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Efficiency Determination

ASME Section VIII, Division 1

Session Objectives

Determine when to apply a joint efficiency "E" in pressure vessel design calculations.

Review and understand the terms joint "category" and "type". Determine the correct "E" value based on joint type and degree of radiography. Review ASME stamping requirements when radiography is performed. Solve sample problems

Referenced Code Paragraphs

UG-27 Shells under internal under pressure.

UG-32 Formed heads, pressure on the concave side.

UW-3 Welded joint category.

Figure UW-3 Illustration of Welded Joint Location.

UW-12 Joint efficiencies Table UW-12 Maximum allowable joint efficiencies

UG-116(e) Required marking (nameplates or direct stamping)

UG-27 Thickness of Shells Under Internal Pressure

An efficiency value "E" applies only to shells under internal pressure.

value "E" applies only to shells under internal pressure. Shell in tension Pressure Shell in compression

Shell in tension

value "E" applies only to shells under internal pressure. Shell in tension Pressure Shell in compression

Pressure

Shell in compression

UG-27 Thickness of Shells Under Internal Pressure

E = joint efficiency for, or the efficiency of appropriate joint in cylindrical or spherical shells, or the efficiency of ligaments between openings, whichever is less.

joint in cylindrical or spherical shells, or the efficiency of ligaments between openings, whichever is less

UG-32 Formed Heads and Sections, Pressure on the Concave Side

E = lowest efficiency of any joint in the head; for hemispherical heads, this includes head-to-shell joint

tension

head; for hemispherical heads, this includes head-to-shell joint tension Concave compression Pressure C o n v

Concave

compression

head; for hemispherical heads, this includes head-to-shell joint tension Concave compression Pressure C o n v

Pressure

Convex

UG-32 Formed Heads and Sections, Pressure on the Concave Side

Example: Vessel subject to internal pressure

and Sections, Pressure on the Concave Side Example: Vessel subject to internal pressure Convex Head Concave

Convex Head

Concave Head

UW-3 Welded Joint Category

The term Category as used herein defines the location of a joint in a vessel, but not the type of joint.

Categories are assigned based on the type and degree of stresses imposed at various locations within a vessel.

Joints included in each category are designated as A, B, C or D.

UW-3 Welded Joint Category

UW-3 Welded Joint Category

UW-3 Welded Joint Category

(a) Category A

Longitudinal joints within the main shell, communicating chambers (eg. sumps), transitions in diameter, or nozzles,

any joint in a sphere, formed or flat head or side plates in flat sided vessels,

circumferential welded joints connecting hemispherical

heads to shells, nozzles, or to communicating chambers.

(b) Category B Circumferential welded joints within the main shell, communicating chambers or transitions in diameter, circumferential welded joints connecting formed heads other than hemispherical to main shells, transitions in

diameter, to nozzles, or to communicating chambers.

UW-3 Welded Joint Category

Head attachment

Category A joint

examples

Category ■ Head attachment Category A joint examples any joint in a sphere hemi head to
Category ■ Head attachment Category A joint examples any joint in a sphere hemi head to

any joint in a sphere

hemi head to shell

Cylindrical straight flange (skirt)

Category B joint

sphere hemi head to shell Cylindrical straight flange ( s k i r t ) Category

formed head other than hemi

UW-3 Welded Joint Category

(c)

Category C Welded joints connecting flanges, Van Stone laps, tubesheets, or flat heads to:

main shells, to formed heads, to transitions in diameter, to nozzles or to communicating chambers, Any welded joint connecting one side plate to another side plate of a flat sided vessel.

(d)

Category D

Welded joints connecting communicating chambers or nozzles to: main shells, spheres, transitions in diameter, to heads,

flat sided vessels, and nozzles to communicating chambers

Table UW-12, Joint Types

8 Joint types are identified.

Type 1 has the highest efficient, type 6 has the lowest efficient. Types 7 and 8 have no assigned efficiency. Types 1 through 3 are butt joints, types 4 through 6 are lap joints. Type 7 is a corner joint and 8 is an angle joint. Only type 1 and 2 butt joints may be radiographed in order to improve efficiency.

Table UW-12, Joint Types

Examples: Type 1, Butt welded, both sides must be visible

Examples: Type 1, Butt welded, both sides must be visible Examples: Type 2, butt welded with

Examples: Type 2, butt welded with backing

must be visible Examples: Type 2, butt welded with backing Fig. UW-13.1 sketch (k) "joggle joint"

Fig. UW-13.1 sketch (k) "joggle joint"

visible Examples: Type 2, butt welded with backing Fig. UW-13.1 sketch (k) "joggle joint" backing left

backing left in place

Table UW-12, Joint Types

Examples: Type 3, single welded butt welded without backing

Type 3, single welded butt welded without backing not viewed internally -eg. small diameter pipe or

not viewed internally -eg. small diameter pipe or assemblies with space or visibility restrictions

Examples: Type 4, double full fillet lap joint

small diameter pipe or assemblies with space or visibility restrictions Examples: Type 4, double full fillet

Table UW-12, Joint Types

Examples: Type 5, single full fillet lap joints with plug welds

Type 5, single full fillet lap joints with plug welds Plug Weld Examples: Type 6,single full

Plug Weld

Examples: Type 6,single full fillet lap joint without plug welds

single full fillet lap joints with plug welds Plug Weld Examples: Type 6,single full fillet lap

UW-12 Joint Efficiencies

Table UW-12 gives the joint efficiencies "E" to be used in the formulas of this Division for joints completed by an gas or arc welding process.

Except as required by UW-11(a)(5), a joint efficiency depends only on the type of joint and the degree of examination of the joint and doesn't depend on the degree of examination of any other joint.

The user or his designated agent [U-2(a)] shall establish the type of joint and the degree of examination when the rules of this Division do not mandate specific requirements.

UW-12 Joint Efficiencies

(a)

full radiography

(b)

spot radiography

(c)

no radiograph

(d)

seamless pressure vessel sections and heads

(e)

welded pipe or tubing

(f) welds completed by pressure welding processes

UW-12 Joint Efficiencies

UW-12(b) Spot radiography

Per column (b) of Table UW-12

Performed per UW-52* [see UW-11(b)]

(b) of Table UW-12 ■ Performed per UW-52* [see UW-11(b)] * Minimum one film (at least

* Minimum one film (at least 6 inches long) per welder for each 50 foot increment of deposited weld metal.

UW-12(c) No Radiography Per column (c) of Table UW-12

welder for each 50 foot increment of deposited weld metal. UW-12(c) No Radiography ■ Per column

UW-12 Joint Efficiencies

UW-12(f) Pressure Welding Processes A value of E not greater than 0.80 for welds completed by any of the pressure welding processes listed in UW-27(a).

any of the pressure welding processes listed in UW-27(a). UW-12( a) Full Radiography ■ Use the

UW-12( a) Full Radiography

Use the efficiency specified in column (a) of Table UW- 12, except when the requirements of UW-11(a)(5) are not met, a value not greater than that listed in column (b) of Table UW-12 shall be used.

UW-12 Joint Efficiencies

UW-11(a)(5) applies to all Category A or D butt welds in vessel sections and heads designed per UW-12(a), in which case:

(a) Category A and B welds connecting vessel sections or heads shall be Type 1 or 2 of Table

(b) Category B or C butt welds which intersect category A butt welds in vessel sections or heads, or connect seamless vessel sections or heads shall as a minimum, meet the requirements for spot radiography per UW 2.

UW-52(b)(4) Radiographs required at specific locations to satisfy the rules of other paragraphs, such as UW-9(d), UW- 11(a)(5)(b). and UW-14(b), shall not be used to satisfy the rules for spot radiography.

UW-12 Joint Efficiencies

UW-12(a) Full Radiography Use column (a) of Table UW-12, except when UW-11(a)(5) is not met, use column (b) of Table UW-12.

when UW-11(a)(5) is not met, use column (b) of Table UW-12. UW 12(d) Seamless Vessel Sections

UW 12(d) Seamless Vessel Sections and Heads are considered equivalent to welded parts of the same geometry, in which and all Category A welds are type 1.

Formed head other than hemi

welded parts of the same geometry, in which and all Ca tegory A welds are type

Hemi head

UW-12 Joint Efficiencies

UW-12(d) con't

For calculations involving circumferential

stress in vessel sections or for the thickness of seamless heads, E = 1.0 when the spot radiography requirements of UW 11(a) (5)(b) are met, or 0.85 when they are not met.

Formed head other than hemi

or 0.85 when they are not met. Formed head other than hemi Hemi head UW-11(a)(5)(b) spot

Hemi head

UW-11(a)(5)(b) spot RT performed, E= 1.0 UW-11(a)(5)(b) spot RT not met, E= 0.85

UW-12 Joint Efficiencies

UW-12(e) Welded pipe or tubing* shall be treated in the same manner as seamless, but with the allowable tensile stress taken from the welded product values of the stress tables, and the requirements of UW-12(d) applied.

* Manufactured in accordance with a material specification permitted by this Division, not fabricated by the vessel manufacturer as a vessel part. (eg. ERW pipe)

Welded, but treated like seamless

part. (eg. ERW pipe) Welded, but treated like seamless [UW-12(d)] UW-11(a)(5)(b) spot RT performed, E= 1.0

[UW-12(d)]

UW-11(a)(5)(b) spot RT performed, E= 1.0 UW-11(a)(5)(b) spot RT not met, E= 0.85

UG-116(e) Required Marking

When a vessel has been radiographed in accordance with UW-11, marking shall be applied under the Code symbol

as follows:

RT-1

RT-2

RT-3

RT-4

accordance with UW-11, marking shall be applied under the Code symbol as follows: ■ RT-1 ■

UG-116(e) Required Marking

RT-l, Full radiography of all pressure retaining butt welded joints, except Category B & C butt welds in nozzles and communicating chambers that neither exceed IMPS 10 (DN 250) nor 1-1/8 in. (29mm).

that neither exceed IMPS 10 (DN 250) nor 1-1/8 in. (29mm). Hemi head RT-2, when the

Hemi head

RT-2, when the complete vessel satisfies the requirements of UW ll(a)(5) and when spot RT rules of UW 11(a)(5)(b) have been applied.

Formed head, Other than Hemi

of UW ll(a)(5) and when spot RT rules of UW 11(a)(5)(b) have been applied. Formed head,

Hemi head

UG-116(e) Required Marking

RT-3, when the complete vessel satisfies the spot radiography rules of UW-ll(b).

Formed head, Other than Hemi

rules of UW-ll(b). Formed head, Other than Hemi Hemi head RT-4, when only part of the

Hemi head

RT-4, when only part of the complete vessel has satisfied the radiographic requirements of UW-ll(a) or where none of the markings RT-1, RT-2, or RT 3 are applicable

Formed head, Other than Hemi

of UW-ll(a) or where none of the markings RT-1, RT-2, or RT 3 are applicable Formed

Hemi head