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| How to Design Tank Heating Coils . Now you can take the “art” out of tank heating coil + Dovid Stuhtbarg Tha Procter and Gorble Conpeny, Cinsonat DESIGN OF TANK HEATING COILS has remaized moro les an “art.” Here are fruls, backed up with / experimental data, for calulating heat ln, col are | nd dcanion of factors which affece call layout and incon. Tank col design falls naturally into two part: thermal and pha The forme, in tur, sbbdvies into deer- brining the proper dei bau, calling the eat load | nthe col, and finally, computing the clara, Physical’ design includes. selecting ae, computing length, deciding on type of coll and location fa the tak, jad ten making the detailed layout DESIGN BASIS Process requirements and properties of the stock dex termine in ange par the telecon of te proper din ‘Suatioos Ital be known wither the etl expected te recat a cole tank or merely matsin the hot tk temperstare, If the rock. does con, wil se pavlally solify or “makeup,” and if so, wil i form a fe inslating layer on the top, bostom and sides? Selection ofthe deem ese can sualy be made from one of the felling’ 1 Steady sate—icena oils ‘3. Stocs cool remain fig 18. Stocks conl—form selfiultion 5. Stocks col —soidetle 16. Stocs coor ested with xtrsal eis ) Bach of thse requics its own mathematical treatment, at all ae based om suming the ambient temperature (Ty) constant nd sing the average thermal properte ofthe soc, PLQURE | spe oie ave fr Cue IV wien the April, 1989—Persouruse Rerivex design by using these experience-proved data Case I_Steady State—intornal Cells. This case i ‘elatively simple tho loud on the coll is the same asthe heat los by radiation and convection. Te only neceuary fo take info account the fact tha diferent ouficens smay apply tothe top, Botom and sides. For tank on les, S=UATWASUAN THT) (1) Equation (1) an be simplified in form by using the Veale area” concept Let wa Bat Beata, @ ‘Then Equation (1) becomes ATT) o For an isothermal heating medism, the esl area ie Asterina by = TT tte Pe o Fora nonsethemmal heating medium, (Ty—T) would bereplaced bythe log mean temperature dflerence Steady tte requires les ceil than any of the other cases, therefore, i wie fo make doubly sre that some ther condidon mach ar = werkepd shutdown, storage ‘vithout beat over a holiday, or even an emergency shut "own, door not mote validly wet the deren bas, ‘Equation (8) applica a to dat betom tanks, and %9 odd configurations sich as tanks extending through the Wall of buildings, ete, but the equivalent area srl not be de same fortes cue, MeAdaus gives the hes lee ‘ma thin i bid ne ground as g=(—T) Whore R= py If the eas from a a bottom tank “iuing on de ground is assumed tobe one-half thi value (since only onesie touching the ground), he eat less FIGURE 2—Stow spel tent lve fer sch forming si Ms How to Design Tank Heating Coils fom the tank woud be WA TUA) (TT) +ODL)TATY (9) exuscting Us and (T—Ty) a above, she equivalent + ECR) © ae OT eee esate or eer i ice ie eee eee ede eID 0 Where Au and Ave are the equivalent area for the evo portion of the tank and "Py and U' ele o Au ‘The equivalent area concept wil considerabir imply ‘he more complicated case which follow N case steady Stato—txternal Cols. The prob Tem is tore complicated fexteral cole are rue ‘These cols are usualy atached vo either the des or the bot (or Both) and then covered with iaslaton. To ‘design them hemally, it convenient to assame hat {he heat flow is fr he ell to the dead sir space be- neath the inulaton, In order to replace ration Ios from she tank surfaces which ae not protected by the coil (for exutple, the top, when the eat & on the Sex Sd botom), the dead airspace must be at a higher femperatare than the tank, and he heat balance AIUD WHAT) — & apples. The beat load on the eal i A) TT) WY + AY (Fy Tu) = aay salar hater 0) where Ty is the average temperature of the hebtng! aim, 5 Tn designing external coil, as much ofthe tank surface ‘as pose shou be tren. "This wil keep the tempers {re ofthe dead airspace ata minim, which in tum Wil minnie both the toa eat loss and the coll area ‘This uaement can be. proven mathematically, From Equasion (2) Ax Seow ‘The cover the rato “© ig to ro, the closer the tem perature of the dead ait space, Tis to the tank tempera: fare, T the greatr (Ty) wil be and, therfore, ‘he amar the cal area, Ay wll be aso li—Unsteady State—siocks Remain Liquid. Frequent tanks are permit to cool before beat ib Applied. To design colt for auch tanks, ef neesay to ‘tein the heat which has bem lost in enaling. IE ee ‘contents remain ligula, he poblen isnot difieul Kern by jacket or intemal soi If we aenume hi equations spply eaualy well to nomagitned tals, we lave for caine: y Bot. ay from which‘, can be caeulated, ‘The tral eat lost in cling ie detrnined fees Q=M, (7) «2 {An allowance should be made for radiation and con- weston loner during elheating. If the average houely Jom dusing reheating asumed the same as duving cooling the required col area is etrmined by: (Ge)(etnonieme) ‘A more rigorous equation i derived Ifthe above as sumption i not made, The folowing difterental equation ‘etre, Yasin res. ys ar am | sx] am | sm | am | oo | oi | ose “Morse Sure, Fang Dower ys vs a0 | am | em | am | soo ae |e = RASS AT SE TSN are pa are mp nm a rm Pevsocus Rerisen—Vol, 38, No, 4 oe T auA NWA TY fsuing and raging TAT AUAT) —(UAF AIT MG, UATE UAT) ASE ULAD as “The writer has fund tht Bouton (18) 8 suficently acurte for poral design work Equation (14) Bs ciety ‘jade intrest wi ie peacpal we the evaluation fhe arr inher: in Equation (13). I-A—txtended Storage—Stocks Remain Ii th cokng tne fr Cave I # gute ene rl were or Unger ak woul be very le ‘bove te unbint temperate. For gene, he ale | Seria Equa (1) fortdaon ie ring reheating | Ndoguue andthe we of Equton (15) ic eam ended Bquason (1) cul be aoe bt abou bo / Slepate 2 amume Ty=', and alow for relation | atone ks af a seage ank emperate, Ths ne[f read Case V—Unsteady Stare—stocks Form Self. Insulation. Ame’ ore complicated situation eit if socks partly solidify during cooling, The actal heat tes wil depend heavily upon the behavior af the made-up tr waliifed sock, Tf it sinks (0 the bottom, the loss ‘ould be gester than Groen Buide which do ot make-up Since the temperative diference i eld high If forme 2 layer on he top, Dot, and ids, this serves as “sel insltion” which reduces begat heat lam and Leepe ‘he stock in the enter fn igid form. "This ater ean snalyond mathe in Append 1. For the asumprions made, we Rnd that nant 09 Where Ty is the temperature at which slide fs tart to Beal gern (PTI Jn Ty, ‘These equatins simplify down to manageable propor: April, 1990 —Pernouscw Rertwes tions once the consints ae inserted, Tt ie ascouary ‘hough to fllow the snmpone made in the dvvaton, ‘wile sean tse constant forall tm except Q, Ty Sad Oc The way to we the equation 1. Seve for Ty 2-Touere Ty and mum constants for all tems ex ‘cape, Ty and Oy im Equations (18) aad (14). 3 Amume vere f values for Ty (greter than Ta), ‘and sole for Q and 0, Grapt Ty vs 0, and vs (8. (ee Figures 1 and 2) 4. Determine Ty and Som the graph 5.Goreet @ sod 0, for the iference between the Inisl tank temperature, T and Ty as ealcusted from Equation (16) a follows SUT, > T, add MC, (P—T,) © BIETY < Th, fad 0, for To='y on the graph ease 8y (corrected) from thi point onward. (eorcied) i the diference berween for ToT ad T= Ty 16 Tie low to T,, thee omens would be mall and can be safely omit. 6. Find A, fren Equation (13). ase V—Stocks Cool—Solids Settle. Thi case is tomevhas exter to hand, I he cooling hae propre fly to the point where some, but nt all. of the rock fa fed the hea I would cont of wo pars Qo, the senuble feat of te bg andy te att eat of fusion of the sled portion, Ths +0, ao (2) en ay SUA TT ay Qz cannot exceed MA Tf cooling buyond this pont cccurs, vl be asa sl If we again anime the average heat los dung re heating is the same as during cooing the coil are sppeoninated by ae (ees) ase en Case Vi—Stocks Cool—Reheated with External Cells, Tis ease can be Handled by an excension of Ca TE Q is determined by Case 1, IV o V, then the erm oy i added to the righthand side of Equation (8) Thaw Ms _

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