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FORCE

Types of forces, Forces in Equilibrium, Resultant Force and Resolution of forces


(a) Type of forces
Example 1
Name the forces exerted in the following diagram :

(b) The principle of the forces in equilibrium


The principle of the forces in equilibrium states,
When forces act upon an object , the object is said to be in a state of equilibrium when the resulting
force (net force ) is zero // F = 0,
When the equilibrium is reached, then the object is in two states, that is
(i)
remains stationary (if the object is stationary)
(ii)
moves at a constant velocity ( if the object is moving)
Based on , F = ma or a = F
m
When the equilibrium of forces is achieved, then, F = 0 , hence a =0
Thus a = 0 , it means the object remains stationary or moves at a constant velocity

(c) Resultant force // unbalanced force


When an object in unbalanced force state , the object
(i)
accelerates
(ii)
decelerates
An unbalanced force is produced , the net force is not zero ( F 0)
Newtons Third Law of Motion
Newtons third law of motion states , To every action there is an equal but opposite
direction
Two Forces in Equilibrium

Three Forces in Equilibrium

(c) Resultant force


Force is a vector quantity and hence it has magnitude and direction.
Two or more forces which act on an object can be combined into a single force called the resultant force.
If two forces are in same line, vector addition is easy. We simply add the forces if both pull or push
together;
subtract them if one is in the opposite direction.
If they are at an angle, the resultant force can be determined by the triangle method and the parallelogram
method.
Parallelogram method :
In this method the tail of the first vector is joined to the tail of second vector and then draw a
parallelogram.
The diagonal represents the resultant force.
Triangle method:
In this method the tip of the first vector is joined to the tail of second vector and then draw a line to
complete the triangle.
The third side represents the resultant force.

(d) Resolution of forces

Work(W), Energy(E) and Power (P)


(a) The Definition and S.I. unit of Work

(b) The Definition and S.I. unit of Energy (E)

Kinetic Energy ( Ek )

m = mass ,
v = velocity.
Gravitational Potential Energy ( Eg)
m = mass
g = acceleration due to gravity
h = height
Elastic Potential Energy ( Ee)

= .. under the graph F against x


F = Force,

x = extension and k = spring constant.

Principle of Conservation of Energy


Energy cannot be created or destroyed , energy can be change from one form to another form of energy.
Total energy is constant

Worksheet Questions
1

Diagram 1 shows a bag of cement of mass 35 kg on a ramp with 15 o slope to horizontal. Frictional
force exerted between the bag and the ramp is 90.6 N.

Diagram 1
(a) What is meant by frictional force?
................................................................
[1 mark]
(b) Calculate the resultant force parallel to the incline plane.

[2 marks]
(c) Based on your answer in (b), explain what happens to the motion of the bag of cement?
...
...
[2 marks]
2

Diagram 2.1 shows a student push a trolley at the beach on sand. The force applied is 50 N and the
mass of the trolley is 80 kg.

Diagram 2.1
(a) What is meant by force?

..
[1 mark]
(b) On the Diagram 2.1, mark and label two forces that acted to the trolley.

[2 marks]
(c) Based on acted force 50 N given by the student to the handle of. the trolley, state the

(i) horizontal component of force,

[1 mark]
(ii) vertical component of force.

[1 mark]
(iii) By using words, state an equation to show the vertical resultant force acted to the
trolley.

[1 mark]
(d) Calculate the vertical resultant force acted to the trolley when it pushed.

[2 marks]
(e) Then the student pulled the trolley with same force as shown in Diagram 2.2

Diagram 2.2
Calculate the vertical resultant force acted to the trolley when it pulled.

[2 marks]
(f) Based on the answer in (d) and (e), which method is easier to moves the trolley at the

beach. State one reason for the answer.

[2 marks]
Diagram 3.1 shows a bucket of cement of mass 50 kg suspended by a long rope with tension J. The
bucket is pulled to the side by a worker with force K.

Diagram 3.1
(a) What is meant by mass?
..
[1 mark]
(b) State another force that acted to the bucket and determine the magnitude.

[2 marks]
(c) Draw a triangle of forces which are represents the three forces.

[3 marks]
(d) Based on the drawing in (c), calculate the magnitude of J and K.

[3 marks]
(e) When the cement in the bucket is removing through the opener at the bottom of the
bucket, explain what happens to the bucket if the force K remains constant.

[2 marks]
(f) Suggest one method to ensure the bucket does not bound of and hit the worker while
removing the cement.
[1
mark]
4

Diagram 4.1 shows some of the forces acting on a car with a mass of 1000 kg while it travels at
constant velocity.

Diagram 4.1
(a) (i) Name the force R acted on the car.
..
[1 mark]
(ii) What is the magnitude of the force R?
......
[1 mark]
(b) Explain your answer in (a) (ii).

[2 marks]
(c) The driving forces is increase to 3200 N.
(i) Calculate the resultant force on the car at this instant

[2 marks]
(ii) Calculate the initial acceleration of the car
[2 mark]
(d) State physics concept involve in your calculation in (c).

[1 mark]
Diagram 5.1and Diagram 5.2 show a weightlifter trying to determine a suitable method to lift a load of
mass 60 kg for a longer time in state of forces in equilibrium.
.

Diagram 5.1

Diagram 5.2

(a) What is the meaning of forces in equilibrium?


........................
[1 mark]
(b) Calculate the weight of the load?

[2 marks]
(c) In the space below, draw the scale drawing of the triangle of forces to determine the value of T 1.
[Use the scale 1 cm : 10N]

[3 marks]
(d) Calculate the tension T2 in Diagram 5.2.

[2 marks]
(e) Based on your answer in (c) and (d), state the suitable method to lift the load for a long time.

Give one reason for your answer.


................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
[2 marks]
(e) When the weightlifter release the load from the height, calculate the final velocity of the load
before it touches the surface of the ground.

[2 marks]
6

Diagram 6 shows a watermelon fall off a table and drop on to the floor surface. The watermelon of
mass 1.5 kg experienced the change of momentum while falling.
Watermelon

Floor surface

Diagram 6
(a). What is the meaning of momentum?
.
[1 mark]
(b) Velocity of the watermelon when hitting the floor surface is 2 m s -1. Calculate the
momentum of the watermelon at the moment.

10

[2 marks]
(c) (i) Mark with a ( ) for the correct statement about the impact time between the watermelon
and the floor surface.
The impact time is longer.
The impact time is shorter.
[1 mark]
(ii) Why the watermelon is broken when hitting the floor surface?
....
[1 mark]
7

Diagram 7 shows three positions of a student on a swing. Point K is the highest position and point M
is the lowest position.

Diagram 7
(a)

State the S.I. unit for energy.


................
[1 mark]

11

(b) Based on Diagram 7, compare


(i) the gravitational potential energy possesses by the student at point K and M.
.........................
[1 mark]
(ii) the velocity of the student at point K and M.
.............................
[1 mark]
(iii) the kinetic energy of the student at point K and M.

(c)

.....................
[1 mark]
(i) Based on your answer in (b) state the relationship between the gravitational
potential energy and the kinetic energy at any position of the student on the swing.
.....................................
[1 mark]
(ii) State the physics principle involved in (c) (i).
.....................................
[1 mark]

(d)

Based on the information given in Diagram 7, calculate the velocity of the student at point L.

[2 marks]

12

Diagram 8.1 shows a stationary pistol on a smooth surface.


Diagram 8.2 shows the pistol and bullet after the pistol has been fired by remote control.

Diagram 8.1
Diagram 8.2
(a)

(i) What is the meaning of momentum?


[1 mark]
(ii) State the total momentum of the pistol and bullet in Diagram 8.1.
Using Diagram 8.1 and Diagram 8.2 compare the total momentum before and after
the bullet are fired.
Using Diagram 8.2, compare the magnitude and direction of the momentum of the
bullet and pistol.
Name the physics principle that can be applied to the motion of the bullet and
pistol.
[5 marks]

(b)

Describe, in terrms of momentum, the propulsion of a rocket engine.


[4 marks]

Diagram 9 shows a ball placed onto smooth incline plane at point P. The ball is rolling down

13

over the incline plane caused by gravitational potential energy. Point Q and point R are at the
middle of the incline plane and at the ground respectively
.

Diagram 9
(a)

What is the meaning of gravitational potential energy?


[1 mark]

(b)

(i)

Using Diagram 9, compare the height of the ball, the gravitational potential
energy of the ball, the velocity of the ball and the kinetic energy of the ball at
point P and point Q.
Deduce the relationship between the kinetic energy and the gravitational potential
energy of the rolling ball.
[5 marks]

(ii)

Name the physical principle involved in (b) (i).


[1 mark]

(c)

Explain what happens to the velocity of the ball when it reaches point R on the ground.
[3 marks]
14

10 Diagram 10.1 shows a bag of cement of mass 35 kg moving downwards on a ramp with 25 o

15

slope to horizontal.
Diagram 10.2 shows an identical bag of cement stationary on a ramp with 15 o slope to
horizontal.
Force acted parallel o the surface of the ramps caused by weight of the cement and the
frictional force exerted between the bag and the ramp for the both situation is 90.6 N.
90.6 N
Bag of cement

Ramp

350 N
25o

Floor

Diagram 10.1
90.6 N
Bag of cement
Ramp
350 N
15o

Floor
(a)

Diagram 10.2

What is meant by weight?


[1 mark]

(b)

(i)

Using Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2, compare the weight of the cements, the
angle of the ramps to the horizontal, and parallel component of force acted to the
bags of the cement.
Relate the parallel component of force and the angle of the inclined plane to the
horizontal to deduce a physics concept.
[4 marks]

(ii)

Name the physics concept involved in (b)(i).


[1 mark]

16

(c)

Explain why the bag of cement in


(i)

Diagram 10.1 is sliding downwards,

(ii)

Diagram 10.2 is stationary.

[3 marks]
[2 marks]

(d)

11.

Based on the physics concept above, you are required to design a ramp.
Using appropriate physics concept, explain the design of the ramp so that can be used
to move up any heavy objects easily and efficiently.
Your answer should include the following aspects:
(i)
Slope angle of incline plane of the ramp,
(ii) Surface of the incline plane of the ramp,
(iii) Extra equipment to overcome friction problem,
(iv) Safety and strength,
(v) Applied force.
[10 marks]

Diagram 11.1 and Diagram 11.2 shows two identical steel balls being released on an
identical track but of different height. The steel ball rolls down due to the gravitational

17

potential energy. P and S are the initial position and R and U are the maximum height
reached by the steel ball respectively.

Diagram 11.1
(a)

Diagram 11.2

What is meant by energy?


[1 mark]

(b)

(i)

Using Diagram11.1 and Diagram 11.2, compare


- the gravitational potential energy of the steel balls,
- the velocity and the kinetic energy of the steel ball at point Q and point T
- the height reached by the steel ball.
Deduce the relationship between the kinetic energy and the height reached by
the rolling ball.
[5 marks]

(ii)

Name the physical principle involved in (b) (i).


[1 mark]

18

(c)

Explain why the steel ball in Diagram 11.1 will oscillate for a while and stop at point
Q after reached point R.
[3 marks]

(d) Diagram 11.3 shows the characteristics of four ramp models, P, Q, R and S. to be used in
a BMX bicycle jumping competition.
Ramp design

Characteristics
Height of the ramp is 2 m.
Slope of the ramp edge is
5o.
Surface is smooth.
Area of ramp is wider.

Height of the ramp is


5 m.
Slope of the ramp edge is
10o.
Surface of the ramp is
smooth.
Area of the ramp is wider.

Height of the ramp is 3 m.


Slope of the ramp edge is 20o
Surface is rough.
Area of the ramp is narrow.

Height of the ramp is 5 m


Slope of the ramp edge is 30o.
Surface of the ramp is rough.
Area of the ramp is narrow.

19

Diagram 11.3

You are required to determine the most suitable ramp design that can be used in a BMX
bicycle jumping competition to enable the cyclist to land at a longer distance.
Study the characteristics of all the four ramp models.
Explain the suitability of the characteristics of the ramp designs in Diagram 11.3.
Justify your choice.
[10 marks]

PRESSURE AND FORCE


Pressure is defined as the force acting normally on a unit of surface area.
Or
@ Pressure = Normal force
Area
F
P
@
A
20

P = Pressure F = Force A = Surface area


The S.I. of pressure is N m-2 or pascal (Pa)
1. Diagram 2 shows a man standing still on reflexology therapy stones. He exerts a pressure on the
reflexology therapy stones.

(a) What is meant by pressure?


........................................................
[1 mark]
(b) The mass of the man is 50 kg and the area of contact of the man with the reflexology
therapy tone is 40 cm2
Calculate the pressure exerted by the man on the reflexology therapy stones.
[2 marks]
(b) Based on diagram 2, state one way by which the man can reduce the pain experienced by
his soles when walking barefooted.
Explain your answer.
...............................................
...............................................
[2 marks]
2.

Diagram 3.1 and Diagram 3.2 show two balloons A and B exerted with the same force .

21

Diagram 3.1
(a)

Diagram 3.2

What is the physics quantity for pressure?


...................................................................
[1 mark]

(b)

Based on Diagram 3.1 and Diagram 3.2,


(i) Which balloon will burst easily?

[1 mark]
(ii) Compare the pressure exerted to the balloon
...........................................................
[ 1 mark]
(iii) Compare the surface area of finger and needle which in contact with the
balloon.
.................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(iv)

Relate the pressure exerted on the balloon with the surface area
...........................................................
[1 mark]

(v)

What happens to the pressure on the balloon if force exerted is increased?


......................................................
[1 mark]

(c)

State the physics concept involved


.........................................................
[1 mark]

(d)

State one application of physics concept in (c) in our daily life

22

.............................................................
[1 mark]
Calculating pressure in a liquid
Say that a vertical column of liquid with a density and a horizontal area A .
Consider an object is placed at point X at a depth h below the surface area of the liquid.

The pressure P due the liquid exerted on the object at point X can be written as:
P=F
A
=W
A
= mg
A
= V g
A
= Ah g
A
= hg

(because W = mg)
(because = m )
V
(because V = Ah)

From the final expression , we can say that the pressure at any point in a liquid at rest is directly
proportional to the density of liquid and the depth.
The pressure in the liquid is not dependent on the surface area and the shape of a container.
3.

Diagram 3.1 shows a concrete water tank filled with water.

.
Diagram 3.1
(a) State a factor that affects the water pressure in the tank.
.............................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(b) (i)
Compare the water pressure at P and Q

23

..............................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(ii)

Calculate the water pressure at Q.


(Density of water = 1000 kg m-3 )
[2 marks]

(c) Diagram 3.2 shows water flows from the concrete tank to the house water tank.

Diagram 3.2
(i) What is the factor that causes the water to flow from the concrete tank to the water tank in
the house?
.....................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(ii) The flow of water from the concrete tank to the house will stop at level P.
Explain why the supply stops?
.....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
[2 marks]
(d)

(i) Suggest two modifications that can be done to ensure the water flow continously to the
house water tank.
.............................................................................................................................
[2 marks]
(ii)

Draw a water tank that can withstand high water pressure .


[2 marks]

Atmospheric pressure
Existance of Atmosheric
According to kinetic molecular theory, gases consist of molecules which are apart and in random motion
at high speeds.
The gas molecules possess mass and experience the pull of gravity. The result is that gases have weight.

24

The weight of the gas molecules will produce force and as a result will exert pressure on you because
pressure is force per area ( P = F )
A
The pressure is called as the atmospheric pressure .
Characteristics of Atmospheric Pressure
Atmospheric pressure acts equally in all directions. The atmospheric pressure on any object is not dependent on
the surface area of the object. Atmospheric pressure is influenced by the height of an object above the sea level
(altitude). Hence as the altitude increases , the atmospheric pressure decreases because the higher it is from the
surface of the Earth , the lower is the density of air.
We do not experience the atmospheric pressure at sea level because the pressure of body equal to the atmospheric
pressure. The atmospheric pressure at sea level is approximately 1 atm = 1x 105 Pa = 76 cm Hg = 10 m of water.

Existence of Gas pressure based on the kinetic theory


Based on the kinetic molecular theory, gas molecules move freely and randomly. The gas molecules
collide with one another and also collide with the walls of their container. The collision of gas molecules
with one another is an elastic collision (no overall loss or gain of energy). The collision of gas molecules
with the wall of the container produces change of momentum or impulsive force So the gas molecules
exert a pressure on the inside of the container because pressure is force per unit area ( P = F )
A
4.

Diagram 3.1 and Diagram 3.2 show two mercury manometers in a laboratory.
The gas supply in Diagram 3.1 has less pressure than diagram 3.2

Diagram 3.1
(a)

Diagram 3.2

Based on Diagram 3.1 and Diagram 3.2


(i)
state similarities about the magnitude and the direction of pressures
Magnitude

Directions

[2 marks]
(ii)

what is the total pressure at point W

(iii)

state the relationship between pressure at W and the gas pressure

[1 mark]
..
25

[1 mark]

(b)

(c)

Based on the answers in (a)(ii) and (a)(iii), write words equation that relate between the
atmospheric pressure, mercury pressure and the gas pressure.
......................................................................
[1 mark]
(i)
The gas supply is taken out. Describe changes on the height of the mercury column in
both Diagrams.

(ii)

....
[1 mark]
Give one reason to your answer in (c)(i).

[1 mark]

5.

Diagram 3 shows the arrangement of the apparatus used to determine the atmospheric pressure
in a laboratory. The length of the glass tube is 110 cm and the atmospheric pressure in
the lab is 76cm Hg.

Diagram 3
(a)

Name the apparatus shown in Diagram 3.


..
[1 mark]

(b)

What is X?
..
[1 mark]

(c)

(i)

What is the value of H?


....
[1 mark]

(ii)

What happens to the height, H, when this apparatus is submerged in water.


..

26

[1 mark]
(iii) Give a reason for your answer in c(ii).
....
[1 mark]
(d)

State one application of atmospheric pressure in everyday life.


..
[1 mark]

Pascals Principle
Pascals principle states that when pressure is applied to an enclosed fluid, the pressure will be transmitted
equally throughout the whole enclosed fluid.
Experiment to verify the Pascals Principle

When the piston is pushed into the glass sphere the jet of water is shot out from the holes in the glass
sphere with the same speed.
This is because the pressure acting on the water is transferred uniformly throughout the water.

Pascals Principle in Mathematic Expression


Output force = output piston area
Input force input piston area

Fo
A
o
Fi
Ai
6

Figure 4.1 shows the structure of a hydraulic jack. The cross-sectional area of pistons, P and Q are 15
cm2 and 500 cm2 respectively. A force of 150 N is exerted on piston P.

27

Diagram 4.1
(a) Name the physics principle applied in the hydraulic jack.
............................................................................................
[1 mark]
(b) Compare the pressure at piston P and the pressure at piston Q.
............................................................................................
[1 mark]
(c) Calculate the weight of the load that can be lifted by the piston Q.
[2 marks]
(d) State the function of the release valve.
.............................................................................................
[1 mark]
(e) State one suitable characteristic of the fluid used in the hydraulic jack.
............................................................................................
[1 mark]

The system in Figures 4.2 and 4.3 can be used to lift vehicles. When valve A is opened, valve B is closed
and highly compressed air from the compressor exerts a force on the input piston.

28

Diagram 4.2

Diagram 4.3
(f)

The compressed air exerts a maximum force of 500 N on the input piston of both hydraulic
lifts in Figure 4.2 and 4.3.
(i)
Calculate the pressure acting on the input piston in Figure 4.2.
[2 marks]
(ii)

Calculate the forces acting at the output piston for both hydraulic lifts.

[2 marks]
(iii) Based on your answers in 4(b)(ii), which is the more suitable hydraulic lift to raise a
van of mass 1800 kg ?
....................................
[1 mark]
(g)

Explain how the vehicle can be lowered down, after the repair work is done.
..........
[1 mark]

29

7.

Diagram 2 shows a simple hydraulic system .

The area for the smaller piston is 0.1 m 2 and the area for the bigger piston is 0.5 m 2. The force
acting on the small piston is 20 N.
(a) Name the principle used in the system above.
.............
[1 mark ]
(b)

Calculate the pressure applied to the oil.

[1 mark]
(c)

Calculate the output force exerted on the bigger piston

[2 marks]
(d)

What happens to the output force if the diameter of the output cylinder is greater?
....
[1 mark]

30

(b) Archimedes Principle


Archimedes Principle state that When an object is immersed in a fluid (a liquid or a gas) ,the buoyant
force ( upthrust force) on the object is equal in size to the weight of fluid displaced by the object.

Density and Buoyancy


From Archimedess Principle:
Buoyant Force

= Weight of fluid displace


= mg
(note : F = ma)
= Vg
(note : = m )
V
Thus FB
= Vg
Where FB = Bouyant Force or Upthrust
= Density of fluid
V = Volume of fluid displaced or the
volume of the object that
immersed in the fluid.
8.

Diagram 3.1 shows an object hanging from a spring balance. The reading of the spring balance is
3.0 N. The object is then immersed in water and the reading is now 2.5 N as shown in Diagram 3.2.

Diagram 3.1
(a)

Diagram 3.2

What is the weight of the object?


..............................................................................
[1 mark]

(b)

Another force, F is acting on the object in Diagram 3.2.


(i)
Mark and label the force, F in Diagram 3.2
(ii) Name the force

31

[2 marks]
(c)

(i)

Determine the magnitude of the force F.


[1 mark]

(ii)

-3

Calculate the volume of the object. (Density of water, = 1000 kg m )

[2 marks]
(d)

State the physics principle involved in Diagram 3.2


......................................................................................
[1 mark]

9.

Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 show two solid spheres A and B with different density place in the
water.

Diagram 5.1

Diagram 5.2

(a) What is meant by density?


..
[1 mark]
(b) Based on Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.1,
(i) compare the density of sphere A and sphere B
..
[1 mark]
(ii) compare the weight of sphere A and sphere B
..
[1 mark]
(iii) compare the weight of water displaced by sphere A and sphere B
...
[1 mark ]
(iv) relate the weight of sphere and the weight of water displaced
.
[1 mark]
(v) relate the weight of water displaced and upthrust
...
[1 mark]

32

(c)

Name the physics principle involved in Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2.
...
[1 mark]

(d)

State one application of physics principle in 5 (c).


.
[1 mark]

10.

A fisherman finds that his boat is at different levels in the sea and in the river, although the boat
carries the same load. The density of sea water and river water is 1025 kg m -3 and 1000 kg m-3
respectively.

In the sea
Diagram 5.1

In the river
Diagram 5.2

Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 illustrate the situation of the boat in the sea and in the river.
(a)

What is meant by density?


.....
[1 mark]

(b)

Based on Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 :


(i)

Compare the level of the boat in the sea water and in the river water.
.
[1 mark]

(ii)

Compare the volume of water displaced by the boat in the sea and in the river
..
[1 mark]

(iii)

Compare the density of sea water and river water.


....
[1 mark]

33

(c) (i)

Relate the volume of water displaced to the density of water.


....
[1 mark]

(ii)

Deduce relationship between weight of the boat and the weight of the water displaced.

....
[1 mark]
(d) Name the physics principle that explains the situation above.
.....
[1 mark]
(e)

A submarine can sail on the sea surface and under the sea by using the principle stated in (d).
How a submarine on the surface of the sea can submerge?
......
[1 mark]

Bernoullis principle.
Bernoullis principle states that the pressure of a moving liquid decreases as the speed of the fluid
increases and vice versa.

The conditions which enable the Berrnoullis Principle to use


(1) The fluid is incompressible and flows easily
(2) The fluid is streamline or in layers,i.e. there are no eddies or turbulence
Factors affecting the speed of the moving liquid.
(1) The speed of moving object increases as the area of moving fluid decreases
(2) The speed of moving object increases as the distance of moving fluid increases

Bernoullis principle and the law of conservation of energy


Energy is always conserved and this also applies to fluids, wether static or in motion. A fluid in motion
has kinetic energy. This kinetic energy imparted to the fluid comes at the expense of the pressure of the
fluid. Thus, when the speed (kinetic energy) of the fluid increases, its pressure decreases.

34

11.

Diagram 3.1 and 3.2 shows two venture tubes for the purpose of studying the relationship between
the velocity of fluid and pressure.

Diagram 3.1

Diagram 3.2
(a) State the similarities of cross section area, velocity and pressure at point A and E, if A is
compared to points B and C in diagram 3.1 and E is compare to points D and F in diagram 3.2.
(i)
Cross section area
............................................................................................................................................
(ii)
Velocity
....
(iii)
Pressure
............................................................................................................................................
[3 marks]
(b) Based on the answers in 1 (a) name the physics principle involved.
..
[1 mark]
(c) Mark the water level at A , B and C in diagram 3.1
(d) Compare the pressure at D, E and F in diagram 3.2 when water is flowing

[2 marks]
12.

Diagram 3 shows an aerofoil made from polystyrene with a straw attached. The aerofoil slings into
a vertical metal rod and is placed near an electric fan.

Diagram 3

35

(a)

What would happen to the aerofoil when the fan is switched on?
..
[1 mark]

(b)

F is a force that causes the aerofoil to change its position. In diagram 3 indicate and label the
direction of F that act on the aerofoil.
[1 mark]
Explain how F is produced.

(c)

.....

(d)

.....
[3 marks]
Name the principle that causes the observation in diagram 3

(e)

..
[1 mark]
Name one piece of apparatus in a school laboratory which uses the principle in (d).
...
[1 mark]

13. Diagram 1 shows an aeroplane flying horizontally with a constant velocity. P and Q are
two forces which maintain the aeroplane at constant altitude.

(a).

Name the forces P and Q.


P: ...
Q: ..
[2 marks]

(b).

Write equation to show the relationship between P and Q.


.....
[1 mark]

(c).

Which of the forces is caused by the Bernoulli's effect?

[1 mark]

36

HEAT
4.0

The principle of thermal equilibrium

Two bodies in thermal contact are said to be in thermal equilibrium when


(i)
its reach the same temperature and
(ii)
the net rate of heat transfer between the two bodies is zero.
4.1

How a thermometer measure the body temperature

When a thermometer is put under the tongue,


Heat flows from body to the thermometer ( heats flows from the higher temperature to
lower temperature)
Thermal equilibrium is reached (the net rate of heat transfer is zero).
The temperature of the thermometer is same as the temperature of the body
.
4.3

Specific Heat Capacity ,c

Definition: The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of the substance
through a te mperature of 1oC.
The S.I. unit for c is J kg-1 oC-1
Example : Specific heat capacity of aluminium is 900 J kg-1 oC-1
It means that 900 J of heat is required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of aluminium
An object with a larger specific heat capacity
i. store a lot of heat
ii. smaller rise in temperature when absorbing heat

37

4.4

The relationship between m,c, and Q


Q= mc

Where,
Q = the heat energy transferred to the substance
m = the mass of the substance
c = the specific heat capacity of the substance
= the temperature change
Diagram shows a metal bob is put into a beaker with water. The initial temperature of
metal bob is higher than the initial temperature of the water.

The heat released from the metal bob = The heat absorbed by the water
mc (bob)= mc (water)
4.5

The specific latent heat of fusion , lf :

The quantity heat of energy required to change 1 kg of a substance from the solid state to
the liquid state , without a change in temperature.
4.6

The specific latent heat of Vaporisation , lv :

The quantity heat of energy required to change 1 kg of a substance from the liquid state to
the gaseous state , without a change in temperature.
The S.I. unit of lf and lv is J kg-1
4.7

The relationship between m,l and Q

Q = ml
Where,
Q = the heat energy transferred to the substance
m = the mass of the substance

38

l = the specific latent heat of the substance

Question
1
Diagram 1 shows a wet towel is placed on the forehead of a boy who has high
fever.

Diagram 1
(a) What is the meaning of thermal equilibrium?

[1 mark]
(b)Explain how a thermal equilibrium is achieved in Diagram 1.

[ 2 marks]
(c) The mass of water used to wet the towel is 0.3 kg and the specific heat capacity
for water is 4 200 J kg-1 oC-1 . The initial temperature of the towel is 30oC and
the final temperature is 38oC. Find the amount of heat energy from the boy is
removed by the wet towel.

[2 marks]
(d) What happens to the final temperature if the water used to wet the towel is
mixed with ice cubes?

[1 mark]

39

Diagram 2.1 shows a series of observation and record made by a student on a melting ice
cube that is put in a metal plate.
The ice starts to melt

All the ice has melted

Mass of ice water = 20 g


Temperature of ice water = 0oC
Mass of ice = 20 g
Time = 60 s

Temperature of ice = 0oC

Water droplets form on the metal plate

Time = 0 s
Temperature of the metal plate = 20oC

Diagram 2.1

(a)

Name two sources where the ice cube obtained the heat to change into ice water.

(b)

..
[2 marks]
State the change in physical state when the ice cube is melted into ice water.

(c)

..
[1 mark]
(i)
Name the physics quantity that is involved when ice cube change to water at
constant temperature.

[1 mark]
(ii)

(d)

Why the temperature is remain constant when ice melts to water?

[1 mark]
3
If the amount of heat absorbed by the ice cube is 6.72 x 10 J, calculate the specific
latent heat of fusion.

40

[2 marks]
(e)

Why water droplets are formed on the outer surface of the metal plate?
..
[1 mark]

Diagram 3.1 shows a metal P at 100C being placed in a beaker of water at 28 oC. After a
few minutes thermal equilibrium state is achieved.
The mass of metal P and the water are 0.4 kg and 0.2 kg respectively.

Diagram 3.1
Diagram 3.2
(a) (i) What is the meaning of thermal equilibrium?
.............................................
[1 mark]
(ii) Based on the graph in Diagram 3.2, what is the temperature when the thermal
equilibrium is achieved?
..........................................................
[1 mark]

41

(iii)

What is the purpose of wrapping the beaker with cotton layer?


..........................................
[1 mark]

(b) (i)

Calculate the specific heat capacity of metal P.


( Specific heat capacity of water is 4200 J kg-1 C -1)

[2 marks]
(ii)

State the assumption you made in (b)(i)


.........................................................................................
[1 mark]

Diagram 4 .1 shows the soup that boil in the metal pot and in the clay pot. Both
pots are supply with same rate of heat and have same mass.
Diagram 4.2 shows the changes in temperature after 5 minutes.

Diagram 4.1

42

Diagram 4.2
(a)What is meant by specific heat capacity?
.................................................................................................................................
[1mark]
(b)
Based on Diagram 4.1 and Diagram 4.2,
(i) compare the temperature of the soup in the metal pot and the
temperature of the soup in the clay pot after 5 minutes.
....................................................................................................................................
..
.................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(ii) compare the specific heat capacity of the metal pot and the specific heat
of the clay pot.
....................................................................................................................................
..........
[1mark]
(iii) state the relationship between the increase of the temperature and the
specific heat capacity.
....................................................................................................................................
...
[1 mark]

Diagram 4.3 shows two cups of coffee of equal mass being cooled by adding a few
pieces of ice cubes.
43

Cup A
Diagram 4.3

Cup B

Initially, each cup contains 0.5 kg of coffee at 75.5 oC. It is observed that both
cups of coffee reach a final temperature of 25 oC at the same time.
(c)
(i)
Which cup of coffee requires more ice?
...
[1 mark]
(ii)
Explain your answer in (b)(i).
...

(d)

.
[2 marks]
Calculate the heat released when the coffee is cooled down to 25 oC.
[Specific heat capacity of coffee = 4500 J kg1 oC1]

[2 marks]
(e)

(i)

Calculate the mass of ice needed to cool the coffee in cup A to


25 oC.
[Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg1 oC1,
specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 3.36 x 105 J kg1]

(ii)

[3 marks]
State one assumption which you made in your calculation in (d)(i).
....
[1 mark]

LIGHT

44

Refraction and total Internal reflection


What is meant by Refraction
Changing of direction and speed of light when it crosses the boundry between
two medium of different ..

The law of refraction ( Snells Law)


sin i = n
sin r

where n =
i =
r=

Example
The diagram shows a ray of light passing from a glass block to air.
[ Refractive index of glass = 1.54 ] Determine the value of the angle

What is meant by critical angle

45

The angle of. which results in angle of .. of 90o


4

What is meant by Total Internal Reflection


Reflection of light at the interface of medium if the angle of incidence t
exceeds ..
Air
Liquid-Y

>C

The conditions for the occurrence of total internal reflection.


(1) The light ray must be travel from . medium to .
medium.
(2) The angle of incidence must be than the critical angle.
relationship between Refractive index (n) and Critical angle (c)
n= 1
sinc
Example
The diagram shows a light ray entering in a glass prism.[ Refractive index of glass = 1.51 ]

(a)
(b)

Determine the critical angle of the glass.


Draw the ray light after it passes through a point P until the direction of the ray of
light unchange.

The Application of Total Internal Reflection


1. Periscope
2. Binocular
3. Bicycle and Car Reflector and Cat Eyes
4. Optical Fibre

QUESTION EXAMPLE

46

Diagram shows a square block of glass JKLM with a ray of light incident on side JK at
angle of incidence of 60o . The refractive index of the glass is 1.50.
K

60O
MM

(a)
(b)
(c)
2

Calculate the angle of refraction of the ray


Calculate the critical angle for ray of light in this glass
Explain why the ray shown the diagram cannot emerge from side KL but will
emmerge from side LM

The diagram show how a triangular glass block(prism) may be used to allow light into a
room which is below ground level

sun
prism

room

(i)

underground

On the diagram of the glass block below sketch the possible path of a ray of light
from the sun in order to make clear how it enters the rooml

47

(ii)
(ii)
3

Name the processes taking place at A and B


Give one advantage of using a glass block rather than a mirror in this
arrangement

Diagram shows a piece of pencil placed in the water

(a)
(b)

Draw a ray path from O to the eye , hence show how the image of pencil is
formed
If the refractive index of water is 1.33 and the depth of water is 1.5, calculate the
image distance of point O

48

(c)

(i) If the depth water decrease, what happened to the image distance

(ii) If the water is replaced with denser liquid, what happened to the image
distance.Explain your answer
..
...

Diagram 9.1 shows a light ray passing from air into glass.
Diagram 9.2 shows a light ray passing from air ino water.
[
Refractive index: Glass= 1.50 Water= 1.33]

Diagram 9 .1

Diagram 9.2

(a)

Name the phenomenon of light as shown in Diagram 9 .1 and Diagram 9.2.

(b)

Using Diagram 9.1and Diagram 9.2,

[1 mark]
(i)

compare the refractive index of the glass and the water.

(ii)

compare the refracted angle in the glass and in the water.

[1 mark]
(iii)

(c)
(d)
(e)

[1 mark]
State the relationshipbetween the refractive index with the angle of
refraction
[1 mark]

Name the physics law that relates the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction
[1 mark]
With the aid of label diagram, explain how the mrrage occurs on the hot surface
of a road
[4 marks]
You are given two pieces of identical prism with internal angle 45 0 ,900, 450 to
make a binocular.
Using the materials stated above, explain how you are going to build a simple
binocular. Suggest modifications need to be done on the simple binocular to
produce brighter and bigger image
[10 marks]

49

Mirror and Lens


1.Formation of an image by a mirror is caused by and a lens is
caused by ..
2. Comparison of rays diagram between mirrors and lenses:
Concave Mirror
(i)

(ii)

(iii)

Convex lens

u<f

u=f

u < f < 2f

50

(iv)

u = 2f

(v)

u > 2f

(vi)

u=

Conclusion:
Object distance , u
u<f
u=f
f < u < 2f
u = 2f
u > 2f

Characteristics of the image


MUV
MUV
MIR
SSIR
D

51

u=
Convex Mirror
(i)

u<f

(ii)

f < u < 2f

Concave Lens

Conclusion :
Object distance , u
u<f
f < u < 2f

Characteristics of the image

3. To determine the characteristics of images formed by convex and concave lens by using ray
Lens equations

52

where,
u :..
v :..
f :...
ho :...
hi :
4. Sign Conventions :
Convex lens
Always +
Object distance ,u Object is always placed to the
left of the lens
+ if the image is real ( image
Image distance, v is formed on the right side of
the lens.
- if the image is virtual ( image
is formed on the left side of the
lens.
Focal length, f
Always +
ower of length, P
Always +
Linear magnification,m
ImI =1
ImI >1
ImI <1

Concave lens
Always +
Object is always placed to the left of the
lens
+ if the image is real ( image is formed
on the right side of the lens.
- if the image is virtual ( image is
formed on the left side of the lens.
Always Always -

Size of image
Image and object are the same size
Enlarged image
Diminished image

Example 1
An object of height 2 cm is placed at 30 cm
from a convex lens of focal length 20.0 cm.
What is
(a) the image distance
(b) the linear magnification
(c) the image height
(d) the characteristics of the image

Solution

Example 4
An object of height 6 cm is placed at 20 cm
from a concave lens of power 2.5 D.
What is

Solution

53

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

the image distance


the image height
the linear magnification
the characteristics of the image

5. A real image is one which can be .on a screen.


A virtual imge is one which cannot be.on a screen.
6. Effect on the image produced when the upper portion of a lens is covered by a card:
The size and position of the image is before. The
of the
image, however , is reduced.
Questions
1

Diagram 1 shows a mirror at the corner of a shop.


Mirror

DIAGRAM 1
(a) Name the type of mirror shown in Diagram 3.1.
..

(b) Name one characteristic of the image formed by the mirror.

(c) Sketch a ray diagram to show how the image is formed.

(d) What is the advantage of using this type of mirror in the shop?

54

...

Diagram 2 shows the image of a patients teeth seen in a mirror used by a dentist.

DIAGRAM 2
(a) Name the type of the mirror used by the dentist.

(b) State the light phenomenon that causes the image of the teeth.

(c) State two characteristics of the image formed.

(d) In the diagram below, the arrow represents the teeth as the object of the mirror. Complete
the ray diagram by drawing the required rays to locate the position of the image.

55

Diagram 3 shows an image of letters FIZI when viewed through a glass of water.

DIAGRAM 3
(a) State the light phenomenon that causes the image FIZI to be enlarged.

(b) What is the change size of the image if the water is replaced with a transparent liquid of
a greater density?

(c) The glass of water is replaced with a lens M with focal length of 10 cm. The distance
between the book cover and the centre of the lens is 8 cm.
It is observed that the image FIZIK is enlarged.
(i)

Name the type of lens M.

(ii) Calculate the distance of the image from lens M.

(iii) In the space below sketch a ray diagram to show how the image is formed.

Diagram 9.1 shows a laboratory poster being observed through a convex lens. Diagram 9.2
shows the laboratory poster observed through the same convex lens when the poster is
brought closer to the
lens.

56

Diagram 9.1

Diagram 9.2

Based on the above information and observation:


(a) State one suitable inference.
(b) State one suitable hypothesis.
(c) With the use of apparatus such as a convex lens, an object illuminated by a light bulb
and other apparatus, describe an experimental framework to investigate the
hypothesis stated in (b)
In your description, state clearly the following:
(i)
Aim of the experiment.
(ii) Variables in the experiment.
(iii) List of apparatus and materials
(iv) Arrangement of the apparatus.
(v) The procedure of the experiment which include the method of controlling the
manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable.
(vi) The way you would tabulate the data.
(vii) The way you would analyse the data.

WAVES
A

Common terminology of vibrations

Vibration:
A periodic motion where the system performs a repeated to-and-fro motion about an equilibrium
position.
Equilibrium position:
The position of the object where is no resultant force acts on the object.
One oscillation:
To-and-fro motion from the equilibrium position.
Amplitude :
The maximum displacement of the objects from their equilibrium position.
Period, T
The time taken for one complete oscillation.
The S.I. unit is second (s)

57

t
n

t = time n = number of oscillations

Frequency, f
The number of complete oscillations per second.
The S.I. unit is Hertz (Hz)
1
n
f
or f
T
t

Natural Frequency:
The frequency of the free oscillation of a system without any external forces are exerted to the
system.
Factors affecting the natural frequency of the vibration systems:
(a)

Simple pendulum f

1
2

g
l

g = acceleration due to gravity , l = length of

pendulum
(b)

Spring with load or jigsaw blade with plasticine f

1
2

k
m

k = spring constant , m

= mass of
the load
Transformation of energy in a vibration system
(a)
Simple pendulum
at the highest position - gravitational potential energy
at the lowest position - kinetic energy
(b)
Spring with load or jigsaw blade with plasticine
at the maximum extension or compression - elastic potential energy
at the minimum extension or compression - kinetic energy
Resonance
A phenomenon that a system vibrates with a maximum amplitude.
It occurs when the frequency of the system same as its natural frequency.
Damping
Damping is a process whereby oscillations die down due to a loss of energy to friction
forces.
When a system is damped , the amplitude of the of oscillation decreases slowly until the
system stops oscillating.
Damping is usually caused by external frictional forces such as air resistance . It can
also be caused by internal forces , where energy is lost from the system in form of heat.
Transverse waves

58

Waves in which the direction of vibration of the particles is perpendicular to the direction
of wave propagation called a transverse wave.

The examples of transverse waves are water waves and electromagnetic waves (radio
waves ,microwaves , infra-red (IR) light waves , ultra-violet ( UV), X-rays and gamma
rays )

Longitudinal waves
Waves in which the direction of vibration of the particles is parallel to the direction of
wave propagation called a longitudinal wave.

An example of transverse waves is sound waves.


Wavelength ,
The distance between two consecutive points which are vibrating in phase//The distance from one
wave crest to the next// The distance from one wave trough to the next.

The wave equation


Wavespeed = frequency x wavelength
v = f

Waves phenomenon
Reflection
Meaning:
Reflection of a wave occurs when a wave strikes an such as barrier, plane reflector , mirror
and wall.
59

Type of
waves
Water
Light
Sound

When happen
Strike
obstacle
//barrier
Strike mirror
Strike hard
surface

Effect to v , f and
f

Unchanged Unchanged

Another effect

Angle of
incidence = Angle
o refection

Unchanged

Refraction
Meaning:
Refraction of a wave occurs when the wave moves from one medium to another which
causes the change of velocity.
Type of
waves
Water
Light
Sound

When happen

Pass through
different depth
of water
Pass through
different density
of medium
Pass through
different
temperature of
gas

Effect to v , f and
f

Increase -deep
Decrease - shallow

Increase -deep
Decrease - shallow

Increase - low density


Decrease - high density

Increase - low density


Decrease - high
density
Increase - hot air
Decrease - cold air

Unchanged
Increase - hot air
Decrease - cold air

Diffraction
Meaning:
The spreading and bending of waves as they pass through an aperture or round the edge
of a barrier
Type of
waves
Water

When happen
Pass through
small
aperture //
edge of
obstacle //
small

Effect to v , f and
f

Unchanged Unchanged

60

Unchanged

Another effect
1.Amplitude
decrease
because energy
spread out after
passed through
the
small aperture
//slit

Light
Sound

obstacle
Pass through
small slit
Pass through
a corner of
high building

2. The size of
bending
increases when
- the size of
slit
decreases
- the
wavelength
increases

Interference
Meaning :
Interference is the superposition // overlapping of two coherent waves.
Two waves are in coherent if they are of the same frequency, same amplitude and in phase
(same phase)
Interference of the waves is a result or obeys the principle of superposition.
Principle of superposition state that When two waves move simultaneously and coincide
at a point the sum of the displacements at that point is equal to the sum of the
displacements of the individual waves by vector method.
Effect to v , f and
Another effect
Type of
When happen
v
f

waves
Water
Waves from two
- Strong waves constructive
dippers // two
interference
small aperture
- Calm water
are overlapping
destructive interference
Light
Waves from
- Bright fringes constructive
double slits are Unchanged Unchanged Unchanged interference
overlapping
- Dark fringes
destructive interference
Sound
Waves from two
- Loud sound constructive
loud speakers
interference
are overlapping
- Soft sound
destructive interference
ax

Sound waves
Sound waves are longitudinal waves that are transmitted through almost any substance i.e
solid , liquid or gas.
The waves are produced by any mechanism which produces compressional vibrations of the
surrounding medium. Some examples are the vibrating string of a guitar, exploding gas in
firecracker and the vibrating diaphragm of a loudspeaker.

61

Sounds travels quickly, but not nearly as fast as light. The speed of sound waves depends on
the medium. Sound travels fastest in solids, and slowest in gases..
The speed of sound waves in gases increase when the density of the gases decrease. When
the density of the gases decrease ,the frequency of the vibrations increase ,so the speed of
the sounds increase ( v = f)
The speed of the sound waves also increase as the temperature the gases increase. It is
because when the temperature of the gases increase the density of the gases decrease.
The speed of sound waves in a gas not affected by changes of pressure.
The human hear is capable of hearing sounds with frequencies in the range of 20 Hz to
20 000 Hz.
The following figure shows the frequency spectrum of sound waves:

The loudness of a sound depends on the amplitude of vibrations. As the amplitude of vibrations
increase, the loudness of a sound increases.

The pitch of a sound depends on the frequency of vibrations. As the frequency of vibrations
increase , the pitch of a sound increases.

Ships use echo-sounding equipment to find how deep the water is. The time interval is measured
between a pulse of sound and its echo from the sea bed.
If the echo-sounders measures an interval of time ,t , and the speed of sound wave in water is v,
the depth , d can be calculated as follows;
t
d vx
2

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

Introduction

62

Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves ,consisting of oscillating electric fields and
magnetic fields .
Energy resulting from the acceleration of electric charge and the associated electric fields and
magnetic fields .The energy can be regarded through space involving oscillating electric fields
and magnetic fields at right angle to each other to the direction of propagation. In a vacuum the
waves travel with a constant speed i.e. speed of light , 3 x 10 8 m s-1.

The common properties of the electromagnetic waves


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

They all transfer energy from one place to another.


They all transverse, electromagnetic waves
They all can travel through a vacuum
They all travel at a speed of approximately 3 x 10 8 m s-1
They all show the wave properties : reflection, refraction, diffraction and interference
The all obey the wave equation v = f
They all carry no charge
They all can be emitted and absorbed by matter

Diagram 1 shows a receiving system that is used to receive the ASTRO channel television
that is attached to the ground. The distance of the center of the parabolic disc is 50 cm. The
ASTRO signal is transmitted via satellite

63

Receiver
Parabolic disc

Ground

Diagram 1
(a)

State the phenomenon involved when the receiver receives the waves

[ 1 Mark ]
(b) Frequency of the waves is 60 GHz. Calculate the wave length of the waves.
[Velocity of the light = 3.0 x 108 m/s]

[2 marks]
(b)

Name the type of electromagnetic wave that is used during transmitting the ASTRO
signal. Give one reason for your answer.

[2 marks]

(d) Using the receiving system in Diagram 1, the display of ASTRO channel is unclear. In
order to receive the channel more clearer:
(i)

State the distance between the receiver and the parabolic disc .

..
[ 1 mark ]
(ii) Explain your answer in (d) (i).

64

........................................................................................................
..................................
........................................................................................................
.................................
[ 2 mark ]
(iii) State the position of the receiving system.

[ 1 mark ]
(iv) Give one reason for your answer in (d)(iii).
..
[ 1 mark ]

Diagram 2.1 shows an electric bell produces sound waves.

Diagram 2.1

(a) (i)

Name the type of wave produced by the electric bell..

.................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(ii) When the air in the electric bell is sucked out by using vacuum pump, what happen
to the sound produced?

65

..
[1 mark]
(iii) Give one reason for the answer in (a) (ii).
.................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

(b) Diagram 2.2 shows a sound wave form produced by a tuning fork displayed on the screen
of cathode ray oscilloscope.

Diagram 2.2
On Diagram 2.3, draw the sound wave form produced when the loudness is increased.

66

Diagram 2.3
[1 mark]

(c)
Radio
wave

Diagram 2.4 shows an electromagnetic wave spectrum.


Microwave

Visible
light

X-ray

Gamma
ray

Diagram 2.4
(i)

Name the wave for;


P:
................................
Q:

[2 marks]

(ii)

Choose one wave that harmful to human body.

...................................................................................................................

67

(iii)

[1 mark]
Give one reason for the answer in (c) (ii).

[1 mark]
(iv)
Choose one wave that used in telecommunication

(v)

.
[1 mark]
Give one reason for the answer in. (c) (iv).

(vi)

.
[1 mark]
Choose the suitable wave that can be used in cancer treatment.

(vii)

.
[1 mark]
Give one reason for the answer in 8 (c) (vi).
.
[1 mark]

Diagram 3.1 and 3.2 show wave pattern produced by the vibration of two spherical dippers
on the water surface set to be at different distances

Diagram 3.1

68

Diagram 3.2

(a) (i)

What is the wave phenomenon shown in diagram 10.1 and 10.2?

[1 mark]
(ii) Explain why the water level in the ripple tank must be at constant depth during the
experiment.
[4 marks]
(iii) Observe Figure 10.1 and 10.2. Compare the wave patterns produced by the
spherical dippers. State the relationship between the distance of two coherent
sources and the separation / distance of two consecutive nodes or antinodes lines.
[5 marks]
(b) Sonar technique can be used to determine the distance between two positions.
Ultrasonic wave is used in this technique.
(i)
What is sonar?
[1 mark]
(ii) Explain why using ultrasonic wave is better than just ordinary sound waves.
[2 mark]
(iii) A marine researcher wants to use ultrasonic sound to determine the depth of the
ocean bed. Explain how he can do so.
[7 mark]

ELECTRICITY
A

Meaning of current , potential difference and resistance:


Current = Charge
Time
Potential difference = work = energy
charge charge
Resistance = Potential difference
Current
B

Ohms law

69

The potential across a metal conductor is directly proportional to the current


flowing through the conductor , provided that its temperature remains constant.
C

The factors affect the resistance of a conductor

(i)
Length The resistance is directly proportional to the
(ii) The cross-sectional area - The resistance is inversely proportional to the
cross-sectional area of the conductor
(iii) The type of the material of the conductor
For good conducting material such as silver and cooper have low resistance.
For good insulating material such as rubber has high resistance.
(iv)
Temperature
For metal conductors such as cooper ,iron , the resistance is increases linearly
to the temperature.
For alloys such as constantan and nichrome the temperature not affected the
resistance.
For semiconductor materials such silicon and germanium an also termistor
the resistance decreases when its temperature is increased.
D

Resistors in series and parallel


CURRENT

POTENTIAL
DIFFERENCE

RESISTANCE

SERIES

IT=I1=I2=I3

VT=V1+V2+V3

RT=R1+R2+R3
(Big)

PARALLEL

IT+I1+I2+I3

VT=V1=V2=V3

1
1
1
R

R1 R 2 R 3

E
Electromotive force (e.m.f) and internal resistance

( Small )

E.m.f is the potential across a cell or source of electricity when it is on open circuit
and supplying no current.
The S.I. unit of e.m.f is Volt (V).
The symbol of e.m.f is E
The internal resistance ,r is the resistance within a cell due to its electrolyte and
electrodes or source of electricity.
The S.I. unit of r is Ohm ()
E =IR+Ir
E=V+Ir
V = IR
F

Electrical energy and power and the efficiency

70

E=VIt
E = I2 R t
E = V2 t
R
P=VI
I2 R

P=
P = V2
R

1 kilowatt - hour is the energy supplied in 1 hour to an appliance whose power


rating is 1 kW.
Energy = power x time
Kilowatt-hour kilowatts hours
Efficiency = Useful energy output of appliance x 100%
Energy input to appliance

Diagram 1 shows a battery 15 V is connected to three resistors.

71

Diagram 1
(a) What is the effective resistance of the resistor 15 and 10
(b) What is the effective resistance of the resistors 15 , 10 and 1.5 ?

(c)

What is the reading of the ammeter


(i) A1

(ii) A2

(iii) A3

(d)

What is the reading of the voltmeter


(i) V1

(ii) V2
Diagram 2.1 shows a circuit consisting of 3 identical resistors X ,Y, Z and two measurement
instruments P and Q.

72

Diagram 2.1
(a) Name the measurement instruments,
P.............................................................................................................................................
Q.............................................................................................................................................
(b) (i)
reading

When an identical resistor is connected parallel to resistor Z ,what happen to the


of P and Q?

P.............................................................................................................................................
Q...........................................................................................................................................
(ii) Give the reason for your answer in (b)(i).
.....................................................................................................................
.............................
(c) The resistors X, Y and Z are replaced by three identical bulb K, L and M as shown in
Diagram 2.2

Diagram 2.2
Compare the brightness between the bulb
(i)
3

K and L .............................................................................................

(ii)
L and M ..
Diagram 3.1 shows a circuit used to investigate the relationship between current and
potential difference across a constantan wire s.w.g. 24 with length of 10 cm.

73

(a)

(b)

Diagram 3.1
Name the measuring instruments labeled X and Y in Diagram 3.1.
X :
Y :
[2 marks]
(i)
What is the relationship between the reading of the measuring
instruments
X and Y?

[1 mark]
(ii)
State the physics law involved in b(i).

(c)

[1 mark]
The experiment is repeated by using a constantan wire s.w.g 36 with the same
length. Diagram 3.2 shows the graph V against I for the experiment.

.
Diagram 3.2
Based on graph in Diagram 3.2 ;

74

(i)

What is the physical quantity represented by the gradient of the graph?

[1 mark]
(ii)
Which of the constantan wire has the higher resistance ?

[1 mark]
4

Diagram 4 shows an immersion heater with specification labeled 240 V, 2.4 kW.

Diagram 4
(a)

(i)

What is meant by label 240 V, 2.4 kW?


[1 mark]

(ii)
(b)
(c)
(i)

Explain the suitable material can be used as a heating element inside the
metal case.
[3 marks]
Explain why the heating element is made of long resistor wire.
[2 marks]
The immersion heater is connected to a 240 V power supply.
Calculate
the current that passes through the immersion heater,
(ii)
the resistance of the heating element inside the immersion heater.
[4 marks]

(d) The cables available of the immersion heater are two-core flex and became broken
and frayed. Most part of the immersion heater was metal fitting.

75

You are assigned to fit the cables or replace it to ensure the immersion heater safe to be
used.
Table 4 shows the characteristics of wiring a mains plug.
Wiring
P

Characteristics of wiring
Flex cable
Cable rating
Twin-core flex
13 A

Three-core flex

3A

Three-core flex

1A

Three-core flex

13 A

Twin-core flex

3A

Fitting fuse
13 A to live
wire
3 A to neutral
wire
1 A to earth
wire
13 A to live
wire
3 A to live wire

Main plug
Two pin
Three pin
Three pin
Three pin
Two pin

Table 4

(i)

Explain the suitability of the characteristics of the wiring to be used to fit


or replaced the cables of the immersion heater.

(ii)

Determine the most suitable wiring to be used and give reasons


for your choice.
[10 marks]

A student carries out an experiment to investigate the relationship between the electromotive
force, E and internal resistance, r of a dry cell. The result of the experiment is shown in the
1
graph Resistance, R against inverse current,
as in Diagram 5.1 .
I
(a) (i)

Based on the graph in Diagram 5.1


What happen to R when I decrease?
.....................................................................................................................

.............................
[1 mark]
(ii)

Determine the value of I when R = 5 . Show on the graph how you


determine value of I.

[3 marks]

76

Graph of R against
R/

7
A-1

Diagram 5.1

-1

(b) The resistance, R is given by the formula


-2
77

E
-r
I
Where E is electromotive force and r is internal resistance.
1
Calculate the gradient of graph R against
. Show on the graph how you determine
I
the gradient of graph.
R=

[3 marks]
E
(ii) By using the formula R =
- r and the value obtained in b (i). Calculate the
I
electromotive force, E.

[2marks]
(iii) By using the formula R =

E
- r and the intercept R-axis, find the value of
I

internal resistance, r.

[2 marks]
(c) State one precaution that should be taken during this experiment.

[1 marks]

ELECTROMAGNETISM
1.

The magnetic effect of a current-carrying conductor

78

2.

The force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field.

3.

The electromagnetic induction

1. The magnetic effect of a current-carrying conductor - Electromagnet


Current + Conductor Electromagnet

1.1

Electromagnet

1.2

Magnetic field is produced by an electric current.


An electromagnet acts as a temporary magnet.
Magnetic field
A magnetic field is a region in which a magnetic material experiences a force as
the result of the present of a magnet or a electromagnet.
The direction of a magnetic field is from north pole to south pole.

1.3

The pattern of the magnetic fields


1.3.1

1.3.2

Current in a straight wire

Current in a single coil

79

1.3.3

Current in a solenoid

1.4

Factors Affecting the strength of the magnetic field of an electromagnet


(1)
(2)
(3)

(4)

Current
When the current is increased, the strength of the magnetic field
increases.
Number of turns of wire
When the number of turns of wire is increased , the strength of the
magnetic field increases.
Type of the material of the core
Different material of the core have the different strength of the magnetic
field. Soft iron core has the strongest magnetic field. A soft iron core is
able to concentrate magnetic field lines through it.
The shape of the iron core
U-shaped iron core has more stronger magnetic field than the straight
iron core because U-shaped iron core has two opposite pole s adjacent to

80

each other and as a result the magnetic field lines are concentrated in
space between the poles.
1.5

Comparison soft iron core and steel core.


Soft iron core
Easily magnetised and
demagnetised
Suitable to make a
temporary magnet
(electromagnet)

1.6

Steel core
Hardly magnetised
and demagnetised
Suitable to make a
permanent magnet

The uses of electromagnet


1 The electric bell
2 The circuit breaker
3 The electromagnetic relay
4 The telephone ear-pieces
5 Electromagnetic lifting machine
6 To remove steel splinters which have accidentally entered a patients eye.
7 Electronic card
8 Parking machine
9 Magnetic Levitated Train (MAGLEV train)
10 Tape recorder

Example 1.1
The Diagram shows two plotting compasses placed on a horizontal cardboard. A straight wire
passes through the centre of the cardboard.

Draw the direction of the pointer of the compass M and N when the switch is closed.
Example 1.2
The diagram shows a rectangular coil of wire WXYZ connected with a dry cell and a switch S is
placed on the surface a horizontal table. Two compasses P and Q are laid on the wire WX and
XY respectively.

81

What will happen to the pointer of compass P and Q when the switch ,S is closed?
Pointer of compass P :
Pointer of compass Q :
Example 1.3
What is the type of pole of electromagnet at X,Y,Z , P,Q and R?

X ..
Y ..
Z .

P
Q
R

The Force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field.


Current -carrying conductor + magnetic field Force

2.1

Flemings Left-hand Rule.

82

2.2

Catapult Field

2.3

Application of catapult fields


1
2
3
4

Moving coil ammeter


Electric d.c. motor
Electric a.c. motor
Moving coil loudspeaker

Example 2.1
Determine the direction of force exerted to the conductor in the following diagram

Direction : From . to .

Direction : From to ..

83

Direction : From to .

Example 2.2
Determine the direction of rotation of the wire coil in the following diagram.

Direction of the rotation is

The Electromagnetic Induction


Conductor + magnetic field Current

3.1

The meaning of electromagnetic induction


The production of induced current or induced e.m.f. without using the power
supplies but using the relative motion between a conductor and a magnet.

3.2

What is meant by relative motion?

84

3.3

The mechanism of the production of induced current or induced e.m.f.


When the relative motion between a conductor or a magnet happened , the
conductor cuts across the magnetic field lines or change of the magnetic flux.

3.4

The types of induced current

3.5

To determine the magnitude of the induced current Faradays Law


Faradays law state that The magnitude of the induced current or induced e.m.f.
is directly proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux linkage with the
solenoid or the rate at which a conductor cuts through the magnetic flux.
Hence, based on the Faradays law is increased when
(a)
the number of turns of the solenoid is increased
(b)
the strength of the magnet is increased
(c)
the speed of relative motion is increased

3.6

To determine the direction of the induced current Lenzs Law


Lenzs law state that The direction of an induced current always flows in such
as a direction so to oppose the change which is causing it.

85

3.7

To determine the direction of the induced current in the dynamo Flemings


Right-hand rule

3.8

Application of the electromagnetic principle


1
2
3

d.c. generator
a.c. generator
transformer

Example 3.1

Based on the diagram above ,complete the following sentence:


When the magnet is moved towards into the solenoid, there is a force of .
exists between the solenoid and the magnet and the end P is induced to become the
. pole and the direction of the current is .
When the magnet is moved away from the solenoid, there is a force of
.
exists between the solenoid and the magnet and the end P is induced to become the
.pole and the direction of the current is
Example 3.2

Based on the diagram above ,complete the following sentence:


When coil WXYZ is rotated in anticlockwise the direction of the current is

86

Worksheet Question
1 Diagram 1.1 shows a simple electromagnet used for lifting and releasing a small metal

ball.

Diagram 1.1
(a) In Diagram 8.1, mark the direction of the current flow in the solenoid when the
switch is on.
(b)

(i)

[ 1 Mark ]
Name the magnetic pole at the end of the core P when the switch is on?

.....................
(ii)

[ 1 Mark ]
State the rule is used to determine the pole of the magnetic field.
.
[ 1 Mark ]

(iii)

Based on the solenoid in Diagram 1.1, draw the magnetic field lines that
is form around the solenoid when the switch is on. In your diagram
show the direction of the magnetic field lines.
[ 2 Marks ]

87

Table 1.1
(c)

Based on Table 1.1, state the suitable properties to be chosen to built an


electromagnet and state the reason for your choice.
(i) Material used for the core
.............................................................
[ 1 mark ]
Reason

[ 1 mark ]
(ii) Shape of the core

[ 1 mark ]
Reason

[ 1 mark ]
(d) (i)

The electromagnet in Diagram 1.1 is used in an electric bell as shown in


Diagram 1.2.

Diagram 1.2
Explain the working principle of the electric bell.
.....................................................................................................................
.............
.....................................................................................................................
.............
.....................................................................................................................
.............
[ 3 marks]
88

(ii)
2

Draw a connection wire in Diagram 1.2 to make the bell produced a sound not
continuously.
[ 1 Mark ]
Diagram 2 demonstrates the force acting on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic
field.

Diagram 2
(a) When the switch is closed, what observation can you make?

[1 mark]
(b) State the rule which can be used to determine the direction of motion of the copper
wire?

[1 mark]
(c) (i)
If the direction of current is reversed,
what different observation can be made?

[1 mark]
(ii) Draw the pattern of electromagnetic filed that produces the motion of the copper
wire as in (a)?

[3 marks]
(iii)

How can the magnitude of the force be increased?

[2 marks]

89

Diagram 3 shows a bar magnet is hung on a spring that attached to a retort stand. The bar
magnet is displaced downwards and released so it can oscillate through a solenoid which is
connected to a centre-zero galvanometer.

Diagram 3

(a) What is meant by electromagnetic induction?

[1 mark]
(b) When the bar magnet move towards the solenoid, the galvanometer pointer deflect for a
while.
(i)
Explain why the galvanometer pointer deflects?

.................................................................................................
[2 marks]
(ii)

State the polarity of end A and end B of the solenoid.


A : .
B : .....
[2 marks]

(c) When the spring is replaced by a stiffer spring,


(i)
state the change to the angle of deflection of the galvanometer pointer?

90


[1 mark]
(ii)
Give the reason for your answer.

[1 mark]

Diagram 4 shows a soft iron bar and a bar magnet hung at the ends P and Q of a solenoid
respectively.

Diagram 4

(a) When the switch S is closed , what happens to the


(i)
soft iron?
.....................................................................................................................................
[ 1 Mark]
(ii) bar magnet
.....................................................................................................................................
[ 1 Mark]
(b) Later, switch S and the bateries is removed and replaced by a sensitive centre-zero
galvanometer. Explain what happen to the deflection of pointer of the galvanometer
when the
(i)
soft iron is oscillated into the solenoid
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................

[ 3 Marks ]
(ii) bar magnet is oscillated into the solenoid
..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................

91


[3 Marks ]
(c) The bar magnet is observed stops earlier than the soft iron bar. Explain why this
happens?
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
[ 2 Marks ]
5

Diagram 5 shows the arrangement of an apparatus to investigate the interaction between a


current-carrying conductor and the magnetic field.

Diagram 5
(a) Name the type of the magnet is used.

[ 1 Mark ]
(b) When the switch is closed,
(i)
indicate and label the direction of the current flows through wire X.
[ 1 Mark ]
(ii) what happen to motion of wire X and give the reason for your answer.
.........................................................................

.........................................................................

[ 2 Marks ]

92

(c) Suggest two ways to change the direction of the motion of wire X.
.................................................................................

[ 2 Marks ]
6

Diagram 6 shows an electric motor which is connected to a battery.

Diagram 6
(a) What is the function of the motor?
.................................................................................
[ 1 Mark ]
(b) Based on the diagram state, at what direction does the motor rotates when the current
flows?
(e) What modification is required to enable to be a
(i)
a.c. motor
......................................................................

[ 2 Marks ]
(ii) d.c. dynamo
.........................................................................

[ 2 Marks ]

93

7.

Diagram 7.1 shows a bar magnet with north pole at point P and Diagram 7.2 shows a bar
magnet with south pole at point Q which is moved towards the solenoid to produce
induced current.
Rajah 7.1 menunjukkan satu magnet bar dengan kutub Utara di titik P dan Rajah 7.2
dengan kutub Selatan di titik Q. Dalam kedua-dua rajah , magnet bar digerakkan kearah
solenoid untuk menghasilkan arus aruhan.

DIAGRAM 7.1
RAJAH 7.1

DIAGRAM 7.2
RAJAH7.2

a) Observe the diagrams and state two differences between them.


Perhatikan rajah-rajah di atas dan nyatakan dua perbezaan antara rajah-rajah tersebut.
.
.
[2marks]
b) What is the polarity exerted at point P and Q when the magnet is moved towards the
solenoid?
Apakah kutub yang terhasil pada titik P dan Q bila magnet digerakkan kearah solenoid.
P : .....................................................................
Q : ......................................................................
[2marks]
c) What is the relationship between the number of turns and the magnitude of induced
current?
Apakah hubungan antara bilangan lilitan dan magnitud arus aruhan yang terhasil.
.
[1mark]
d) Name the law involved in (c).
Namakah hukum yang terlibat dalam bahagian (c).

94


[1mark]
e) Suggest another method to increase the deflection of the pointer.
Cadangkan satu kaedah lain yang boleh meningkatkan pesongan penunjuk.
.
[1mark]
f) State an instrument that uses the application of induced current.
Nyatakan satu alat yang menggunakan aplikasi arus aruhan.
.
[1mark]

Diagram 8(a) and Diagram 8(b) show wire coils connected to the ammeters, switches and d.c.
power supply.

Diagram 8(a)
Diagram 8(b)
When the switch is on and iron filings of the same amount is spread on each of the cardboard
surface, the pattern of the iron filings is formed as shown in the diagrams.
(a) What is meant by magnetic field?
[ 1 Mark ]
(b) Using Diagram(a) and Diagram(b) , compare the number of turn of the coils, the pattern
of the iron filings and the angle of deflection of the ammeter indicator.
[ 3 Marks ]
(c) State the relationship between the strength of the magnetic field and
(i)
the pattern of iron filings,
(ii) the number of turn of the coils.
[ 2 Marks ]

95

(a)

Diagram 9(a) shows two thin copper strips, PQ and RS, connected to a circuit.

Diagram 9(a)
Explain what happens to PQ and RS, when the switch is on.
[ 4 Marks ]
(b) Diagram 9(b) shows an electric motor which is supplied with 12 V a.c.

Diagram 9(b)
(i)
(ii)

Explain how the motor is able to rotate


[ 4 Marks ]
Using a 12V a.c. power supply, explain the modification that needs to be done
on the
motor and the external circuit to enable to be a d.c. electric motor and rotate
[ 10 Marks ]

96

10 Diagram 10 shows a boy rides his bicycle at night. The brightness of the bicycle light
increases ,when his bicycle down a slope .

Diagram 10
Based on the observations:
Based on the information and the observation above:
(a) State one suitable inference.
(b) State one suitable hypothesis.
(c) With the use of apparatus such connection wires, bar magnet ,
solenoid and other apparatus, describe an experiment framework to investigate the
hypothesis stated in (b).
In your description, state clearly the following:
(i)
Aim of the experiment
(ii) Variables in the experiment
(iii) List of apparatus and materials
(iv) Arrangement of the apparatus
(v) The procedure of the experiment which include the method of controlling the
manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable
(vi) The way you would tabulate the data
(vii) The way you would analysis the data
[ 12 Marks ]

97

ELECTRONIC
A

Thermionic emission
Meaning:
The emission of electrons from the surface of a heated metal or heated metal cathode.
Factors that affect the rate of thermionic emission
(1) Surface area of the cathode
As the surface area of the cathode increases the rate of thermionic emission increases
(2) Temperature of the cathode
As the temperature of the cathode increases the rate of thermionic emission increases
(3) Types of metal
Different types of metal has different rate of thermionic emission.
The good metals are tungsten, barium oxide and strontium oxide.
Cathode ray
Cathode ray is a narrow beam of a fast electrons moving in a vacuum.
Properties of Cathode Rays
1. Travel in a straight lines in vacuum.
2. Possess kinetic energy and momentum
3. Produce fluorescent effect
4. Negatively charged
5. Deflected by an electric field towards a positive plate
6. Deflected by a magnetic field. The direction of deflection is determined by using
Flemings Left-hand rule
7. Cause ionization of gas molecules
8. Can penetrate thin aluminium foil ,thin paper and thin graphite layer
9. Affect photographic plates
10.
Produce heat and X-radiation in a X-ray tube
11.Charge of one electron ,e = 1.6 x 10 -19 C
12.Mass of electron, me = 9 x 10 -31 kg
Velocity of electrons

From the principle of conservation of energy, for each electron,


Electrical potential energy = Kinetic energy
eV = mv 2

98

2eV
m
v = velocity of the electrons
v

V = potential difference between anode and cathode


e = charge of one electron, 1.6 x 10 -19 C
m= mass of electron 9 x 10 -31 kg
B Cathode Ray Oscilloscope ( CRO)

Uses of CRO
(1) Displaying waveforms
(2)
As voltmeter (measuring potential difference)
(3) As a clock (Measuring short time intervals or frequency)

Diode Semiconductor
The structure and the symbol

The function of diode


A diode acts like a one-way valve to electric current// as a valve

Diode as a rectifier
A diode can act as a rectifier because it can convert alternating current(a.c.) into direct
current(d.c).
The process of converting a.c. to d.c. is called rectification.
99

Half- wave rectification

Full-wave rectification

Smoothing output wave by a capacitor


By connecting a capacitor parallel to the resistance , the half-wave and the full-wave
rectified waveform could be partially smoothed out.

100

D TRANSISTOR
Structure and symbol

Transistor circuit

Working principle of a transistor


(1)
Ib <<< Ic
(2) Ib <<< Ic
(3)
Ie = I b + I c
(4) Ib = 0 and IC = 0
(5) Ic = 0 hence Ib 0
Applications of transistors

101

LOGIC GATE
Common terminology of logic gates
Logic gate
:
inputs .
Truth table :
logic gate.
Boolean algebraic:

An electronic circuit with a single output and one or more


A table that summarises all the possible input and output of a
A form of symbolic logic which provides a mathematical
procedure for manipulating logical relationships in symbolic form.

NOT gate
The symbol of for a NOT gate is:

The truth table:is:


Input
A
0
1

The Boolean algebraic is:

Output
X
1
0

AND gate
The symbol of for an AND gate is:

The truth table

is:
Input
A
0
0
1
1

The Boolean algebraic is:

OR gate
The symbol of for an OR gate is:

B
0
1
0
1

Output
X
0
0
0
1
The truth table

is
Input
A
0
0
1
1

The Boolean algebraic is:

102

B
0
1
0
1

Output
X
0
1
1
1

NAND gate
The symbol of for an NAND gate is:

The truth table

is:
Input
A
0
0
1
1

The Boolean algebraic is:

B
0
1
0
1

Output
X
1
1
1
0

NOR gate
The symbol of for an NOR gate is:

The truth table

is:
Input
A
0
0
1
1

The Boolean algebraic is:

B
0
1
0
1

Output
X
1
0
0
0

Diagram 1.1 shows a cross section of a Maltese cross tube used to study the
characteristics of cathode ray.

Diagram 1.1
(a) What is the meaning of cathode ray?
...
[1 mark]
(b) When switch S1 and switch S2 are turned on, two overlapping shadows are formed on
the screen. Explain why the shadows are formed on the screen.
..
..
[1 mark]

103

(c) Calculate the velocity of cathode ray in the Maltese cross tube .
[ The charge of electron, e = 1.6 x 10 -19 C and the mass of one electron,
me= 9 x 10 -31 kg ]

[2 marks]
(d) Diagram 1.2 shows a pair of magnet with opposite poles are placed at the sides of
the tube. One of the shadow deflects..

Diagram 1.2
(i) By using an arrow, show the direction of the shadow which deflects in Diagram 1.2.
[1 mark]
(ii) State the physics rule used to determine the direction of the shadow.
...............................
[1 mark]
2

Diagram 2.1 and Diagram 2.2 shows two diodes A and B , two bulbs P and Q are
connected to a dry cell with two different arrangement.

104

Diagram 2.1
(a)

(ii)

Diagram21.2

Based on Diagram 2.1 and Diagram2.2,


(i)
compare the connection of diodes to the terminal of the dry cell.
.....................................................................................
[1 Mark]
compare the lighting of the bulbs.

..
[1 Mark]
(iii) Relate the connection of diodes to the terminal of the dry cell with the
lighting
of the bulbs.
..
[1 Mark]
(b) (i) Draw the arrangement of four diodes and suitable power supply in the space given in
Diagram 2.3 that can be used to produce full wave rectifier circuit.

Diagram 2.3
[3 Marks]
(ii)

Draw the wave form of full wave rectification

[1 Mark]

105

(iii) Name an electronic component that can be used to smooth the current
produced.

[1 Mark]

Diagram 3.1 shows a semiconductor transistor.

Diagram 3.1
(a) (i)

Name the type of the transistor.

.
[1 mark]
(ii)
Transistor has three terminals connected to the emitter, base and collector.
Label the emitter, base and collector in Diagram 3.1
[1 mark]

(c)

Diagram 3.2 shows a transistor circuit consisting three resistors. Resistance W is 10


k and
maximum resistance of X is 10 k.

106

Diagram 2.2
(i)

State the function of resistor Y

[1 mark]
(ii) what happened to the bulb when the resistance of X is adjusted from the
minimum value the maximum value?
..
[1 mark]
(iii) Explain your answer in (b)(ii)
..
..
.
[3 marks]
(c)

Diagram 1.3 shows a transistor is used to light up during the day.

(i)

Diagram 3.3
Suggest a modification to light up the lamp at night.

.
[1 mark]

107

(ii)

A student replaced lamp L with a lamp labeled 240 V 24 W in Diagram 3.3. The
bulb is not light up.

(d)

Why the lamp is not light up?

(e)

[1 mark]
An electrical component is connected to the output transistor so that the lamp is
light up.
Name the electrical component and state the functions.
..
.
[2 marks]

Diagram 4 shows a transistor-based circuit that function as a heat controlled switch

Diagram 4
(a)

(i)

Name instrument P and Q.

P.
Q
[2 marks]
(ii)
What is the function of Q in this circuit?
.
[1 mark]
(iii)
Complete the table below.

108

Remember Ic >>>>Ib
[3 mark]
(iv)

Explain how the circuit functions.

.
[5 mark]
(b)

Name another uses of this circuit.

[1 mark]

Diagram 5.1 shows a circuit consisting of 3 logic gates AND, OR and NOT .

Diagram 5.1
(a)

What is meant by logic gate?

................................................
[1mark]
(b)
Diagram 5.2 shows a type of switch.

109

Diagram 5.2
By using one or two of the the switch above and suitable connecting wires,
complete the circuit in the diagrams below to produce,

(c)

(i)

AND gate

(ii)

OR gate

(iii)

NOT gate

[3 marks]
Diagram 5.3 below shows the combination of two NAND gates.The combination
will produce a single gate M

Diagram 5.3
(i)

Complete the truth table in Table 5.1 below for the combination of two
NAND gates.

110

K
0
0
1
1

L
0
1
0
1

Table 5.1
[1mark]
(ii)

Name the logic gate M.

[1mark]

(d)

(e)

Draw a combination of two NOR gates to produce a single gate OR.

[1mark]
Ahmad would like to construct a logic gate circuit to switch on an air
conditioner in his house automatically. He has chosen a light- sensitive device to
detect daytime and night and heat-sensitive device to detect the surrounding
temperature.
He has constructed a truth table as shown below.
Input P
Input Q
Output R
Night - 0
Cold - 0
Off - 0
Night - 0
Hot - 1
On - 1
Day - 1
Cold - 0
On - 1
Day - 1
Hot - 1
On - 1
You are given the logic gate such as OR, AND and NOT. Complete the logic gate
circuit to help Ahmad to make his air conditioner functions as the situation
above.

111

[3
marks]

RADIOACTIVITY
1.0

Elements
- proton number same for atoms of same element
- Nucleon (mass) number total number of p + n
- Isotope atoms of same element with different number n.
- Radioisotope isotopes with unstable nuclei
Disintergration- nuclei break up , number p and n may change.
-Radiation emission continually
- random
-radioactive substance emits radiation what ever is done to it.
-

112

The characteristics of radioactive emissions (- particles , - particles and -rays)

2.0

Natural characteristics
- particles : Helium nucleus or

Effect of electric field


4
2

He

- particles :
-rays :

Fast moving electrons or


Electromagnetic waves

- particles :
- particles :
-rays :

Charge
+ 2e
-e
No charge

0
1

Speed
- particles : Up to 10% of speed of light
- particles :
Up to 99% of speed of light
-rays :
Speed of light

The size of deflection of - particles < particles because the mass of - particles > particles
Effect of magnetic field

Ionising power
- particles : Strong
- particles :
Medium
-rays :
Very weak
Penetrating power
- particles : Low
- particles :
Average
-rays :
High

The direction of deflection is determined


by using Flemings left-hand rule.

3.0

Radioactive decay
Alpha decay

example ;
238
92 U

Beta decay

example ;
234
90 Th

4
2 He

90
38 Sr

Gamma emission

example ;
90
39 Y

113

0
1 e

60
27 Co

60
27 Co

Example
1

The following equation represents the decay of a Polonium nucleus.


210

Po

84

206

Pb + x

82

What is particle or ray represented by X ?


2

The following equation represents the decay of a Kalium nucleus.


40
40
K
Ca + X
19

20

The following equation represents the decay of a Plumbum nucleus.


214

Pb

82

4.0

214
83

Bi + 0 X + Y
-1

Both alpha and beta particles are produced when


alpha and beta particles are produced.

234
90 M

decays to

218
92 N

. How many

Half-life and decay curve


Half life : The half-life of a radioactive material is the for the activity / number of atoms
/ mass of radioactive fall to .its original activity / number of atoms / mass.
Example :
Pa takes 20.8 hours to shrinks from 80 g to 5 g.
a) How many half lives are there
80 g 40 g 20 g 10 g 5 g
T

( This decay process has taken the time of 4 half lives )


20.8 hours = 4 T ,

T = 20.8 / 4 = 5.2 hours.

Exercise
1
2
3
4

A recorder records 160 pulses per second for a radioactive material. The half-life of this
source is 5 days. What is the reading after 15 days?
A radioactive source has a half-life 8 hours. What is the percentage of atoms to decay after 24
hours?
The half-life of carbon is estimated 6 400 years . A artifact has been discovered. The activity
of carbon in this artifact is of its initial activity. How old is the artifact?
The diagram shows a graph activity against time for a radioactive element.

114

5.0

What is its activity after 12 hours?


Nuclear energy
Nuclear Fission
235
92

+3

U.+

1
0

1
0

92

n 36 Kr +

Nuclear Fussion
141
56

Ba

2
1

H 13H 24 He 01n

n + energy
Combination of small atoms into a larger atom and

Chain reaction
self sustaining as a result of the
products of one step initiating a
subsequent step

Nuclear Energy ,

with the release of heat.

E = mc2
m = .
c=..

Example 1
The mass defect in a nuclear reaction is 2 x 10 -3 kg. What is the released?
[ Speed of light = 3.0 x 10 8 ms-1]
Example 2
In the sun, energy is released when hydrogen nuclei collide and form heavier nuclei.
Name this process
4 x 16 = 64 s
QUESTION EXAMPLE
1
Diagram shows a radioactive source can be used to control the thickness of paper as it is
manufactured. The G-M tube reading at P, Q and R are recorded as shown in table 8.2

115

Position of paper
Readings of G-M
tube/counts/min

(a)

370

295

290

TABLE 1
What is meant by radioactive source?
Apakah yang dimaksudkan sumber radioaktif

..
[1 mark]
(b) Base on table 1 which part of the paper is the thinnest? Give your reason.
Berdasarkan Jadual 1, bahagian manakah kertas itu paling nipis.
Berikan sebab bagi jawapan anda.
....
....
[2 marks]
(c) Table 1.2 shows the time taken to decay to 12.5 % from the original value of the
three isotopes with the type of radiation given out during the process.
Radioisotopes

Time taken to decay 12.5%

Type of radiation given out

thorium-231

3 days

Beta

Kobalt-60

15.9 years

Gamma

Actinium-227

66 years

Beta

116

TABLE 1.2
Base on Table 1.2,
(i)

222
Write the decay equation of Radium-226 ( 226
88 Ra ) to Radon ( 86 Rn ).

(ii)

Determine the half life of each radioisotopes

[2 marks]

(d)

[4 marks]
Based your answer in (c)(ii) and Table 1.2, which one of the radioisotope would
be the best choice as the radioactive source. Give two reason for your answer

(e)

[3 marks]

A radioactive source emits two rays P and Q is placed in front of an electric field and the
radioactive path is shown in Diagram 2.

117

DIAGRAM 2
(a) Name the material of container X.
............
[ 1 mark ]
(b)
(i)
Complete this sentence by underlining one correct phrase in the box.

an alpha particle
Ray P is

a beta particle
a gamma ray

[1 mark ]
(ii)

Give the reason for your answer in (a)(i).

....
[1 mark ]

Diagram 3.1 shows the rate of decay of radioactive substance, Iodine-131.

118

DIAGRAM 3.1

a).

b)

c)

d)

What is meant by half life?


..
[1mark]
Based on Diagram 3.1, what is the half life of Iodine?

[1mark]
What happen to the activity of Iodine-131 after 24 days?
Apakah yang terjadi kepada aktiviti Iodine selepas 24 hari?

[1mark]
When Iodine-131 decays, it produces a beta particle and Xenon-131(Xe).
( i)
What is beta particle?

[1mark]

(ii)

Complete the following equation for the decay of Iodine-131.

119

Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2 show the activities of two radioactive sources A and B.
Activity / s1

Activity / s1
1200

800

900

600

600

400

300

200

10

15

20

Time / h

Radioactive source A
DIAGRAM 10.1

100

200

300

400 Time / s

Radioactive source B
DIAGRAM 10.2

(a) What is meant by radioactivity?


[1 mark]
(b) (i)

For radioactive source A and radioactive source B, determine the time taken for the
activity to become half of its initial value.
[2 marks]

(ii)

Compare the times taken in (b)(i) for the activities of radioactive source A and
radioactive source B to become half of its initial value.
[1 mark]

(iii) State one common characteristic of the times taken in (b)(i) for the activities of
radioactive source A and radioactive source B to become half of its initial value.

(iv)

Nyatakan satu ciri sepunya bagi masa-masa yang diambil di (b)(i) untuk aktiviti
sumber radioaktif A dan sumber radioaktif B menjadi separuh nilai asalnya.
[1 mark]
Give a name for the time taken for the activity of a radioactive source to become
half of its initial value.
[1 mark]

(c) What is nuclear fission and nuclear fusion? Explain how these two nuclear reactions are
able to release energy?

120

.
[4 marks]

(d)

Diagram 10.3 shows an underground water pipe which has a leak.


Location of leakage

Water pipe

1m

DIAGRAM 10.3
(i)

Explain how a radioactive substance can be used to detect the location of the
leakage.
[4 marks]

(ii)

Radioactive substances are hazardous and must be used with care. In using a
radioactive substance to detect the leakage, suggest how the substance should be
chosen by considering the following aspects:
- the half-life of the substance,
- the types of radiation emitted by the substance,
- the type of detector to be used.
[10 marks]

121