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Freshman Oral English

Unit 6B
Class CEFR Level: A2-B1
Week 1, Lesson 2
Spring Semester 2016
Instructor: Sulamith M. Hfer

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Icebreaker: New Clothes (10 min.)


Students think about their favorite color, then find other students who like the
same color to form groups. In their groups they should talk about: Did you get
any new clothes this winter break? If yes, what did you get?

Review & Check-Up (5 min.)

Before Class write on the board:



Homework: Describe your roommate

Topic: The Bald Guy
Idiom: By a hair
Pronunciation: (Negative) Contractions
Function/Grammar: Describing People
English partners



Students will be able to describe clothes.

Intended Learning
Outcomes (ILOs)

Idiom: Hats off to someone or something (5 min.)

Fig. something you say when you want to express your admiration for someone,
congratulations to


properly pronounce reduced

words - and.
use descriptive words to describe
items of clothing.

Hats off to Perry for planning the dinner and finding such a good band.
Hats off to her - it takes a lot of courage to go traveling on your own at that age.

Pronunciation: Reduced Words and (25 min.)


Review important aspects of word stress, e.g. content words are stressed; function
words are unstressed. Provide an example dialog to demonstrate the importance
of correct stress for the understanding of what someone says.

Reduced Words
Reduction is a pronunciation pattern
found in all languages in which the
phonology, or sound pattern, of a given
phrase is changed and simplified.

Tell your students to listen to the dialogue. Many of the words are missing. Can
they guess what this is about? What is the problem with this dialog? Why is it
impossible to tell what this is about? Because it only contains function words.

Reduction is when a vowel in an

unstressed syllable is pronounced
//, //, or disappears completely.

A: _____ was your________?!

B: It was _______ ________ !!
A: ______? _______ did you ____?
B: Well on _________ I _______ all _________ and ____ had to _________ for an
________ all ___________. In the _______, I ______ to _______, to _________ my
_________ ___________ and_____ get ______ till _____ ________. Then on
________ I had ____ _______ in the __________ and _______ the ______ of the
________ doing _________, _________ my ______, and ______ _________. ________

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Rule 1: Function words are usually

reduced to allow the content words
(which carry most of the meaning) to
stand out. When function words are
reduced some sounds might be lost and

A: I had a ________ _________. I _____ _______ _______ and _________.

vowels are often changed to // or //.

Pronunciation of and
How to pronounce the word and
when its reduced?
and = /n/, /n/

Read the dialog again. What is it about? Why is it easier to understand this time?
Because it contains content words.

A: How _____ _______ weekend?

!B: ___ _____ really busy!!

A: Why? What ____ ___ do?!
B: ____ ___ Saturday ___ worked ___ morning ____ then ____ ___ study ___ ___
exam ___ afternoon. ___ ___ evening ____ went ___ dinner ___ celebrate ___
friends birthday ___ didnt ____ home ___ after midnight. ____ ____ Sunday ___
____ two meetings ___ ____ morning ____ spent ___ rest ____ ____ day ____
laundry, cleaning ___ room, ___ running errands. How ____ you?
A: ___ ___ ____ relaxing weekend. ___ just went home ____ chilled.!

Pronunciation: Reduced Words

Function: Descriptions of Clothing


Content Words (Stressed)
negative auxiliaries (i.e. cant)
!question words
!interjections (i.e. Hey!)

Friendship & Forgiveness

Reduced words to and for
Expressing Agreement, disagreement, &
partial agreement

Function Words (Unstressed)

auxiliary verbs

Describe your favorite outfit.

Go over the rules for reduced words. Provide examples.

Explain that reduction is important for a speaker to sound more natural and
native like.

Useful Websites

Rule 1 Illustration:
1. can
2. of
3. have
4. and
5. for
6. to

Usual (reduced)
/kn/ or /kn/
//!/v/ before a vowel
/v/, /v/ or //
/n/, /n/ or /n/

I can get it.
bowl of soup; some of it
He would have seen it.
salt and pepper/ sweet and sour
Whats for dinner?
The final score was 5 to 4.

This lessons emphasis will be on the word and

(see Pronunciation: Pronunciation of and left column)
P. 73
Read the example words from the chart and have students repeat after you. Give them a little time to practice, then have
them find three more examples.
milk n sugar
rich n famous
boys n girls
red, white and blue
bacon and eggs
cream and sugar
sit and read
up and down
here and there

tables n chairs
men n women
young n old
pen and paper
bread and butter
soup and salad
read and write
over and under
back and forth

big n little
black n white
here n there
breakfast, lunch and dinner
coffee and tea
spaghetti and meat balls
in and out
left and right
right and wrong

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jeans and a turtle neck

family and friends

a hat and a scarf

husband and wife

teacher and students

mother and father

Go over some of the vocabulary to describe clothing, p. 74. Then have students pair various items of clothing together,
using and and paying attention to the correct reduction. Have some students give examples for the whole class.


Story: The Emperors New Clothes (15 min)

A fairy tale by Hans Christian Anderson
Once upon a time there was an emperor who loved clothes more than anything else in the world.
One day two swindlers came to see the emperor. They pretended to be weavers who made the most beautiful cloth in the
world. And they said that their cloth had one amazing quality -- only an honest person could see it. A person who was a
fool couldn't see it. The emperor thought this over. "If I have a suit made of this cloth, I'll be able to know who is honest,
and who is a fool."
So he gave the weavers gold, enough for a new suit of clothes. In a few days, the emperor went to check on the weavers,
but he couldn't see any cloth.
"This is horrible. Maybe I'm a fool," he said to himself. So he pretended to see the cloth.
The emperor's assistants couldn't see anything either, but they also pretended to see the cloth. "Oh, it's wonderful,
One day, there was going to be a parade through the city. "The emperor's new suit of clothes is finished!" announced the
weavers. The weavers put the new suit of clothes on the emperor. The people all pretended to see it. No one wanted to
admit they were fools. Suddenly, a small child cried out, "But the emperor has no clothes on!"
The child was right. The people began to point and whisper. The emperor had learned his lesson. He knew the child was
right. Even though the emperor had no clothes, he still walked through the town, with his head held high, like a real, true
Discuss with the students:
1. What happens in the story?
2. What can you learn from the story?
Have students retell the story to their partners, while you monitor them. (Alternative: Retell the story together with your

Mini Lesson: Vocabulary Describing Clothes (10 min.)

Add more descriptive features to help students describe clothes. Explain the vocabulary.
Practice with PPT slides.

Partner Activity: Descriptions (Talk Time 1) (10 min.)

Have students turn to p. 75 in their books.

Tell them to work with their partner to describe the four people on top of the page.
Then have pairs play a game of I spy with my eye student A picks a classmate without telling student B and
describe the clothes. (Student B may not look at the one who describes students, to avoid seeing which student he or
she is looking at.) Student B guesses who student A is describing. They should take turns.
Finally, turn this into a guessing game for the whole class to play (and to give students examples of correct
descriptions correct mistakes if necessary).

Partner Activity: Descriptions (Talk Time 2 Find Me) (10 min.)

Students take a piece of paper and write a description of what they are wearing today. They may not write their names.
Collect papers, redistribute them and have students find the person who fits their description.
Repeat several times as time allows.

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