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PART (A) TEXT, PROBLEMS, ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS Chapter Page No, ARTICLES Articles — “A, An, The’, Idiomatic Uses of “A / An’, Difference between ‘A? and ‘An’, Uses of The’, Omission of Articles. Problems, Answers, Explanations a : 1-8 NOUNS & CASES Case—Definition, Types, Possessive Case, Uses of Aposirophe ‘s’ ('s), Problems, Answers, Explanations oe 915 NOUNS & NUMBERS Nouns and Numbers—Singular Nouns, Singular and Plural Nouns (No change in form), Plural Nouns, Singuiar-Plural Formation, Uses of Singular Nouns, Uses of Plural Nouns, Problems, Answers, Explanations - 623 ‘SUBJECT - VERB AGREEMENT Subject - Verb Agreement, Problems, Answers, Explanations eee HD ‘TIME & TENSES Present Tense—Present Indefinite, Present ImperfecvContinuous, Present Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous, Past 'Tense—Past Indefinite, Past ImperfecuContinuous, Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous, Future Tense—Future Indefinite, Future Imperfec/Continuous, Future Perfect, Problems, Answers, Explanations B41 PRONOUNS Pronouns—Definition, Classification, Uses of Personal Pronouns, Uses of Objective Case Pronouns, “Than” and the Case, Distributive, Reciprocal, Demonstrative, Reflexive, Emphatic, Relative, Uses of who / which / that etc., Who / Whom, Interrogative, Exclamatory, Problems, Answers, Explanations ADJECTIVES Adjectives—Definition, Classification, Proper Adjective, Distributive, Use of each, ‘every, either, neither, each and every, Demonstrative, Numeral, Order of Numerals, Quantitative, Order of Indefinite Numerals and Definite Numerals, Qualitative, Interrogative, Degree of Comparison; Some Important Facts : Comparatively / Relatively, Enough, Interchanges of Degrees, Problems, Answers, Explanations 50— VERBS ‘Verbs—Auxiliary Verbs, Primary Auxiliaries, Modal Auxiliaries, Main Verbs / Principal Verbs, Infinitives—Uses of Infinitives, Uses of Infinitives (without ‘to") or (Bare Infinitives), Participles, Problems, Answers, Explanations : a 9 wo. ne com 3 xii) Chapter ADVERBS ‘Adverbs—Classification, Simple Adverbs, Interrogative Adverbs, Relative Adverbs, ‘Some Important Adverbs and their uses, Position of Adverbs, Inversion, Problems, Answers, Explastations CONJUNCTIONS: ‘Conjunetions—Some importent Conjunctions and their uses, Problems, Answers, Explanations VOICES Voice—Definition, Kinds of Voices, General Rules regarding Active to Passive, ‘Tense & Voice, Present Indefinite, Present Imperfect, Present Perfect, Past Indefinite, Past Imperfect, Past Perfect, Future Indefinite, Fusure Perfect, Passive of Interogatve Sentences, Passive of "Yes/No Questions, Passive of Questions beginning with “DorDoes/Did’, Passive of Questions beginning with “Have/Has/Had’, Passive of Questions beginning with ‘Modal Auxiliary Verbs’, Passive of "Wh-Questions’, Passive of Imperative Sentence, Passive of Sentences expressing “orderfrequest’ ete. Passive of sentences eapressing ‘Suggestion/Advice’. Passive of sentences expressing srequest’, Passive of To be + Infinitive (To + V'), Passive of Have/Has/Had + Infinitive (To + V4, Passive of Stative Verbs, Passive of Verbs + Prepasition + Object, Problems, Answers, Explanations NARRATIONS Narration—Definition, Kinds of Narrations, Some important information about ‘Nanation, Changing Direct Narration into Indirect Nesration, General Rules, Indirect Narration of Assertive Sentences, Indirect Narration of Interrogative Sentences, Indirect Narration of Imperative Sentences, Rules regarding ‘order / request’, Indirect Narration of sentences beginning with ‘Let’, Indirect Narration of Optative ‘Sentences, Indirect Narration of Exclamatory Sentences, ‘Must’ and Indirect, Namrtion, Problems, Answers, Explanations PREPOSITIONS Preposition—Defintion, Classification, Prepositions of Direction, Prepositions of Place, Preposition of Time, Some other Prepositions, Some important facts about Prepositions, Some Nouns and approptiate Prepositions, Some Verbs and appropriate Prepositions, Some Adjectives and Paniciples followed by Prepositions, Problems, Answers, Explanations, SUPERFLUOUS EXPRESSIONS & SLANG Superfluous Expressions and Slang—Definition, Some important Suprefluous Expre-sicns and Slang, Problems, Answers, Explanations tok Page No. ns 8693, 94105 106 — 116 17 — 134 135-161 Chapter - 1 ARTICLES AVAn Wat The 3 Amticles 7 Sra & ter er FAT first Noun a¥ indefinite ™ Definite = ® fer, farer sre &, sa (i) Abbeggar has stolen your shirt (i) This isthe house in which Live. et ares () begger’ VERA wT HT tA An a Indefinite Anicies at Sra & Fite F feet Noun 3 Indefinte Zaft 1 978: A beggar 1 ahé & “um Fra, we free aig, se ferent eat aE arrerd A & fee oh twat oti aT (i) ¥ house VER the w TT th The a Definite Anicle wet ser & wtf ae Fextt Noun 8 Definite sort 81 97: The house # Fife we ar dhe Sor fi aria, me we faut # oer fi 1. Uses of AVAm : A/An a att fief Singular Countable Noun ® ae th #; 33 — C)Mobanis g singer a Noun (Singular Countable) This is gm apple an Noun (Singular Countable) 8 faa we sree Problems =Eur 7S we Me 6) Ravi prefers / self employment /to job / in any office. / a 8 © ©) No Error, © [BS.RB. (Bhopal) P.O. EXAM, 1989) 3 OSE H Pan (©) waa & BP ‘job" GH Singular intable Noun @ FRE see fat wr wa sh one: SE a job Sm . It being rainy day / most of the people / out on the a) CS) ‘were / carrying umbrellas, / No Error, © oe © [BS.R.B. (Patna) Clerical Exam., 1993] Se FE Pan (A) Tam & eae ‘day’ GH Singular Countable Noun & Ars wee ‘a! ar seit ar atfeg, fg day % eT GF Adjective rainy & fae ae a a aT rainy 72S Gh ste: 8 VENT a rainy day ST (Gi) Summons / was served / on Ram. / No Ettot a 2 © MO [CDS. Exam, 1999] ‘FH Rs FH Part (A) Tera & HTH summons GF Singular Countable Noun & fara’ weet Apr wit erm arm: wet ‘i A Summons mi 2 — Summons—n(novn), pl (= plural) summonses [c (= countable)] an official order to appear in a court of Jaw : serve a summons on sb (= somebody) —LONGMAN DICTIONARY OF CONTEMPORARY ENGLISH (p, 1446) (iv) Laser beams ean carry long distance signals in way / (a) @B) somewhat similar to radio waves, No Error. © ©) ERRB,, (Tiruyananthpuram) ASM. Examn,, 2001] WS FTW Pan (B) tera 8 eA way TH Singular Countable Noun & Praie We8 a ay he Eom see: we vit ina way 2m 2. Some Idiomatic uses of A/An : (@) eT (number) TT AT MT FE we expressions 8; 33— Alot (of) ‘A great many (of) Agreat deal (of) A good many (of) Agood deal (of A number (of) ‘large quantity (of) A large number (of) Alarge amount (0!) _ A great number (of) (0) 3B ST expressions H + eata humble pie, ina hurry, in a dilemma, in a rage, in a mood, in a temper, al a loss, have a drink, have a rest, have @ walk, go for a watk, have @ headache, have a sleep, have a dream, have a chat, have a quarrel, have a fight, make 2 noise, take a risk, take a hint, take ares, take a meal, have a good/bad education, gevgivelnward a scholarship ete. BE idiomatic Sart & Faw ver Problem fear TT tae (Nathan's habit of / delaying bis work / put his Cy @) collegues /to lot of trouble. / No Error. © o 8 [BS.RB. Delhi) PO. Exam, 1990] FET Part (D) ee & FAN lor B we aH RT 8PM 7H: a lot of trouble BH Fah FT NOTE; lot % plural 73 @ sf ae Pan wa Bom ri lots of sx war x at 1 i) ven though our team took the field with gr confidence, the opposition made them eat the hun ie, (A)ahumble pie (B) humble pie (Cyhumble pies (D) No improvement {C.D.S. Exam., 1999} EFT H underlined Part ‘the humble pie" PREET (A 4H fee me wet ‘a bumble pie’ & improve Ft ‘Pits eat a hurable pie GF idiom €1 2 AMirror of Common Errors 3. Difference between A and An ; A 7% Fi™1 consonant sound (ins waft) BYR eae wa H vee Far 2 SEA pen/A bowA lable/A car. [RT pen FEET sound FV, box #5 eet sound /4/, ge *T WHET sound (R/ FM car Ft TEA sound FF consonant sounds 1) An @ aT vowel sound & YR BATT Wet wey ‘aia $1 $8—Am orange / Am clephant / An ox / Am ass. [ef orange = Weer sound 5i/, elephant 7 Ee sound PR, Ox TET sound 7, ass "5 RET sound AY vowel sounds i] NOTE : Frstt we = Wer sound consonant ® = vowel feet ots ona se re ai feet Sere frre ae BH ‘ate seamen 3 ft wag a eat letter Ht vowel ge yee an sr we Bor ate A consonant B a sat we a a Fae Gm SF MA. weer lever ‘M consonant ® Fa See Se Ta’ Ser Bt TE aT ‘Wee sound M/F vowel $1 Sr: An M.A, = aT Wm, eg Member #1 eet letter M' & fey ear sound // G& consonant @ STE: A Member #_3arT arm Prsfetisn eet ae Awe And wnt at Re: aan X-ray plant (Rar Farr ("Wwe sound AY ty) a one-way ticket [4% feta] [weer sound /@/ Bi] unique man (afr #3] [ee sound P27 81] an umbrella [°¥er] [Fee sound /4/ Bi e Fram K ares Problems aga YS we #1 ea (@ Tam not / wealthy so T / cannot afford to buy / a @) @) © expensive car. / No Error. ©) e [B.S.RB. Jaipur) Clerical Exam., 1991] Q Hat Ae an ar vitt drt iS expensive @anthaa) aT VEST sound /§/ fet #1 vowel 81] (i) He had no / illusion of being / either a distinguished “a B) © writer /or a editor / No Error. ©) ® [BS.R.B. (Lucknow) Clerical Exam., 1993] (6 5H Pat (D) 2 a ace an wove oT “Pils editor SEE sound My Fees RT EE vowel ey Uses of ‘The’ :—The WH Fae onagasagan ft Singular Countable Nous, Plural Countable Noun ™ Uncountable Noun definite =} % fer farar sar t; Be (Youare the te man_ who helped me. the Noun (Singular Countable) (ii) These ae the girls whom I have invited. she noun (Plural Countable) is the, alee ofthis wel is pollute. The Noun {Uncountable) 2. Some Important Uses of The: () eat & ae wee (83 —The Ganges (or The Ganga), The Brabmputra, The Cauvery, The Krishna), 3get set 3 wee The Arabian Sea, The Red Sea, The Dead Sea), Neral ¥ art & yee CBT Indian Ocean, Th. Pacific Ooean The Atlantic Ocean), Hr aera & art yet (82—The Himalayas, The Alps), hers Feemalt & st ¥ Wa GA—The east, The west) sre eral ar ererecor aarad wet % wet G3—Ihe top, The bottom, The enue, The weather, The world, The mountains ete), wet % wet wee GR—Tho Andamans, The Nicobars, The Phillipines, The East Indies, The West Indies) 3. Superative Degree Adjectives WER; $8— (G@ She is the tallest girl in the class. (i) He isthe best boy in the class. Fa fer 1 smenfer problems agar Ye wt fh RA Sunil is 7 a best student / in our class / at present. / “A @) © (D). ‘No Error. [B.S.R.B. (Patna), Clerical Exam. 1988] ® (ee HF 3 Part (B) a3 FSR the FH oo Fie superlative degree % adjective * 788 the Sx mit7 Er ‘1 a: the best student BEt aT HI] 4 Comparative Degree % FE A than AT wo A watt er aT “5a Comparative Degree 8 wE8 the a at a Bhar a (i) He is better than you, [3 P the better than} (ii) She is senior to you. (4 f& the senior to} Wa fren wx amafea Problem 2— (0 The interviewer asked me /ifT knew that / Kalidas was “a @) the greater / tian any other poet. / No Exror, © ©) ® [BSRB_(P.O,) Exam, 1996] (e8 Wes & Pant (©) F the wr weer ee twa BS ‘met % comparative + than * war th sie: Kalidas was greater...7@ THT Mi] fig Prstetinn aftfeafrel # Comparative Degree The wate ett (A) ae Comparative Degree 3 @% of the two aT B, ta Heis the better of the two boys. Lot the comp. ofthe wo (B) We @ war Wet A aed fers a we cei a fr the + Comp. + Subject + Verb, the + Comp, + Subject + Vorb 3 87 Har #s BR — () The more he gets, the more he wants. Ws fron We ame Problems aT Te a A a AMirror of Common Errors 3 (i) Ina mountaineering expedition / higher you go from “ B) the base camp / the colder you feel. /No Error © © ® [S.CRA, Exam, 1998] (pe 51 Fe Parc (BY higher 3 EE the #1 rT Sh ara: we wT the higher mI] . (Gi) The greater the demand, higher the price. (ay high (B) the high (©)thehiigher (D)No inkprovement {S.S.C, (Section officer Commercial Exam., 2001)] {ue FF underlined part higher @ (C) i ee TE ‘wall #1 THR the higher ® improve 7=4 SM S$. eHrTaT Ordinal Adjective % ER the Bet ts ae (i) Who was the first President of India ? 7 6. amram Noun + of + Noun 7a ar BF ee Noun wa thes a Sa 8 FR (The students of his class are naughty rr the Noun of Noun -ge Fro & oraty Probleme aga 7 and th BE “te G@) The teacher drew / an attention of the / boys to the (A) B® © ‘importance / of regular practice. / No Error. © © [BS.RB. Jaipur, Clerical Exam,, 1992} (eet ner % Part B)# an ES the aw weir eT] OMISSION OF ARTICLES Lfrat faere (Subject), AH Canguage), BA (games & sports) % 5; 3; We Anicle a wer Te Sr BSS (@) He is a student of history. (Gi) She can speak Hindi, Sanskrit ond English Cite Possessive Adjective (My, Your, Our, ete), Fett Demonstrative Adjective (This, That, These, Those, No, Any, Other, Any other, ete.) PtH Distributive Adjective (Gach, ether, neither, every) % 3% GET Noun B Teer Anicle 1 wart 3 dim 8; $3 — (i) This is my house. [7 FF althe house] Gi) This house is mine. [7 F& a/the house) (ii) Each boy was ready. [3 F althe boy! 3.Kind of, ¢ype of, sort of, variery of, rank of, post of, ttle of, position of, number of, A large number of, A lot of, Lots of, Plenty of, A great deal of a satel Noun WES Anicle av wan ag Ger fs SB (i) 1 do née like this kind of man, [= f= man] (ii) He has been promoted to the rank of SP. [FF an SPW the SP (Gi) Alot of money has been spent. [¥ F% the money} {OTE : Kind of, type of, sort of ® WE afan a aT B ‘waar tafe TET Interrogative Sentence # W; 38 — What type ofa singer ishe ? 1, What type of singer is he ? 4. Man, Woman, Life, Death, Science, Art, Nature 1 art aig ones oe St ar pam Tee RM Article ST Far ore tet 8; Fa 6) Man is moral. i) Woman is man’s mate. ‘Fa fier staf Problem 2@— ‘The man is mortal / and ultimately he has to leave (a) ®) ‘everything here, / yet how irationally he remains attached 5 © tw his worldly possessions. / No Ertor. @) ® [BS.RB. Bombay) P.O. Exam, 1994) fea wet & Part (A) ¥ man Vet the a ser Er erm] 5. school, college, church, hospital, prison, jail, court, bed, market sar ais. store Stee & fra St at gee Te ‘Prit Article a8 Ber Br (1 g0 to shoot daly, (sre fere] (Gi) The injured man was sent to hospital. (FST! % re] a Fre safes Problems &— (i) The moment Vignesh sas / admitted to the hospital / “ ®) the warden decided /to inform his parents. / No Error. ©- © e [BSRB. Bangalore), P.O. Exam,, 1991] eg TT Pa hos SER te a] (iy The robbers were / caught just as they / were about t0/ @ ®) © exci from the jail, No Error ® © [BS.R.B, (Lucknow) Clerical Exam,, 1992] tye 3a Part D) H jail B WS the we we Te ST ~ ate KT escape from jail 1] 6. FreqferRae phrases ¥ Articles a site wat thar $— (@) by post / by chance / by messenger / by cheque / by air / by land / by sea / by road / by car / by bus / by jeep / ‘by train / by plane / by steamer / by scooter / by bicycle / by mistake. ‘(0 in fact / in dot in shor / in trouble Fin confusion / Sia time / in demand / in danger / in life (in haste / in cricis/ in difficulty fia doubs fin debs. (© on strike / on duty / on foot fon payment / on leave / ‘on demand /on time /on earth, (@) write in ink / write in pencil (HY write with a nen / ‘write witha pencil) Directions : Find out the error in each of the following sentences if any. Ifthere is no error, your answer is ‘E’. L.In science the credit goes to 2 man J who convinces the “a ® world, / not to the man to whom the idea first occurs. / © @) No Ervor. ® 2. is only sfter/ the war is over / that people realise / how a 8) © bad it was/ No Error. ©) ® Glo# the two / answers, this / is defintely / beter. / “ @B) © (wD) NoEnor. ® is unfortunate enough /to lose / few friends he rade / a) ®) © uring his stay at Pata, / No_ Error. ©) ® 5. There were a number / of preity girls in the party / but it “ ®) ‘was Ragini / who remained & centre of attraction. / No © i) Error. © G.Lhave been / informed that / Dr. Sinha visits Patna / the ay ®) © following month. / No Extor. oO ©) - “7. He is / the best artist /of the time but unfortunately / least way B) © recognised. / No Error ©) 8. He said that hy elt nervous / because a friend of his / had Ww - ® given him /a very bad news. / No Error. oO ® ‘9.1 don’t like / that type of a man / who does nothing but / a @) oO find out faults in others. / No Error. D) © i 110. He claims to be a linguist / but, in realty, he / docs not a) ) ‘know even /the AB C of linguistics. / No Error. oO @) ® ting values of humanism / and B) democracy so as to combat / the oncoming brand of oC @) fascism, / No Exot. €) 412, When the house was / set on the firo, all the people / “a (B) started crying at the top /f their voices. [No Ener. oO @ «© 13. A first step /in a rational solution /0 any problem is the / @ ® © recognition of the fact that a problem exists. / No Error. © ® 14, Lite knowledge / of music that he possessed / proved to a (&) be a boon for him / when he was utterly helpless, / No © o Enor, «) 15, Don’ talk to / him, he always / remains in temper / these A) © days, /No Error, _®) ©) (16H boasts of / having good knowledge / of mathematics ~~ A @ “but everybody / knows how far he is good at © © mathematics, / No Error. ® TAI was / by a mistake that he caught / her hand. / No & ©) © ©) Ewer. ® 18, These orders of /the Manager / may put the lives of / wo @ ®) © thousand woskers ina danger. / No Error © © 19, inspired him / wo tke the heat in all adverse situations! @ 8) © and deserve tobe called areal hero. No Exor © ® 20. In my opinion it isnot che fails / thst have made Jira a ®) Tose the heart but the lack of / emotionst support. / © @) ‘No Error, ©) 21, The most happy / marriage would be (a union of a deat A (BD () man toa blind woman. /No Error. @) €) A Mirror of Common Errors 5 fin suggested to / hs brothers that they should / go to tal ® « schoo! regularly / and do their home work sincerely. / © © No Brrr &) 23, After returning / from the jai, Re has abandoned / all the a +e) criminal activities and is determined / to tead a simple © o) life. No Ener. © 724. He was an atheist / but now-a-days he goes to the church A) ® and offers peayess/for hours. ‘No Error © © e 25. His father ( forbade him to go / to cinema / Tate at night. 4 a ® © ® or . © Syne fact shat the compact car / is beter than / conven & ® tional cars has / been proved by its sales, /No Error. © ©) ® 27. There was litle / milk in the botie and she gave it / to the @ ® baby when it/started weeping. /No Error. © ©) © 28, He leads / a very busy life / so he goes everywhere / by a @) © o eat. {No Error © - 28. Thanks to an insight! and persistence of the focal doctor! ®) hundreds of victims have been / able to resume a normal © ©) J No Error No Bs etnues ne hes hal sed te work T9900 « ® and / slipped out unnoticed. No Esto. © o ® 1. He uses / the mockcheroie / style to depiet a violence. ¢ aw 8 © © No Broe ©) « @Efoonle ia Darwin / had become so azcustomed to cyclone @ @) ‘warnings / that few of them paid any attention tothe radio ©. ‘wamings / which began this morning. / No Error. @) ®) 33. One should / be tre to one’s promises / in order 10 earn / w @) © same and fame inthe life. No Error. ©) © ‘BMThe sed / of all the modern amenities / les in the “ ® © science, ‘No Bror. ®) ®) 35."Music is science / but singing is an art” / said the / - “w @) © musi teacher. No Ero. @) «) (BB.We should spend / «good pit of the day /in out of door ce ®) activites and games / because staying indoors all the time © @) is bad forheahh. ‘No Exor. ®) 137. He should mix / his authority with litle / of courtesy and / a ®, © ‘common sense, No Err. o © 38.1tis 0 pity that the son of millionsire/ should indulge / @ ® © in stealing, ‘No Exot ©) ® (Bis / the most important / question which you have / to yo ®) © prepare very carefully. /No Error © © 40, Brahmaputa is / one ofthe fongest rivers / that originate / “ ® © inthe Himalayas, No. Err. @ © 41. The Ganges /is for North India / what Krishna Fis for "a @, © South India, No Error. @) «& ((42,The first Buropean / sailor to come to India in modern a ®) times /was Vasco-da-Gama. ‘No Exor. © © ®) (Gate tw ina forest / most be propery counted end “ 8 numbered / and proper entries be made / in the register. / oO ©) No Entor ® 6 A Mirror of Common Errors “a The principal / asked the girls to retwen / (0 the hostel a © ros sete unc No Ee @) «) 4. He foun hse in trouble Fvhen be sa 09 / “w B © soa curse he sation. No Eo © . ©) 46H s/n ei ce a ay ed sus / he A) B) oO psig the eal No Ee oO ® anit consi iy Bel seed tat he pos “w e®) presebes sane mor mpciy.No Er © «) ®) aie slo ofc the ew tt Me Saha A B isa veh ie an imliget ocr No Eos © oO) ®) 49-the wan isthe oly xa that is cadowed with « ® © goweraf speech /NO Exo () ® ws very set pont othe mur of / he “a B® res living / on earth. / No Error. © © ®) ANSWERS La 28) 3 4 5.) 6 70) 8D) 9B) 1B) v.@) 128) BA A) 18) 16.8) 178) 180) 19.8) 200) rc) 22.(C) 3B) 4B) 25.0) 26.(5) 27.(A) 28D) 29.4) 30-A) 3.0) 2G) BO) 34D) FO) x 37.8) 38.(B) 39.) ALA) ao 4 44D) 45.8) Laem 47) BO) 5H) EXPLANATIONS 1. (A) aman the man Go APE man set FAfrst rant at ape at 81 $8—The boy who: the dog which ete, 3h whofwhichfthat eat RT Nouns == the" WE &! 2 (B) the Te a ST SA the war S UH AAT TE wa ate tre t, sat a war any wart RD) beter % Wa the eT aT in eee IT Comparative Degree ® Adjective & choice @ option wr ae Bat Se VER The crm th oid TE Comparative Degree % I ‘of the-ewo! & #3 Comparative Degree 3 eH ‘ihe’ a Fat wat —_ (Heis the’ taller ofthe wo boys. Tv T the comp, of the two. 4. (C) few % TERT the FIT ‘erm aiifs the few friends he made ot and Gar HT go Bet eT Tae” ‘wafer ‘Few friends’ #1 Snf ® ‘No friends’ 5.(D) a % Feet the Sm wife Noun + of + Noun construction % of % wee 3yet Noun eet Smrarag: The Trt &; 8B ‘The boys of thiscollege bob og v ‘The noun of noun 6. (E) wt YE th 7, @) least % EE the Bt TUS Superlative Dezwe * Adjective 3 Wee the aT Get 8 8. (D) a BF WaT Te Sar Fis Nows TH Uncountable Noun #1 %at FR, information, luggage, basen. scenery, drapery 3m EE aan FHT AE at 9, (8) a wart Ae Be FAP ype of, kind of, sort of F ‘aq agea SATE Noun % Tee HATA Article spite 58) feet aret &, SB {)1don't appreciate this kind of book, [F f& this kind of a book] 10. © wr UE EI 11. (B) values 98 the fhm see We SA ST Fa 12. (B) on the fice % = on fire Gtr idiomatic 8 ‘TH fH ‘on fire’ A set (something) on fire ® fire & Tee he’ fa) AT TE HAT A ] 13, (A) AX zea The Gm Tas Pct Ordinal Adjestve ae the sa at 14, (A) Lite WER the BM The le wwe & fg Litle #7 af # almost none GRE * STD! 15. (©) in temper ® WEB in a temper Bm ST idiomatic § ‘Pat wae in a mocd/n # rage/in a dilemma *1 ath 16. (B) good ® wR a TT aA have “a soodo knowledge’ idiomatic $i wart wat fF ‘knowledge Bender am mera Se HB Caehe, HT E aE 3) F laowledge TF Uncountable Noun * A we Ge wee Prat Anicle #20 et eo 8 ( Knowledge is power. (i) He is aman of knowledge. ‘A Mirror of Common Errors 7 fe, Se knowledge ® TA aE Adjective HF sa Adjective SES AJAn a at fea Tar &; BI (i) She has a good_ knowledge of English gamma 4 4 v a adj, knowledge fe, SH Knowledge @ Definite rat ome HR coed het tT rey aT eT tS (i) The knowledge of this man is limited toot The knowledge 17 (p) ce ar aT TB, by mistake’ FHT iodiomatic €1 18, (D) “eae Farr FA Br TF in danger, in trouble, in confusion, in debt, in demand, in detail, in fact ate idiomatic ® 19. () the a ware a Ber wtf take hear, take action, take care Smf& idiomatic @ 20.(C) the 3 warm et Br take heart *E lose heart idiomatic 21. (©) aunion ® 4a the union Hon FF: “The + Noun + of + Noun’ construction 1 22. (C) school % FRR the El HM go to schoolchurchjal Sr& @ school, church, jail % stems Serta Era i go to school (7@T % fw goto the school ah rr ad RO 23, (B) jail GEE the TH BM return from jll wr ore & (ear Breve Sa Bete) retum from the jail ae aE 2 aE are wee aa B chem! 24, (B) church 3 Yee the FEt Bm Sat to 22 at HET zai 28. (C) go to the cinema/circus/theatre/opera/station Tf idiomatic #1 a4: go to cinema % ®t go to the cinema S01 * TRIE 27. (a) hie & eS oe TT UTE Atle wT ae & ST Ferg liule a ov & Te URC we TE 4 (D) car B VES aw HAT FE by cas, by Dus by ain Smf% idiomatic $1 4% WE GS car A ain Hr feeta F car WI train % UR atile a bs F8—by the 130 IN ae fieg FF ina car. in a taxi, ina jeep, on a plane, on & ship, on a swamer. on a bicycle, an a scooter, on @ motor cycle anf set &1 29. (A) an FEA the Bat SPF construction “The + Noun + of 4+ Noun’ 3 smite 1 30, (Ay a RSH an BT hour SEAT sound “st” TH vowel BE, (D) awe a AEM “depict violence’ idiomatic €t 2, @ we Tet 233. (D) the =F AM life Be Tet Sr aT ord A ETT 82 life, science, man, woman % TES the HTT FE Hat BW life, science anf we se ae ae Ba ar oe ae amicle BAB; (i) He leads « happy ie. (iy The life ofthis patient isin danger 34. (D) the i FT science % IEA TT So Sere ST Hee 33% fer aT th 35. (D) science WR a Go wis science w xa we Sree of (inars) 3 Su Hag gon tae Go branch of knowledge based on sciemifi principles) ® ev 3 get 2 sat weer, aie An #1 att FST (ereation of beauty) % ani # ah gah veh a AAnicle 7H TET @ B8—'Art igs in con art, fig Ant of we skill Gt Te eT ‘article 3 aT Brat &; BB—He has developed an excellent art of teaching. 36. (E) TEE 37 lige eh qe Fin Bem se wo 27 HT SET , 38. (B) millionaire 3 Tee a ar se Bear HPF millionaire a countable noun #1 TF Twoshres millionaires ett 39, (B) the weet a aT Harr Sur wa oH as ATS S airs cnet a aget wt gent 7a ate Superlative Degree % Adjective wt wart a 2 &i “The most’ Superlative Degree # gat tt & ware “g most" positive degree #1 Rit feats most arf Bat ven: Fe (i) You ae the most powerful man in this party Gi) You are a most powerful man, cael oS ae ‘you -TOAT pany He oFs Se Bg b, sate GR eT HF you We Ge fea F et A Fait a most =a very ‘zeh waz,—() She is the most beautiful girl in the class. ‘rg, (i) She is a most beautiful aie. 40.(A) Brahmaputra % We The sar Get we Brahmaputra G& 31 WA a 41. (©) Krishna TES the a wea er wa gee sien ate gram 2 skeet as &, atk one wee fe sat ant fs weet ‘thet wate Bat -$3—The Koshl is known asa curse to Nom Bibsr 42.) wer yx Bh 43. ©) aaa as th 44, (D) sunset 3 Tee the Et Birt gas before, after are WR dawn, daybreak, sunrise, sumset, neo 3) She returned home after sunset. [FP ater the sunset) fT Gi) She rewmed home after the sun had set. 45, (B) wouble yea a ew whe ae Sm ome fae WK Ho 18a 46. (D) detail FTES the Har TE A, in detail, in difficulty, in problem, in fear, in hope, in sense, in conclusion asf idiomatic 47. (A) conclusion 3 yee the @ way Fe Vi weet SK Adjectives @ 3am Us % aft a weg Hee Ft fark TERT Adjective & VR Article wr aT feraT sat 3a— ( A red and blue coat @ coat St we TT aren (i) A red and a blue coat @ coats PH WH MT 59, (5) gaE YEH aa we Aer #t wake AMirror of Common Errors Trae BY GH wee Article HE eT 49. (A) man % gee the BT wary ze s_aeih man ahr se capt are aie fee at ews wee fat ARTICLE We ware 8 er 8 BB () Man is moral. (4 F% A man / The man is mortal) (i) Man isa social animal. FF A man/ The man} (ii) Mam isthe crown of creation. [¥ % Aman / The man} arg, ‘man’ wr arr Countable Noun #57 # BH ee wed aan rt HT (@ SyoBabuis a man of honour TT a man fee, af ‘man! a war feet Patras eater % fer BH Teh Tee the’ oh Brat 8: SB (@ The, man_ who was killed was a leader. TT the man Chapter-2 NOUNS & CASES CASES—The relation in which a noun stands to some her word, or the change of the form by Which this relation is indicated, is called the ease, . Case az Tat BF (A) Nominative Case or Subjective Case Graf ree) (B) Objective Case Cm rR) (©) Possessive / Genitive Case (arama axe) (D) Vocative Case (aires rem) wel oF For wT F Posessive Case at wef EF, ‘eit Noun % STH Nominative & Objective Case # E Problem 72 Star & =¥€ sf Noun Nominative * Objective Case ee @ we A ceo ts $B Nominate Objnive Nomintie Objet @, Pronoun # Nominative 3% Objective ® #T vfcwtr Gh & faut Prem & et ey PRONOUNS ® aivia att _— POSSESSIVE CASE—Possessive Case, possession (FER T ownership Caries aK &)1 FE possession WT cownctship 70 "WT TT's [Apostraphe °s'] "of" TE fom ant; $3— {i Shakespeare's plays 7 The plays of Shekespeare Fay, ay wt eet ws wt a uat # ate set geet wits 3G Sor ote et Ever wate aC woe Problems fez at #; 43 — i) A table's legs / were broken / by my / angry brother. / “ e © ©) No Error. ® (88 ATT H A table's legs met are BL eH The legs of a table war EMT FAH table / bench sue Fata wert fev are “Gam hr era a fi - (A) Rat sar wien gor gett ae wed a Lem caf / area ee #3—Man's life/ Ram's wife Dogs” kennels / Cows? tals 2. af fe Pt send er Be eT ge Prat wy; $a (@) Death’s icy band. (i) Fortune's favourite sae mma wt ae, Ba (@) A moment's delay, A week's leave, A month's: 40 wer mad wat ae ae Fe wight we a xin Sa (@) Aton’s weight; A gram’s weight 5. Money # gang % are ale Se aT value / worth writ @ aa @ Arupee's value; a pound’s worth 6 Space Tartare wet wey EET Nouns * S3— (i) Aruzor’s edge, A needle’s point, A boat's Tength, LF angie meget (Some dignified natural Spec ams ae Som Sani “The earth’s surface / gravity / creatures / area et ‘The sun's rays: Heaven's will; the heaet’s content, the soul's delight /joumey; the mind’s eye, et. @ Fe ae aeeat F expressions A Seat Tat ere 2; Sa The ship's The train's > arrival / depacture The plane's boat's crew. @) ['s] [Apostrophe's) 3 seater hae go are = 41.81 BTA Nouns W ’s (Apostophe's] ax wr 4 Pre amt; $a Ram's wifes career Kate err ATH Ter BI BE weet ‘GE The career of Ram’s wife ar wh eH SEC) 2.farf Compound Noun #5 sifaer wey 4 's aT RIT tart; da @ His somin-taw's appointment [ f& son's-in- law's appointment} (i) The Government of India’s ordes. “fe fad! Noun % BME Noun in Appositon a aT H # Noun in Apposition 35 mmr ’s 37 art fiver arar 2: S2— (Rajeev my Fiend’ father ‘Beh HT, i) My friend Rajeev's father, 4.91% & Nouns closely related @ @ Sif Noun * HHT Us} sete dart; Sa (@ Ram and Sita’s sons [ £8 Ram's and Sita’s sons} farg, Ram’s and Shyam’s sons. 5. Anybody / Somebody / Nobody / Everybody / Anyone / Someone No one / Everyone & a st 's =r war 8; $8—() Everybody's business is nobody's business Goat Anybody / Somebody site % aE “else” HIT A Hsp wT else we Fr ser &; BB (@) Hike your decision and not anybody else's, 10 A Mirror of Common Errors ‘wa Fre ot STAG Problems RE wie &; FB — 1 follow / your suggestions / and / nobody's else. / a) ®) Oo Ne Error ) {764 nobody's else ae nobody else's 3 at BMT] ‘reach other! ‘one another" % er ft [5] ar ate at ti a (i) They like each others ideas. 8. A + Noun + of + Noun construction # afer Noun % Pt aer=aTe: ['s} 3r Fah a & whe AE Noun wg Fert ates &; 3B (A friend of my borther’s. (ii) Ahouse of Ram's, Fg () Apicture of Ram Com a ew wD (i) A picture of Ram's (Os 3 wer Tet He) | PROBLEMS BASED ON NOUNS & CASES Directions : Find out the error in each of the following sentences, if any If there is no error, your answer is “E’ L. You know it well / that you success in life / depends not a ®) ‘on my adviee / but on somebody else. / No Error. © ©) ©) 2. He informed me / that he had gone to / one of the wy ® Minister's residences / and stayed there all night. / © ro) No Error. e 3, The building's roof / needs repairing otherwige / it may « @) fall down and / result into many persons” death. / oO ©) No Brror. e 4, | visited / John’s and Mary's house / twice but found / the (a) 8) oO couple absent. / No Error. ©) ® 15, Aton's weight /is too heavy for/ anyone to/ carry on his Cy @) © © head. No Error. © GBI stopped / his going out late at night / because the « @) © situation / in the town was very tense. / No Error. ) ©) 7. He did not approve / of his son raising / stupid questions “w ®) « and thereby / vexing the teacher. | No Error © e 8 America’s problems / are, however, / not so, serious / and Cy 3) © awful as India. / No Error. Co) 9, Your tone of speaking / as well as your friends /is really w B) extremely sarcastic / yet we never take it seriously. / © © No Error. e 10. The Finance Minister / boasts of improving / the economic a @ condition of / the country’s. / No Exror. oO @ ® 11. The life of the rich /is not in many f ways as peaceful / as « @) oO that ofthe poor’s. / No Error. ©) ®) 12, For your sake / as well as for your wife, / we all wish that (a) B) ‘you may / get that job. / No Exror. © o ® 413. The expert mason reported to / the owner of the hotel “ B) that / there was no question / of the walls falling down. / © ) No Extor ® 414. The officer said / that be appreciated / his staffs coming “a @) a on time f and co-operating him. f No Error. oO ©) © 45. As we are told, / this idea of Mrs. Gandhi's / was totally w ®) ‘valid in the / present condition of India, / No Biror. © ©) e) 16.1 is true/ that I met / the Chief Minister / at one of my @ @ oO friend’s houses, No Exror ©) ® ‘11. The teacher said / 10 us that one ought / to work hard in A ® © order /to attain one goal. / No Exror. ©) «) 18, Being sure of his / success, he told his frends that /he would «a @) ever forget/ even his enemies names, No Error. © © © 19. The survey gives / us much knowledge of the / publie’s @ B) opinion /on the matter of terrorism. / No Error. © © ©) A Mirror of Common Errors u 20. Very few soldiers / dared toturn / a deaf car to their / @ ®) © Commander’s-in-Chief orders. No Exror. ®) 21. Your sof's+in-law’s friend is seriously ill / and be wants, @ ®) © {you /to see hitn as soon as possible, / No Exor. © ® (241 appreciate you / helping the poor / who are really the ee @) © most ignored and completely deprived / section of our o society. / No Error. ® 23.1 have road / many plays of Shaw's / who is called the / (ay @ © Shakespeare of our age. / No Error. @) © 24.1 do not want / to bring her to my home / because her Cy) @) © rashness /is quite intolerable. / No Error. ©) ® @ixe is chienty concerned / with his own problems / but you “ ® aay thar is not. / No Error, @) ) (Goa vind ony cn yey nt a ye a @) © ime for /some money. / No Error. © ® 27. Unfortunately for me / the root cause of my frustration (a ® lies /in the Governments / dubious policy. / No Error. oO o ® 28,He suggested to me / that I should go to the nursery / 10 “ @) bring some beautiful / summer's flowers. / No Error. a ) ® (GH came to his wits / end when he found / that his cy) ® younger / bother had slapped his wife. / No Error, © © © 30, When Jayia and Shyama / came across Jyoti they / caught “ @) one another hands / and talked for a while. / No Error, oO ©) ® 31. The former P.M. of India’s / Mr. P. V. Narsismha Rao's / a @B) visit to Japan strengthened the relationship / between India © and Japan, / No Estor. o © 32. It was India’s / past glory / that attracted / a number of @ ®) © invaders inthe remote past. No Error @ ©) @Beverybody should be careful / to fulfil the society's “ ®) demands / and thereby show his / attachment to it. / © @ No Error. ©) ‘34, “Everybody's business / is nobody's business’, / said the a) 3) teacher /to the students, / No Error. © ©) e) 38.1 postponed him / going to Delhi tonight as / I wanted him “ ®) to deal with / one of my major problems. / No Error. © () ©) @Bre ta her a he ad ever seen / her wil his ins A (By oO eye No Ero @) ©) 37. When I anved / athe gate of his / hows, L fou his «a @) oO Jockng up the door. NO Exe ©) e India and Chin's prescat/ condo cle indicate hat both ine couse wil face Tot sf problems in the © () coming tine. No Eee 3) 39, Keeping in view / the publi’ demands, the company A @) hd declared to improve the quality and lower / the prices oO of its products. / No Error. ©) ® 40, Bis maid servant / behaviour is undoubtedly / indecent Cs) B) bbut I don't / understand how he tolerates it. / No Error. © ) © 41, These buildings’ decoration /is not as much / impressive “ 8 © as it/ ought to be. / No Error. © «) 4BPethi's watsr supply / system is certainly / as good as is “@ B expected / in a capital town. No Error. oO ©) ©) 43; Yeats’s pootry is characterised / by his-unique style / “ @) which he developed / during the long span of his life, / oO o No Exror ) rutus’ role in Julius Ceasure / is very attractive as / well “ ®) as important as far as / the action of the play is concerned. oO ©) Ime blinds ies cealy very miserable / because they a) @) © can't ee / what happens around them. No Brtor m) © 46. Hs did not know even / the name of the seientst J who « @) siscovered / the taws of the earth gravitational force. / © o No Emer ® 47, "This blade’s edge / is sharper than any / other bade’s” A) ®) © sid theses representative ofthe company No Exor © © 48, Many ofthe questions’ given inthis question paper / are a ®) so difficol that / many of the students may fail. / © ©) No Esror ® (Gre President of tai consittional power is limites! (Ay B) buts the P. M. who is,/ indeed, powerful / No Ero. © @ () 50, Many a man’s life is in danger /if the Goverment does “ @) not take / any serious action to / safeguard us. No Error. Oo ® ‘51, Nobody's claim / to be a permancat member / ofthe ub @ ®) © js Valid /in the eyes of the committe. /No Error ©) ® ANSWERS 1.(D) 2 31a) 4.(B) 5.) 6.(B) 7.(B) 8.(D) 9B) 10.(D) UD) 12 (By 3.) 14.(C) 15. (B) 16.(D} — 17.D) 18.(D) 19.(C) 20. (D) (ha Bo Re EO | 26.(B) —27.(C) 28.(D) 29.(A) 30.(C) (ke 2 BO OO | 364E) 370) 38. (A) 39. (B) 40. (A) ALA) 42(E) 43.(E) 44.(E) 45. (A) 46.(D) 47.) aB.(A) — 49.(A) 50. (B) A Mirror of Common Errors EXPLANATIONS: 1. (D) else 3 Bre 's [apostrophe"'s)) Ssar TH, gray cle 3 78 else's ww en ae Fa fe SHANG THI WL somebody slse / nobody else / ‘anybody else Sie % aTe else 5 H's lapostrophe sear wer dear fi ftom gaa & fefeftas aor at saree A ere ‘not on my advice but of somebody else's advice a GE clee's Baz ‘advice’ HF repetion 8 wrt Be FE ‘advice’ ieee wee Heat BH EO Reh feafe =e feb understood we wT Bt ore, -augaa Expression & ee Frater 39 3 feet “aot on my advice but on somebody else's”, ee ard orate Fo ort et a (@® This is Rem's book and not Shyam’s. [book] Gi) Your problem is more ifficult than Sita’s [problem] . NOTE : 28 drew 8 RE TE UE [book, problem ote] Fa understood 2) 2. (© one of & WE We 4 Nous w vite SA Te Possession 7 Ownership #4 's SER wa mart & afer ‘of B ae wat & $e — one of the minister's residences % 822 the residence ‘of one of the ministers AT “fee! Sh 4 qe ae Efe ons of WE Noun Pleral Bat tr o:, Fae we WE St Nouns wT ye stent wt oe t fe Se FS see Now Phral 1 te fete ¥ Expression an ox Bh IT tee @ One ofthe minister's residence oft # Fe wT residence] Gi) One of the minister's residences PHT & residences # & carn: Be ARE ond ST SoraaTeHt Baws & fre a Rafe 2 cof a we Pe ST TELL set BPR Me ave BH eT ST BY "the residence of cone of the ministers! ta Bet 3.(A) "Te building's roof! *_ 8 the roof of the building’ = Fae wer vo wife Sree: Pais ent wee FRIET 'S [apostrophe ‘S'] AT AE wd tiem, (i) The room's decoration (i) The wall’s painting safe ST Tere Bl Se Expressions @ er refers wo 3 YER at fi (@ The room decoration The decoration of the room, (Gy The wal painting = The painting of the wall A Mirror of Common Errors 3 4. (B) Tohn’s and Mary's 22% John and Mary's #31 war ST are 2G, fe Ga St Nouns UGE F closely related SF SA GR Nou & oe de Gi ge wee Por (D) % ‘couple! we eT weer faeke xe TT amar & fi John and Mary Weve €i Sr, SF aa a ow a et ug si are 7 PR John’s and Mary's house ff wel Expression & Reg qa sef Eom John’s house and Mary's house’ Swi art & arfer ote Set a TEST 8 5.@) wee ge Bi care 2 Fh SH (weight) TataTe ret Bee eH 's [apostropho's] #1 arr #8 &; 38 — ‘A ton’s weight, A gram’s weight, A kilo’s weight safe 6.) wage 7. (B) son % ’s {apostrophe ‘s'] Farr Sa ISAT FA Genund {f48 Verbal Noun twat Tar &y Boe Possessive Case Wat at 8; 33— a Be Sancing + 4 Possessive — Gerund i) Your, singing + 1 Possessive Gerund 8. (D} india % ae 's @ vetr wort Som sah India wet India’s veer eT TA “America Problems °#f YT India % Problems & #, 7 fe India 31 2a (i) America's problems... India's. [problems] (©) Ram's books and Shyam’, [books] NOTE : (7H dios % fe TE TE understood ze ti, fends 8 [Apostrophe) 3 aq wer Gm ae friends 3 ee friends! a Ar orl AEE TE ae at aaee fd 18) Your tone of speaking as well os your friends” cone of speaking) ‘fee ay vt ert Te ae Peat Plural Noun #1 47 (5) 2 a BS Plural Noun % fae * [Apostrophe) seat Pat arar #, 5 R's (Apostrophe 's'] (i) Boys’ hostel FB Boys's hostel] (Gi) Girls’ hostel [7 FF Girls’ hostel] tery, HF Piural Nouns forrer ar [5] FE oH "SRE ‘s(apostophe's} st BS t; AB ‘Women’s college, Children’s books 271 10, (D) country’s & HEB country we Fee Sea we ['s) abr aarreaw #1 Peiffer Expcessions # ZS — (i) The population of the countey. [7 FR countty’s} Qn a ara) (ii) The progress of the country. (7 F& country’s] GT at afi) 11, (©) poor's 3 3 poor ar west Go HFT that ofthe poor 7 3 & the life ofthe poor. 12.@) wife Fae 's wT AM sre wile Be ae wife's a FarT dor weil FER AE expression eT & For your sake... for your wife's sake] sat ra @ For Ram's sake and Shyam’ [sake] (i) For his success as well as his wife's (success) a 13. (D) ‘the wall's falling down" % 4% “the falling down of the wall? 37 Fete SAT ST ws wall PT seerd atte ees e's aT veh 3 fer sar NOTE: Praga caro fare sweet 3) 88 BO suatts 7 * faposteophe] a FT sear TM OH f= coming ge _Gonnd_€ sth cal iC Posesive Case Sm Bal £3 Pr Objective aT Nominative Case =; es (He appreciated your singing. (5 “7 {Gy She stopped Raun’s bebaving like this. (UF FT Fe FER ST BE NOTE : (Prag sacea % fog see to 7) 15, (B) Gandhi's ® we Gandhi wi Bor, FH This / That / These Those / Tae + Noun + of + Noun* of ¥% we ae NOUN & BME ’s [Apostrophe ‘s’ = [Apostrophe] = ahr 3 fear sat #; {) This house of Ram fF Ram's Tort or 7 This Noun of Noun (iiy This hostel of Patra College {7 ¥ College's} 16. (D) one of my friend’s houses ** Ee the house of one of my friends =e" TST NOTE : Frege sara % form SH Fo (2) 17. (D) one We 's 3 wate rT sree one & TH one's wa sary arm a () One should keep one's promises. [FE one promises} (i) One should be tue to one’s word. [7 PR one word] 438. (D) enemies % at " [Apostrophe] Far Aer! Sees enemies AB enemies’ 3a Ba (i) He honours his seniors desires. [7 f seniors) 19, (C) public's opinion % 7 public opinion Sr =AT= public / hostel / city / village / 37f@ Noun ® == * 4 AMirror of Common Errors wae Haat Adjective BF ot oie:, TH aye 's a waa or Tem th ta (i) The public consists of you and me T Ni (he i opin eas i sai saloon dena Adi Noun (ii) This school has a beautiful hostel - : Noun? () Heremembershis hostel life oT Adj. Noun 20, (D) Commander'sin-Chief % we@__Commanderin- Chiefs #2 ahs am are (B) wife wee ’s wr sere or was A+ Noun + of + Noun Construction # of & a1 a1 Noun =e ’s {apostrophe ‘s)) 1 stn fear orate ae Noun um fafeaa safer a (i) A. book of Ram's is missing. rr A Noun of Noun’s (4 f& Ram] (ii) A pen of Shyam'’sis red [3 Shyasn] fang, Prrafefsa Phrases ® ae RI G)A picture of Sita ar GH TRAIL (ii) A pictue of Sita's Sav & SE ST wea Sa aw 27.(C) Government ee ’s at wae Bn) eh Government % 2& Government's ya Sri za (i) The Government's dubious policy (Gi) The Government's planning 28, (D) summer's flowers 3% summer flowers 3 aT Err PR season AH [SF summer, autumn, winter, spring Sif] me's [apostrophe ‘s'] sed 4h float aren 1 vars ea FR summer, autumn anf Nouns 3 Be H agar -BF ¥ she Adjectives 3 wrt tea (© Spring. is the king ofall seasons. Noun i) There are 2 number of spring flowers in bis garden Adj. Noun fry. (i) summer, spring, autumn, winter tafe Porsonified Par Se Sg E's a wah Peat ‘ara th $B—Spring’s arrival, Winter's departure (ii) A summer's day ® A summer day, A winter's day “aT A winter day °6 st watt Sr 1 29.(A) 7H wits BHT wits’ NOTE : at one’s wits’ end (Nesfield); at one’s wit's end (A. 8. Hornby) idiom & ferarar anf tar # Gramteatang a Ree 31 30. (C) ‘one another’ % 7H one another's =F FAT eM wre <@ fi 7 each other TT one another % HR's [apostrophe ‘s'] ax sritt ETB A's Lapostrophe ‘s!] other Ta" another ® srt Ber @; S3— @ They pointed out each other's merits and demerits. i) They respoct one another's parents, 31. (A) India % Mi ’s [apostrophe 's'] ew Farr Fe Ber ef India's & axe India er HAT Som Ie Te A ‘fret Noun art ZI Noun in Apposition [1% Noun at Phraso St amy & wee wpe Bae Noun/ Pronoun 3 wer % ser Sex Se Noun / Pronoun BY Explain at tj a wat at 's [Apostrophe '"] ‘51 271 Noun in Apposition tat €; $8— (i) Ram the doctor's advice. : t ‘Noun in Apposition (a P& Ram’s the doctor's advice] 32, (B) arr ue th vars arms (THE), bellows, fetter, pincers, tongs, sheers. (© Articles of Dress: trousers, pants. patloons, trappings aft (& fresferFa Singular Nouns 34 S% Plural $s ae a! ao peep gop bases OEE A Mirror of Common rors " (b) Comy N % root word # Plural Formation (Sin; uF eu t pound Nouns t word F Ph atic Sipe) a cafe cafes (Sinay m © belie belts 1 son-in-law sons-in-law proof proofs step-son step-sons turf ‘urs Chief-Minister Chief-Ministers roof roofs said servant said servants gulf sults eit friend sir friends sit iets boy friend boy friends anf&i safe safes } (¢) man 7@t woman ® @ Compound Nouns % eh set serfs SS), Pans Plural Formation tar ti 38— ete strifes we Sin SA (© WE Noun + Proposition + Noun GML Noun + Gp. ee 7 deposition + aét Noun) @ a Proposition ® Bt stk Nouns son servant men servants Singular 82 #; 82— I san teacher men teachers Tow upon row [4 £6 rows upon rows} woman doctor women doctors dlay by day F days by days woman sdvecate women advocates day after day (6 days after days) rs. NOTE : = t@ fie 2H Noun + Preposition + Noun * ‘man hater man haters Nouns Bara a rolem es $$ fomen after women / climbed the rostru ‘man lover man lovers ey (B) im to / spe ‘woman hater ‘woman haters ‘against the cruel / practices of dowry and bride burning. / woman lover woman lovers © oO ‘wtf man hater = one who hates man etc. No. Pee (d) FS BS Nouns & fea set A fre a Bet 8 Tar ‘GFR Plural Formation “fife! 8 WERE “ves” Sg far Sat te Sing. wl) t u life lives knife knives wile wives calf calves half halves Salt elves self selves leaf leaves thief thieves sheaf sheaves loaf loaves wolf wolves Far, SHAFT Nouns fA at HT fife een dart eT Plural Formation 2% ate # s drew fear rat #1 Sing wu chief chiefs iff i , e fete & f& Par (A) Tet ti “Women after women’ 3 2528 SY Woman after woman" 3a sweat TEM Give mopees, ton miles we TNL WT WAT: BS ies ey are WE AF Noun ww wer B th os Ee ve rupees 3 428 five rupee, ten miles % EE ton mile 5 7 sate ater &; a () Five rupees have been spent fg, (i Tveaeraper nae. fv ees Noun ‘ea 5a, (a tem-mile walk (Gi) two ten-rupee notes. safa, BH He ten-mileften-rupec 4 WH Adjective 7 weet Wet RE eT BY Hi cae ea ee hyphenvaied expressions ST # WAT ator Baht wer arer & fe hypheneated expressions Plural Formation 74 tar #1 amt, $8 oe ae TET Te, a TH (7) 1 Fr One of + the + Noun (Plueal) ay wit Be 21 aa: aa A one of a Farr EF TT Ae ae Fe “Fe gah TE Noun Plural @ at 38 Pits Tae smn ET er Sterol 8B st ts $B One of the most ineligent boy [FE boy % A boys a) 18 A Mirror of Common Errors, (Gi) One of the book [7 ‘book 3 ae@ books SM] gg fran amettey Problem ae ) Oe of the problem / with you /is that you do not / ce B® «) comein time, No Err. 0) ® (ee wea Pat ‘A H problem % A problems sear Re, FHA one of AE ‘Noun E22 Plural #at €) (8) at wer Oe TE Zach of + the + Noun Pura Either of +the + Noun (Plural) Neither of + the +Noun (Plural) E24) Hither ofthe boys F boy! (ed wa, SR None of tthe + Noun (Plural) (10)[Any_of + the + Noun (Plural) fe = Noun COUNTABLE 81 (an [MawaFrte > Noon countable Ga) C noun eountble 1) ou» uncountable Sing) Nout courtable @.) SG FF boy) STAR All of + the “$8 “None ofthe boy PROBLEMS BASED ON NOUNS AND NUMBERS, Directions : Find out the error in each of the following sentences, ifany, If there is no error, your answer is “E’. 1. One of her firmest belief / was that her friend shouted at (a @) her / with view to making her / awate of her repeated © ©) lapses. / No Error ® @in ove of cr ft conversation she nfrme e/a “w (B) she had lost her husband / in a bus accident / No Error. oO @) (E) 44 Allhe girls students / ofthe college are advised /t0 sit in “w (B) oO the / Giels Common Room. No Error. © 3) “A:The majority of the woman / teachers are persuading / “ ®) the principal to consider / their demands, / No Error. © ©) ® js harmful /to take cupsful / of tea / fe times a day. / a ® © o Ein aa eae ms “ @) © puzzled / the politicians very much, / No Error. 0) «) 7.The present datas / show that the iliteracy rate / in India « ® has fallen down but not / to the level of expectation. / © ® ‘No Error. © 8.He said that /he always kept in his pocket /a bundle of @ ®) cone hundred /rapees notes. / No Error. © © ® 9.Running a five stars / hotel needs much more / money “ ®) than what we have i / our account, /No Error. © o ©) 10. He gave me / two important informations / Thad been « waiting for for the previous two months, / No Ertor. ©) ®) 11. Your advices are / the proof of your / discriminating mind «“ ®) © and / pragmatic approach, /No Error. o © 12,An earthquake / is « natural phenomenan / and nobody a) ®) © cean check it, be sure, No Error. © © 13. The class teacher / gave him a home work / and w ® instructed him to do it/ at night. No Error. © o © 14.1 saw only / five police who / were running after / the “ ® © bankcrobbers, No Esto © © Dive seas fe when plans wero ary / or me w ® © to//eamry on the head. / No Error. © ® 16, All the Chiefs Ministers / are responsible forthe / pitiable a) ® condition of thei / states. / No Error. © o AnAfter he had delivered / the speech, be said that he w ® hoped /to be conspicuously understod / ail forgiven for © oO any lapses. / No Error. ® a - AMimror of Common Errors 18, He says that / @ twormiles walk / always keeps him / “a ®B) © healthy and fresh. / No Error. @) ® (BY Ihe aves shou ot look seomfully fat he aves not «a ®) rather they should / try to encourage them to work hard © ©) and earn ther livelihood. / No Ener. ®) 20, “Language consists of several stratums”, / said a linguist / “a ®) in his lecture on Language /and Linguistics. No Error. © © ® 21. All his sister-in-laws / are extremely beautiful / to Look “a ®) ‘so the question / of selection is_very puzzling. / No © o Exor. ©) 22. The bretherns / of this locality are always / at daggers- “ ®) érawn without any / apparent reason. / No Error. © © ®) 23, The wall of this magnificent / building is / fifty foot high a ®) and its paintings / are very striking. /No Error. oO © ® GQ)" The headquarter / of the Army is in Delhi, ies realty “ ®) very / surprising that you do not know / even this fact. / © ) No Ereor. ® 25.1f a student needs / advice about careers, / he should “ ® © cconsult/ the careers officer. ‘No Error. © e 26, Two summons / have been issued by the court / but you “ ®) brave not / turned up yet. No Error. oO ) ©) 27. He has bought / a dozen of copies / of British English “ 3) © Grammar, / which is 2 very popular book among the @) students. / No Error. © 28, The beautiful surrounding / of the palace f atracted a large (a) ®) number of tourists / coming from abroad. / No Err. © ©) ® is 29. The sceneries / of Kashmir is more beautifl / than that “ Cc) © of / Darjeeling. / No Error. © © ‘His means / are very limited / yet he does not curtai / his y (a) ®) © expenditure and spends lavishly. / No Extor. : © €) - 31.He uses a fine / quality of shampoo / so his hairs are / a ®) © black and atractive. /No Error. ©) ©) 32 Wordsworth’s poetties / is characterised by his subtle a 8) description / ofthe beauty and liveliness / of Nature. )No © ) Ener. ® G3 The doctor declared that / the patient's intestine was / not “ ® ‘working preperely and so he needed / medical treatment © © for long time. / No Error. €) 34. He has ordered /bricks/for the proposed / hoiel and bar/ a © o NoEnor, ® 35. When you see his /offsprings, you can't / believe that be @ ®) © is/ above seventy. / No Error. © ©) - 36. “Please convey my best / regard and wishes to the “ ®) Boss", / the secretary said to the peon / of the Manager. © © NoExor. ©) 37. The presty woman / sitting in the car is / the daughter of @ () oO the one of the headman ofthe village, / No Error. ©) &) 38. When he returned / from America, he informed me / that w B hhe had come here / to do an urgent work. / No Error. oO © ® 39. Many of the MPs absented / themselves from / Parliament _ w @) ‘when some issues of the highest national importance / © ‘were to be discussed. / No Error. © ) 20 AMirror of Common Errors 40. The issues are / very complex and the problem / is that A ®) they ae bound tobe obscured! by these hypocteal © (D) Policins. No Exo. «) yi BPrceon te i mtn a“ ®) 1 preparing forthe Banking Service / Examinations No © @) Error, . o 2 "There ate only / certain boy that are sincere / and A) (8) Celigen and tat can do wel in he examinations." sd © the ls teacher /No Br. P.O ® Ve have never seen / such a lovely spectacles / in my life”, “w (B) © sui the puso. No Ee ® 44.1 d0 my best but I don't understand why / donot gt “a @®) expec / mais in the examination. /No Eo. ico) @) €) 45. You we among thos / eles man who / laine name «& B) and fae 2% by abou bot by canes. No Eo. © @) ©) SSh- @Not io speak of fite/ even a magedyidoes not affect! = @) ® © his igh pels. / No Eo. () €) 1 47-Oing to his heavy engagemert he coud not wit even A (By worth ofthe book of Which he pula Sos oO expected before anu /No Bao. @) ® 48.°t know nothing / bout his whereabout/ Do you "he ra) () © ssid tome. /No Eno (PD) ) & 4B.Now Ihave come /o know why he always / remain t (A) (B) loggerstead with his wife /\and mother incaw: / . © ©) Noor ® 50, You will not / be allowed / to go anywhere else / 0 play a ® © outdoor games. / No Error. ©) © ANSWERS: LA 20) 38a 4 8) 6@) 72a) 8@) 9.04) WA 26 BB) 1B) 1.) | 16(A) IR) 18.08) 1.) a.) | (A) 2A) BO) HLA). 28.) 26.(A) 270@B) LA) B.A) 30.08) 340) RA) BB) MB) 38.) 36.@) 397.0) BD) E40.) 4A) 4.8) BB) 4B) 45.08) 6® 47.8) 4&8) 9.@ 50. ®) EXPLANATIONS| (A) “belief” % eet ‘beliets' ar Kar hm *aitPs one + of are Plural Noun a wate er &; FR @ Qneof the books, “Tt oT one of Noun (Plural) (i) gneof the women ete, a fone of Noun (Plural) 2 (A) conversation plural form ‘conversations’ #4 st Bam SRT sot Bo 1H fea TT th 3.(A) ‘girls students’ % EE ‘girl students’ et FAME Compound Nouns # fir er Wet m7 Plurl formation fara sat &; $8 — PI SINGULAR LURAL. (@ maid servant maid servants i) boy friend boy fiends (ily girl student gil students Gv) female dector female doctors 4.(A) ‘woman’ & 7z@ ‘women’ Ben gh man’ sera ‘woman’ 3 #% Compound Nouns & sara St 1 srt # Plural formation Frat ser &; F— SINGULAR PLURAL, ar TO (@ man conductor —_men conductors Gi) man servant ‘men servants (ii) woman engineer Gv) woman supervisor ‘women engineers women supervisors A Mirror of Common Errors 28 5. (B) ‘cupsfur” % 3e& cupfule’ Wear wes BB Nouns fara Sa “ful 3H fl 's' SHE Plural Formation we a . Singular Plural — Ty @ cupful cupfals (i anata handfuls (Gi) mouthful -nouthfuls (iv) spoonful * spoons (©) elassol slasfuls 6. (B) “slectorate’ plural number 3 tr faet one Wat Yotets. 2, electorates’ Wa electorate's NT arr sifiegy 7. (A) data singular 3 plural OF & forms 3 abn dar &i ‘t:, data F plural formations datas 7a &h . 8. (D) rupees 3 FA rupee SM GT one hundred rupees ‘wet & Fey a one hundred - rupee mote ™ Two one hundred — rupee notes *5e4 & ts 34 Noun ‘note’ # ite one hundred - rupee fu UH Adjective &T 3 arf sear Mi ht yer, A twomile walk PZ ‘Two miles’ walk. ) A five-star hotel 3 =e A five-star hotel GP Ta Bret Br fo 8H A ME tl 10. (B) information GF Uncountable Noun &1 aia, eee weg 3 AVAn a wate Ghar atte 7 t's SITET FEST Plural formation Sm BY Fw Nouns ‘@—news / information / advice/ work / scenery / pottery imagery / poetry / stationery et. ‘GFF Singular $33 ER a piece of / a bit of THT Plural pieces of / bits of anf =rese are sat #1 3m: two important pieces of inofrmation °r ab a tm NB. Work #1 sf aa “ond, caer” @, at ae Uncountable Noun @at i Ihave am urgent work. % urgent 2 WS ‘an’ ax ahr mes 81 ‘an’ =z wT some’ # Heit Ga #, Aa piece of urgent work 8 FR ti Bier work Bowe ae aw aw a a ae Countable Noun Sra a Macbeth is a popular work of Shakespeare J + a work "F, Gi) AM the works of Shakespeare are worthreading. { work = Ploral TL (A) advices 95 AER advice 7 Neer Bom wre ge slo 108 feer wm &1 88 ag or TH fe Tee” att 4H *Advice’ Uncountable Noun %, f= Advices ad ara’ ta th 12. ©) wea ye th 13, (B) home work 5 WR aw sae ae Sor TT Te He 103 fem war ti 88 oe ww Fe home work / urgent work / class work / important work anf # ‘work Uncountable Noun 14, () ‘police’ & ee policemen Bar HH “The Police” “2% plural number #1 FE Police sity =e far ‘1 Countable Noun % 0 % Policeman at 557 Plural Policemen erat t; $8— (@ Thepotice are becoming more and L + Noun Verb Pura) Piura) more inactive Farg (i) Thave seen a policeman coming here. uoe a Noun Countable Singular ii) Two policemen were running after thet t J Two Noun (Countable Plural) 15. (A) sheaf "1 Plural formation sheals 7 Gar % ates sheaves tat $i sat TH Te knife, life, wie, calf half, self, elf, wolf, loaf, thief, leaf, sheaf, shelf = Plural f/f me ‘vos’ ew Fe aT 16, (A) Chiefs % we Chief Gm Chief Minister Compound Noun &, fener HT = Minister &t :, EH Plural Chief Ministers dtm gt ==, ‘Singular Plural L 4 @ State Minister State Ministers (i Bank Officer Bank Officers ii) Distt Magistrate District Magistrates 17.) ey yt 18. (B) a two-miles walk % ae a two-mile walk BT) ST Bet Ho 8H fem war 3) 19. (C) haves not % FEN have nots er faa seh ees The poor, WE haves, FART SRF Wea the sch, fatianies wy th 20, (A) stratum Latin THE & FATT Plural strata dor & a fe swatums. Fe wert % He wet a Plural fra @) dictum—dicta (@) memorandam—memoranéa (Gi comigendvnr—corrigenda (iv) bacterium—bacteria, ete. 2 AMintor of Common Ercors NOTE : Fo Gy dicwm Plural dictums, memorandum "1 Plural memorandums 74 corrigendum 1 Plural corrigendums = of ex wet § Stet 2 iy wars 48 21, (A) sisterinlaws % eH sistersin-law Som =e fam ae Ho 3281 22. (A) brethren armen and & éy-aiva’) sr3-sav % Plural ‘Si Ha: FSR OWT ‘5’ TAT plural formation FAT as . 23, (©) fifty foot WEB fity feet Her APE foot wT plural feet Gr $1 Iregular ae & plural form Ee ree B ‘e oe + @louse lice Gi) mouse, rice (i) dormouse dormice Gv) goose geese (9) tooth teeth (vi) man men (vil) woman women 24, (A) omer 7 Ferg ‘headquarters’ we wT we Singular ate Plural et anf ata; $3 (0) The headquarters ofthe Army. (i) The headquarters of the Army & the Nevy. sat wer quarters WH WaT SW & a 7 Singular aft Plural 2 @ wat & gar 25, (E) et YK Bh 26. (A) ‘Summons’ GF Countable Noun % wat Singular & ‘SH Plural summonses at ti GA Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary) @14:, Two summonses 3 sr Gm 27. (B) a dozen copies 2% dozens of copies = 5arT Er AT A dozen Two dozen Sth WT A hundred (Two hundred safe 3 ame ‘oft at wae set ot Py Douens @ Hundreds % = of at wamT eat &; sa () Adozon mangoes (@F ™7 3) fey, (i) Dozens of mangoes (it 51) 28. (A) surounding % #z@ surroundings wat eo ‘Fite surounding GF Adjective & Freee anf Ger & crt ar aD; $B (@ Patna and its surrounding countryside 70 soumtside Adjective Noun surroundings (Plural Noun & favor sof Gt @ feet ore & art ate at A; Fa (The surroundings of this museum t Noun 29. (A) sceneries % CB scenery Som wre % Ferg sme ‘der 10281 30. (@) aaa ye hh 31. (C) haies 3 3S hair Bo She are TH is GM baie GF Collective Noun & af< =e Uncountable #1 FT aft gaat firm wt amg dt hair Countable @ arar @, she ah feat a hair, two hairs on ar are &: NOUN (collective) (i) Als ie i Black + NOUN collective) Teg. (ii) Two srs of Ram's head are white LoL Two NOUN PLURAL) 32. (A) poetries % ER pieces of poetry — pooms tM aren % fag st eT 10 2 inostine % CS intestines Tat ee ws imestines aro Plural @¢ % at #1 PHT the stall intestine, the large intestine =F 520 He BL Plural form 3 ayaa Bar gps ar Nouns # Ba spectacles FM) / glasses (FEW), manners (erred, riches GK, 4) scissors, trousers etc, 3M. (B) bricks ARE pieces of brick oT ATT brick stone, iron, ioe 277% Uncountable Nouns @; (® This dunglow is made of briek/stone ote. FY stone U6 Countable Noun @ar # =e yaar art Bae a ZTE BB—He threw a stone in the water, 3g TR iron plural irons eer &, Se weer on @ rat & Sst eed) 35. (B) offsprings % 42H offspring BHM ‘OfTpring’ Rreret aed ‘Sarr’ & Singular 3A Plural St sref gen Bar #1 33 (i) Her first offspring (= first child = Yee" ea) could not survive. (i) Her two offspring alive. 36. (B) regard % wee regards a wae oT FAP oe aT 3 Kindly thoughts and wishes FET regacds #21 fern rar &, sraia, or sae convey my respects, regards, wishes sf 3 set fara sat 33. iwo children = @ WSR) are AMitror of Common Errors 37. (D) (i) the one of #4 ite the headman * YES Er BAT Safey ite feed ate a1 we & headman Gfarm) ter ti i) What beautiful spectacles ! (= What beautiful glasses ') Gm Gage eet) ip 88, one of TE the hesdnen CH heudman @F 44. 6) my eh plural ®) =r wat fret oT wart} fieg ant iste 8 ex wer wor g one ser fi ba (i) The headman of this panchayat is kind. (ee terra wr after ay me \ (Gi) One of the headmen of these ten panchayats is NOTE : wéer, ste % meats & fore marks vee = 8 tte Gar bi mark ay nt 43 Tew’ ahr te ah orf F of mark wt Ploral marks Ga 8 $8— (@ Who made these dirty marks on my new book? fg, Gi) He got good marks in English, kind. 45. (B) man % %e men Br HE TAR TEA one of (eee tart & gett 3 ew cag 38 (D) urgent work % Wee an ax ware Fe Bom Pega srrentt & ferq sre tear 13 ger 10% marer eat 39.6) oer ge th 40. (E) ame ye tt 41. (A) type ARS types a win Ber Fie These / Those / certain other an Demonstrative Adjectives az Noun BT Plural Number # Sat &8 Tew a Ths For oT UMA R46 Gs Experssion “This type” 8 se, FF Part (B) # Verb Plural Number 3 # srt: These types #1 =e em 42. (B) boy % ace boys erm HE certain + Noun (Plural); $8— (certain books Gi) certain pens fry A conain + Noun (Singulac); $2 — (i) Acertain book, (ii) A certain pen. 43. (B) spectacles % weet spectacle at FAT ao wei spectacles % a of WT glasses cre wer 47. (B) scenes GD; F— GO He usually wears spectacles, (r=) ®@e Gi) There are some beautiful spectacles (@X™) in this hilly region FRE, Spectacle, HT Singular Countable Noun sw mr wear 3 ont Set dhe 8 aes tea st 3 Bar bh or: (What a beautiful spectacle! Mat a beautiful sight) (= aT RARE FH fr, @ What beautiful spectacles ! 49, (©) hat beautiful sights / scenes !) Grn aa gray) 50. () ak watt th 88 ae sft me THR one of, cithor of neither of, each of, every one of, many of, both of, number of 2% % 51 Noun tie Plural Number art @ One of the bags (ii) Many of te hats (ii) Both of the rats (iv) Bither of the candidates. ar wa th Failure (lack of success) ‘areworn’ anf Uncountable Noun & ara: ga wee +A ART Ra rr ate 7 Fea Plural failures ai set ve, spirit Singular Noun & ste ea=1 onf sre (soul) “ET (ghost) Star #1 FY spirits 41 aM alcohol Far $: aS ETA ohh ‘mood’ st Bat 8 ak, in good spirits Jin bad spirits ante ax wm weit ot 8 3 fe in good spirit" in bad spirit 71 SF A good spirit BA bad spirit ater Bar #1 wosthied % AEE iwouthirds a wey eo ihe one-third (Singular) & fy two-thirds / three-fourths ‘fe Plural #1 whereabout 3 9=% whereabouts #1 watt @hm whereabout 5 die 4 Gat & APES whereabouts winrar th Noun ee seer on tet Grr) TAT FT AT Singular = Plural Verb = sar tar @; a8 (@ His whereabouts is/are not known, “Seer Interrogative Adverb % =x Hea ond dea fea wre ar ew eM a BB () Whereabouts did you find it? at loggers-head 3 azz at logger-heads = watt Oo Faraear Sr rar & ( in disagreement) are ax i Chapter-4 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT. ech at Finite Vorb 1 Number 3% Person af (Subject) ' Number 3% Person ® aget St a They go. . Gi) Be goes. said go Us Fi art Plural & <4 Ht, FG singular 8 3 ‘ong 1 fir 9 SUBIECEVERB AGREEMENT & & emt oe amas G1 % fre {A) | Subject (Singulas) ———> Verb Singular) 80 SE a book: saite verb © T Ploral Subject “They” % Singular Subject "He’ 4 ¥ sub, Verb (Sing) (Sing) Gi Ram mango. v v Sub. ‘Verb (Sing) Sing.) anere : (UF VE am, was TTR wo fave Pru war iy You wre 2 frend Plural, p)[ Subject ural) -———_—> Ver (Plural) @ Tey a Playing in the Field sub. Verb ey PO Gi) We sre walking in the field. TOY ‘Sub, Verb ey PL NOTE : o7e Ta fH Subject Ver Problems FRR is, are, am, was, were, car Persit pa oat Hh eT H SUT is TSE are 7 am, do does, have % TS nas ane a arr ye weet ee aT 2 i) My friend f were / not pre A OB sent there. / No Extor D E was! aa aT friend” Third c eae, rer Part (BH “were F A ger afkg, wis AT AT Subject “My Person, Singular Number # 81] aa feqa 3o 4 28 — 1b Agreement re do, does, have. has BGA E 27 ex Present Indefinite Tense # (ay aR Aa AT Subject WH Singular Noun B_@_Vesb singular et &; 38— {@) Mohan is always late. Gi) Abbook has been bought. (2) af& @ Singular Nouns ‘and’ 3 YB et a Verb Plural ants — (i Ram and Shyam have come Gi) Abook anda pen have been bought (ay ate B Singular Nouns ‘and! 8B B, P TH TR each 8 every Hat BH Vo Singular 8%: a @ Bach boy and each gl is invited Each aps ead eh GN each Noun Sing) each Noun’ sing.) a 6) Bach tex ota cach Noun Noun (Sing) ine) owe A Singular Nouns ‘and! & SERGE A wats, eg re a eat a Verb Singular (j) Bread and butter is my favourite food. ‘8S FS Nouns FTF profaras Bread and butter, Rice and cury, Horse and cating, Hammer and sickle, Crown and glory et. NOTE: fry 8 St Nouns & ae 3 fatter att oe ae “Ba Verb Plural ter @; 3 — (i) Crown and glory exist together. ‘a (6) aK A Nouns 4 Pronouns as ‘well as, in addition to, Tesides, ike, unlike, with, along with, together with ve mrained by, led by, headed by, guided by, omtoled By feromed by, rater than, and not ane & FW H Veh SET Noun at Pronoon 3 siyar tat ts (@ You as well as yout sister were in the wrong, (i) He together wit his friends ts coming tos. NOTE ear ca fe BE awe H sister % STE yes he mendes were 5 AT AR Problems FE TE fi a (AAER Subjects Not only but also, Neither ee iter + 088 SB a Verda THE ara Subject ® agER att; F— (i) Neither you nor Lam willing to do it. (ji) Neither you nor ‘he is making 2 noise. isinvited A Mitror of Common Errors, 25 "$8 PROT arent Problems aya ge ame Hi RA Ci) Nether Prakash nor his / brother Preshant ate / capable «a ) ‘of doing this / work within two days. No Error. © ©) ® [GRAMIN BANK 1991] [ee art & PART (B) 9 ‘Were’ Fe ‘was! TINT Ben Fah Verb were ST Subject ‘nor his brother Prashant’ & & Third Person, Singular Number # #) (7) A Subject not . but mF ‘not 2 3S et te aa Te %, seh agar ter ty (i) Not she burher friends are guilty. (i She and not hr friends is guilty (8) aR ara ar Subject Each, Hither, Neither B @ Verb Singular det &; 33— {i Finvited two boys but neither has come (0) Each of / Either of / Neither of / Every one of / One of, safe % aE Noun zt Pronoun Plural Bt , fey Verb Singular; 38— — (i) Bach of the mangoes. ts ripe Noun (PL) (ii) One of them has played well. “L Pronoun (PL) ge Fram arate Problem 22 — () The teacher asked the student / if every one of them / “ @) wore ready to attend the classes every day / No Error. © o ©) [em area ® PART (C) ® ‘were’ ® wee ‘was’ St Fart ‘ar ate every one of AE Noun 8 Pronoun Plural PFS ‘Verb Singular Bia 1] yf (10) 2H AEH A Subject everybody, somebody, pobods. anybody. someone, no ane, everyone, anyone, venting, someting, sothing, anything 8 # Verb Sings ant sa (i Everybody knows thatthe earth is round. {i Everybody among your friends likes playing. Se (12) we ave Subject Many, Both, Few, A fow & & Verb Plural tra; $8 — (i) Both are happy. (i) Many were invited but afew have come, (13) Both of, A few of, Few of, Many of & @ Noun Pronoun Plural 72 Verb st Plural Bra #; $8— (i) Many ofthe wees. are green J Noun PI.) (14) Many, A great many, A good many % 51% Noun Plural aft Verb st Plural tra &; $— GA great many boys are siting thee. farg Many a/an % @E Noun Singular At Verb Singular fat &; S8— _ @ Many a pen ised bobod 4 Many a Noun Verb Sing) Ging) (15) A number of, A large number of, Large numbers of ‘ar Noun Plural Tat Verb *ft Plural rat @; $8— (A number of irs have passed * ‘The number of ae Ne Singular ar 81 32— (@ The numberof the buss i increasing (46) Some, Some of, Al, All of, Bough, Most, Most of, Losts of, A lot of, Plenty of % #1 Noun #f& Countable & 7 ‘a Plural Gra & sfx Verb t Plural; t8— (@ All men are mortal. Gi) Lots of players were there. farg, we aR WE Noun Uncountable tt AE Singu @at & afk Verb “t Singular Bat 8; FS— {Some money is needed (i) Lots of its avaiable (17) Half of, One tid of, Two thirds of, Three fourths of ae Noun #E Countable & @ 3e Plural Hat & sie Verb ‘& Plural drat ¢; $3— (i Hatt the hots are closed rodey faeq, FR WE Noun 7% Uncountable # te Singular ‘rer & ait Vorb & Singular Bran 1 S3— (0 Tho thirds ofthe lard has been ploughed (18) More than one ® @1& Singular Noun 3A Singular jexb erat &; FB (More than one room is vacant fieq, More + Plural Noun + than one 3 AE Verb Plural aa ts (i) More teachers than one are late, (19) There war Tt st HFiET AE Introductory Subjects * eu 9M There B Me Verb HF WAM There WE TAHT Noun @ Pronoun 3% Number 38% Person oe fre seat an (i There was a king. (ji) There were two kings. fg, 1B a Verb GT Singular Ga Bs $8— (@ If is these boys that came late today. Plus a ———— 26 A Mirror of Common Errors (20) af Fit Numeral Adjective + Plural Noun & fafean of, Ga, aor, sere one ar ate aT Vero Singulas Brat #; 38— (i) Twothousand rupees is afandsome amount L tog Nomeral Noun Verb (adi) (PL (Sing) (ii) Ten tons of coat is enough for me. farg, fe Numeral Adjective + Plural Noun & faft=1 ‘oferat ot Shr 8 at Ver’ Phoral dat & $B — (@ TWworhousand rupees have been spent 4 L t Numeral Noun Verb (ad) PL) SHER (21) 7% who, which wer that 5 WEF Relative Pronouns ae ea 3 a HH we HBT Verb FR Antecedents [Number 3h Person We Pte wrt; BB Gi). who am a teacher, teach hete (i) The students who are here did not do wel. ‘ex Fre amt Problems aga WB ait #; Se (i) One of the issues / which was discussed / in the “& ®) meeting / was raised by me. / No Error. oO o e [BS.R.B, PATNA 1992] eu ares Part (B) Hf ‘was! 3 aCe ‘wore’ wat ‘arm FHT “which! Relative Pronoun & fae Antecedent ‘the issues’ Plural & she Fa STE Verb st Plural em (22) art % Uniulfilled wish, condition, desire eas Ba fae if as if as though, 1 wish, We wish ete % ‘emt WE To Be ay art tat Tea Reh ‘wore! we TH rat @ GR Subject Fest At Number Pesson 1 FH FB Be (iy Lwish Twere a bird. a fra & arate Problems ™gat WS se &; FR {IFT was you /T would have told / the Chairman to keep “a ®) © ‘his mouth shut. No Eero. ©) ® [BS.RB. (BANGALORE) P. 0. EXAM, 1990] ge wat & Part (A) B ‘was’ Sea ‘were’ Ht FAT ‘gun atts iM % Untulfilled wish / condition / desire Gora a0 Sera) Fe Ae if / as if / as though / Pwish ete. ae ae aE To Be we wan Ba Geer ‘were’ BT WHT HT am & (23) af & Pronouns ‘and & BB FH Verb Plural Bret Bs ao wy @ Land he are guilty yor Voy Pro. and Pro. Verb wy (i) You he have disturbed me. pou od J Pro, and Pro, Verb e ‘ea Sram setter Problems ft ager gS Te #: 3— Gi) You and I/ am going to take part / in the meeting “ 3) tomorrow / No Error. ©) ) [LDSB. 1990] tga are 3 Part (B) # am 3 #z& are wate eT te Part (A) # You’ war ‘T' ‘and? gS # sie va TTR Subject Plural 1) PROBLEMS BASED ON SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT Directions : Find out the error in each of the following sentences, f any. If there is no error, your answer is ‘E' 1. Two miles beyond / that pasture was seen hundreds / a“ ® cattle including / some lambs. / No Error oO @) ® -2.ttis noticed that / the elite class have no soft / comer for « 8) the downtrodden who are the / real victims of the present © ©) social set-up. /No Error ® 3. Ritu as well as / some of her friends / have fallen in love “ @) © swith Sonu, whos the eldest son of an $. D. OJNo Error © ® 4.More than one successful candidate / have taken the (ay interview for one / of the popular magazines / being ®) oO ‘publishied from Delhi. / No Exror ©) ®) (Wis there any sificties 1 in disposing of this recs x “ @) 8S building / built on such a spacious / and beautifol © campus. /No Error () («) A Mirror of Common Errors 7 6.The leader as well as / his followers are fatally injured cy ®) ii/ the tain accident which occured last night / near this © railway crossing. / No Error @) e 7.The request of the workers’ / union that their wages “@ . (B) shouldbe Fincreased were supported by /a vast majority./ © @) No Error ® long te note foie / of ln is scen/ the Himalayas (a) @) oO tight /in ther splendour. No Error. @) «& 9. The publisher says / ta there is / many important details to (A) @®) © attend /to before this book gets printed. /NoEmor © 3) 10, His polities is not / good, so we have suggested to him / @ ®) that he should read Gandhi, Nehru / and Karl Marx. / © © No Error ®) Ul. Just outside / the hotel is / wo bars, extremely beautifull @ ®) © as well as crowdy. /No Error © © 12, We should not forget that / we have a right to criticise “ ® but /at the same time each of us / have to remember the © © uty also. No Error ©) (Gite pugacions daughter / always do something that may @ ®) incur insult / on her neighbours who hold a wrang / © ‘opinion about her family. / No Error ©) © 14. One of / the biggest industrial houses / in Mumbai is on a ® © the verge of / declaring 2 lock out, / No Error ©) ® (BS Our Head ofthe Department assured / us that a series of a ® lectures on Milton / were to be arranged / the following © week and so we should not create any auissance No Error © e) 16-A body of volunteers / have been organized to help the (A) @) faculty members / in their attempt to raise the funds. / © Oo No Error ® 17. Each ofthe smadens, / whom I have chose to take part / cay) @) in che euturl programmes to be performed / in the City © Hall, are up to the mark /No Error o (B) 18,Evecybody among the businessmen / were enjoying (A) (B) Arinking / when the Manager of the hotel/ was shot dead/ © @) No Exor (®) (9) Most of the news / pertaining to the sudden demise of Dr. = 6 ®) have been communicated by some of the rufians / © whom 1 know well. No Enror @) «) @aniough thse building are / in nel of epi, ere Aw B®) have been much improvement / in their appearance / © ©) Sen / No Error ® (2H oan says tha ire these obscene fms / hat ead the a ®) youth to thir moral degradation and are responsible for oO many evils growing in our society, /No Exrer ©) ®) 22, Not only the doctor / but also the nurses of this nursing / “w ) homme is very Kind and helpful othe atendants (No Eevor © «D) «& (23. There appears / a number of new faces in the hall / and 1 (A) ® really do not know where they have/ come from and why.J oO ©) No Ener ® 24. The teachers face the / same problems in their day to day & “ ®) lives /as do an ordinary man / of our society. /No Esror oO ©) ® 25. The men who cannot / believe his senses and the man who a 8) cannot / believe anything else ae /insane. /No Error © o ©® NO 28 A Miror of Common Euors 26, The available statistics / indicate thatthe population of the +36. One of the developing or underdeveloped / counties are cy a ‘orld will double in about 30 years / and human life will not in favour of launching / chemical warfare because it 8) © @) © become / more and more miserable, /No Error twembles /to imagine its repercussions. ‘No Exror © © © © 27. Shingles are a disease /in which the patient develops /lots _37-Not John and his friends / but Mary has surreptitiously a) ®) “ 8 of inflamed spots round te / waist-/ No Error ‘aken / your photographs and sent them / to her frends. / © *o) ©) © © No Enor 28. What were once glorious forts / are now nothing / but © ram? © 38. The idea of /imtroducing genes / to correct heritable and piles of rubble. ‘No Esror ‘oO a © o MO ® other / disorders are revolutionary, / No Error @waether you should get married / now or whether you ©) © ~ «a 39..An ability 10 shrink / and reduce oneself to a tiny form should remain / single all your life / are your personal a“ ®) © © and reverse the process whenever desired / belongs to the problem, /No Error ®) ® realm of fantasy and is heard of ouly / in fairy tales or 30, Each faculty member as / well as most of the students / oO i & tales of magic. "No Error were of the view that there should / be many more new © ® © 40. Neither Rajni / nor Ragini were to take to her heels / courses inthis college. / No Error a @) ©) © when they saw a cobra laying /at the gate, No Error 31.Does his daily struggle / for existence leave time / to © ™ e ieee ‘oO 41-Have either of / the wo candidates been / selected for the ponder over / international affairs ?/ No Error “ ® post of Branch Manager /n the Punjab National Bank ?/ © © © ‘o ‘o 32.Either the manager / or his assistants always ty to No eog @ ®) © thctory, No F ° “a ®) © fetory. No Brror chance / to join this team play confidently. ‘No Error o ® ©) ®) 33. Every man and woman / of the village have come out /t0 43, What she says / and what she does / are incomprehensible! “ e® “ @) © see this strange child / who claims to know everything an gainary mind like your. No Emr © : ©) © > ‘bout his pre-natal existence. / No - 44, Where she went / and where she left her purse / are not © “) ®) 34. Inour college. it/ was obligatory for each ofthe students now tous; 80 itis of no use being worried about her. / (a) ®) © © © to buy /his own instruments. / No Error No Error © ® ® 35. Those athletes who / did not adhere to the rules @f —45.Nobody else / but these-comely young women hav a @) @) ®) athletics / was deprived of taking part/ in the champion- played a prank on you: but itis pitiable that you don’t / © © © understand it. /No Error ©) ® { A Mirror of Common Exrors 29 46. Son highly significant / observations has been made by (a) @) the former UN / Secretary General, Mr Perez. De Cucler, / © in his annual report submitted to the current session of ©) General Assembly. / No Error © 47. If any proof was needed to show that the United Nations / cy come a policy tool in the hands of the co) A. and that / the world’s sole might has a subservient © international body, it was provided / by President Bush's ) have lately a angry comment. / No Error © 48, 1f Mahatma Gandhi / was alive / he would start weeping! a @ © 10 sce the present condition of India, / No Error o @ 49, Was she a bird / she would definitely fly to you / and say (a @ that she could not live without you. / No Error © ©) e 50. There were / reports a few days before the Accra Session oS) @) mmenced / that concrete measures to / restructure the © movement would be considered, / No Error © © ( ANSWERS: ) | 1.e 2) 3Q 4B) 5.(A) (63) 20 8B) 9B) 10.(A) 1. (By 12. 13.(B) 4 (E) 15.(C) 16.18) 17. 18.(B) WAC) -20.(0) | 2B) 2) BA). KO) 28.) 26.) 27. 28. (E) 29D) 30.(C) 3L.© 33.8) 4B) 3.) 36.8. 37.E) 38. (D) ) 40. (B). 41.(A) 42.(E) 43. (©) 44.(B) 45. (8) 46. (B) 48. (BY 49.(A) 50. (E) t EXPLANATIONS L_____EXPEANATIONS 1@) was % Ae were eT or whe TET AT ‘Subject ‘hundreds of cattle’ t, + f¥* pasture. NAB. We va fi aTAPaTaT Seldom, Hardly, Searcely, Rarely, Never before $8 Adverbs "IW Adverb of Place & ye Share ast F Verb BT Subject * ‘weet Tat ara %, atx ae Zeit Subject Number TT Person ERT Seunfane ean &; 3— @ Seldom — does he come tome. t tod Adverb Verb Sub. Ging) Sing.) Gi) Seldom do. they come tome + bod Adverb Verb Sub. ey ey (ii) Outside the hotel was parked 2 red cae t + 4 Adve Verb Sub. (SING) SING) Gv) Ouside the hott parked 1wo red cas J + Adve) Verb Sub OfPlace =P) ey ‘eH (i) 7 (ii) F ‘Seldom’ Adverb of Frequency & (2 5 Geammarians Adverb of Numbers 37 #51 yea wer Gat aT H Subject aT: he FT hey % SRPAR does TH do wT eT yo Hi Teh ww, Het wa 42 erect Hf “Ousidet FET Ye FTE TT Adverb of Place #1 4 arrat Subjece wT: a red car Fe two red cars &, ake eG FUT was TT were arr gam 2. (B) have % mee has Har ATH The elite class, the middle class ST Collective Nouns &, at Singular art 3. (©) have 3 @eS has a7 wae Sow wali aT aT TET Subject ‘Ritu’ $1 ae TH fas Ta a Subjects as well 2, in addition to, like, unlike, apcompanied by, wit, together with, along with safe JS tt art a ER Subject FH WI wget GA atet Noun 7 Noun equivalent ar % oft Vero ft g@ & sae eat, wa @ Talong with many of my friends am going to ‘Mumbai tonight. 4,(B) have 3 2 has GT FH Many a aE Noun ‘GEM Singular Bro WH Verb *M Singular Bat 2 4) WEE More than one % aT Noun sit Verb @rt & Singular @f_% S8—More than one man was Killed. Oe is ® xa we w vite Gor wits oe TH Subject ‘difficulties’ #1 N.B. then ae ve fF a There af It sr aT Introductory Subjects % Be H gat & a There wet am wz SAAT Noun # Number 3f¢ Person % SagaR Verb ar 2; 33 — 30 A Mirror of Common Errors 8B) 9B) 10. (4) ( There was aking, J 4 Vero Noun «Sing.) (Sing.) (i) There were five kin L L Verb Noun Plural) (Ptural) fey i we ar Number she Person 3 age Veeb Sat #1 PB, It Third Person Tar Singular Number #T Personal Pronoun &, =m: Primary Auxiliaries % R28 is / was / has / does a war Te am ta 8, 3 @ltisL (i Tes they (Gi) Tt was Ram and Laxman. ace mee ig a eT Eom rege oT fee Si Ho 32a were % TE was Sor AE ATHY AH GET Subject the request) ‘N. B. ai 2 fe ate ¥ afR Noun + Preposition + Noun + Preposition + . 8a wat Proposition TER Rye Bae Noun aA Noun equivalent 48 "I BH Subject Bar #1 $B (i) The boys of many Lou Noun Prep. (Piural) Pama are, good Lt L Noun Verb (Plural) is ae are we wy Gor wae wet oad a WROTE WS Adverb Phrase & a€ 8, abe aT FUT Subject “the Himalayss” St Plural Number ae is % ae ae Sr Tae aTeT a THT Subject ‘many important details" 8, st Plural Number ¥ €1 3548 ae HAT eT wes His politics w aE His political views / Poltical ideas. = =H fe Poles, Mathematics, Economics, Statistics = ¥@P1 vag fren am ee Hg ATH aH Singular Verb a xan fara rar ta (@) Mathematics is not as casy a subject as you feel. Gi) Beonomis is considered to be 2 difficult svbje Pry, TH Tet Tee AE Possessive Adjective CE My / Your / His Article “The') #7 & at FT vied) & ond waar a? ott T Plural gw # ver Plural Verb 3 #: 38 — AL. (B) 12.0) 13. B) 4® 35. (0) 16.) 17.0) 18.) BO (@ His mathematics are week (i Your statistics are incorrect. is GR ae WH So Ae “Just ouside the hotel” Adverb of Pace &, st arg 1 FB Subject “two bars?" &, 3 Plural Number # &1 have & 23 has 1 7 ET FAP Subject ‘each a N. B, 71g we fF cach, citer, acter 7 cagh of, the of, neither of, of, one of SM 3 Ter Vero Gan Singular Sr #1 3 aC does 4 si er ATE AT Subject Her pugnacious daughter” St Thisd Person Singular Number # aaa yx th aren ae ao 129 2 mB were 35 Wee was eT Rr aah eS aT FST Subject ‘A series # sit Singular ® N.B. ae sf wiz t@ fi A body of, A crowd of, A bunch of, A team of, A heap of, A herd of, A flet of, ‘Appiece of, A pair of, A chain of fe "Noun Plural Number # dar #, Pa Verb ete Singular Bat ta ~ Acrowd of people is waiting for the minster. have 3 aS has ST sy eo eA tee aT Subject “A body” ti feegr Sire sm Ho 15% #1 are BCR is Gor HPS ATT mH Subject “Each of” 4 fcgqe arom & ferq are Yo 12831 were #5 Re yas 3 seh So HE “Everybody ares Subject # 3k AE Third Person wa Singular Number %T Pronoun ® gv aye % az Pronouns $3—Somcbody, Anybody, Nobody, Bveryone, Someone, Anyone, No one, Bverything, Something, Anything, Nothing 2 * Thied Person Wa Singular Number # #, sx Subject % FE H separ 85 5% Ch Singular Verb B €; $8 @ Nobody of that name lives here + J Subs (Sing) Verb (Sing.) i) Everyone, knows him wel v t Sub. (Sing.) Verb Sing have % ace has a way an wife News TH Uncountable Noun #1 ax we fis aE Most of Most/ All of / All / A lot of / Lots of / Some of / Two thirds of / Part of 28f@ % ™= Countable Noun #7 ‘& een Plural Number # wet & wer HF Ta Vero ‘ft Plural far ; St @ Someof the boys are good. tL Lo somecf Noun Verb (Piura!) hurl) AMirror of Common Exrors 31 (@) Someof the gis are good L + + someof Noun Verb Plural) (Piura fey, s7% ae =f Uncountable Noun & FH Verd ‘Bhar Singular at #1 83— () Some of the Jand ig yettobe 4 Loi, some of Noun Verb (Wn) (Sing) ploughed (ii) Some of the money ag been spent t Lod someof Noun Verb (Ua) (Sing) 20, (C) have % ATH has Ho Fife There aE Te Pacer Noun =F “improvement” St Singular & ear Ph sey Verb GM There WH 1 Verde wating frat a ak Wo 5 at sare # Bai 21. (B) are % FE is BH HTT oT HAH hatclowse Subject ‘it tr 22. (C) is B TER ace 1 HT Bo FPR Not only but also, Neither nor, Either or, sa Conjunctions % YF Nouns ™ Noun- equivalents re Verb sme TERE Te Nouns wT Noun equivalents srqare dar 81 38— (i) Neither Shyam nor his friends have come. x, __ (i) Tseither Shyam or his friends here ? Ge appears % seer appears vem er FHS aT AT HH Subject “a number of new faces” & St Plural ‘Number # &1 2A, (©) do eB does wr Fis oT TH Subject “am ordinary man” & &} Thrid Person, Singular Number Rr ara az eh 5) THT Ye tt ‘Stasistios! a aT Gee faeT 74 B A AE Singular Verb Bar &; FB — (i) Statisties isnot an easy subject. ‘PERY statistics I sf Ga statistical facts data @ Ht Verb een Plural ter 61 NB. : free suren & fee 3FR Ho 1097 See SS ae % 30 ig vay OT wit Shingles T disease # AF 1 ¥E form ¥ Plural & fey Verb we are cer Singular fer & aver ye staal & aay 22 Mumps, Measles anf +f Singular Verb & Bet AS ge Pros FG Phun Tear TT 8, we see) 27. (A) 28.(5) TAT Ue th 29. (D) ‘are’ % aed “is! er wary Sor with TET A Clauses tor’ 3 GS Mi wart TA fr Us Clause TH Singular Noun 3 FOR at &, afte a Singular Nouns 3 “or 3. gB BA Verb Singular BATE 30. (C) were FT was arn aif at ar Se ‘Subject “Bach faculty member" @, St Third Person ‘Fat Singular Number # &t 31. ©) wea ge th 32. @) raw ape th aon fore om He 2281 33, (B) have % aee has Bem wtf af SF Singular Nouns ‘and’ YF St sik st weet ar fe yee Noun Wee Each Every 37 3201 B at Verb Singular Bar aR ( Each boy and each girl is ready. Lod bog Each Noun each Noun (Sing) Sing.) @) Each boy and girl is ate. Lod + Each Noun Noun Ging) (Sing) 34, (E) wa ge a 35. (C) was % FX were a wat Sor witha FTA Subject “Those athletes’ St Plural Number 1 36. (B) are % aS is ae WAT ST FH AMAT AT Subject ‘One’, Fre fee Singular Verb Ht Fn Sr 37.@) wa get 38, (D) are 3 SC is 7 wir Hear Fs ATT AF Subject “The dea’, 3 Singular 81 39.) area we @, FH An ability % SAT Verb ‘belongs’ =a Wart gst 40, (B) ‘were’ % HE “was! BT whe eS Nouns at Pronouns ‘either... of neither... nor" Begd a a Verb ant aes mE Subject saa aah freq carom fare HT We 22-8 Fe RG AL (A) have TR has ATT eo ee aes Interogative & FHT Subject either’ & St wer Singular Verb a #1 42. &) FET Tw BI Nesteld B STATE HH None HE THE Subject & # Verb Singular Bar 81 38 — @ None has come L 4 Sub, Verb (Singstar) fg, FE none of % ATE Plural Number % Nouns =I Pronouns a wat ®t Verb Singular 71 Plural Set tea 2 ‘A Mirror of Common Errors "None can be folowed by a singular or plural verb if itrefersw a countable noun [None of the drivers has have tuned up Michael Swan: PRACTICAL ENGLISH USAGE (172) figz, ‘None’ (= no one) should be followed by @ ‘Sngular vb, when itis the subject ofthe sentence None but the brave deserves te far ‘But when several persons or things are spoke of, the verb can be made plural by atraction— [None of my lost books were found. [None but fools have ever believed in ghosts. —J.C. Nesfield + ENGLISH GRAMMA (COMPOSITION AND USAGE, (p. 42) rae Ge HSE UF Clause ITF Subject Vane Singular dat & Ser & Clauses 21& and & Be a ake aoer & Subject, Verb Paral Her fs aa— (i) When she sings Is known © U5. rai “When she sings’ TF Clause €1 3k, Singular bor Fat fet LT, Gi) When she sings and when she dances are known, vous 44, © ae GEN ws THT TD Chooses and # ge E She ane Subject 81 sie: Verb Plural Number * 1 48. (E) ae UE tH 8.6) 46. (B) 47.8) 48. (B) 49. (A) 50. (E) wok Tras wR have ay Fa Sra APS Subject "Some ighly significant observations” & 3 Phral Number ah have 3 TEA has re Sear HAAG “The United Notions” Wr organisation 2 3TH & Ht Singuler Bt NOTE : 34 0H fp fect woe, 2, Fras, Ser Mee ag ae wee A Plural BoB ae oT verb Singular @ det & #8 — {() The East Indies i a small country Gi) “Romeo and Juliet” is 8 popular work of Shakespeare was 3 HEE wore AH ET NOTE : 2 CH FF Present ® unfulfilled wish / eee a unreal situation #Y express 7 % fer I, ‘As if, As though, I wish ® Ee Ae Verb To be # Aoi pe 2a BSaT RTH “ere! STAT Feet Brat ave Subject Fert st Number = Person $7 a Tt GL wish I were a bird! [at dee a@ th we we FETT A was 3 SER were FATT Bao ee fk are RE A are NOTE 1a @ PRS TR SY TS THAT wore t TarT Subject % are Eat & fog eR es SFr BS oe were’ subject FTE eT sT $31 were you, L would doit “afar, Were I you, T would do it ‘ai If I were you = Were Tyou) area qe 7 Chapter-5 TIME & TENSES PRESENT TENSE 1, PRESENT INDEFINITE / SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE. RULE: () ip [Subject + is/are Tam + complement. Uses : (A) sar fet eet end fire; 6) He works inthis office. (i) Hive in India (i The earth is round (8) sia ee ere; BB (i) He gets up before sunrise. (© ar Ph eae Bran Pees (i) She goes to Mumbai next month (D) 3e feet aS aeaPH wr fee TT when, if, unless, until, as soon as, as long as, in ease, before, ater UF Same Clause; $8 ) You will ot succeed unless you work hard. [FP unless you will work hard] NOTE : GH Fray We amerita Problems Aer qe 7H (i As soon as T will / reach Patna, I will / send you the w ® books / you have asked for. /No Error, oO o ®) [S. B. 1. (Kashmir Valley) P.O. Exam. 1992] eee Pan (A) will! a way aT ar, ‘ai Conditional Clause ¥ Future Indefinite Tense wir #8 War € fee Present Indefinite Tense #1 wa Ghat : ber € nie Tense = aT 2. PRESENT IMPERFECT / CONTINUOUS TENSE RUL Uses (A) Fee 88 eed & fee Spe am et BH i) They are watehing television (ii Ste is cooking. (BS we & fre St ates Bond ter ae scares 38 € fe ye ou sh od (i) He is writing a book. (0) frve afer % RTT Programme Ferg; BA () Tam going o Delhi tonight Ieajotsbyawame Vvamgenn | ‘Subject + is/are am+ V"(V+ing)+ ] i) We are seeing the C. M, tomorrows, (D) aia & faeh ore ad fare; 3a hematis these days. () She is teaching m 3, PRESENT PERFECT TENSE RULI Us [Subject + have/has + V+ (a) RB ret Bere St one-one a: SB (@ He has finished the work {i You have just come. p(B) BE at H fee T Past Ee Peg ada eT Rt aa (oThave seen the Taj Mahal (i Thave visited Kashmir (COR avd & fey Pas HTS ay, fg ae ot it * hhave lived here for a month, 4, PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE Subject + have / has + been + V"(V + ing) + (for /since + Time) RULI Uses: (A) 8 ret Bree ot Past YE ee oe one oe eaa— (@) Thave been living here for a month { Thave lived here for a month} (23 Feat & foe ge are ow we we Bathe oot seoney § fog sre ort ah ot ts a (i) They have been working in the fild all day PAST TENSE 1. PAST INDEFINITE / SIMP RULE :| () Subject + V" +. (cio Subject + was /were + complement. Uses: (a) BB ret Be ere SH Past BE: FA (i) He came yestenay. Gi) Be left for London last night NOTE : Yesterday, lastnight / week / month / year other day, the other morning anf % aa str Indefinite Tense 6 rr tar (B) Past oer an? & Ferg, $3 (i) He always came to see me (i) Meena never made a mistake. PAST. TENSE a 34 NOTE ; Past & ter eater aret Fs ware always, daily, every day, every mont, every year, once a week / month / year oa sede fava ae fle, Past # area aa? % fore ‘used to’ a oft aby Bret ero (i) Gandhifi used to walkin the morning. (©) sé & unfulfilled wish, condition, desire # OFT wat % fT wish, if as if, as though, it is time, itis igh time orf % wre A Past Indefinite Tense Fe Fear Tet ao . (i) Tish T were the PM. of India, (iy Tes time (that) you went tothe station (D) fe Direct Narration % Reporting Verb Past Tense # ‘3 aar Reported Speech Present Indefinite Tense % @ Indirect Narration # Reported Speech # Past Indefinite % #zet fear ‘art &) [N.B. STF Universal Truth 3 Vieb a et Axe STaT ty d— Direct: He said, “Twrite a letter. Indirect : He said that ho wrote a letter. 2, PAST IMPERFECT / CONTINUOUS TENSE, RULE: Subject + was / were + V*(V + ing) + Uses : (A) BG awa B fore SH Past F we B; SB (i) He was writing letter yesterday evening (B) ae Past &t were UH AT ore Bt; Fa While she was dancing, he was singing. (Ca Past # feat stor ar settee fara ar gre eer a (@ He was becoming more and more ambitious (D) Pratt safes PAST #8 BH ore St gat Fy fore Greet, Fretreres onfe sr err aa a; $3— (She was always writing ro leters to me. 3, PAST PERFECT TENSE RULE :|Subject + had + V*. Uses : (Aya Past Swed wa a dt St we wee wa aT “sah fore Past Perfect TH St Seat are Fat B sew feTE ast Indefinite 6 rat Pra arar 8; a — (j) The patient had died before the doctor came, (ii) He reached the station after the train had started. NOTE ; SPT: Past 8 we Heat H fre Past Perfect ‘ar wilt 3 Past Indefinite «wart Fear aot &; kB (i) He had come yesterday % 4&@% He came yesterday eu wm [A Mirror of Common Error (B) I wish, if, as if, as though ® Te sft Past Perfect swirr fier star fe Past 9 unfulfilled wish, condition, desire BY OTR BT B; FB (@ I wish I had passed in the First Division, (iy If he had come on time, he would have caught the train. (© A Direct Narration # Reporting Verb Past Tense # ‘ aa Reported Speech Present Perfect % Past Indofinite # B a Indirect Narration % Reported Speech # Past Perfect “Tense #1 sar Farm Tat &; 33— Direct: (i) Deeps said, “I have done it.” (Gi) Deepa said, “I id it” Incirect : (i) Deeps said that she had done it 4, PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE RULE : [SUBJECT + had + been + V4 (V + ing)... (for/| since + Time.) Uses : (A) 3 ara AE fore Pas AR Be BO Pe TF sat ta, (i) Meena had been lying there for an hour. FUTURE TENSE, 1, FUTURE INDEFINITE / SIMPLEL FUTURE TENSE RULE : [Subject + shall/ will Vi+ Uses : (Aye weal 3 fare a fe BA, (i) He will dit tomorrow. (i) Dinesh will build a house NOTE : a za fe Fuure & wr a wat & fare Present Indefinite Tense = Present Imperfect Tense 1 oxi Barf, Fee Programme fieeT Bi ore constructions Prt sTerT 3 Future eet SI Aa ST AT te (@)[Subject + is/are/am-+to+V" 38—()) He is to start some business, (b)[Subject+ is/are /am + about +to+ V" $3 —()) Mohan is about to leave the hoste. (c) [Subject + has / have + to + V'][a72T=t (Compulsion) wart % Fare) $8—{i) She has to leave the school. 2. FUTURE IMPERFECT / CONTINUOUS TENSE | RULE : [Subject + shall / will+ be + V"(V +ing) + Use: (aya wrat & fq Her F ae BA, B— (i) He will be writing some letters tomorrow morning, A Mirror of Common Errors 35 3. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE RULE :|Subject + shall/will + have + Vx a) ae & fae Tate a we ge ae 2) They will have arrived here by this time tomorrow, Sagar & fore Ps wg safer feet iw aR =: 32 You will have heard the name of Gandhi NOTE : Future Perfect Continuous 1 ¥8tT 7 % Wat i aie: eat wal wef ae ats Et BL PROBLEMS BASED ON TIME & TENSES Directions : Find out the error in each of the following sentences, fany. If there is no error. your answer is ‘E’. 1.When xs will find out / any solution to this problem / (A) ®) you will become able / 1 finalise the project. No Exror © © ® 2. Whenever / you ate coming here, / you bring a lot of / a ® oO sweets for me, /No Error oO) © Js appearing to me / that you are plotting / against your / a ®) oO fiends and their parents. No Erzor ©) ®) 4.The old man who is. siting in that room / lived here for “ ®) more than / a month but he has never crested / any © problem, / No Error © « 8.A mysogynist iss person / who is hating woman / but a ey @ philogynistis a person / who loves woman. / No Error © @) &) 6. Tho seeret of his good / health lies in the fact that /he is @ @ e sunrise / and has a two mile walk every @ getting up © coming. No Error ® 7.Now-a-days he teaches physics / becuase the teacher of a) @) physics / has been absenting himself / for 2 month. / © © No Error ® Je seems to be happy / because his parents / hed come “ @) from London / to live with him. /No Error o ©) ®) GW is high me you we saning 7 is work"? may a“ ®) © fiend said to me. / No Error o © 10.1 have come / to know that your / father has died /Tast “ ® oO ‘week. /No Error © © @ Many of my friends / wished to come here / today but / “ ®) © ‘none of them arrived yet. No Error © ® 12, She says / that she will take / her umbgella in case it will a ®) © oO rain, No Error ® 13.1 will et you know / a soon as I wil get / any information / @ ®) © about your promotion. / No Error © ® 14, When 1 will be thirty / most of my friends / will be above “a B) © thiny / five, be sure. (No Ervor oO ©® 15, This is , indeed, / the fist time in my life that /T hear / = a) @) © such an interesting story. / No Error © ©) 16. Before the alarm / had stopped ringing / Veors bad pulled @ ® © up/the shade, /No Error oO © [SS.C. CLERK GRADE EXAM,, 1992] GAiihave been knowing / him for ten years/ but I don’t know A @) © wvhere he Hives. No Error © @) 18, He uses to study / atleast til ten o'clock / at night ead * iC (B) © then Fhe goes tobe. No Eor ve ” ©) bee, @yr ne ad a few hours to spare he would spend! te (A B) oO in a public library. /No Eror ©) ® 20. All the flowers /in his garden will surely dic / before 5 @) C rains wil fal, No Error o &) 36 A Mirror of Common Earors 21. IFT would have done this, /T would have done wrong / and “ B) would base Suapoimed/many of ny ends. No Emer oO (Dy ©) gg PBF at at eat ard neve te / win ¥Y “4 (B) SP” his means T would not /have let him the money © . Oo Notist © 28.1 wish he saw you when you were ving in England {Ay B) © (D) No Bor & {A.The judge tad no give / ny dion / ua be ad “a 8) © Sula he ee. No Exo @) & 25.1 ued tere sine 1980 / hereto {know eve tng (A) @) © bows cig. No Er @) «© 26.1 bave been working fer his organisation fre ast (A) B) © () | cengran./ None &) {S.B.L. (Kashmir Valley} P.O. EXAM., 1992] AF we ad Mohan Fn our ea, we / would hase won the 32, We got / everything ready for all / of them long / before (A) (B) © thy arved. No Brot @) « 22, She was with me up now, so dont rebuke Ber er A) 8) © etn te, No ee @) © have Ben ang Phe fo he vice wih wich she “A @) oO is ited No Ener ©) ® P26. Had come / even moment ett, /he woul hve / “& @) © found me there. / No Error @ ® 26. Many obervaions nical thatthe mober of ted / A ® attire / day by ay. No Emer “ © © ®) Wor. Newspapers wid /us about the event / at kappen al A B® © verte world. No Eno © &) 38. "Hee i coming / my fried, sid Manj when se oe (A) B) © ssatansious/No Bor oQ () (a) @) (© 9 GBplle advised me / 10 do as he did / but did not pay amy match / against your eam. / No Error ) ® © Oo «) attention / to his advice. / No Error 28. Radha came / to the meeting / much later / than T @) © “ ® © 440, By this time next year he / has had / settled himself / in expect. / No Error Aw B® © ® London, No Error {B.S.R.B. (Patna), 1991] ©) ®) 29.1f Twas you / I would have told/ the Chairman to keep / 41. Itis about time / you have taken f you children / to sheoo “ ®) © @ ®) Qo his mouth shut. No Ervor Io Estor (©) ®) ®) [BSRB. Banglore) P.O. Exam,,3990] (42)! had hoped / that I would see / you the ober day, but / “A (B) © you to/ pick up the box of eggs gently and ¥ep'——yyfrrunately fll, /No Error ay @) D €) it in the corner careful 43,'The thief was caught / after he has disposed of / the stolon a a @ © [B.S.R.B (Baroda) P.O. Exam. 1991] goods. /No Eror ° 231. Te victim tried to tell us / what has happened / but his @) ) @) (©) 44. Sushma arrived here, / did all the preparations / and then words / were not audible. / No Esror oN ‘) © ®) has called / on one of her intimate friends. / No Esror [B.S.R.B. (Baroda) P.O. EXAM. 1991] © @) e) * A Mimror of Common Errors 7 © wath Moti, No Error ©) ®) wo and ‘wo / always made / four cannot J be a ®) oO oubted. / No Error ©) ©) . 47 Nobody knows / when death / will knock at / his door. tA) (B) © @) No Error ® & dipw hopes wo become fan oie afer / he will omplete! A B oO his higher education. No Etzor o) ® 49, Meenu slong with her parents / is going to Mumbai a) By tonight because her eldest brother Fis il there. (No Error © © & 450, My frend / aid to me, / “When have / you come here?" a @ © ©) No Error ®) 1, He would not have / done allthis / if he had not been / “« B) C) stigated by his wife. ‘No Error © © 52, The teacher said /o us that we / should stay at home / A) (@B) © @) strains. / No Ertor ® ) La 28) 5.) 1 6Q 7a ao 9B) 10.) Lo BO Be BA BO 1615) A) BLA) 9.) 2D) mia) 2) BB) AA) 8A) 6G) FMA) BD) (A) 30.0) BL) 320A) SRA) RCA) 3S) 360) BTA) 8A) BE) 40.08) @ 26 88) 4O 46) 46.8) 47.) BO) 9) SHO) EXPLANATIONS 1. A) “you will find” 4 ‘you find” 1 sae Be as Se Punure A 2 ETAT wT AT Clause (St when, if, before, after, until sf T= 2B) 314) 4. (B) Se Tense Tat want ttt) BI] OF Present Indefinite Principal clause % Future Tenso ae () Until he comes, 1 will wait fr him, Present Future Tense Indefinite “you are coming’ % 7H ‘you come’ HFT den whe THe a STN (Present hobit) FT S fara Present Indefinite Tense 5a erat ae (i) Whenever she weops, nobody asks her the reason Y Y Prevent Indefinite ii) Asong as God is with you, ¥ Present Indefinite Present Indefinite Present Indefinite -tt is appearing’ 3 Gt “It appears! er sort Ge pis appear 7% 374 5 seem Cote aa) H at gppear THT Indefinite Tense ¥ Sor #7 FH Imperfect Tense; 42— @)—Ttappears that he will fail in this plan. Y Present Indefinite (Gi) She appears tobe dull. t Present Indefinite NOTE : Appear # ar aif # Get wir za (appear 31 and ser erfers Wet” (tobe published) at eae AT perfect Tense H ot arf; Se— (i) My next book is appearing this month (b) appear #1 Fart FH ‘come before the public’ > Sed HA Ewer WH Imperfect Tense ot BE aa () Now an eminent unite is appearing on the Slived" % FEA ‘has lived’ 7 has been living a ‘gro is Part (A) ® THT is siting” ar Part (OS ‘eget ‘has never created’ au aan t = Present Tense 7 tl “who is hating’ 3 72 ‘who hates’ 71 -qatfis universal truth % fer Present Indefis car wer tats BB (i) A vegetarian i a person who never eats Gi) Atheist is a person who betieves in God 38 Mirror of Common Exrors NOTE : 3 4 hate, adore, admite, depend, hope, believe, out, want, wish, car, desire, understand, cost, dare, nced, contain, consist, comprise fare a 51 Continuous Tense 2 7 Gar ft 6. (C) “he is geting up' WEB “he gets up" wT aT So watts Gurr at anes (present habit) FHT H fee Present Indefinite Tense #1 Nar dat 8; 3— (@ — Herewms before sunset. + Present Indefinite (Gi) They often come to see me. 7.(A) ‘he teaches’ % Wee ‘he is teaching’ FT Sor wits aioe & fe ore Gemporary) 4 3 fara Present Imperfect Tense 1 arn er ts sae (i) These days Mohan i iving in Delhi L Present Imperfect 8. (©) ‘had’ 3S “have! a wa Sor wy eH ‘Ta PRESENT # &: 38 — (i) He seems to be happy becuase his father has sent him a suit i) You are happy because you have got a job 9. (B) ‘you are starting’ % FEE ‘you started’ wt wah ar writes sar unfulfilled wish, condition, desire anf & area wei % f8T Itis time, It is high time, Twish, If, As if anf& & rer Past Indefinite Tense = switr dart; $3 @) Ttis time you reached the station L Past Indefinite Gi) Lwish [were the President of India. 4 Past Indefinite 10. (C) ‘has died’ 3 wea PEE died’ er wir dow ihe Part (D) ¥ ‘last week’ Far & fees war sear 8 fis ‘Sud Rear we eT BT Past Ea) NOTE : wz wa fe feat rer % Past BP we ‘=Iet Time Expression Gt Yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week, last month, last year fey a way ea aT ara a Past Indefinite # ver arent; Fa (He came here last month. ( f% has come) i They went there the day before yesterday. 11, (D) ‘arrived’ 3 azz has arrived @M ‘have attived’ = wits Gor wie ‘yer IMT IT up to now GT 12. (D) “it will rain’ AB ew ae) ant B a a xaw TIE Present Perfect Tense vr ate Fat TAT @; (i) Have the children gone to school yet ? (Gi) Has Thom let yet? A. 8. Hornby : GUIDE TO PATTERNS AND USAGE IN ENGLISH (p. 91) fez, GP “None of se Verbs Singular™T Plural 1 gat &, sa: None of them has arrived a None of them have arrived & wei ti 2— Afier none of the verb may be singular or plural None of my friends was were there —A.S. Hornby : GUIDE TO PATTERNS AND USAGE IN ENGLISH (p. 138) wa Fuure St & seit om fr et a ‘Conditional Clause (it in case, ff, when, before, after, as long as sife @ ge at HF Present Indefinite Tense = wate dar &; $3 — ® What will you do im ease you fail ? Present Indefinite 13. (B) ‘will get ae ‘ger ae eM NOTE : feeqe saren & fora Set He 12 a ore aati 14, (A) ‘L will be thirty" C8 “Lam thiety’ = var ST wae when Gra) 2 ye SMe Clause ¥ Present Indefinite Tense 37 arr Gat & ser Fer Clasue ® Future Indefinite #1; 3— @ When Fam wwenty, When Fam swenty. Present Indefinite you will be twenty fi Future Indefinite 15. (C) ‘Thear’ % WER ‘Thave heard’ a war ahr ais this ie the frst ime, iis the second time safe == HIHMEUT: Present Perfect Tense 1 aM Sar Bs a (i ets the second time that you have come bere. ae tidy F PrsfeRas cer at Ba — 2 the following 1 We use a present perfect tense a expressions, ‘This/thavit isthe first/second/third/fourthvetc. ‘Thisithat/ itis the only ......++ ‘This / that / it is the best / worst / finest / most interesting ete. Examples ‘This is the first time that I’ve heard her sing. —Michael Swan : BASIC ENGLISH USAGE (p. 191) 16. 1. 18. w. 20. * ~ (BR) ay “would have done’ % TER “had done” ‘A Mirror of Common Errors (B) ‘had stopped’ ‘aaa fink ‘stopped’ FT ar OT gate oe Past Mt St westet few Bat STAT Fe Clause % Past Pevfest Tense = eT Set Behe before, when safe we Clause Past Indefinite #1; 38— (i) Before the doctor eames Past Indefinite the patient had died. Past Perfect ‘The heasmaster had come ‘The headmaster had come a) ast Perfect before the bell rang, L Past Indefinite Ca) “have been knowing’ # 5 ‘have know! ar vo Fae Know, mean, suppose, understand Slee Verbs a Warr Weert Indefinite Perfect Tense ® G) Tisave known you for years {i) Thave not understood this man since Tmet hi (A) ‘He uses to study’ ‘% aa® ‘He studies’ irr eer gape wart a ATT (present habit) A ¥ FTE Present Indefinite Tense 3 5 Ser wu (iii) What is the matter ? (= =a @ 2) NOTE ; fink ont tear 3 cae we HT et Tes rest (9) EXCLAMATORY PRO! ut What }ASED ON PRONOUNS Directions : Find out the error in each of the following semences, if any. If there is no error, your answer is “E* ssible facilities / and cs) ®) allowances for Fitself. No Error oO o ® 2.You and 1 / have done / my best in / the eximination, / a) 8) oO @) No Error ~ ) XO] His efforts / will bring him / more success / than your. / a @) © oO No Brror ® 4. Every teacher and / every student of this college / is «a (B) determined to do their best fr / the glorious prospects of © oO the college. / No Error © 4, The Vice-President of India and / the Vice-Chancellor of “ ®) this university / have given / his consent to join the ‘© ©) tneeting, /No Eror © @Sho hates everybody /and everything who! reminds her / of A (B) © her mistakes. )No Ertor o ® 4,None / of these two Principals /has been looking / 7 ®) © his college well. No Error © © ee 44 Mirror of Common Errors '8.Bach of / the four great aedies / of Shakespeare / is (205 The players / whom we have selected / for our team fare (A) @) © “« @) © young and ambitious. No Error ¥ 0) & (Bik proses before / hs master who had tured frond VED Te gusts / whom we were talking bout / have come are Londo, here yean) Non © any / brother-in-law. No Exror D) ® © ® . 22. There is none / who can help you im this cruciz 3X10. The dog / Lhave bough /Jooks more ferocious / than you a @) oO fA) &) © @) of your career. / No Exror have. {No Error ©) &) - © 28.This is the same / dog which barked / at him but OY IL He was much / more stirprised than me / to see the rN) ®B) Ww a © fortunately i tite him. No Brcr dancing girl / coming towards us. / No Error © Dy ®) © (D) ) 24, Whomever / comes late will not be allowed / to mark his 12, The five brothers / are at daggers-drawn, / so they feel it “w (B) © a @) pretence /in the register. No Error ‘below their dignity / to talk to cach other, / No Error @) ® © ®) © 25. The only book / which you carry Fin your bag is i / 13. One should / be true to his / word in all / circumstances. / a 8) © a @ © > demand now-a-days. / No Erzor No Error @) ©) ¢ 26.She is such a / brilliant student / that 17 expested. LI someone has /nished the work he may / gohome./ yg AD ® a o “a e) © ©) «) No Error ‘ a 27. Such a solf-satificing / man a8 has come / wins our _ “ @) 15. The ceelsal which was chained / grumbled at the Police sympathy and admiration. / No Eroe “ ®) © © () ©) Inspector /who was taking him to jal. ‘No Error 28. Any of the two / pictures which depict / th real piewes () (B) « @) © 16. Everybody / who was working in that office gave /a day's ofthe present / politicians is wortseeing. No Error tA) B) (D) & pay 28 their contributions /w the dependants of Dr. Sonu 29.Bvery ofthe five children / standing in the comer / ofthe © «@ (B) iho had died on duty. No Error room is dextarous/in paintings. No Eror (Dy () oo) ©) «© 17.The officer / a5 well as the assistants / absented _30-He asked for / permission to go our/ but his father did / “A 8) a) @) oO themselves / from the office. No Exror wot give / No Error ( ©) ©) © ©) 31. You and myself / will enjoy the pty / tobe aranged in TB.As 4 sudent/ of science / you are far beter than him. / i“ ‘® © A (B) (cy (PD) honour of / the new Chief Justice. / No Exror NoEnor © ® ® 32. “They who are in this room / should not move from the ‘ 410 the Chairman as the General Secret “ ) o Hein aan she General Sean place / where they are standing”, said the / leader of the of that party. No Emor © o D © criminals. No Eror ©) AMirror of Common Brrors 45 33. They also help the poor / who really sympathise with A (@) them in the moments /of distress. ‘No Ervor ~ © () ® BH He sent / all dhe furniture to Patna that he had bought / in (A) (B) © Chennai. No Esvor o 8 35. You say / it's your problems / but I say i's / my also, “ @) oO oO No Error (E) 36.The hotels / of Patna are more / luxurious than / “ ® © Muzaffarpur. ‘No Error @ ®) 37. The articles / published in this magazine / are better than / (a) ®) © that magazine, / No Error © ® is one of / those who would much rather / sacrifice “A ®) his life than turn / disloyal to the county. / No Error © © ® 439. The Principal ordered / the poon to / Ie the boys / and I cy @ © 0 in. / No Exror (D) (E) 40, He claims io have / ead Shakespeare's all great tragedies! (a) ® who is the greatest playwright of English. /No Eror oO © ©) 41.She was more / garrulous than / either of her / three ww @) oO sisters, / No Error D) ©) 38. rididate / being a graduate he i eigible for the 4) ®) © post of Probationary Offices. No Error o ® 4, Your ae /the same / problems as / mine. No Error « ®B) oO © «& 444, You have never / spoken a wor! against / your master, / a) oO) oO that is a proof of your loyalty. / No Error ©) © “45)He lent me some / money on the condition / that I should ad “ ® retum the same J before November. /No Error © ) ® I 46. There were / eight industrious workers / and five lazy one/ a ®) © in this factory. / No Brror o ® 47. Under no circumstances / have 1 harmed / him, and be / “ ®) © knows. / No Error ©) @ 48,"The beggar / whom we had suspected /to be guilty turned “ ®) © out/ to be innocent, / No Error ©) ®) 49.1 ordered / some books on English Grammar / but none / “ B) oO hhas arrived yet. / No Etror ©) ©) 50.1 don't appreciate / those who Taugh / at others without “ 8 © any / apparent reason. / No Extor @) ANSWERS 1m 20 «03m 5.(D) 6B) 7.44) | 1.@) 12.00) WC) 170) 21.(B) 22.(B) 26.(0) 27.8) 3L(A) 32.(A) 36.(D) 37.(D) 410) 42 47.) 1. (D) itself % qe Memselves er way Sor wh aT Subject “The Board of Directors’ #, oft 7E aad Colleetive Noun 6 = 3 eh Sy=T AE aed a aw at 2, art: 38 Plum! {BGR ATT Verb ‘want’ F AF wants) a7 war ROT e ‘a Reflexive Pronoun ‘themselves’ BAT ‘arg TH fH family, crowd, govern jury, audience, ean, pu! Ba Collective Nouns * SUF BA eR feu, Pronouns-it, its, itself emf = apr far b: $B— @ Theteam — bas shown fits ability Subject Verb Pronoun (Sing) (Sing) (Sing) fg, BI Nouns 3 ae FH members wae T rag, TRH IT -AE Nouns of Multitude FF 46 A Mirror of Common Birors ‘dr 3% Fe Pronouns—they, them, their, themselves ante ar water Bratt: $B () Theseam — were fighting among themselves, + t Lu Subject Verb Pronoun (Plural) (Plural) (Plural) 2.(C) my ® ae our a aT SM ae TS fe ae St aT @ 3 arfirw Pronouns feat arer Subject ® 7 # se A Bt = Possessve Reflexive ist Peron Bete Plural 58 1 Oj Pronoun 3 5a fiver rer 1 3B — 3% Second Person 3 Pronouns ‘anc wet Subject & at ot Pronouns us, our, ourselves Saf rT HT 2,\ Youand us, our, ourselves. 4 ‘You and be + you, your, yourselves 2. He and 1 us, our, ourselves 4, ‘You, he and she —+ you, your, yourselves 3 3. (D) your’ ee yours Sm FAR your Fer yours gw Possessive Pronouns % FY your war fee Possessve Adjective eu 9 ter & ste Te AE ‘tere Noun far 1 Se yours a water fe Possessive Pronoun # =e # ar t ate ea =e FE Noun wet Br, $8 — @ Thisis your book, t L Possessive (Adjective) Noun (ii) This book is yours. ¥ Possesive Pronoun ii) This is your book but that is mine (my book). ‘ze my book G@t Possessive Adj. +Noun ®) ® mine Gr Possessive Pronoun &) ® replace # feat 7H & ‘art Personal Possessive Pronouns : A B his his her hers their theirs etc Column A % T= Possessive Adjectives % eye wif wet & eq Column B % Pronouns UK TF Posessive Pronouns % FTF HF atl & © Theic F FA his wT Ho wT A Singular Nouns ‘And’ 8 wer sh eS Each a Every ‘at wait Fg Subject A Singular wer srar th Tt fas # Verb * Singular Bar & Ae Subject Fe watt fee a wa Pronouns ™ Possessive Singular @@ &; $3— (@ Each member and each has. 4 4 to4 t 4 ech Noun and) each Noun Verb (Sing) (Sing) Sing) given his consent, Possessive (Sing) 5. (D) his FS hele ST wa So ws TTT Subject “The _ Vice-President and ‘The Vice-Chancellor” ¢ 3 Plural number ¥ 1 374: Pronoun “ft Plural @77i 6. (B) who % waa that @T Farr tar fey ihe ae a ‘Antecedents @§ Noun ™ Noun equivalent Faw ffm Relative Pronoun #7 wart war &) ‘and’ FTF ate sah ae ts & fou a gee a RE “ar ais Fre Relative Prono that a wer BI 7. (A) Nono % NEE Neither NT GT SHH None war &t Sates wifaadt a weqait & fre thr & fay Neither at 2% fara; $8— (i) None of the three flowers is red. (i) Neither ofthe two teachers is competent 8, (@) ae Ye bi Bach ova Sor SB oes & fry ta 3, @ Bach ofthe two mirrors is broken (Gi) Each of the three mirrors is broken. (A) prostrted 3 ATE Reflexive Pronoun “himself” = yar dor safes Te Te absent, present, enjoy, introduce, confine, devot, sacrifice 30—% Transitive Verbs 1 Sq a a BE Object saat & aT HE Reflexive Pronoun $8— @) Heenjoyed de pars Object Gi) He enjoyed himself Dingelt in the pasty Reflexive Pronoun 40, (D) than 3 a the one WMT aut Fas Comparison 2 dogs % te Bt area, Comparison ‘the dog I have ‘rat The dog you have" # Me 81 3i4: GEE the dog FF the one 8 replace rar eA &; 2 — {) These now books are better thar those ol ones (He ones = books). F 1. (B) 12D) 13. (B) 14.) AMirror of Common Errors a me we I wate Sm Standard English ¥ than ¥ aq Nominative Case Rf #1) HT Pronoun 3TH Oa @, a ger @ wef & tee () You are beter than I (am), at wat (7 FF You are better than me, FH EE eT ‘you’ wet & ae me! a ora. TRF ae wah ger t, Daas t] Nee aret ¥ You war LEH et Nominative Case i & “St Bit & fey GA THF “You Nominative Case ake ‘me’ Objective Case &, St tera , we S sof a gor BF than B ae Objective Case ar ot maior Har 8 ( She loves you more than me, = She loves you more than (she loves) me, TaE Nominative fark ‘She’ $ Sfx Objective “you" and ‘me’ drt # 2} Gi) PRX, She loves you more than Ist yx aret 1 ‘TET Subject (Nominative Case) She Tan 1 SHH # ‘3% Object ot you 8 Ga TET FT BRE She loves you more than I (ove you). ach other % Ae one another @ itr Sem Ae Modern Grammarians (#8—Thomson and Martine) each other = wat 2 aye Safe fee Te BFR t, fey Nesfcld ¥ each other 7 aMT AG 2 ‘sera a aeqst & fore site one another a AMT oo & ofre ort at agi & fee een shar wer Bi PoE Ty Nesfield at =e A ear ~ fis 5 28 one's a wir or afew eH Subject 50H ga one a MNT BT eT GN Anybody a People in general 7 AMT BA one H Possessive ‘one's Tr Reflexive oneself rt; $3 — (i) One should respect one’s seniors &F, (i) One should keep one’s promises woe a7 ant 2 (@ Everybody should respect his seniors (i) Everybody should keep his promises, mae which & 368 who ay seer Br that RT gat Taree TT criminal We Age & ote gor Fey Relative Pronoun ‘who! = Seit7 rer &, ate which 7 vats aegsit & Fa AT lower animals ® fere fear ‘ror 81 fag, that’ ar en Sst Be fee free oT aaa fi NOTE : freq sara & fore Pronouns era Feet TRL wholwhichvthac wate a Be, $B @ The man who / that is here is my brother. i) The dog which / that is here is mine 16. (C) their % aq his er wit Bor wa aeg = Subject Everybody & f¥a% fee Possessive his 7 Reflexive himself # water ga #1 NB. 7e 4h wart ea fie af aeET sT Subjecr Everyone, Someone, No one, Nobody, Somabody Anyone, Anybody anf at rr Fa Mt Posessive his er Reflexive himselt 7 51 € rm 17. (C) themselves % Fee himself wx ahr ah wife ATE 18, ‘HTH Subject “The officer’ ¥ FH Third Person Singular Number ¥ &, 7 f% assistants SY Third Person, Plural Number # #1 N.B. feta ara ® fore Suibject-Verb Agreement 1% sivia ser doa wt orem Bai Dy him wet he er wit om ere wR fe sacar 11 2a 19. (A) introduced "IE Reflexive ‘himself? a Fin Sm wren & fay suede 9 Bi 20. (©) ape gz t wt a GBB) whom % xB who FT SAM Relative Pronoun “who! wet aren &, art my ire er Vib Ser ‘Bf who A wt Se whom gar t few ae as 8 BE Verh aa Beat Bi who WF Posseasve Case whose" a $1 Wee who A whom wit we amr wet we EBLE forq sma re B Verb ot YeeT ZH Subject at dem a fr a GEHRY Verbs # (and 9 gE Verbs we A a & fog fF §, BF He came and talked to me) 3 Subjects ff B3 sree) SY sersten 20 7 The players TT Subject ¢ fers Verb t are. we GBT Subject & fiat Verb & have selected. 3:, B Subjects eS Verbs Hi ara:, aT TE F farq TETT 21 F The guests TET Subject t stk BUH Verb & are; TET Subjects we & Fewer Verb t were talking. fy dar Verb ‘have come’ # eS fore Subject 73K Ff at cert) TrET Subject who ‘7, 5 fe whom =f whom Objective Case # & att ag af 97 aT at a gem I Ott aed a ar rer Ba @ Theplayers whom we have selected ae > Mepis vor t 4 sv vi si young and ambitious (i) The guests whom we were talking sbout “pes men op see st sv have come a my bothersindaw aT Vv vi St (i = BURT Subjecy WE (Vi = SERT Verb) Go= FAT Subject) GI (V2= FAT Verb) 23. B) A Mirror of Common Errors WRG (UH V3 § Sr S398 8) ae: whom & ae who a dh eh St 95 ar err se 22, (B) who TEM dan = Seer hm AY aay er who tt which 8 328 that sr way gar S Ser se wa jone / Nothing / only / Superlative degree fe ane OF We Nerd we TT BD Pronoun % 6g # fark ‘that’ er watt dar 1 33, All that glitters is not gold. (ii) He isthe best man that Ihave ever met, (Gi) This is the same man that helped me, ‘SFT The same % ATE Relative Pronoun &e # As sar Bar & ae Be ATE Verb BE TE fra THT ne (@) This is the same dog as mine, [mine % = Verb wa 3] which & eo thar st ihe ou) sre saree 224 sae Br 24,(A) Whomever me Whoever a at Bem 28. (A) Whomever Objective Case # & frst fare: Verb comes scitt sé Eom Verb # 5a Nominative Caso % fae Sat & SE Whomever Nominative Case Whoeser tat which 3 ag& that ar war eon awe & fre eater 22 Fe that 3 we ag or war Bm such ve Pronoun % Sa 3 af wt h Sithai a Oat Tees Frew at Bree Rar Sar BE such a thai er st we Bt & fae anf Gar 8 er fe {i His behaviour was such that everybody distked him =H, @ Sach was his behaviour that everybody distiked tim. fe Te of me TEA ouch as to wT A Tai Fear ara ti $8 (i) His ailment is not stich as to cause us anxiety. aRFT Gx #1 such % we Relative Pronoun ‘as' #1 seats a 8, 4 PR who / which 7 that 1 Any & a@@ Either 3 sey GTi Any 3 WMT aT Any ene aT ST Ste ant (3) Any of these three girls can do it. (3) Any one ofthese three girs can do it er of these two roads lead tthe station, Every & Sa Every one a wart Gru wi Every GE ETS Adjective %, 7 PF Pronouns #4:, Every az Ce G Now w win tu; Every boy, Every book Safe a Every of wr wate 7 Bar, Fy Bvery one at WT RC Uw Hard Hof 3 ee Br Gr ST: Every one of Bx war rt fe Every & 2G Each @ wat ee a A aaT yee som ¢ ite Each A aT Sar aS ste FS sme of Wee Sort SA (@ There are two students here, and each is intelligent Gi) Each of these three boys is laborious. 30, (D) give 3 it ST FarT THT give UH Transitive Verb Sree ay WF Object Sr ait) met a SRK permission % Fee give B Ow it wf we rm 31. (4) myself & aed Yar wate dem are eet fe a at ‘AE Reflexive Pronoun 84 3 Subject 72 & WaT %; 88 —Yourself will do it ¥ Yourself ® Fee You art eT NB. : Acre # atitst Yat Myseli/Yourself suf FT Subject & we Fwy A ne & Ser ae rears 1 a, () Myselfis Ramesh ® 22 Lam Ramesh Gi) Yourself fs Sonu % 4% You are Sonu # TAFT ea ares 32.(A) They % AA Those A FIT Vat aay zie HT: They 1 Them @ Relative Pronoun Anecedent #8 Fara war 1 FE TA Those sete fsa oat 8; SS — (() Those who sing well will be awarded FF they who} (Gi) Tike thase who behave politely. Fr them who} FY, I+ be + they & area at wae @ at They a Relative Pronoun #7 Antecedent 7; $8 — {It's they who have come late fet, They frefefss ver % ay F Relative Pronoun ™ Antecedent & am th @ "They also serve who only stand and wait” Mitton (i) They are also secured who have tickets. 3.6) we gat 34, (B) FB Antocedent 52 Tet ti Sst art & SIAR Antecedent @ Relative Pronoun % saerk wares ates es BT TE PRT STAT EY Fs Ta Ht aTRHET Antecedent ‘furniture’ tov, aT ‘aarge BH Iku He sent to Patna all the furniture that he had bought in Chennai, ser areu St erect aed ae orf frre fe set wen a Ae F wae, Gt seh 35. (D) my % Fee mine rm Free et det (my problem). fee srt % fag reson Iai ret Ba 36, (D) Muzaffarpur 2 Yee those of = amr Bat mafey, wae ‘Je the hotels of Patna TH the hotels of Muzaffarpur ® aa 81 37. (D) that magazine * Se those published in that magazine ¥4rT Sar afew, SARS FEAT HT Aw % weafera articles @ Se Uftar # safer arcctes % eee aa A Mirror of Common Errors 49 38. (©) fee or ced ae 8 fe oe ae Fa HT wt eo () The articles published in this magazine are better than those published in that magazine. [ea arg H those = the articles) his % 78 their A FieT Er Fife Relative Pronoun ‘who" 7 Antecedent ‘those’ # St Third Person a4 Plural Number 3 81 39. (D) 1% Ze me w wT BM Let % Te Pronouns 40. (B) 4 aC) wien Objective Case # Tt 8 sat wer feat Preposition (8—between, except atte %) aE st Pronouns ET Objective case Ft wat #1 2S ()Letyom and me. (Gi) Let you and him. (ii) Between you end me. (iv) Between him and me, (~) Exeopt Ram and me. (oi) Except her and me. all great tagedies of Shakespeare et Wit Sra ste ‘nfs Antecedent (Shakespeare) 74 Relative Pronoun (ovo) ta UrRET waa ey RL ere ee saeco 34 2 either 8 2 any arr Set wafer FAT cither sar eh fa fee Pe any AT any one a ATT ‘tren & 3 safer & fore ar th NAB. : Preqs onrard 3 ferg v7 Yo 28 wt SATE a he 1 war superfluous Graeme) th aren Subject “The candidate’ #1 s74:, = part # he % sir ag sts EB 3 ae A wart Ca fe fet Antecedent aE St Relative Pronoun @y # 35 Relative Pronoun ¥ =e Antecedent % fare if Noun / Pronoun Subject ™t Objeot we # vet ar $A (i) Tiss the book which I lost It yesterday eH aet % tho book, ST Amevedent *, 7 fre Pronoun tw we Pear mar & tera 1 SE THT aye er (i) Thisis the book which I lost yesterday. rg one eT A fey me are aE BS (0) The candidate, being a graduate, bei eligible, (5 a7 F being a graduate = whois a graduate] co: Fg aera SRE The candidate, who isa graduate, bes cligible fe ge arate the ee Toone TET fe “The candigale’ Relative Pronoun ‘who’ ® Antecedent #1 B.(A) 44, (D) eo Tat $F [who is = being} a: The candidate, being a graduate, is eligible Your 3 at Yours #1 iT gar sey freer ont (Your problems) am Peg weMt fore seeder 3a aren 2a that Tee which wwe Som AB that ar eT who ™ which % fore dar t, AeeY fre Clause = fefer #2) ew Relative Pronoun % Se H Fes “which! #5 FT 1 who, that sn Fed} Clause A refer nat aH THRE; 3B (0) He has pai his debts, which isa clear proof of his honesty Be ara F hich ay war debts % faq a Eon 8, safes Clause 3 fore yor th oraig ga TET aT set Sin —set armen ae orer we feat 8, ot Se ered ee age tt the same 3 ER iT AT RAT The same a FT We Adjective 87 a mr ¢ ah we we se BS Noun wat a &; 3 ‘iy The same book J Noun Gi) Thesame coat L ote Noun = Pronoun % 4 ® the same #9400 aT TET ql 46.(C) 47. (0) Sia: FI Amecedent % fey ‘who! % ae Pronoun — 48. (E} che’ ar vary sé OOM ET wa wT aT YE wT 49. (E) te 50. (E) ‘The candidate, who is a graduate, is eligible. Kee ‘Same or the same, in the sense the aforesaid thing(s) ‘or person(s), as @ substitute for a pronoun (it, him, her, them, they) is one of the usages whose effect is discussed in ILLITERACIES H.W, Fowler : A DICTIONARY OF MODERN ENGLISH USAGE (P. $1) one * Fee ones FET ET FAH one A FATT Singular Noun % wae % tet # FRY ones H Plural Noun % seer #1 ary At saras & eight industrious workers and five lazy workers. ‘Stet, APF Noun ® repetition F wa % fee Pronoun #1 Wa fear arar %, ara: Five lazy workers a2a wt Five lazy ones 1 3aiT SCT cafe knows 3 aig it ey eat Sm ae ie at gaa @ ate Clause (Under no circumstances Tharmed him) @ refer 72% fey sarees 2) art Uz tl ane WK @ oat ye ti Chapter-7 ADJECTIVES An adjective is a word which qualifies a noun ot pronoun, For examples : (0 She is a beautiful gist, (i) They are good. CLASSIKICATION () PROPER ADJECTIVES : 8% Adjectives 3 Proper Nouns 3 73 §; 38— Noun ‘Adicotive t L India Indian America American China Chinese Shakespeare __"“Shakespearian (2) POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES : My, our, your, his, thei, he, ts, () This is my house (3) DISTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVES : Each, Every, Either, Neither, Each and every. (a) Bach watt @ a 2 2 orfiee % feral (i) Thee were two /three ten boys. Each boy was handsome. (b) Every / Each and every—ay sci & & athe fray (i) There were three boys Every /Each and every boy was intelligent (© Either Neither 1 srr Fath & 3 Fea) ‘There ate two novels on the table. Neither novel is interesting (a) Each / Every / Each and every /Fither / Neither T= BRE Noun & wea Article eT eer Bi Sa Each comb / every toy [7 f% Bach a comb @t every a toy] es vat Eacl/Every 9 Anicle 4 str = Problem Peat eT i 4, DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES : (a) Definite : this /that/ these / those / such / (the) same / the other. (b) INDEFINITE : a, an, a certain, certain, another, other, some (@¥g), any, any other sf om et (a)[ a/an/a certain / another /this/that + Singular ‘98a certain boy GF PF a certain boys) () [ouch 7 the same /the other any + Singular Or Plural Countable Noun. *8—Such a book = Such books fey the sume book * the same books any book @1 any books, (©) these those / certain / other + Plaral ‘Countable Noun, ‘38 —Cortain radios OTF cersin radio). (8) NUMERAL ADJECTIVES : (a) DEFINITE : CARDINAL: one, ovo, three, four et, ORDINAL ; first, second, third, fourth etc. MULTIPLICATIVE : single, double, tripple et. 1 ORDER OF DEFINITE NUMERALS : 3f& Pref are Bet AY Adjectives the er @ Ot gTey feren w A sor oot ‘Ordinal + Cardinal + Mulidplicative aa The fist five single rooms. TT Ord car mul NOTE : wart Modal v! Fer has we will wT th an oa | haves has /had + Var watt Bar & ger shallwill/eatvcould ete. + Vir war ar th ares, has % ferq ‘dot er V3 ‘done’ will % fare do ws V! ea ‘do wr ee Frater 81 sm: ret Ge th fg, Peet os meres fear 3 wer aT Verb area wo vit =e =Et GH Problem fear rar; aa (@) Meera /has and / will work / hard, /'No Error. ”o ® © © © [Part (B) 4 has TE Verb ‘work’ * V3 er a iT oT TE Sea, thas worked and will work’ Se *T Sm ] (F) 3% & Subjects P-AET Numbers & ef ter SH Ser ® To be (is, are, am, was, were), Have (have, has) 3° TET foarait wr ato BB SA Subjects fore werT Hewat wi at ae a ba af, So (@ Three were killed and one was injured. Log bod Subject Aux. Subject Aux (Plural) Verb (Singular) Verb (Plural) (Singular) oar wa fer ge we % area W Singular Subject Plural Subject Tx wpe EH TH Vorb B wzTER Problems fet & fa ( Two were / intelligent / but / one dull, No Error A 8) oO oO (6) {Part (D)% one & are ‘was! a HAT wT ETT) Gi) One was / beautiful / but / two ugly. / No Error. ao ® © © © Pat Dy ‘two! TE were! FT FET ST Note—arerarer i sr # wer 7 Rt ay are st GE vr Sra & eg Prandtner v2 orE MAIN VERBS / PRINCIPAL VERBS 9, ieee Bree a ater wf ae Fee wt (A) fidh are Verb 3 aga Pet ort Verb aT eT fre are meaningful we war Bi 3a— (@) He raised a problem, % =