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3 Distance Protection
2.3.1 Example

(a) Find out the value of Zn for a mho relay with torque angle
which has to give 100%
protection to a 50 km long 110kV transmission line with impedance
per km and
The two design parameters of a mho relay are Zn and
relay has been selected as
The transmission line impedance

. Here the torque angle,

of the

as on primary

where Rc, CT ratio = 200

Rv, VT ratio = 1000


angle of transmission line

, this value is to be set on the mho relay.

(b) If the maximum load on this line is 1000A at
lagging, is there any possibility of relay
tripping on load? CT ratio is1000:5
Maximum Load current

= 1000A

Since this value will not fall within the operating circle, the mho relay will not trip for this load.

Assuming that pu impedance of all transmission lines in above fig 22.5 is

the setting of zone 1, zone 2 and zone 3 relays of R1.


/km, determine


[because BA is the shortest back up line]

[because BC is the longest back up line

This approach for setting of distance relays presented is known as kilometric

distance approach because the set values of impedances are proportional to
lengths. In doing so, we have neglected effect of load currents and as well as the
effect of change in operating condition in the system. More accurate settings can be
computed by evaluating fault impedance seen by the relay for a fault by using short
circuit analysis programs.