with capacitor

17

Figure 2.8: Oscilloscope result when capacitor connected at output

Full wave rectifier is a circuit, which converts an ac voltage into a pulsating


dc voltage using both half cycles of the applied ac voltage.
The full wave rectifier circuits consists of two diodes, here D1 and D2,
connected to a load resistor RL (1000ohms). When diode D1 is positive with
respect to diode D2, diode D1 conducts in the forward bias and diodes D2
goes in reverse bias. The current flowing through the load resistor is the
same direction as before. After that, diode D2 is positive with respect to
diode D1, diode D2 conducts in the forward bias and diode D2 goes in
reverse bias.
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Primary Side:
VPP= 2*1.414 Vrms=339.36V
Vp=VPP/2=169.68V
Turns ratio=120 Vrms /20 Vrms=4.28
Maximum input power into the power supply(Limited by fuse)=0.5A*120V=60W
Secondary side: (divide by 2 because of we have centre-tap transformer)
VPP= (2*1.414 Vrms)/2=79.18V/2=39.59
Vp=( VPP/2)/2=39.59/4=9.9V
Peak value of the rectifier DC waveform=39.59/2=19.795V

2.4 Fixed 5V Regulator


We also used IC(Integrated circuit) to produce voltage regulators. One advantage of the IC voltage
regulators is that properties like thermal compensation, short circuit protection and surge current
protection can be built into device. There are various different kind of voltage regulators available but
we used IC 7805 for our circuit. It is a three terminal device with terminal labelled as input, output,and
GND. It provides a fixed 5V between o/p and GND.
Following specification of 7805:
Output current up to 1A
Output voltage: 5V
Thermal overload protection
Output transistor Safe operating Area protection
The regulator is of course an integrated circuit that includes many tiny components all packed onto a
microchip. These components work together to achieve the goal of producing the desired output voltage,
relative to the com pin, regardless of what happens to the load.
Since, the LED appears in parallel with the load at the output of the 7805, we will discuss it at this time.
The LED is of course installed on the front panel of the power supply because we can check use of
whether power On or OFF. The LED is in series with the resistor R8 between the output of the 7805 and
common. Whenever power is on and there is 5 volts at the top of the resistor R8 and thus current flows
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through R8 and then the LED to common. The resistor acts as a current limiting device without which it
would be impossible to produce the required 5 volts at the output of the 7805.

Figure 2.9: Fixed 5V regulator

Figure 2.10: Fixed 5V shows on Oscilloscope

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2.5 Variable positive regulator


Positive Variable Regulator Circuit
(LM317 or LM117)
U2
This part of the circuit producesLM7805CT
a positive regulated output, likeU3the 7805, but the voltage is
LINE

DC 10MOhm

5.003

end in the labelled enclosed area. They include10F


the LM177HVH,
diodes D6,D7and D3, resistors
Ext Trig
+
_

R3, R2 (Potentiometer) and R1, and capacitor C3.


B

U1
LM117HVH

1N4001GP 1N4001GP
D1
D2

F1

5A

1N4001GP

VREG

D8
variable between 0 andXSC1
15V. TheVOLTAGE
illustration
below
shows
the
components that contribute to this
COMMON
+
C3

SW1
Key = Space

1
0Vrms
Hz

Vin

C1
2200F

T1

Vout
ADJ

U5
R1
DC 10MOhm
120
+
-

1.17

C2
10F

1N4001GP
D3

U4
DC 10MOhm

+
-

4.285
D6
1N4004GP
D4
1N4001GP

U7
DC 10MOhm
1N4001GP
+
D5

-0.699

D7
1N4004GP

16.565

R2
1.5k
Key=A
100 %
U6
DC 10MOhm
+
-

14.697

R3
1k

Figure.2-12: Positive variable voltage regulators


The LM317 (or LM 117) is variable positive voltage regulator which regulates the positive output
between 0-15VDC. The o/p is adjusted by the voltage divider of R1 and the potentiometer R2. As we
learned in class, negative bias circuit D6-D7-R3 provides a -1.4V bias voltage to the negative side of
R2. And so, its cancel out the +1.25V lower limit of the regulator.

2.6 Tracking negative regulator


The components that contribute to the operation of this circuit are shown in below figure and include the
LM337, Op Amp UI741, R1, R5-R7, D5, D9 & C4.

21

R3
D7
1N4004GP

1.5k 100 %
Key=A

VARPOS
VNEG
VNEG

R4
1k

R5
10k

VPOS

D5
1N5232B

680

R1
U5
3
6

VM5

R7
120
VNEG

741

R6
10k

C4
10F

REF
VIN VOUT

-16.113

D9
1N4004GP
VARNEG

VREF

REG3
LM337

Figure. 2-13: Functional block detail for the negative voltage regulator
The operation of this circuit is more complicated than the other two regulated output circuits but not
much. Essentially it works the same as the positive regulated circuit in that the output at T6 is always 1.2
V greater than whatever the LM337 regulator senses at the adjacent terminal. The capacitor C4 and the
diode D9 work the same here as with the LM317 circuit. The resistor R7 works the same as R2 in the
LM317 circuit; it allows the regulator to compare voltages at the output and the adjacent terminals
without creating a short. The remaining components: the Op Amp, resistors R1, R5-R6, and Zener diode
D5 all work toward producing the correct voltage at the adjacent terminal of the LM337 regulator to
obtain the required voltage at the output of the regulator.

22

Printed Circuit Board

This Section deals with Eagle software which is used to design the circuit, PCB layout, how the PCB is
produced after the design is completed.

3.1 PCB Design Software (Eagle)


EAGLE is Easily Applicable Graphical Layout Editor. EAGLE contains a schematic editor, for
designing circuit diagrams. Parts can be placed on many sheets and connected together through ports. It
is freeware software.

Figure 3.1: Schematic circuit in eagle

The circuit shown in the above figure 3-1 is the Eagle schematic circuit which contains the whole
power supply components are connected and the circuit is designed first in schematic and later it is
transferred to board.
RATSNET is used for calculates the shortest possible air wires and polygons. The command DRC
checks a board overlap and clearance violations. The CAM Processor allows us to output any
combination of layers to a device or file.

23

Figure 3.2:Board file of eagle schematic


This is the which I used to design my PCB and further it help me to develop power supply project. The
above figure 3-2 shows the top view of the printed circuit board layout. The blue line traces are the
copper at the bottom of the PCB and the red lines are the jumpers used.

3.2 Components and Libraries


To design power supply in an eagle without help of cad1131.lbr I cannot imagine because that library
very useful to me. Because cad1131.lbr was major source for me to design.

24

Figure 3.3: Bottom view of PCB


The above figure 3-3 shows the board layout with all layers visible. The blue color is the ground plane
and the blue lines are the traces of the copper on the board. The red lines are the jumpers which are
used in the circuit. The rectangular box at top right corner is the heat shrink which is used for voltage
regulators safety. By using the text icon the initials are printed on the board.

25

3.3 Schematic Capture

Figure 3.4: Schematic circuit bottom in eagle

The above figure 3-4 is the bottom side of the board layout which is non-inverted and the digital
negative required for the transfer of the image onto the physical board in the PCB lab. And so, this is
the image, use of that I'm building PCB board design in LAB A102. In lab A102, I'm created my board
design with the help of Dave.

3.4 Printed Circuit Board Production


Step 1 - Image Transfer to PCB from Digital Negative

Flip the negative and the board over onto the centre of the glass surface of the UV machine,
maintaining alignment between the two.

Where the UV light shines through the negative it hardens the photo-sense onto the PCB. This will
be where the copper remains in the end. Where the light does not shine through, the photo-sense
remains soft, and will subsequently be removed in the developer machine, followed by the etchant
machine that will then remove the copper.
26

Step 2 - Photo Developer Machine (After UV Machine)

The developer machine has a chemical in it that will wash away any of the photo-sense material
that was not exposed to the UV light, i.e. it is still soft. The areas that were exposed should be
significantly harder.

When the uncured photo-sense material is all removed, turn the pump and the power switch off.
Turn on the tap at the sink that will spray water onto the board, in the rinse section of the machine,
as the rack is pulled out of the machine.

Step 3 Etchant Tank (After Photo Developer Tank)

The board should have the traces covered with the cured photo-resist material and the remainder of
the area should be copper. The purpose of the etchant is to remove the copper from the board
wherever there are no traces/donuts.

Essentially, this tank works the same as the first tank that removed the uncured photo-resist
material, except it has a heater to speed up the process.

Step 4 Removal of Photo-Resist from Traces

The traces and donuts covered with cured photo-resist materialis removed by either using the SOS
scrub pad and elbow grease or the Stripper chemical.

Step 5 Drilling Holes in PCB and Heat Sink

The eight 1/32 holes in the Op Amp pad

All the 3/64 holes in the donuts for component leads

The three 5/32 holes in the donuts at the regulator heat sinks
27

Step 6 Trim the board down to the 100mm X 90mm size on the shear
Step 7: Gluing Component Template
Step 8:Drilling Holes in Aluminium Heat Sink
Step 9: Install the Voltage Regulators

References
28

Mack, James E., Thomas (Chapter 15 - Distribution Transformers. The Lineman's and
Cableman's Handbook (11th ed.). McGraw-Hill.pp. 151 to 1522,2006.

Lowe, Doug.,"Electronics Components: Diodes". Electronics All-In-One Desk Reference For


Dummies. John Wiley & Sons.Retrieved January 4, 2013.

Bird, John Electrical and Electronic Principles and Technology.Routledge. pp. 6376.,2010.
(S.CHAND, 2014)

29

Works Cited
S.CHAND. (2014). PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRONICS. In V. &. MEHTA. RAM NAGAR, NEW
DELHI-110 055: S.CHAND & COMPANY.

Mack, James E., Thomas (Chapter 15 - Distribution Transformers. The Lineman's and Cableman's
Handbook (11th ed.). McGraw-Hill.pp. 151 to 1522,2006.
Lowe, Doug.,"Electronics Components: Diodes". Electronics All-In-One Desk Reference For
Dummies. John Wiley & Sons.Retrieved January 4, 2013.
http://www.cadsoftusa.com/
http://web.mit.edu/xavid/arch/i386_rhel4/help/
http://www.ti.com/product/lm78l05
http://www.ti.com/product/lm337
http://www.ti.com/product/lm317

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