Sunteți pe pagina 1din 34

Co tents page

Introduction 1
Basic principles 3
Plane Table Surveying 8
Chain Surveying 11
levelling '9
Tables 33
EQUIPMENT

BOAT LEVEL

ALlDADE

o
PIN

TRIPOD

PLUMB BOB
Fig 1
PLANE TABLE SURVEY
RADIATION METHOD

Factory

------

,,\
MARTINS LANE

A PLAN OF A TYPICAL SITE

Fig 2
ID
CHAIN SURVEYING

Chain Surveying has long been established as the easiest


an basic form of land mea$urement and is still in common use.
3ased on triangulation and consisting of carrying out the
survey in the field and plotting the survey to scale in the
drawing office from recorded measurements in the field book.
~t is a job for two people the surveyor and his assistant.
There are several possible inaccuracies which may occur
'.'hen
carrying out a chain survey and great care should be
~aken to avoid the,. The most common being confusing the
-~llies, miscounting the links, the chain having knots in
ink joints, bent links, the chain not being laid out in a
straight line between stations, incorrect bookings, miscalled
·i ensions and booking offsets at wrong points. Practice in
~he field will highlight some of these problems as there is
~o substitute for experience in the use of a chain.

EQUIPMENT
The basic equipment for chain surveying is the metric
chain 20metres in length with 100 links each .20metres in
_e. th. Every tenth link is marked by a brass tag or teller
'-it:-t
intermediate tags for every link. The chain is made of
E eel wire and great care should be taken when folding so as
~o avoid entanglement and bending the links. When the chain
is to be used and laid out it is done by grasping both
:a~dles of the chain and throwing it out in one operation and
~ .en straightened out ensuring all links and joints are
outst ret ched properly.
There are two other chains used these being the Gunter
Chain which is 66 feet in total length with 100 links of
7.92 inches, and the Engineers Chain 100 feet in length and
:.~E_00 links each a foot long and marked at 10 foot
i:r:tervalsv:ith tallies accord.i
ng Ly ,

Tapes
These are made of steel being the most accurate and being
r-e I'e
r-r-e d to linen tapes. They are c ornmon.l y in lengths of 10,
20 and 30 metres and are used to measure offsets to the main
chci.n line.

11
EQUIPMENT

90

THE METRIC CHAIN

TAPE
CHAIN ARROWS
((

"g 3 RANGING POLES

POLE SUPPORT /
.,. e'
12
ArmlWS
.-.•. 0 ':c are used to mark the end of each chain line and are
JOOmm to 450rmTl
in length and carr-y a red cloth
so that they can be easily spotted on the ground.

poles
:~ese ere usually 2 metres in length of wood or metal
. :n bands alternately in red, white and black.

book
:::"e_d oak approximately 100mm x 200mm with entries
at the back continuing to the front so that the
_ ._:~~c are recorded in the same direction as the Surveyor
-:':::F' along the chain.
c.::'
-C~~~::.~ C.re entered in the book such as hedge"', fence8,
~~~ coundaries, buildings, trees, manholes and poles
etc.
e afore mentioned are illustrated in Fig.J.

orocedure iE to make a reconnaisance of the site


the f,ener~l shape and layout and any other
o be surveyed. Then decide on the framework of
-.::.----a ion and drive in station pegs A. B. C. as shown in
. . :~€ stations to be fixed by taking two tic lines to
: ~o that it can be re-located if a return visit is
C"~:.~S> If the distance between the stations exceed a
::'e:::-th line in with an intermediate ranging pole as
·f.5. Then by p~oceeding up the chain line from
.easure with 90 offsets, features as before
u~til you have reached the end of the line A-B,
• ::. - ";;0" n all the relevant information. This is then
0
-E' ~or B-C and C-A. If the 90 offsets exceed 9 metres
-~~.t en an Optical square can be used to give greater
r.=-'''''-:'_'''''''~:' or the J:4: 5 Triangle rule employed using a tape.
ractical nature of the survey has been carried
- ~r_e::ullv checking that all the information required has
. ':"noted and loeged the Eurvey can be drawn to scale
:!f:..'.'.in[; office.

13
RECONNAISSANCE & SETTING OUT STATIONS

The S· e
_.ClllJjAP ,.(~~. _

Fig 4
14
CHAIN SURVEYING

intermediate ranging
pole

SETTING UP CHAIN LINE Fig 5


15
CLINOMETER

_~s ~ strument is used for measuring slopes of 3' or


is simply illustrated below. By firstly viewing
~nstrument on the horizontal plane the instrument
and focussed onto the ranging pole up the
ope with the counterweight in the vertical position
- ~ ~_evation can be read on the dial, in this case 300•
- strument is hand held and is most useful for
slopes quickly and easily giving instant readings

16
CHAIN SURVEY

SLOPING SITES

To measure "Leg" slopes greater than


o
3 , measure convenient horizontal
distances, plumb down to ground level
to fix point from which to take next
measurement.

B A

~e of slope with CLIlWJ·::ETER


''0(11 measure slope
Trigonometry AB=AC Cose{.

CLES
- -- --- -----
....---- >--
--- --- ---
--- --- c - - --
---- RANGING
---
OVER HILLS

ftand B. AssiEtant ~ith pole 2t D lines in surveyor


"t C on line AD. Surveyor linef'in pole at D on line
sequence ~ith four poles in line.

17
b d e

B E

cain line through A.B.C. set out equal offsets to a.b.c.


i~ d.e.Set offsets of length as before to fix D & E.
~~ continuation of main line through F.G. etc.

1Il:dll"\IIWl G ACROSS A RIVER

'~------~------~------~------~D
-----
__ ~_------=rtIVER -

:es at A & B on chain line. AD at Rt. 1s to AB. Pole C


-!: na t AC=CD. DE at Rt. 1s to AD, wi t h E.C.B. on straight
::"en AB =DE.

EY OF LAKE OR WOOD

- - ~ fraJework of chain lines


_= area and triangulate
- _ -ies across the corners
_:'e'; C:- IN TRAVERSING.

18
I TRODUCTION
This book has been set out to illustrate the fundamental
basis of land measurement and procedures to adopt when
surveying areas of land. The actual practice of carrying
out surveys has not changed much over the years with only
perhaps the refinement and advanced equipment now in use.
Wost of the procedures detailed in this publication are in
corr~on practice and will give a good grounding to
Architectural, Surveying and Building students.
It is emphasised t.at only practice in the field will
give a good and thorough understandinG of the methods
outlined here and the key being accuracy in performance.

1
LEVELLING

___ ~asic instrument for levelling is the surveyors


e '!hichis an adaption of Keplers telescope ernp loyang
.••-:;,_<::;;:;.=- __

-ex Lenses which produce a real image and line of


- __
_ line of collimation (i.e. principal axis) and will
-seus sed in more detail later. The other piece of
_~-~~- used in conjunction with the level is the
_ ~~-_~c _evelling stave in 4 metre and 5 metre heights.
-~ :s are taken using the sight line throueh the telescope
-_ '= ::"e'.-el
onto the staff wlri ch is collimated in metres and
Readings of course will be inverted, this will be
ater.

_.::!: =o::"_o'ting
statements are accurate for most practical

=_:::'onof transparent material bounded by either plane


e:' surfaces.

_:==ere~t types in use: (Fig.l.)

{fJR/A./CIA9L IlxIs
Or al..5.

Fig 1
fJL!J,UO COA./c4V£

right angles to the two parallel tangentc: of the


urfaces of the lens.

re
on the principal axis whose distance from the tRO
_ :'sproportional to their radii.

19
- -~~c~~ fro. one transparent material to another
- -~~ec~ion. For example, a stick partly immersed in
-_ears to be sharply bent at the surface of the water
r-or above the water surface. Thus, in passing
:e~s the rays of light will be bent or refracted as
e -. ';;ith a convex lens the rays of light will
~ _assing ttrough it.
co__ea e lens the rays will diverge on passing through
lens is suitable as a burning glass while

through a convex lens will converge on a


he principal axis called the "principal focus"
- ::'~:::". The distance from this point to the optical
-::e :ens is termed the "focal length" of the lens.

ib.IS,
Fig2

~ c ~ ex lens ~ill produce an image on a screen


T_is imat;eis termed a "Real Image".
ens however causes the light rays to diverge
pr-oduced backwards to the principal focus.
i".c.gev:ill be seen on a screen at "F" and this is
',-irtualImage".
len th of a convex lens is positive (+)
length of a concave lens is negative (-)
ion of different shaped lenses will produce a
~ocal length related to their individual focal
-_,eexpression
I
+ + + •••••••••••

:-C~_ length of the combincation, or, compound lens,


- ~!"" ov:nas the "jiowe r" of the lens.

I etc. the focal length of individual


fJ' lenses.

20
Production of an image
An object being viewed through a lens is considered to
consist of a number of connected points, each radiating tV10
rays of light; one ray passing through the optical centre of
the lens without being refracted, the other, parallel to the
principal axis, refracted through the focal point, both
intersecting to produce an inverted "real image" (See Fig.3.)

v
/t)/A./T {)I../ ••
mtaBJlCT~~ ~a~~ ~KA
&JUc,
VltW£D
f

~~D /M/lt;E CF
Fig3 Po/AlT
/MIlGE)
v£ WED (RlAL

There is a definite relationship between the focal length f


and the object distance V to the image distance U for a lens.
This is expressed as:
I I I
= + 11 for a convex lens.
f V

and
I 1 I
= for a concave lens (where f is
f V U
negative)

As the image must be produced on the same plane as the crOLS


hairs of the telescope of surveying instruments, and the
distance from object to lens will vary causing a proportional
variation in value U, it is essential to provide adjustment of
the lens by a focussing mechanism.
A single lens hov:ever possesses a number of faults, the two
i portant ones being:

(a) Chromatic aberration; v!hite light is split into its


co ponent colours on refraction, terr-:ed"dispersion",
and due to differing angles of refraction for each
colour the image tends to be blurred and surrounded by
a halo of colours.
This is usually overcome by using two lenses of
different material, e.g. one of crown glass and one of
flint glass.

(b) Snherical berrationj Thic is caused by various rays of


liGht fIling on the lens not beine; r-e f'r-ac t ed to pass
exac t Ly t hr-ough the SC:.T:ie
focal point. ~'l)i
s f'au It is
controlled by using thin Leris es and restrictine; the
object to be viewed to an area close to the princip~l
axis of a flc:..t curvature lens.

21
The telescope
The surveyors telescope show~ in Fig.4. provides a line of
collimation passing through the optical centres of the lenses
and the cross hairs. The e epiece magnifies both the real
image and the cross hairs in the same proportion as these are
both on a common plane. The eyepiece is usually the Ramsden
type, consisting of two pIano-convex le~ses mounted a short
distance apart in a self-contained case, wh i ch is threaded on
rwar-d or back in the
the outside to allow it to be screwed f'o
telescope body to bring the cross hairs and image into clear
focus. This arrangement of lenses reduces spherical aberration.
The object glass is usually a compound lens to reduce
chromatic aberration.

I'12/AJC /P4L.. 4;<15.


j.!1../£ e>,r COLJ.IMI17IoA/
1..11./&o.t: SI(jIlr:
)
/MIlCr~ Fo.(?N/£D

Focussing
BY #£' PIECt.
Fig 4
Two forms of focussing mechanism are used to bring the
image onto the cross-hair plane as the distance of the object
from the telescope varies. These are:

(a) External focussing: The body of the telescope is made


of two concentric close fittinG barrels, the object
glass mounted in one and the eyepiece and cross-hairs
in the other. A rack and pinion mechanism operated by
the "focussing screw" advances or retracts one tube in
relation to the other, thus increasing or reducing the
distance between object glass and eyepiece/cross-hairs.
This method was common on older instruments and is more
accurate for tacheometry purposes, but has the
disadvantage that wear on the tubes may allow entry of
water, dust, etc., and impair the efficiency of the
instrument.

Cb) Internal focussing: A double concave lens mounted on ()


frame is fitted inside a one piece telescope body
between the object and eyepiece lenses. The frame
pocition is adjustable by means of a rack and pinion,
as before, which slides the lens tov:ards or away from
the object glass.

22
The concave len disperses the light rays from the
object glass to greater or lesser degree depending on
the position of the lens and thus allows focussing of
the image on the cross-hairs. The disadvantage of this
method is the loss of brilliance due to the extra lens.
Cross-hairs
Originally, spiders yeb was used, but these broke easily
and were difficult to replace. Today, very fine lines are
etched on a piece of very thin optical glass fastened to a
"reticule", forming an interchangeable capsule which fits
into a flanged metal ring called the "diaphragm", held in the
telescope barrel by four capstan headed screws - which should
only be touched when changing or making major adjustments to
the cross-hairs.
Parallax
This term refers to relative motion between the object and
the cross-hairs when the eye is moved to and fro across the
eyepiece, and means that the image and cross-hairs are not on
the same plane. To eliminate parallax a piece of white paper
is held in front of the object lens and theeye-piece moved in
or out until the cross-hairs stand out clear and black. The
telescope is then focussed on the object and tested for
parallax again, the procedure being repeated if necessary
until the parallax is eliminated.
The spirit level
Cormnonly fastened to the ba.r-r-e I of the telescope on a
levellirig instrument, but usually on the top plate of a
Theodolite. The more sensitive spirit-levels are barrel
shaped curved glass tubes, with the less sensitive only a
portion of the surface is curved, when thee'termed non-
reversible levels. The glass tube is filled with ether or
alcohol with a sm2.11air space left to form a bubble. These
fluids are less viscous than water, ~nd have a much lower
freezing point, but a greater ey-pansion, so that a level left
in very hot sun may burst.
The top surface of the tube has graduations etched on it
which aid in centralising the bubble in the centre of its run.
The sensitiveness of the bubble is defined as the amount the
horizontal axis of the tube has to be tilted to cause the bubble
to move from one graduation mark to the next, e.g. 1 division
)0 sec. means a tilt of )0 sec. of arc above the horizontal
v.Ll L cause a "run" of one graduation.

23
The spirit level tu e is e~c osed in a metal case,
attached to the body of ne L_ trur.!entby one or two capstan
headed screws which alLov t he tube to be adjusted so that it
loneitudinal axis is paralle to the principal axis of the
Telescope.
By this means one can adjust the instrument so that the
line of collimation is horizontal, i.e. at right a~gles to the
plane of gravity acting at the centre of the instrument: Do
not adjust the capstan screws unless making a major
correction.
The centralising of the bubble may be observed in different
ways. On some instruments the tube is viewed in a rnirror
0
hinged to an angle of about 45 • In other cases an internal
mirror may be used, or a right angle prism, to give the
surveyor an image of the bubble in the eyepiece so that he
does no~ have to move round the instrument.
Another method presents two half bubbles images in the
field of view and these have to coincide to form one complete
bubble to bring the telescope level.
The circular or "cats eye" bubble is inferior in accuracy
to the level tube but gives an approximate level plane for
initial "C'uickset" levelling purposes.

Types of levels
DU.DV Level: The simplest form of level consists of a
bubble tube attached to a telescope which is rigidly fixed
to a horizontally rotating centre post and top plate, in its
turn connected to a bottom plate by three or four levelling
foot screws, which can be adjusted to bring the spirit
lev~l and telescope axis horizontal.

T~o conditions are essential for accurate work.

1. The axis of the bubble tube must be parallel to the


axis of the telescope, i.e. line of collimation.

2. Both must be at right angles to vertical axis of the


instru ent.

Tilting Level or Quickset Level: An improvement on the


Dumpy as the telescope can be pivoted in the vertical
plane by means of the tilting screw under the eyepiece end
of the telescope. It is only necessary to set the
instrument to an approximate horizontal plane by
reference to the "cats eye" bubble, the telescope being
brought level for each sighting by using the tilting scre~.

example

24
Precise Level: This is a development of the now almost
obsolete Wye level and the Tilting level.
The telescope tube may be tilted and also revolved in its
mountings so that b taking the mean of two readings on
the same station a true reading may be obtained, this
compensating for any error in the collimation of the
instrument.

example

Terms used in levelling


Bench rark: A fixed point on the earth's surface whose
level above Ordnance datum is known.

Ordnance dat un.e r~ean sea level to which all other levels
and bench marks are related.

Back sight: The first sight taken from a given level


position.

Foresight: The last sight taken from a given level position.

Intermediate sight: Any other sight taken from this level


position.

HeiGht of Instrument: (H. of I). The height of the line of


collimation above the datum. (i.e.
si ht line or principal axis of
telescope.)

25
Reduced level: (R. =.. Calculated height or level of a
poin a 0 e or below the datum.

Change Point: The point at wlri c h both a foresight and


then a backsight are taken (i.e. when the
level changes position.)

METHOD

Setting up the level


0
1. Open tripod legs to 60 and press the feet firmly into
ground.

2. Note how instrument is packed in the box before


removing and lift out carefully, never by the
telescope tube.

3. Screw firmly onto tripod head; never crossing the


threads.

4. Roughly level the instrument y adjusting the tripod


legs, complete adjustment by means of the footscrews,
i.e. bring the bubble to the centre of its run.

plan
c:;
~ . axis at ric;ht of
ent:

Check that there is no play on the axis of the


instrument. Turn telescope over a p~ir of footscrews
o
and level-up. Then rev rse tube through 180 • If the
bubble runs off centre bring it halfway back with
footscreVls and the balance of the way with the capstan
he ded screws on the bubble tube.

26
Corrections
Curvature: as the ear t.h is curved, a horizontal sight
does not give the true relati e heights of two points over
a long sighting distance. See Fig.6.
.
As C is so small cor.:paredto 2R it is ignored and the
expression is written thus X2
= correction.
2R
2 2
Distance measured d
i.e. curvature correction or
Diameter of Earth 2R

Refraction: differin~ atmospheric conditions cause the


rays of light entering the telescope to be refracted, i.e.
bent, towards the earth's surface to greater or lesser
degree, so that on a long sight the reading seen on the
staff is not on a true horizontal line but below it and
nearer to the earth's surface than it is believed to be.
This error due to refraction partly offsets the error
due to curvature. As an average figure it is assumed that
the error due to refraction is 1/7 that of curvature and in
the opposite direction.

The combined correction for curvature2and refraction is


usually quoted as a deduction of 6
7 x d2R from.the staff
readlng.

Fig 6

27
For short sights t::& ci::ere:!1ceis so small t11Citit De.' be
ignored, but in exact Ieve:l~~ sights should not exceefi a
quarter of a mile to a Ol ::"euncertainty caused by these
errors. By taking back a.. fore-sights to staff positions at
nearly equal distances fro _ t:he level these faults may be
consiciered cancelled and are not calculated in normal
levelling operations.

Forms of levelling
Simple Levelling: in which all levels are obtained with
the instrument in one position, or, in other words:

(a) there is onl T one line of collimation.

(b) the first sight is the only backsight.

(c) the last sight is the only Foresight.

(d) All other sights are intermediate sights.

220 1/5. . 2-Se ---/I'" '::":::"_-!F2~ 2'/0

B E
c ,,/1 /)/S7,tftJCc~
o ~
F
.,I,- r 1~ (y ----f,--..1-J---./'{
Co pound Levelling: in whi.ch the levels are obtained only
J

by changing the position of the instrument as one follows the


undulations of the ground in a long line of levels, or to
obtain clear sights which <::.re
otherwise obscured by obstacles.
Therefore there will be:

(a) Kore than one line of colliDation.

(b) A bo;;.cksie;l1t
and foresight for each change in instrument
position.

(c) Separate groups of intermediate sights reI ted to


different instrument positions.

Fig 1
1-70
.--------
.{)O
2'00.

A
_yl. I" -,J
~~~---~.--------~r--~O~~/~~~~~--~~~l----~~----l~·
_
F
'( 1 1 '1 1

28
LAND SURVEYING

GENERALLY
The main function of carrying out a practical land
survey is to ascertain as accurately as possible the size
and shape of building sites, fields or other areas of land
masses. They may have on them ponds, buildings or include
other features such as ditches, streams and trees etc. which
may need to be recorded and plotted on a survey dravring.
This is generally known as land measurement.
In addition to this information it will also be
important to·know how the site slopes for which you will
need to carry out a level survey. Basically it is forming
a three dimensional picture of a particular area of land
with points of elevation marked on it so that vertical
can be taken through showing planes of elevation.
There are various methods of gathering this information
which will be illustrated and explained in this book. It
will be necessary to have knowledge of geometry and a good
understanding of mathematics in order to plot and calculate
information gathered by the practical survey.
Experience and practical knowledge can only be gained by
actually carrying out the methods and procedures described
in the field.

There are two basic methods of land measurement in building


Plane Table Surveying and Chain Surveying, these will be
discussed and illustrated more fully in the following pages
of this book.
Other methods include the use of the Theodolite which is
used for measuring horizontal and vertical angles. This is
used mainl:y in Civil Engineering wo rk i.e. road
construction etc. where greater land masses and distances
are involved.
Over larger areas of land the curvature of the earth's
surface will have to be taken into account and is known as
Geor'ieticSurveyine;. It is used in Ordnance Survey work and
is a specialised branch of land survey work.

2
BOOKING
There are two forms of booking down level readings,
Collimation also known as Height of Instrument and Rise and
Fall method.

Rise & Fall Method


Using Fig.l. to illustrate this method the readings taken
by the level are entered into columns of either Rise or Fall
i.e. the reading A datum is entered into the back sight
column with reading B entered into the foresight column.
As B is smaller than A this denotes a Rise and the difference
is entered into the Rise column and recorded as such with a
reduced level reading entered by adding to a datum figure
of 100.00. for level at B.
Any intermediate Sights are entered into the appropriate
column with reduced levels accordingly. Distances and
Remarks Columns are used to record change points and level
points etc. This method makes it possible to check each page
by adding the Rise column and Fall column, the difference
should equal the difference between the backsight and
foresight column as illustrated below.

RISE & FALL METHOD


SAC!:: jA/T[J:( rcRE- RISE /"JJLL RlIJ/la~ /JIS1~E
SI{H-IT srcrllT SJaI/T ,uy£L RlMllRKS

2-00 /00-00 (;1) Dc:IvM kt/cl.


0-54 /40 /0/4{p (B)Chq~t'-Po;I)/.
2-30
;.70 {)·60 lo.2-0~ rq
2-$0 /-/0 It;O·Q6 (q)
J-60 o-so 100 '/0 (£)ck"e 181711
/60
,2-00 0-4() q9-7~ er)
5-90 (0/,,- 2-06
-- (31- /00-00
9Cj-7{'
t9 -IIf
S.<fo
<;
.no
:2 -of 021-)/
0-24,,/ o-24
v

29
Collimation Method
Again using Fig.l. to illustrate this method the
succeeding reading is subtracted from the last calculated
collimation height i.e. reading at A is height of instrument
being 102.00 after datum of 100.00 is added. This will then
give a Reduced level at each staff position.
To check add the back sights and add the foresights and
find the difference. By finding the difference between the
level of datum and the last reduced level should equal the
difference between the backsight and foresight totals.
Always check if possible back to the datum point by
taking flying levels this will avoid a return visit to the
site.

COLLIMATION METHOD
84a: /I./ffR RJRE- /lE/aI/Tor I?.EO(lCEf) PIS1#WCE
3ti/IT sasr y,aIlT /AI.Jr.ep/'-f~T LErfL. 13£/vt/lRk$
:2. eo /62 -co roa-oo cJr4T/04/ (It)
/)aIOM.
.,230 o·s4 10)-76 /0/.46 @) Cha~~!b/iJ!
/·70 102·06 CC)
2·80 /00· 96 (P)
1"0 3·60 10;' 7~ /00./6 ,£ Ck~t!: 1(,//17.

:2 -co qq·7C, F
3'90 6l!JZ-- /00.00
9q·7~
6·/i/-
5·90 021/
o·24V CJlECI. ts

30
SOURCES OF ERROR IN LEVELLING:

Incorrect setting-up of instrument.

1. Bubble off centre when taking reading.

2. Movement of staff from position when changing level


station.

3. Staff not held vertically.

4. Parallax - adjust.

5. Instrument knocked or moved during backsight-foresight


reading.

6. Staff not properly extended and locked.

INSTRUlmNT ERROR AND CORRECTION:

Ca) Collimation error; check before use and equalise sights.

(b) Under sensitive bubble.

(c) Errors in staff graduation; check.

(d) Loose tripod head.

(e) Telescope not parallel to bubble tube - Permanent


adjustment.

(f) Telescope not at right angles to the vertical axis -


Permanent adjustment.

LEVELLING USING A GRID


This method of levelling is commonly used and is shown
set out in Fig.6. A grid pattern of lOmetre squares is set
up over the site which can be pegged out off a chain line
and setting up the level at station A and by taking readings
in sequence a,b,c and d etc. an accurate way of levelling a
site.

31
LEVELLING USING A GRID

r 0

"7
k ,b11 m
~o.

/
f e d

-+----~----~--~~--~----~--~-
MARTINS lANE

Fig 6
3~
LAND MEASUREMENT

BASIC PRINCIPLES
The basis of all land measurement is the use of a base
line and fixed points from which measurements can be taken.
The following examples are used as basic principles for all
surve;ying methods.

1. RIGHT ANGLED CO-ORDINATES. A

xK z
~
Y
Point A is located or fixed by the distance XZ along the
line XY measured at right angles to the line.
It is mainly used for measuring boundaries and buildings
along a chain line, and is commonly known as taking right
angled offsets.

2. FOCAL CO-ORDINATES.

x y
Point A is located or fixed by measuring from X-A and
Y-A along a known chain line XY. This is quite often used
for fixing station points in order to set up another chain
i.e. XA.

3
J. ANGULAR CO-ORDINATES.
, 'A
' /

x z r Y
Point A is located or fixed by measuring the angles ol
and 'at points Z and R along a chain line XY. Where the
angles intersect point A is located. This method is used as
lines of intersection in Theodolite, plane table and compass
survey work.

4. POLAR CO-ORDINATES.
A

Y
Point A is located or fixed by a known point Z along a
chain line XY and measuring the distance ZA together with
angleo(. A method used in radiating lines on a plane table
and locating points generally.

4
AREAS & VOLUMES

AREAS
Triangles
Area = base x height
2

Corrmonly used in surveying


when lengths of sides are
often only values S ~ b
known , 2

a
Area = / s( s-a )(s-b )(S-C)

Lengths of two sides and included known b A


ane;le.
c
C B
a

Area = ~ - aesinL = _be sin A


222

Trapezium

5
The parallelogram
D~ a~ ~

area =(a x h)
Side8 included ~ known but not h.
Area = ab Sin A or ab Cos B.
A a B

IRREGULAR FIGURES

Simpsons rule
~ssume that the bound ries are parabolic in shape and is most
Eccurate for normal survey conditions. Can be used for VOLUJlr:ES
if areas are substituted for ordinate lengths.

Y7

Odd number of ordinates.


Even number of spaces.

Area j (width of strip) x [SUP.1 of Ls t and last or(hm,te]


+ (twice sum of other odd ordinates) + (4 times sur,
of even ordinates.)

Are x_
3
[(y ~
'1 + v7
v ) + 2(" "3 +vv r.; ) + 4(V2+YA~+Y6)J
/
er L!

6
Trapezoidal rule
sed when there are any nu _ber of or-d i na t s or height s ,
-ay be used for volumes if are~s of sections are substituted
for ordinate lengths.
Area = Interval (half sum of 1st and last ordinate + remaining
ordinates.)

Prismoidal formula

Al and A2 areas of ends.

Am are of middle 08ction.


L over all distance between end sections.

7
PLANE TABLE SURVEYING

Plane Table Surveying is a ouick method of measuring areas


or sections of land. All of the work is carried out on ~ite
by the Surveyor. It is not very often used as a practical
method of surveying for reasons of general accuracy and
weather conditions in this country but it is very useful on
more drier climates. There are four main methods a) Radiation,
b) Intersection, c) Resection, d) Traversing.

EQUIPMENT
To carry out a Plane Table Survey you will need a drawing
board on an adjustable tripod with rotating head. A small
level i.e. boat level with a compass to orientate the survey.
An Alidade sighting straight edge, plumbing fork and plumb
bob with stationers pin. Ranging poles, pegs and arrows with
steel measuring tape or chain. Some of these items are shown
in Fig.1.

RADIATION METHOD
To illustrate the method of Plane Table Surveying Fig.2.
shows a typical building site to be surveyed.
Set up the Table in the centre of the site and level board
ensuring that all aspects of the site can be seen. Locate all
other points i.e. change of boundary lines, positions of
.anholes, gates, poles, trees etc. Then using the Alidade
sight onto the fixed points measure the distance from the
centre peg marked on the ground. By using a suitable scale
draw in the radiated line on the paper fixed securely to the
board from the centre pin which should be directly plumbed in
over the measuring peg on the ground. When carrying out this
process the board should be clocked into position until
EiBhtings and measurements can be taken in sequence A,B,C etc.
for the whole of the site. If this procedure is carried out
carefully then a reproduction of the site will be recorded to
sc~le onto the board.