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UseothersABsasreferences.Seehowtheydidit.FindusefulquotesfortheThesis.Tryto
emphasizeonpartsofthearticlesthatareactuallyusefulinthesummaries.Dontforgetto
quotethingsinthearticleusingtheindicators

AB#1
A
Orwig,Jessica."SendingHumanstoMarsCouldUncoveraDisturbingTruthtoOneofLife's
GreatestMysteries."
YahooFinance
.BusinessInsider,8Dec.2015.Web.9Dec.2015.
B
InthearticleSendingHumanstoMarsCouldUncoveraDisturbingTruthtoOneof
LifesGreatestMysteries,JessicaOrwig,writerforBusinessInsider,tellsofahypothesiscalled
panspermia.Panspermiastatesthatlifecantravelbetweenplanetsandsparkmorelifeonthem.
Itissuspectedthatterrestriallifedidntactuallystarthereonearth,butonMars,andtraveled
hereonfragmentsofit.Ifthisturnedouttobetrue,humanitywouldfinallylearnwhatithas
beenaskingformillennia:wheredidwecomefrom?
OrwigsaysnoneofthelandersorsatelliteswevesenttotheRedPlanetthusfarhave
uncoveredevidenceofpastorpresentlifeofanykind.Toknowtheanswertothequestionof
whetherornotthereislifeonmars,humansmustmakethejourneythemselves.Humanscan
workalmostinfinitelymoreefficientlythanarovercan.Humanscouldstudymartianmicrobes,
iftheyexisted,andcomparethemtothoseofEarth.Eventhoughthediscoverywouldcomeover
timeaftermuchreview,itwouldbehuge.Thereisalreadyevidenceoflifeinmeteoritesthat

havelandedonEarthfrommars,butthereisnoundeniableproof.Ofcourse,thediscoveryof
extraterrestriallifewouldcausehugerepercussionshereonEarth,atleastforawhile.Religious
followerswouldbeconfused,scientistswouldbeintrigued,andeveryonewouldbeinterested.
Evenifthetheoryisunlikely,itwouldbehugeifitweretrue.
WhatittakesNASAsbestMarsroversaweektodo,awellequippedhumancould
completein15minutes,accordingtomechanicalengineerandpopularscience
communicatorBillNyeinhislatestbook
In1996,theNASAledteampublishedapaperintheprestigiousjournalSciencethat
theydidentifiedgroovesandorganiccompoundsintheALH8400Martianmeteorite,
discoveredinAntarctica,thatcouldbefossilizedevidenceforextraterrestrial
nanobacteria.
Bystudyingtheplanetsgeography,atmosphere,andsoilcomposi
tion
,planetary
scientistsknowthatbillionsofyearsago,Marswasonceawarm,wetworldwith
conditionsidealforlife.
C
Thistextwasquiteaneasyread.Itinanarticlewhoseaudienceistheaverageperson,
beingonbusinessinsider.ItisveryapplicabletomyquestioninthatitjustifiesthetriptoMars.
Peoplepursuingsimilarquestionswillalsofinditveryuseful,asitgivesaclearandconcise
summaryoftheprospectsoflifeonMars.

AB#2
A

Anderson,Chris."ElonMusksMissiontoMars."
Wired.com
.CondeNastDigital,21Oct.2012.
Web.9Dec.2015.
B
InthearticleElonMusksMissiontoMars,ChrisAnderson,editorinchiefofWired,
chronicleshisinterviewofElonMusk.ElonMuskstartedhiscareerwithonlineservices,making
hundredsofmillionsofdollars.AfterhesoldPayPal,however,hedidnotknowwhattodo.He
wasveryinterestedinspace,andfinallydecidedthathewouldmakeacompanywhosegoalwas
cheaperspaceexploration.HefiguredoutthatthereasonAmericahasallbutabandonedspace
missionsisbecauseitisjustsoexpensive.Rockettechnologyisactuallystuckinthe60s,with
littletonoinnovationhappeninginthatfield.Spacemissionsendupessentiallytrashingmostof
theequipmentputintothem,causingextremeinefficiencyandloss.Muskwishestodesigna
reusablerocketsystemthatsaveshugeamountsofmoney.HesaysWewouldsavethe
taxpayersatleastabilliondollarsayearandthatsaconservativeestimate.NotonlyisMusk
workingonreusablespacecraft,butsimplybetterdesignedspacecraft.Healsohasarocket,The
Dragon
,thatcouldfeasiblygettoMars.Itcouldntland,buttheversiontwoof
Falcon
wouldbe
ableto.Anotherrocket,the
Falcon9
,isprojectedtobeabletobetotallyreusable,withits
landinggearbeingabletotakeoffandlandvertically.AsAndersonsaysAhugerocket,landing
onitsfeet?Holyshit.
Imagineifyouhadtohaveanewplaneforeveryflight.Veryfewpeoplewouldfly.
Youvebroughtthecostofrocketlaunchesdownbyafactorof10.
Look,speedforarocketisalwaysgoingtoberoughlythesame.Theconvenienceand
comfortisgoingtobeaboutthesame.Reliabilityhastobeatleastasgoodaswhats

beendonebeforeotherwisepeoplewontuseyourrocketstolaunch
multihundredmilliondollarsatellitesbuttheresnotgoingtobemuchimprovement
there.Soyourereallyleftwithonekeyparameteragainstwhichtechnology
improvementsmustbejudged,andthatscost.
C
Thiswasalsoaneasyread,asitwasasimpleinterview.Itis
extremely
applicabletomy
subject,asittellsoftheinnovationsintherocketryindustrybyElonMusk.Theseinnovations
willbereferencedmanytimesintheThesis.Itisalsoapplicabletoothersubjectsthatinclude
spacetravel,asitaffectseverypartofit.

AB#3
A
"HowLongWouldaTriptoMarsTake?"
NationalAeronauticsandSpaceAdministration
.Web.
9Dec.2015.<
http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry/venus/q2811.html
>.
B
Thiswebpage,titled"HowLongWouldaTriptoMarsTake?",byNASAdisplaysa
graphicoftheminimumcosttrajectorylaunchofaspacecrafttoMars.ItiscalledaHoeman
TransferOrbit.Thetypicaltimegiventoatriptomarswouldbeabout260days.However,
somethingatahigherspeedcouldmakeitinabout130days.ItsaysAfterspending9months
onthewaytoMars,youwillprobablywanttospendsometimethere.Infact,youMUSTspend
sometimeatMars!IfyouweretocontinueonyourorbitaroundtheSun,thenwhenyougot
backtowhereyoustarted,Earthwouldnolongerbewhereyouleftit!Asummarizedsetof

notesfromProfessorCraigPattenatUCSanDiegoisalsoincluded.Sinceittakesoneyearfor
EarthtoorbittheSunandittakesMars1.9,thereisaveryspecificlaunchintervalevery26
monthsthatallowsformaximumefficiencyintravel.Thetripisalsoverylongandrequiresaton
ofmaterials,about3millionpoundsofsuppliesforsixpeople.Thisisanimpossiblehurdlefor
currentrockettechnology.Therearealsomanyphysiologicalproblemswithbeinginspacefora
longperiodoftime:musclesbecomeweakandbonesbecomebrittle.Manystudieswillneedto
bedoneontheeffectsoflongtermspacetravelbeforethemissiontoMarscouldbeconsidered.
IttakestheEarthoneyeartoorbittheSunandittakesMarsabout1.9years(say2
yearsforeasycalculation)toorbittheSun.Theellipticalorbitwhichcarriesyoufrom
EarthtoMarsislongerthanEarth'sorbit,butshorterthanMars'orbit.Accordingly,we
canestimatethetimeitwouldtaketocompletethisorbitbyaveragingthelengthsof
Earth'sorbitandMars'orbit.
First,youhavetobringenoughfood,water,clothes,andmedicalsuppliesforthecrew
inadditiontoallthescientificinstrumentsyouwillwanttotake.Youalsohavetobring
allthatfuel!Inaddition,ifyouareinspaceforninemonths,youwillneedalotof
shieldingtoprotectyoufromtheradiationoftheSun.Water,andcementmakegood
shieldingbuttheyareveryheavy.Alltogether,itisestimatedthatforacrewofsix,you
wouldneedto3millionpoundsofsupplies!TheShuttlecanliftabout50,000poundsinto
space,soitwouldtake60shuttlelaunchestogetallyoursuppliesintospace.
Second,youaregoingtobeinspaceforanextendedperiodoftime,andtherea
physiologicalconsequencesofbeingweightlessforlongperiodsoftime.
C

Thiswebpagewasabitmoredifficultthantheothers,asitincorporatedafewphysics
principlesthattheaveragepersonwouldhavetroublegrasping.Itsaudienceisstudentsof
physics.Itisveryapplicabletomythesis,asittellsofthehumanisticissueswithspacetravel.
Otherthesesinvolvingspacetravelwillalsofindthisuseful.

AB#4
A
"NASA'sJourneytoMars."
NASA
.Ed.GaryDaines.NASA,1Dec.2014.Web.9Dec.2015.
B
InthearticleNASAsJourneytoMarsbyNASAeditorGaryDainestellsofNASAs
progressonsendinghumanstoMarsisanimportantdestinationforlearningaboutthehistory
andfutureofourplanetandthelifethatinhabitsit.Accordingtothearticle,
Marsisarich
destinationforscientificdiscoveryandroboticandhumanexplorationasweexpandour
presenceintothesolarsystem.
Robotshavebeenstudyingmarsfordecadesnow,andastronauts
inlowEarthorbitareworkinginlaboratoriestoprovetechnologiesandstudytheeffectsof
zerogravityonpeople.Bythe2020s,NASAwillcaptureanasteroidandsetitinorbitaround
themoon.TherearealreadymanyrobotsonandaroundMarsthatgiveusvaluableinformation
toplanourtrip,andpeoplealloverthecountryareworkingtomakeithappen.
NASAisdevelopingthecapabilitiesneededtosendhumanstoanasteroidby2025and
Marsinthe2030sgoalsoutlinedinthebipartisanNASAAuthorizationActof2010
andintheU.S.NationalSpacePolicy,alsoissuedin2010.

WhileroboticexplorershavestudiedMarsformorethan40years,NASAspathforthe
humanexplorationofMarsbeginsinlowEarthorbitaboardtheInternationalSpace
Station.
Engineersandscientistsaroundthecountryareworkinghardtodevelopthe
technologiesastronautswillusetoonedayliveandworkonMars,andsafelyreturn
homefromthenextgiantleapforhumanity.
C
Thisarticleisaneasyread,asitsaudienceisscienceenthusiastsdomesticallyandaround
theworld.ItaidsmythesisbytellingofNASAscapabilitiesandfutureplans,andwhatwill
needtobedonetomakeatriptoMarsareality.Anyonewhoisresearchingspacetraveland
Marswillfindthisarticleuseful.

AB#5
A
Rothman,Lily."WhyHumanityKeepsPuttingOfftheTriptoMars."
Time
.Time,28Sept.2015.
Web.9Dec.2015.
B
IntheTIMEarticleWhyHumanityKeepsPuttingOfftheTriptoMars",LilyRothman,
editor,tellsoftheprocrastinationofhumanitypertainingtoaMarsmission.Inthewakeofthe
recentdiscoveryofwateronMars,mannedmissionstotheRedPlanetseemveryplausible.
Projectionsinthe1980spointedtoaMarslandingby2000atthelatest,butthatdidnothappen.
DespitewhisperingsofaUSSovietjointmission,nothinghappened.Inadditiontothis,the

Challengerdisasterthreweverythingwayofftrack.Intheearly90s,GeorgeH.W.Bush
projectedthearrivalofastronautsonmarsfor2019.Itwasagreedthatthedatewasreasonable.
However,inthefollowingyears,morerobotswentandtherewaslesstalkofhumansgoing.
Then,GeorgeW.BushannouncedagainthatMarswasapriority.Hedidnotsetadate.Nowthat
2010haspassed,theUnitedStateshasyetagainletitspeopledownwithnoMarsmission.The
articleendswith
so
TheMartian
mayyetbecomeevenmorescientificallyaccuratethanits
creatorscouldhaveplanned,somethingthatfutureastronautsmaywellfindworthraisingaglass
(ofMartianwater)tocelebrate.
Justaboutamonthago,noneotherthanBuzzAldrindeclaredthathewantedtosee
humansonMarsby2039.
TheideathathumanbeingswouldbesendingmannedmissionstotheRedPlanetisthe
verynearfuture.
But,asthenextdecadeprogressed,therewasmoreandmorenewsofprobesandrovers
goingtoMars,andlessandlessnewsofpotentialmannedmissions.Atthedawnofa
newcenturythattrendcontinued.
C
Thisarticleisasimpleread,givinggoodinsightintothehistoryoftheUnitedStates
prospectsofaMarsmission.Itsaudienceisthegeneralpopulation.Itisveryusefulformy
Thesis,givingagreathistoricalcontexttoaMarsmission.IwillusethisonealotIbelieve.Itis
alsousefulforanyonelookingintothehistoryofMarstravelorspacetravelingeneral.

AB#6

A
Ossola,Alexandra."ThisIsWhatTravelingToMarsDoesToYourBrain."
PopularScience
.28
Sept.2015.Web.9Dec.2015.
B
InthePopularSciencearticleThisIsWhatTravelingtoMarsDoestoYourBrain,
editorAlexandraOssolatellsofthepsychologicaleffectsofamarsmission.SixRussianmen
wereconfinedtoahabitatfor1.5years.Thepurposeofthisstudywastostudytheeffectsofa
longtermspacemission,especiallythoseonthebrain.Itwassuspectedthatexercisewouldaid
incombatingthestressandboredomofisolation.ThesubjectstookbimonthlyEEGtestsand
salivasamplestocheckforbrainactivityandstresslevels.Thesewerecheckedbeforeandafter
exercise.Itwasfoundthatthebrainactivityofthesubjectswasnotablylowered,andhighlevels
ofastresshormonewereobserved.Thearticlestatesthatt
hecortisollevelswerehighfor
almosttheentireisolationperiod.
Afterexercise,theselevelsbecamemorenormal,butthey
werestillaffected.Exercisecannotreplaceanormallifestyle.Afterthetest,however,the
subjectsreturnedtototallynormal.Theisolationhadnolongtermeffects.Thisbodeswellfora
Marsmission,showingthatastronautswouldnotbepsychologicallydamagedafteramission.
T
heparticipantshadmuchlessbrainactivityintheformofalphaandbetawaves,which
indicatelevelsofrelaxationandconscious,logicalfunctionrespectively.Thecortisol
levelswerehighforalmosttheentireisolationperiod.
Butafterexercise,brainwavesincreased,andcortisollevelsdecreased.Theresearchers
concludethat,thoughthevolunteerswerestressedandboredinisolation,regularexercise
couldhelp.

Itappearsthat18monthsisntlongenoughtodoanypermanentdamage.
C
Thisarticleisarelativelyeasyread,withafewscientificandmedicaltermsscattered
throughout.Itsaudiencewouldbetheaveragescientificallymindedperson,asitisfromPopular
Science.ItisveryusefulformyThesis,providinginformationaboutpsychologicalproblems
withthetriptomars.Thiswouldalsobeusefultoanyonestudyinglongtermspacetravel,and
maybeevensomeonestudyingpsychology.

AB#7
A
Poppick,Laura."MeettheCoupleWhoCouldBetheFirstHumanstoTraveltoMars."
Wired.com
.CondeNastDigital,10July2014.Web.9Dec.2015.
B
ThisWired.comarticlebyLauraPoppick,editor,tellsofacouplewhosegoalistotravel
toMars.Toskiptotherelevantpart,ittellsofthecouplesexperienceinabiosphere.The
biospherewasratherlarge,andthecrewlivedoffofanagriculturalareathatwasaboutacre.
Theywereobservedbydoctorsandecologistsfortheentiretyofthetwoyearsoftheexperiment.
However,about16monthsintotheexperiment,thecrewbegansufferingfromsleepapneaand
severefatigue.Onemanbecameconfused,andcouldnotperformbasicfunctions.Theoxygen
levelofthebiospherehaddroppedseverely,andtherewasnochoicebuttoaddoxygenfromthe
outside,breakingthesimulation.Despitethis,thecrewfinishedoutthetwoyears.Eventhoughit
wasdeemedafailure,valuableinformationwasgathered.Peoplesufferedfromdepression,

moodswings,andevenfoodhoardingandstealing.Oneofthecrewcomparesherexperiencesto
thosereportedbytheexplorersofAntarctica.Shesaysthatsheoncebelievedshehadbeen
throughatimemachine.Shewashallucinating.Whilethecouplehadnoformalscience
education,theirentirelivespointedtoaMarsmission.Theexperimenteventuallyledtotheir
involvementwithParagon,who,withLockheedMartinandGoldenSpike,builtaspacesuit.
Theyeventuallywantedtobringtouristsonballoonridestothestratosphere.Despiteallthese
plans,nothingseemedfeasible.

ThepublicmayhavesighedattheshortcomingsofBiosphere2.Butnow,twodecades
later,theexperimentmanydeemedafailurecontinuestobreedprojectsthatexpandour
expectationsofhumaninnovationandourcapacitytoplotarealisticpathtoMars.
Still,despiteParagonsbesteffortsandaccomplishments,manydonotbelievetheir
ambitionstobringhumansperhapsthemselvestoMarsbythe2020swillpanout.
Theworldsighedandmanycalledtheprojectafailure.TimeMagazinewouldlater
nameitoneofthe100worstideasofthecentury.
C
Thisarticlewasabitofadragatpoints,asitwasquitelong.Itcaterstoamoretechnical
audience,beingfromWired.com.Itwilllikelybeusefulformythesisinpullingoutside
examples.Idonotbelievethatmanyotherswouldfindituseful.