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The Properties of Crystal Formations in Frozen Desserts and Crystalline Candies and
their Effects on Texture and Flavor
Purpose of the Experiment
The purpose of the experiment was to describe and discuss the various factors that determine
the characteristics and quality of crystalline candy and frozen desserts. Intrinsic properties
such as boiling point, firmness and texture of crystalline candy and the factors that influenced
them, were explored. Furthermore, the influence of variables such as fats, proteins and
varying levels of sugar on ice cream texture and mouthfeel were identified. Finally, the
effects of artificial sweeteners on tenderness, after taste, sweetness and surface color in
cookies, were discussed.
Introduction
This experiment was undertaken to analyze and discuss factors influencing characteristics of
fondant, fudge, ice cream and cookies. These factors are vital as they contribute to the overall
quality of the candy. Crystalline candy has a lower boiling temperature due to a lower
concentration of sugar, in comparison to amorphous candy. The desired texture is malleable
and smooth, due to long chains of sucrose molecules. A key factor in the formation of
crystalline candy is consistent beating, which prevents aggregation of large crystals, by
introducing air. The combination of agitation and the viscous solution result in crystallization
into small aggregates, which gives the candy a smooth mouthfeel. Additionally, incorporation
of certain interfering ingredients, affect the quality of the candy. Cream of tartar, an acid,
hydrolyses the glycosidic bond between molecules, thus interfering with sucrose molecule
lattice, making the candy less malleable and firmer. High fructose corn syrup contains
isomerase that increases the level of fructose, while honey also contains an isomerase that
increases fructose and glucose levels. In regards to frozen dessert, the aim was to explain the
role of protein, fat and varying levels of sugar in influencing texture and mouthfeel. Fats such
as butter, cream and milk are large hydrocarbon chains that disrupt aggregation. Inclusion of
these ingredients makes the final product softer as clumps of molecules are disrupted. As the
level of sucrose increases, the freezing and melting point decrease. Finally, the effect of
replacement of artificial sweeteners such as aspartame, stevia and Splenda, compared to
sucrose was evaluated. Saccharin is used as a no caloric sweetener that results in a strong and
distinctive aftertaste, a change in color and flavor. Furthermore, interfering agents such as
honey, cream of tartar and HFCS, increase concentrations of reducing sugar, thereby

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increasing Maillard reactions. A previous study concluded that the replacement of sucrose
with Splenda in cookies resulted in much less force required to puncture the cookie, as
natural sugars offer structural integrity in baked products. Furthermore, sucrose cookies were
heavily favored over Splenda cookies in terms of taste, as Splenda results in an unwanted
after taste (Lawyer 2007). Another study concluded that increased sugar and fat in ice cream
caused a higher softer, buttery and creamy texture, with a sweeter flavor, while less fat and
sugar resulted in a harder texture and paler color. (Guinard 2006). Crystalline candies such as
fudge and fondant, prepared with cocoa and butter or basic methods, when evaluated for taste
and texture were far more desirable than those made with cream of tartar. Most of the ice
cream variations, where smooth and creamy in nature, while the no stir technique melted the
quickest. Cookies prepared with sucrose, versus those with aspartame and Splenda were more
desirable due to an undesirable after taste caused by artificial sweeteners. Crystalline candies
made with cream of tartar will be harder and less malleable, compared to the other variations,
while baked goods made with artificial sweeteners will result in a paler color, dryness and a
bitter after-taste.
Materials and Methods
Fondant
200 g of sugar and 118 ml of water were placed in a 1-quart saucepan on the range, with the
thermometer bulb placed in the sugar solution, making sure it did not touch the bottom of the
saucepan. The solution was heated at the highest setting, while it was constantly stirred with a
wooden spoon until it reached a final temperature of 113 C. The cooking time required was
around 10-12 minutes. It was then removed from the range, while still holding the
thermometer bulb, and 14 g of butter was added to it. The butter was allowed to melt on the
surface, without any stirring. After the fondant temperature dropped to 40 C, it was beaten
vigorously with a wooden spoon, until it lost its gloss and was about to set. This took a total
of 20 minutes.
Fudge
200 g of sugar, 118 ml of cream (half and half), 22.5 g of cocoa and 7 g of butter were
combined in a 1- qt heavy saucepan. It was then positioned on the range with a ring stand
adjacent to it, so it could support a thermometer with its bulb immersed in the candy, making
sure it did not touch the bottom of the saucepan. The mixture was first heated slowly, while
consistently stirring with a wooden spoon, and slowly brought a rapid boil, with a final

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temperature of 112 C. It was then removed from the heat, along with the bulb of the
thermometer, which was still immersed into the candy. 14 g of butter was immediately added
to the mixture, which was then left to cool, undisturbed, until the temperature dropped to 40
C. After it cooled, the mixture was beat rapidly with a wooden spoon until the fudge lost its
gloss and appeared ready to set, for 20 minutes. Once it had set, it was transferred it to a
small metal loaf pan- half was used to evaluation of the fresh product, while half was
wrapped in aluminum foil for evaluation of the ripened product.
Ice cream
24 g of egg yolk were beaten and blended with 50 g of sugar, 0.25 g of salt and 118 ml of
milk. This was mixture was poured into a 1- qt saucepan and heated slowly to 85 C, while it
was stirred constantly with a wooden spoon. 8 ml of vanilla extract was added to the mixture,
after which it was poured into a metal loaf pan. The depth of the mixture in the pan was
measured and recorded. 118 ml of whipped cream was then stirred into the custard mixture,
before the loaf pan was transferred to the freezer for cooling, for a period of 2 hours.
Cookies
The oven was preheated to 190 C.224 g of shortening, 158 g of brown sugar and 18 g of
stevia (Truvia) were beaten for 30 seconds on high setting on the electric mixer. 5 ml of
vanilla, 94 g (2) eggs were added to the mixture, which was then beaten for 1 minute on high
setting on the electric mixer. 248 g of flour, 6 g of salt and 4 g of baking soda were mixed in a
separate bowl and then added to the initial mixture. This was stirred for about 30 strokes,
until no dry flour remained. The cookie dough was then dropped onto the cookie sheet, using
1 tbsp of the dough for each cookie. They were baked for 9 minutes at 190 C, after which the
cookies were removed from the cookie sheet and left to cool on the cooling rack.
Results
For this experiment, there were four recipes that were carried out to prepare fudge, fondant,
ice cream and cookies. For the fondant, the basic formula was prepared, however 17 g of
butter was added to the candy once it was removed from the range. For the fudge, the basic
formula was prepared, however 22.5 g of cocoa and an additional 7 g of butter were
substituted for the unsweetened chocolate. For the ice cream, the no stir technique was used
i.e. after preparation of the basic formula, add whipped cream into the mixture and freeze,

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without stirring it again. Finally, for the cookies, 18 g of stevia was substituted for granulated
sugar.
Fondant
Variation
Cook Rate:
Slow, basic

Color

Flavor

White

Very sweet

Cook Rate:
Fast, basic
(control)

White

Not very
sweet,
slight after
taste

Moist and
sticky

Splenda
substitute

Off
white/cream

Extremely
sweet

Not firmliquid like


consistency

Butter

White

Whipped
butter

Butter,
Cream of
Tartar

Pale
yellow/white

Sweet and
buttery

Fudge
Variation

Color

Flavor

Quite firm,
slightly
sticky
Not very
firm,
broken
down into
crumbs
Firmness

Cream
(control)

Dark brown

Very sweet,
chocolatey

Cream of
Tartar

Dark brown

Not very
sweet

114 C,
Cream of
Tartar

Dark brown

Chocolatey,
slightly
sweet

Firmness
Fresh
Ripened
Very moist, Harder than
soft
the fresh
product

Texture
Fresh
Ripened
Very
Creamy on
smooth and the outside,
creamy.
however
Slightly
harder to cut
sticky

Looks like
Smooth,
jelly on the melts in the
outside,
mouth.
harder/denser Cracks on
the outside
Harder,
Paste like
however still
texture
liquidy
Stickier and
harder

Very
smooth

Firmer
crumbs
aggregated
together

Very
crumblysmooth
crumbs

Very hard

Looks like
paste, harder
than the
fresh
product
Creamy.
Does not
hold shape
Crumbly,
harder/brittle
crumbs

Texture

Fresh
Quite moist

Ripened
Brittle

Fresh
Smooth and
creamy

Sticky, quite
firm

Firmer than
fresh
product
Harder, very
brittle

Crumbly
and smooth

Dry and
brittle. Like
a chocolate
bar
Cocoa,
Dark brown Sweet, rich
Holds
Firmer,
butter 112 C
chocolate
shape,
slightly
sticky
sticky
Table 1.0: Effects of Varying Ingredients and Procedures on Fondant
Table 1.1: Effects of Varying Ingredients and Procedures on Fudge

Crumbly

Very creamy
and moist

Ripened
Creamier,
slightly
harder
Crumblier,
but smooth
in the mouth
Crumblier,
breaks into
sheets
Creamier
mouthfeel,
less moist

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Table 1.2: Effects of Varying Ingredients and Procedures on Ice Cream
Ice Cream
M.P. Temp- C
Color
Flavor
Texture
Variation
Control
Melts slowly
Pale yellow
Not very
Smooth
sweet, no
strong vanilla
flavor
Unwhipped
Melts quite
Pale yellow
Sweet, strong
Milk like
Cream
fast
vanilla flavor
texture
Honey
substitute
No Stir
technique

Slow melting,
melts before
control
Melts the
quickest

Mouthfeel
Very creamy

Milky

Pale yellow

Strong honey
flavor

Smooth

Creamy

Pale yellow

Not very
sweet, mild
vanilla flavor
Slightly sweet

Very smooth

Slightly
creamy

Smooth

Very creamy

Stir 1X

Does not melt


Pale yellow
fast
Cookie Variation
Color
Tenderness
Sugar (control)
Pale yellow/
Chewy, quite
golden brown
tender
surface
Aspartame
Pale yellow/
Quite hard/brittle
(Equal)
brown

Sweetness
Slightly sweet.
Savory flavor

Aftertaste
No aftertaste

Not sweet

Strong, bitter
aftertaste

Sucralose
(Splenda)

Pale yellow/
brown

Quite tender and


chewy

Not too sweet

Strong aftertaste

Stevia (Truvia)

Pale yellow/
greenish tinge
Pale brown top,
dark brown base

Chewy but very


dry
Very tender

Slightly sweet

Barely any
aftertaste
Bitter aftertaste

Lard & Monk


fruit

Slightly sweet/
burnt flavor

Table 1.3: Effects of Artificial Sweeteners on Cookies

The butter variation of the fondant had a strong flavor of whipped, creamy butter. The fresh
product was slightly sticky and on ripening it became harder and stickier. The texture was
smooth and creamy. The cocoa and butter substituted fudge had a rich chocolate flavor,
almost like dark chocolate. It was extremely moist and smooth, with a creamy mouthfeel.
Upon ripening, it became creamier and although it was harder compared to the fresh product,
it was still very moist and creamy compared to the other samples. The no stir technique for
the ice cream resulted in the product melting almost immediately at room temperature. It had
a creamy mouthfeel, with a subtle vanilla flavor. The stevia cookies had the subtlest after
taste, compared to the other artificial sweeteners. They were chewy but very dry, with a slight

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sweet flavor. They also had a faint green tinge, which was a distinct characteristic compared
to the other cookie variations.
Discussion
The fudge that was prepared for this experiment, turned out as expected. It was moist and
creamy with a rich chocolate flavor. An additional 7 g of butter was added to the recipe. As
butter is a fat, it consists of large hydrocarbon chains that disrupt aggregation. Inclusion of
fats such as these makes the final product softer and creamier as clumps of molecules are
disrupted. Therefore, the final product had a creamier texture compared to the other variations
such as the fudge made from cream of tartar. It was hard and brittle, with the consistency of a
chocolate bar, as the acid hydrolyses the glycosidic bond between molecules, thus interfering
with the sucrose molecule lattice, making the candy less malleable and firmer. Similar to the
fudge, additional butter was added to the fondant, making it creamier with a richer texture
compared to the other variations. The fondant with the Splenda substitute had a liquid like
consistency, with a lighter texture, compared to the dense texture of the control. Sucralose is a
tri-chlorinated molecule that is not hygroscopic in nature. Therefore, it does not attract and
hold water molecules, causing the product to be drier and less dense than products made with
sucrose. This was also observed in cookies made with Splenda- they were drier and flatter
than the sucrose variations. However, the cookies made with sucrose had a dark golden
brown crust, compared to the duller cookies made from artificial sweeteners. Sucrose
interacts with amino acids and reducing sugar, causing browning. Caramelization (sugar
heated in water), too, results in a golden brown crust, resulting from the breakdown of sugar
that increases moisture retention in baked goods. Furthermore, the sucrose cookies had
numerous faint cracks on their surface compared to the other variations- as sugar crystallizes,
heat is given off, causing the water to evaporate. During this time, leavening gases expand,
resulting in the dry surface, cracking. In regards to the ice cream, the no stir technique melted
the quickest followed by the unwhipped cream. Stirring a mixture prevents aggregation of
large crystals, by introducing air. Therefore, as the mixture is not stirred/beaten, sucrose
molecules are not broken up into fructose and glucose, resulting in an increased number of
clumps of sucrose molecules, which lowers the freezing and melting point. The honey
substitute however, had a higher melting point as most of the sugar in honey is inverted sugar
i.e. has a high concentration of fructose and glucose, resulting in a higher melting point. Due
to its varied functional features, sugar is used in numerous food preparations. Therefore it is
extremely important to understand the distinct roles it plays in frozen desserts, cooking,

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baking and candy making. Additionally, artificial sweeteners are vital to diabetics; this
experiment would prove useful in giving them beneficial recommendations on the distinct
characteristics of the different artificial sweeteners.
References
1. McWilliams, M. Monosaccharaides, disaccharides and sweeteners. Foods,
Experimental Perspectives (7th ed., pp. 129-167)
2. McWilliams, M. Crystallization, Sugar and Sweeteners. Experimental Foods, Lab
Manual (7th ed., pp. 25-39)
3. Lawyer, H. (2007). The effects of Splenda as a sugar substitute in no-bake cookies., 120.
4. Uatoni, A. (2006). Sugar and fat effects on sensory properties of ice cream. 62(5),
1087-1094.
5. Pareyt, B. (2009). The role of sugar and fat in sugar-snap cookies: Structural and
textural properties. 90(3), 400-408.