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GWT - INTERPRETIVE PROGRAM COVER SHEET

Title of GWT: The Living walk among the dead.


Interpreters Names: Natalie Kretlow and Julius Freeland
Date of Program: 11/19/2015
Location & Length of Program (time/distance): Holy Cross Cemetery is located 1.5
miles from the P.E.I.F. Driving should take five minutes. The length of the program will
be 30 minutes.
Resource: Cemetery/Burial/Dead
Interpretive Enhancement selected: Audience questioning, use of light humor
Theme: Different cultures around Marquette buried people in different ways.
Location of stop & name of interpreter leading stop:
1.
Staging area: location Natalie and Julius
2.
Introduction: location Natalie
3.
Stop 1 Back Plots/Older Gravestones Julius Traditional Burial
4.
Stop 2 - Flat stones - Julius Native/cheaper burials
5.
Stop 3 - Dead River Lookout Area - Natalie Environmental harm
6.
Stop 4 - Mausoleum - Natalie
7.
#. Conclusion Office/car parked area Julius

Map with highlighted route and written directions from PEIF building to parking
area included separately.
RE 381 Interpretation I: Foundations and Guided Services (F15)

Guided Walk & Tour Planning Worksheet (GWT-PW)


1. Interpreters Names: Natalie Kretlow and Julius Freeland
2. Agency & Audience
a. Name of the Agency: Diocese of Marquette
b. Mission of the Agency: Founded in 1857, we the Catholic Church of the
Diocese of Marquette, encompassing the whole Upper Peninsula of Michigan, led
by our Bishop, share in the universal mission of Jesus Christ to bring about the
kingdom of God for all people. As a Eucharistic community, we respond to our call
to holiness by loving God, our neighbor and self through worship and service. We
seek to witness our shared Faith as expressed in the Scriptural foundations of
peace, justice and compassion. As the Church of Marquette, we prayerfully
commit ourselves to the challenge of the prophet Micah 6:8. "(This is) what The
Lord requires of you: only to do the right and to love goodness, and to walk humbly
with your God."
c. Description of Audience: Northern Michigan Students, specifically ORLM majors
and minors
3. Organization of GWT
a. Topic People have been burying the dead since the dawn of man.
b. Sub-Topic Burial of the culture in Marquette, Michigan
c. Focus: Heritage/Historical/Cultural mostly, with a mention of the natural environment
d. Theme: Different cultures around Marquette buried the dead in different ways.

a. Explain how the topic and theme relate to the specific location of the GWT: The
location of Holy Cross Cemetery presents the most relatable cultural way to bury the
dead, which relates to the theme of burial of the culture in Marquette, Michigan.
Tangibles: tombstone, ground, grass, cross, buried people, fenced in
Intangibles: traditions, sacred, peace of mind class, social stature, respect, memories, history,
loved ones
Universal Concepts: death, fear, mystery, religion and spirituality, coping with death, will,
insurance, debt

e. Purpose of the GWT: The purpose of the guided walk and tour is to inform students
on the Holy Cross Cemetery and the different types of burial throughout cultures that
inhabit the Upper Peninsula.
f. Body of the GWT:
a. Staging Period
- location: Office of Holy Cross Cemetery
- materials needed: N/A
b. Introduction we will walk approximately 100 feet from the office. The
introduction will cover the agency represented (Roman Catholic Diocese of
Marquette), and cemetery etiquette for the tour. (Be respectful of others who may
be visiting by keeping noise to a minimum, avoiding foul language, and
roughhousing. Do not walk over or stand on headstones or burial positioning, but
walk between the headstones. Remain from taking photos or videos of other
guests or funeral ceremonies. Do not litter. No touching unless told otherwise)
A brief overview of the topics and stops coming up on the tour, will also be
shared within the introduction. (Traditional/Christian Burial, Native American
Traditions, Mausoleums and structure of the cemetery, and effects burial has on
the environment)
c. Stop 1 Back Plots/Older Gravestones, No materials needed
i.
Traditional/Christian Burial started over 100,00 years ago. The
consensus thought was burial started to get rid of decaying flesh.
ii.

Decorated with flowers and placed in the fetal position because it


was thought there was a link between birth and death.
Christians in the Middle Ages would bury the dead so the soul
would rise to heaven on Judgement Day. Mostly civilizations
throughout history bury the dead to comfort the living.
Cemetery is a location where two or more individuals with a
relationship in kinship, locale, or religion are interred.
The back plots were part of the original cemetery of Marquette
located on Pine and Division. These graves were transported to
Holy Cross.

iii.

Facts on tombstones and a moment of silence to get closer to the


graves.

iv.

Some cultures didnt put as much focus on the aesthetic appeal of


graves. The natives seemed to focus more on the funeral.

e. Stop 2 -- Flat Graves, No materials needed


i.
Native American and cost efficient burial traditions
ii.

The family would dress and prepare the body for the journey to the
afterlife. The community would dress the body in birch bark, which
protects the body from harm. Food and water are laid to rest with
the body to help the soul travel to the afterlife. The Ojibwe believe
that the soul embarks on a four-day journey to a special place after
dying, so the entire tribe supports the deceased by praying and
singing near the home and body.
The community stays together and does not leave because the
deceased might not want to travel to the other side alone.
Tobacco pipes are smoked and offered to the spirits to request
special care for the community member traveling to the spirit world.

f.

iii.

Native people used burial grounds sacred to their tribe and culture.
Now the Ojibwe use cemeteries as places to bury the dead.

iv.

Another way to bury the dead is in large concrete structures.

Stop 3 Mausoleum
i.
The Christian religion influenced the structure of the cemetery and
traditions commonly seen today.
ii.

Fences and Entryways- The purpose of fences was to define the


cemetery boundaries, as well as family plots, and to also keep
animals out of the area. Old historic cemeteries tend to have cast
iron fences with different shapes and designs, as well as elegant
roofed entrance ways to protect the pallbearers from the weather.
Mausoleum purpose/history- The Mausoleum of Halicarnassus was

the first recorded Mausoleum around 353 B.C.E.and is considered


one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. The first
Mausoleums were built to honor royalty or important figures in the
community. The Christian Mausoleums were much smaller in size
and built for a single person or family such as the ones at Holy
Cross Cemetery. The Mausoleums were built in the 1920s by
families who could afford them. Holy Cross also has a public
Mausoleum.
The Holy Cross Cemetery is a Catholic cemetery so only those of
the Catholic religion are buried here. There is a high Finnish
population in the Upper Peninsula. Many Scandinavians are
Lutheran or practice other branches of Catholicism, so another
cemetery was opened in Marquette across town in the 1890s.
Special guest, Neil Newcomb, Cemeteries Director may add some
interesting facts about the history or famous residents of the Holy
Cross Cemetery, as well as allow for an inside viewing of the
Vierling Mausoleum.
iii.

Showing of the Mausoleum is visual evidence that connects the


purpose behind the structure and architecture of the traditional
cemetery.

iv.

Though burial is a common way to bury the dead, it is the most


harmful to the environment.

d. Stop 4 Dead River Lookout Area- No materials needed


i.
Cemeteries are common because it is land designated for a safe
contained placement of a body, which is ironic due to the
environmental issues of a cemetery.
ii.

On average, a ten acre cemetery contains enough wood to build


forty homes, has about nine-hundred tons of steel, and twenty
thousand tons of vault concrete, granite, and marble, as well as
enough embalming fluid to fill a small pool.
Over time, the toxins in the body escape into earth, along with any
preservatives used by morticians. During the pre and post Civil War
era, it was common to use arsenic as a preservative solution used
for embalming the body in preparation for descent into the ground.

Arsenic is toxic and will not break down, so the arsenic seeps into
the ground and groundwater, contaminating the nearby water.
iii.

The potential environmental issues that can happen spike curiosity with
how close in proximity the Holy Cross Cemetery is to the Dead River,
which flows towards Lake Superior.

iv.

Available space and impact to the environment pose an issue so


cremation and other options are becoming more and more popular
because it is common to keep urns in the home or spread the
ashes.

g. Conclusion The office area where people parked to begin the tour
Ask what cultures were discussed throughout the guided walk and
tour. Based on audience's response any cultures forgotten will be
discussed. Finally, there will be room for final questioning.
g. Limitations: Weather is a potential limitation of interpreting this theme resource and
location. There are areas of shelter near all the stops on the tour, so the participants will
be able to take cover during inclement weather.
An individual might be uncomfortable being present at a cemetery location which could
potentially distract an individual from enjoying the tour. If many people are
uncomfortable being at the location, that could be difficult for the interpreter to share an
enjoyable experience with the audience.
4. Objectives
a. For you as the interpreter
To have smooth transitions between each stop during the guided walk and tour. -N
To speak with confidence by not using notecards, so I can make eye contact with the
audience during the guided walk and tour. -N
To maintain eye contact the majority of the time I speak. -J
To allow the audience to feel welcome to questioning by speaking in an uplifting tone.-J
b. For your audience
Eighty percent of the audience will be able to identify three different cultures and
how they buried their dead by the end of our interpretive talk.
One hundred percent of the audience will smile at least one time during the
interpretive talk.
5. Accuracy - References
a. Topic references

Harris, M. (2013, June 1). Arsenic Contamination in Graveyards: How the Dead Are
Hurting the Environment. Retrieved November 16, 2015, from
http://www.utne.com/environment/arsenic-contamination-ze0z1306zpit.aspx
(Website: Reprinted with permission from Grave Matters: A Journey Through the
Modern Funeral Industry to a Natural Way of Burial by Mark Harris and published by
Scribner, 2008.)
Hite, G. (1999, June 23). Fences Define Historic Cemeteries. Retrieved November 4, 2015,
from http://www.gravehunter.net/fences.htm
Johnson, A. (2006). Diocese of Marquette: Who we are (J. Fee, Ed.). Retrieved November 4,
2015, from http://www.dioceseofmarquette.org/cemeteries
MacIsaac, T. (2014, May 23). Why and How Different Cultures Bury the Dead. Retrieved
November 4, 2015, from http://www.ancient-origins.net/myths-legends/why-and-how-differentcultures-bury-dead-001717
Meier Ph.D., K. (n.d.). Ojibwe Funeral Traditions. Retrieved November 17, 2015, from
http://classroom.synonym.com/ojibwe-funeral-traditions-6115.html
Neighbors, J. (2011, August 26). Mausoleums, Crypts, and Tombs (Oh My!). Retrieved
November 17, 2015, from http://agraveinterest.blogspot.com/2011/08/mausoleums-crypts-andtombs-oh-my.html
Newcomb, N. (2015, November 17). Holy Cross Cemetery Marquette, MI [Telephone interview].

b. Interpretive process references


Brochu, L. & Merriam, T. (2008). Personal Interpretation. NAI: Singapore.
Ham, S. (2013). Making a difference on purpose. Fulcrum Publishing: Golden, CO.
Tilden, F. (1957).Interpreting our Heritage. UNC Press: NC.

6. Risk/Safety Assessment Worksheet

Risk to Audience

Location and
Risk

Assessment

How to avoid/reduce risk

Can this
be
done?

Slippery
trail/ground
when wet

Not a real danger to able


bodied participants

Reroute foot traffic if


necessary

Yes

Will be a challenge to
some mobility impaired
participants

Some
participants may
not feel
comfortable
entering a
cemetery due to
religion,
personal beliefs,
etc.

Let participants know prior to


the start of the guided walk,
No real threat present, but
the group will enter the
personal opinions and
cemetery and if anyone has
beliefs should be
issues with being in a
Yes
accounted for and
cemetery challenge by
accepted
choice will be accepted and
is encouraged to sneak out
of the tour at any time

Risk to Site/Resources

Location and
Risk

Assessment

Cemetery is a
sacred place, so Other people may be
participants
present visiting so minding
should be
manners is important
respectful to the
deceased

How to avoid/reduce risk

Remind guests to be
respectful and not to tamper
with any of the artifacts in
the cemetery at the
beginning of the tour

Can this
be
done?

Yes

Old artifacts and


Damage to artifacts could
mausoleum
present at Holy happen due to age if
Cross Cemetery touched or tampered with

Program introduction will


emphasize look but do not
touch, and participants will
not be close enough to the
elements

7. Steps in Planning
RE 381 Interpretation I: Foundations & Guided Services (F15)

Yes

Steps in Planning Worksheet


The Steps

Your Ideas

Select a topic

People have been burying the dead since the dawn of


time.

Select a sub-topic

Write theme
statement

Research the

Burial of the Marquette, Michigan culture.

Different cultures of Marquette buried the dead in different


ways.

See 5. Accuracy and References listed above

Theme

Identify the
Audience

ORLM students, identified as classmates and teacher.

Brainstorm
interpretive options

Audience questioning, light humor, Spontaneous


Interpretation, Demonstration could be a possibility depending on
cemetery policy

Develop
interpretive program

(Read relevant readings, class notes, etc. Start filling in


the GWT Planning Worksheet)