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Deaf Students:

A Teachers
Beyond Words: Reaching out to the
Hearing Impaired

Alicia Marinis 0489102

Carly Marton 0474784
Bradley Maxwell 0487872
Alexia Roy 0472423

Table of Contents


Deaf Culture

Types of Deafness

Case Studies

Identification of Death Children


Put Yourself in their Shoes

Personal Experience Stories

Classroom Issues to Look Out for


Activity (myth and facts)

Identifying Deaf Children: Knowing
the Signs


In-Class Discussion and Workshops
Support & Outreach Programs

Dealing with Deaf Students & Bullies:

How to approach different


Proper Accommodations

Deafness is a disorder affecting
the ability to hear. It is either a partial or
complete hearing loss. The National
Association of the Deaf (NAD) defines
deafness as the "audio logical condition
of not hearing." The NAD includes
people with very limited hearing who
cannot rely upon it for comfortable
Levels of hearing impairment vary
from a mold to a total loss of hearing to
the point where the person is unable to
understand speech even in the
presence of amplification. Hearing loss
exist when there is reduced sensitivity to
the sounds normally heard. The severity
of a hearing loss is classified according
to the increase in volume above the
usual level necessary before the listener
can detect it.
Deaf students communicate using
sign language, lip reading, written
language or any combination of these
methods depending on their own
unique abilities and preferences.

Deafness can be caused by:

Heredity - genetic links have
been found in the Human
Genome Mapping Project;
Severe illness in childhood
such as rubella (German
measles) or spinal meningitis;
Prenatal maternal illnesses;
Exposure to long-term loud
noise or exposure to sudden
extreme noise;
Preventable prenatal
substance abuse;
Physical injury or damage to
the brain, the head, or the
Age-related hearing loss.
The most common causes
of hearing loss in children
and elderly adults are
simply by environmental
factors such as noise or
drugs, age, physical
trauma or medications.
Deafness can also result
from inherited disorders.


Identifying & Defining

between different
deaf - (with a little d) usually have
a hearing impairment, which
range from mild to severely deaf
but not usually profoundly deaf.
This statement is meant generally
and does not mean to say that
profoundly deaf people wont
identify themselves as deaf.
People who identify themselves as
deaf can usually communicate
verbally, live, work and socialize in
the hearing world. They will usually
state that spoken English is their
first language as opposed to sign
language, for example British Sign
Language (BSL). People who
identify as being deaf may know
sign language and may use BSL,
but generally as a complimentary
communication. They may also
know of the deaf world and
socialize within the deaf world,
but will usually see themselves, first
and foremost, as somebody who
is not culturally or politically deaf.

Deaf - (with a big D) usually have

severe to profound deafness, but
not exclusively. People who
identify themselves, as Deaf may
not wear hearing aids or
cochlear implant through choice
and / or for political reasons.
People who identify themselves,
as Deaf will usually state that their
first language is BSL as opposed
to spoken and written English.
People who identify themselves
as Deaf may use spoken English,
for example with their hearing
family, at work and during their
day to day lives, but they would
usually prefer to communicate
via BSL and usually have a
reliance on communicating via
BSL. More often than not, Deaf
people will have communicated
via BSL for the majority of their
lives. Deaf people will identify
with Deaf culture, Deaf identity
and Deaf politics.

Identifying & Defining Deafness: differentiating

between different terminologies (Continued)

Types of Deafness

Hard of Hearing - the term hard of hearing is more likely

to be used by people with a less than severe hearing
loss and / or people who have acquired deafness
in adulthood rather than by those who have
grown up deaf. By contrast, those who identify
with the Deaf culture movement typically reject
the label impaired and other labels that imply
that deafness is a pathological condition, viewing
it instead with a sense of pride. Although people
who identify as hard of hearing may usually be less
than severely deaf, a person whose hearing loss ranges
from mild to profound, and whose usual means of
communication is speech, may still identify themselves as hard of hearing. It is both a
medical and a sociological term.
Hearing impaired - this term is not acceptable in referring to people with a hearing loss.
"Hearing impairment" is a medical condition It is not a collective noun for people who
have varying degrees of hearing loss. It also fails to recognize the differences between the
Deaf, deaf, hard of hearing, deafened and other terminologies used as a way to identify
with. It is very rare for people to say they are hearing impaired, but nonetheless, this term
has been used.
Oral deaf this term is for a deaf person whose preferred method of communication is
verbal. An oral deaf person who can both sign and speak can be considered "Deaf" if
he/she is accepted as such by other Deaf persons and uses sign within the Deaf
community. However, it is their right to choose how they identify themselves as; oral Deaf or
oral deaf. Being accepted in the Deaf world is confirmation that you are a member of the
community; however, it does not take away the right to identify as being Deaf.
Deafened - Deafened" usually refers to a person who becomes deaf as an adult and,
therefore, faces different challenges than those of a person who became deaf at birth or
as a child. Often older people who lose some, or most, of their hearing due to age may use
this term.
Deafmute is an unacceptable term to use. A deaf person may choose not to use his/her
voice but this does not make him/her a "mute". Deafmute is not a term a person who lives
with deafness will identify with. It is a label given to them by people who do not live with
deafness. Often people use this term to purposely offend. Older generations may use this
term as it was acceptable in society when they were younger, but nonetheless, people
living with deafness themselves does not accept it.
deaf and dumb - this term is extremely offensive. It is a term sometimes used by older
people or in the medical field to describe a person who is deaf and unable to
communicate verbally. It is not acceptable to use.

Identifying & Defining Deafness: differentiating

between different terminologies (Continued)
An infant or young child can
experience hearing loss for different
reasons. For instance, the most
prevalent temporary impairment in a
childs ability to hear occurs due to an
accumulation of fluid in the ear canal
during a common cold or ear infection.
However, youth with permanent
damage or genetic hearing loss will
need to be diagnosed as soon as
possible by their primary care giver.
Signs and Symptoms of Hearing Loss
Signs of partial deafness can be easier to spot at
home where the typical background noise of a
classroom environment does not interfere with
normal hearing. Nevertheless, when any of the
following signs are repeatedly noticed, one should
alert daycare providers or teachers that there may
be an undiagnosed hearing problem:

Tilting head when trying to listen

Trouble holding head steady or slow to
Difficulty hearing some sounds but not others
(hearing loss at different pitches or in only
one ear)
Not startled by sudden loud noises
Not responding when called
Presence of others not acknowledged until
within sight range
Delayed, garbled speech
Speech limited to vibrating noises that can
be felt, rather than a single word or syllable
Asks for instructions to be repeated often
Prefers to work alone, withdrawn behavior
Looking at lips when listening to others
Frustration and acting out

Hearing Impairment Types and

Conductive hearing loss is caused
by a physical abnormality of the
outer ear canal, middle ear, or
trapped fluid.
Sensorineural hearing loss is an
abnormality in the inner ear or in the
nerves that carry signals from the
ear to the brain. Treatments for
each type are different and vary in
effectiveness but could include
surgery in the former case (for fluid
removal or tube implantation) or
hearing aids and cochlear implants
in the latter.
Speech therapy could also be
considered for a child who is hard of
hearing. Children with partial
deafness can learn to speak, but
many will not be able to
communicate clearly. The important
thing for all children with hearing loss
is to be able to communicate. Sign
language is most likely to be a
primary form of communication that
children and caregivers will need to
Chances are, children who are hard of
hearing will grow to become
productive, content members of society.
To help them achieve this goal, parents,
daycare providers, and teachers must
identify hearing problems early by
paying close attention to symptoms of
hearing loss in the youth they care for.
Early intervention is the key to providing
hard of hearing children with the help
and developmental support they require
for success.




Put children in pairs or small groups.
Photocopy the cartoon resource
sheet and ask children to write in the
speech bubbles what they think the
children in the pictures are saying or
A variation on this is to ask children
to write down emotions on post-it
notes (happy, sad, angry, etc.) and
stick them on paper, then discuss with
the rest of the group why they thought
these words were appropriate.
You can ask the children to act out
the scene in the picture. Encourage
them to think about how the deaf
children and the hearing children are
playing together, and communicating
with each other in the pictures. Then
discuss with the class what was
happening in the scene, and how the
different characters might have felt.
After any of these activities, get children to make a list of rules for good
communication with their deaf peers. These rules should include the
playground and school activities outside of the classroom as well as inside
the classroom.

Key objectives:
Get children to think about how their
deaf peers might feel in certain situations
Have children talk about the emotions
that other children might feel if they are left
out of group activities.
Encourage children to think about the
effects of good and poor communication,
and to encourage good communication
throughout the whole of school life.


Cartoon sheet
Large paper
Post-it notes


Myth Busters:
Deconstructing the Myths about Deaf and Hard of Hearing

Myth Vs. Fact

All Deaf people can
read lips.

People who are Deaf are

deaf and dumb

Deaf people are less


Deaf people cant use

the phone.

There is absolutely no correlation

between the physical production
of speech and intelligence.

Some Deaf speak very well and

clearly; others choose not to use
their voice if they think that they
are difficult to understand or
have problems gauging their
pitch or volume

Special telecommunication aids

(teletypewriter / videophones and ring
signalers) have been developed for deaf

Hearing aids amplify sound, but

do not correct hearing.
People who have unusual
sounding speech are
mentally retarded.

Many deaf people benefit

considerably from hearing aids.

All deaf people use sign


Deaf people cannot

appreciate the arts because
they can't hear music, movies,

Most deaf individuals occupy

their time just like hearing
people. They go to work, marry
and raise families, drive cars, use
the phone, go shopping and
pay taxes.

Classroom Issues to Look Out For

Support strategies
The following suggestions may help
teachers overcome some of the
difficulties hearing impaired children
typically experience in the classroom
1. Make sure hearing impaired
students are attending class regularly

~Visual supplements~

2. Educate other children

regarding deaf, hearing-

1. Ensure good lighting on

impairment and

your face. The glare of

strong lighting (such as a
window) behind the
speaker makes lip reading difficult.
2. Speak clearly but naturally;
exaggeration or shouting make it
more difficult for the student to
understand speech.
3. Dont talk while your back is turned
to the child ie: writing on the chalk or
white board.
4. Try to use as many visual aids as
- Try not to let a book cover your
face when reading aloud to the
5. Give written summaries of lessons.
6. Give written preview of lesson,
pre-teach new vocabulary
7. Intersperse less and more
demanding work as the cognitive
load for a hearing impaired child is
greater given the language


1. Seat the hearing impaired student close
to the teacher for the best sound reception
and visual information. However, dont
restrict them to only one location. Allow the
student to move to a better listening
position if they wish.
2. Check if the student has a clear view of
the whole class for
participation in-group
activities if possible.
3. Seat the student
away from noisy areas.


1. Finding it increasingly
difficult to hear someone
else in a conversation or
if there is a source of
background noise.

2. Some sounds at higher

pitch may become
more difficult to hear
including: f as in fluff, k
as in kick, p as in cape,
s as in steam, sh as in
push, and t as in take.

4. Increasing amount
of concentration
needed to hold a

3. Thinking that people are

always mumbling and
complaining about it.

5. Constantly asking
someone to repeat

6. High television
If these signs were noticed, a doctor should be consulted. The doctor will do a few
simple tests to determine if the patient should see an audiologist for further assistance.

To deal with deaf students, some

I. Avoiding visual distractions Anything hanging in

basic tactics can aid you in teaching
your classroom that is eye catching or
deaf students effectively. To
entertaining past the point of educational gain. If
understand these, you must
they take the attention of the students, they are
remember and think like a student.
being counterproductive to your teaching. They
You must understand their needs and
can also confuse students when asked a
imperfections when it comes to your
question; they can try to use the educational
ability to pay attention at a level you
pictures as a crutch to assist them. This crutch will
may wish for them. You must act in a
either not be there and distract them, or be there
way that is respectful to them while
and they will not learn it on their own.
also aiding them in the most creative
II. Positioning yourself properly Walking around
and effective way possible.
the classroom will deter deaf students as well as
normal students from learning because while
paying attention to what you say, they also need to follow you around with their eyes, taking
away from their ability to understand. Standing face to face with the classroom is the best
strategy, while also keeping a safe distance.
III. Making yourself clear Do not shout at the students to get your point across, it can ruin your
tone and pronunciation, while demoralizing them. Just because they dont need to be yelled
at, does not mean that you can mumble to get your point across either. This only shows your
own weakness and hinders their ability to hear you. Along with these strategies, maintain a
happy medium with your vocal speed, speaking too fast or too slow is a bad thing.
IV. Getting attention To get attention of deaf students, remember the aforementioned advice
of not yelling, it is disrespectful. Instead, try to tap the child on the shoulder, or if they are
looking at you, give them a subtle wave.
V. What to do in group situations - Chatter amongst the group is very distracting to deaf students
as they are less likely to participate and cannot focus on the task at hand. Even when the
group is discussing relevant information to the lesson, if more than one person is speaking, it
can be very difficult to listen and absorb it all. To solve this, get the class to take turns
speaking. Above all, keep patient, as lip reading can be difficult and tiring.

Dealing with Bullies

Bullies are everywhere.

It is an unfortunate fact,
many children, before
they figure out right
and wrong, they bully
others without knowing
it is wrong. However
there are others, the
ones who are mean to
people for a reason
they may not even fully

Being a teacher, you can notice bullying

first hand in the classroom, if this is noticed
understand. Many
or even reported to you by a parent
times they get away
because the bullying has occurred
with this bullying for no elsewhere, you should alert the principal.
good reason. It can
You and the principal can determine the
make the victim take
best course of action in the punishment
many different paths
of the bully, the prevention of further
along the road of
bullying and the healing of the victim.
coping with their pain. Every school system has different policies
Many of these paths
for dealing with bullying, for direct
are self-destructive and
solutions; contact your district school
dangerous. The victims
board. There are policies school boards
can experience
have for dealing with bullying which
anything from lack of
self-esteem to suicidal
should fall under links to multiculturalism,
anti-discrimination, anti-violence, and
school codes of conduct. Police are also
starting to become involved with bullying
especially when it comes to cyberbullying

Approaching situations with parents of the deaf

Grades: When children are deaf,

the need for extra help is there.
They are not incapable of doing
things themselves but a push in the
right direction and some sympathy now and
again goes a long way. When talking to the
parents, strategies should be assembled to
meet the childs exact needs based on severity
of the deafness and ability to deal with things
on their own. When talking to the parents, you
should stay away from words that could be
offensive or demeaning to the child. It is disrespectful and can cause issues with the
parents. You should explain how you are trying to help and ask them what they think
should be done, you do not necessarily need to act on that but they may have good
suggestions for their own child.

Bullying: Ultimately the protection of a child from bullying is no single persons

responsibility, but everyones together. If the teacher and parents work together
with the child, and the childs peers, bullying can be deterred if not eradicated.
What you see in the classroom as well as what the parents know from anecdotes
of the child. When both parties talk, a constructive bond can be formed.
The future: The student may just be a child now, but they should always be
preparing for the future. A deaf person will most likely need additional help as an
adult on his or her own in the world. You and the parents should discuss this in an
age appropriate way, when they are younger more importance should be on
learning essentials. As they get older, the focus should turn to jobs, security and

Talking to parents of deaf children can be difficult. There

are certain things that come up when talking to them,
these include (but are not limited to): grades, bullying
and the students future.

Accommodations for
the deaf
Interpreters: A deaf interpreter (DI) is someone who can
be a middle-man between a deaf person with ASL and a
hearing person who does not understand ASL. They can
take what one is trying to say and tell the other in their own
language that they understand. These people make it
possible to cross the language barrier between two people
who would normally be unable to communicate with each

Note-takers: These are people at any level of schooling

where the hearing students will take notes for deaf students
to aid them in their own academics when the instructor
cannot express the information to a deaf student.

Visual warning systems: When an emergency happens in a

chemistry lab for example, auditory cues go off such as fire
alarms or someone telling others that something is a
danger to the group. For a deaf person, being unable to
hear the important auditory queues can cost a life. If visual
cues were also implemented, such as things that light up
during a fire alarm, in a way that makes the deaf person
notice in a similar amount of time, they can be saved.

Real time captioning: This is a way for deaf people to enjoy

lessons or entertainment methods. In movie theatres, real
time captioning provides a way for the deaf audience to
enjoy the movie by allowing them to read what the actors
are saying in sync with the visual portion of the movie. If this
is incorporated into the classroom where a deaf student is
a part of the class, the teacher could prepare a lesson with
real time captioning for the deaf student to match any
diagrams in which the teacher may create as a teaching


Deaf Culture
Deaf culture refers to the history, values, art,
behaviors, social believes and traditions
within the communities of those affected
by deafness while communicating in sign
language. The community is made up of
family members who are deaf and anyone
else who identifies themselves as a member
of the deaf community.
There are many characteristics of deaf culture.
Members of the deaf cultures communicate
using sign language. In the world, there are
over 200 distinct sign languages. All though
both Canada and the United Kingdom speak
English, their sign language is much different.
Members of the deaf culture have values and
beliefs that make them who they are. They
believe that being deaf is not a disability and is
not a condition that needs to be fixed. Many members are opposed to
innovations that may extinct the deaf culture, for example cochlear implants. They
strongly oppose discriminating against deaf people and they value their group and
tend to be collectivists rather than individualist. Deaf people have behavioral
norms in order to supplement their inability to speak. Some of these include getting
attention by walking through signed conversations, informing others on information
going on in their environment and being more direct with one another. Technology
is an important factor in deaf culture. Many members rely on teletype (TTY); a form
of communication over a telephone line, closed captioning films and television
shows, alert systems that appeal to all senses and many more. Literary traditions
and arts are also a very important characteristic in the deaf culture. There are
many famous poets and storytellers who are deaf, and culturally members of the
deaf culture represent themselves as dominant in written languages of their
nations. They also dominate in the arts. The Deaf Professional Arts network is an
organization that promotes the development through entertainment, visual and
media arts for the deaf and hard of hearing.

Real Life Victim of Hearing-Impairment

Mavis, a female college student
Mavis had grown up hating her
own mother for not teaching her
speech at a young age. Growing up
she felt silly all the time, not knowing
how to speak. She said that she
would weep herself to sleep once
or twice a week because of it.
Mavis has learned that she can
still socialize by writing and miming. She says when we can
communicate with others that she feels like a free bird. Mavis also
thinks that many other children get upset at their parents for not
teaching them speech or sign at an early age because they want to
When it comes to cochlear implants, Mavis believes that it is an
individuals own case as to whether or not they want the implant.
She also believes however that the implant isnt perfect but allows a
user of it to experience both the deaf and hearing world equally,
giving them a broad sense of the world in all of its beauty.
Mavis used hearing aids to hear the world when she was young.
She enjoyed it very much but as she got older, deterred herself from
using one, considering it as just extra weight on her ears. She thinks
they are useful and taught her many things, but now that she knows
many sounds, she no longer requires the aid. php

Baby Monitors for Deaf Parents

- An auditory issue
Babies cry. It's how they
communicate hunger, pain, fear,
and much more. They can feel too
cold or too hot, they maybe need
diaper changed, they need to
burp or they may just feel like
crying. Childrens safety is one of
most important things for parents.
While most of us can simply hear
them when they awake in their
cribs at night, deaf people
cannot. No mistake - deaf people
don't differ in any way in raising
their child from other parents they can soothe their babies in the
same caring way!
When hearing parents have children, they buy a baby monitor to be able
to hear what they do during the night. When something goes wrong, these
can beep or make some tune to alert you of an issue. For deaf parents, this
can be frightening because they cannot hear the alarm and would have to
rely on parental instinct to be able to care for their child better at night.
However the technology now exists to have other physical signals as well.
These different types of physical signals include: vibrating alarm and/or a
flashing light system is the way to go. These added features alert the deaf
parent every time the baby is in need of attention. Some baby monitors even
also have LCD screens that allow you to literally look over your baby. This is
especially valuable to deaf parents since what they lack in hearing, they can
make up for in visual observation.


Education Rights for Deaf Children


The World Federation of the Deaf calls upon regional and provincial governments to:
Create guidelines that involve the identification and intervention of deaf children to
maximize their visual abilities.
Legalize sign language for deaf people of all ages.
Provide resources for an effective development program for teaching sign
language and deaf studies to:
o Families and teachers of deaf children
o Professionals for deaf children
o Any other interested parties
Provide training for deaf people to become educational professionals.
Deaf children have the same right to quality education as do hearing children. They have
the right to expect that their needs and educational rights are supported. Deaf children
are born with the same educational capacity as hearing children. With the help of
appropriate visual and quality education programs, deaf children can reach their full
The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, states that states must take the
appropriate measures for facilitating the learning of sign language and the promotion of
linguistic identity of the deaf community. The education of deaf persons must be in an
environment that maximizes academic success. Regardless of a persons disability
everyone has a right to a meaningful education.
Current research on education development, language acquisition and deaf children:
Deaf children tend to learn better through visual aids and tend to depend on sign

The brain from ages 0-3 years old tends to

weaken around 30% without the stimulation.
This may be due to insufficient family and
community support.
Deaf children of deaf adults normally have a
head start in language acquisition and do well
later in life as a citizen in society.
Early speech development will not guarantee
language and literacy skills
Many deaf children are in school programs
that do not met their educational needs. These
programs are detrimental to their educational

development, self-esteem and general well-being.

Brads Personal Story

Alicias Personal Story

Growing up my mother ran a

daycare in our home and I got

A girl I used

to meet several different

to go to

children. One week, she had to

school with

babysit a deaf child and I got

began to

to experience how she

communicated and interacted
with those around her. To talk to
my mom she would fingerspell

lose her
when she was 18 years old. She

the letters one by one. She had

had a childhood illness that

poor grammar and her hand

made her begin to lose her

writing was not very good but

hearing. She had a difficult time

through fingerspelling small

coping with the outcomes of the

words, my mother could

understand her needs. I did
some research and learned
some sign language so that she

illness but she stayed strong and

showed a great deal of
confidence. Even though I did

would feel more welcome in

not know her very well, she came

our home. You could tell by her

off as someone who was not

expressions how happy she was

afraid of what the future held

that she could communicate in

and accepting that become a

her dominant language.

member of the hard of hearing

community would not destroy her

+ Activities
Have students take a piece of paper and tell them to crumple it up, stamp on it and really mess it
up but do not rip it. Then, have them unfold the paper, smooth it out and look at how scarred and
dirty it is. Tell them to tell the paper that they are sorry. Even though they say sorry and try to fix the
paper, point out all the scars that are left behind. Explain that those scars will never go away no
matter how hard they try to fix it. That is what happens when a student bullies another student; they
may say they are sorry but the scars are there forever.

There are many ways you can incorporate fun activities in the classroom
to assist younger children to develop both English skills as well as ASL skills.

Developing English:
A fun way to develop a deaf childs
English is to play a simple matching
game. To teach children the ASL
alphabet and numbers, create cards
with pictures of signs on them and then
have children match the sign with the
English letters. Another method would
be to create another set of cards with
pictures of animals that start with those
letters, and have children match the
finger-spelling cards with the animal
cards starting with that letter. If you
prefer to buy a pre-made game, Finger
Alphabet Lotto is a board game with
matching for young children learning to

For ASL Practice:

If you have ever played Telephone as a
child, you know how it works. The first
person makes a message and it is
passed around the circle by whisper until
it reaches the end and they announce
what they heard to the group. Often
times this message becomes distorted
and becomes entertaining! To play signlanguage telephone, players sit in a
circle or in a line and then finger-spell
words to one another instead of
whispering. They must hide what they
are spelling from people farther down
the line.


There are many scholarships available for students who are deaf or hearing impaired and
as teachers it is critical that you inform your students on the benefits of applying for these
scholarships. Some scholarships are directed to certain groups of students while others
are directed to all students. As a teacher it is important that you learn about the different
opportunities available for your students and teach them accordingly.
Below is a list of popular scholarships for the deaf and hearing impaired students.

Acadia Chapter Bursary Fund

This scholarship is awarded to
students who are visually
impaired, blind, hearing impaired,
deaf or deaf-blind.
For more information check out the

Alliance for the Equality of Blind

Canadian Scholarship Program
This scholarship is awarded to blind,
partially sighted or deaf-blind Canadians
who plan on pursuing a post-secondary
education. The student must also have
experience with barriers in life that have
contributed to making the applicant who
they are today.

The Canadian Hard of Hearing

Association Scholarship Program
This scholarship is awarded to students
who are either hard of hearing,

For more information check out the


deafened or oral deaf

For more information check out the

Inter-provincial School
Development Association
This scholarship is awarded to students from
Atlantic Canada who is deaf or hard of
For more information check out the website:

In-class workshops for with teachers with student

Activity 1:
Cooperative Treasure Hunt
Targeted Social Skills:
Initiating social interactions
Asking for help
Asking for clarification from peers
Negotiating with peers
Setting: This lesson can be set up inside the classroom, in several classrooms, or outside
Index cards, containing clues
A treasure box, containing small prizes for all of the students
Lesson Description: Before beginning the activity, the teacher will hide a series of clues.
Each clue will lead to the next clue, and all will be numbered. The teacher will write out clue
cards to give to each student, leading them each to different clues. The teacher will give
each student a card, and they will set out in search of clues. The students will soon realize
that in order to figure out the clues, they will have to work together. Once the students find
all of the clues, they must work together to organize them, and then they will be able to
figure out where the treasure is hidden.
1. The teacher explains that the students are going on a treasure hunt.
2. The teacher hands each student a card, containing a clue. The teacher gives no
further instructions.
3. The students go off in different directions, searching for clues.
4. The students realize that the clues are out of order. If they ask the teacher for help,
she will encourage them to think of a way to solve their problem.
5. If the students continue to have trouble, the teacher asks everyone to stop. She
gathers the students together and states the problem. She encourages the students to
work together to solve the problem. The teacher offers very little guidance.
6. If the students continue to struggle, the teacher will offer one suggestion at a time,
such as, Maybe you could find a way to put all of your clues together.
7. The students arrange the clues by number to determine which clues are missing. The
students find the missing clues.
8. The students assemble all of the clues to determine the location of the treasure.
9. The teacher will end the lesson by allowing the students to enjoy the treasure. She
will offer encouragement for how well the students worked together to find the

In-class workshops for with teachers with student

Activity 2:
Catch a Smile
Targeted Social Skills:
Recognizing others emotions
Appropriately expressing emotions
Responding appropriately to others emotions
Setting: Inside, in an area big enough for the students to sit in a circle
Lesson Description: The students will take turns catching and tossing a smile to the other
students. The students have to remove the smile when they toss it, and if they keep smiling,
must stand up. Since smiling is contagious, the entire group will soon be well
1. The teacher explains the activity. The teacher explains that everyone must try to
maintain a serious expression throughout the game. The teacher smiles, then wipes
the smile off of her face into her hand, and tosses it to a student in the circle. She tells
the student that he or she must wear the smile, then wipe it off and toss it to another
student. She explains that if they continue to smile when it is not their turn, they will
be out of the game, and they must stand up.
2. The play begins and the teacher reminds the students to catch and toss the smile.
3. As the students begin to stand up, the teacher offers reminders: Dont smile!
4. Once everyone is standing, the teacher discusses the activity.
T: It is hard not to smile when someone is smiling at you, isnt it? People say that
smiles are contagious. That means that when you see a smile, you want to smile
back! Thats a good thing. It would not be very nice to frown at someone if they
smiled at you, would it? Try smiling at someone today, and see if they smile back
at you. It is fun to catch a smile!


Movie and Book Section

There are many books and movies
that focus on the same issues many
of the deaf and hearing-impaired
students you will encounter face
every day. It is important that you
educate yourself, and understand
what your students may be going

I'm Deaf and It's Okay

Lorraine Aseltine
This book is about a young boy who
explains his frustrations caused by his
deafness and the reassurance he gets
from a deaf teenager.

Improving Practices for Students with

Hearing Impairments
By Susan Easterbrooks
This journal article summarizes efforts
made by the federal government in
order to address students with hearing
impairments. This review offers
statistics, ways of communication,
technology and ways to approach
these challenges.

Here is a list of some great movies

and books that will help you as a
teacher understand the general
concepts the deaf and hearingimpaired community go through
every day. There are also books for
your students to read that will help
them better understand what they
may be going through.
Bridge to Silence
In this 1989 movie the conflicts
between a deaf daughter and a
hearing mother are demonstrated.

A Quiet World: Living with Hearing Loss

Professor David G. Myers

Moses Goes to School

Isaac Millman
This book is about a boy named Moses
who attends a public school for the
deaf. He and all of his friends
communicate in American Sign
Language, visual signs and facial
expressions. Isaac Millman shows
students through pictures and words
the life of a hearing impaired child.

In this books, David Myers, who has

suffered through hearing loss explores
the problems that the hard of hearing
face at home and at work and
provides general information on
technology and procedures available.

Sound and Fury

A documentary directed by Josh
Aronson about two brothers, one
deaf and one hearing and their
struggle to raise their families.

Alexander Graham Bell

Association for the Deaf and
Hard of Hearing (AG Bell)
The AG Bell provides support
for parents, professionals and
any other interested members
to learn about children with
hearing loss. They focus on the
use of technology, written and
spoken language and speech
Contact Information
Alexander Graham Bell
3417 Volta Place, NW
Washington, DC 20007
202-337-5220 (Voice)
202-337-5221 (TTY)

Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center at

Gallaudet University
The Laurent Clerc Center helps parents and

The Canadian Hard of Hearing Association

The CHHA is a non-profit organization for the
hard of hearing. Their mission is to raise
awareness of persons who are hard of
hearing, promote their integration into
Canadian societies, and help remove
obstacles to their participation.
Contact Information
Canadian Hard of Hearing Association
2415 Holly Lane, Suite 2005
Ottawa, Ontario K1V 7P2
613-526-1584 (Voice)
613-526-2692 (TTY)

professionals learn about the needs of children

who are hearing impaired. They provide
training, information and technical assistance.
Their mission is to improve the quality of
education given to those students that are hard
of hearing from birth to age 21 in the United
Contact Information
Gallaudet University
800 Florida Avenue, NE
Washington DC 20002-3695
202-651-5051 (Voice)
202-651-5052 (TTY)