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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Chapter 1
Aircraft General

Table of Contents

Overview ............................................... 1-1

Publications .......................................... 1-1

Airplane Equipment ............................... 1-1

Airframe Structure ................................. 1-2


Fuselage ........................................... 1-3
Wings ............................................... 1-4
Empennage....................................... 1-6

Nose Section ........................................ 1-7

Pressurized Center Section .................... 1-9


Flight Compartment ......................... 1-12
Passenger Cabin ............................. 1-16
Cabin Door and Stair Assembly ....... 1-20
Cabin/Cargo Door ........................... 1-26

Emergency Exit Door ........................... 1-29


Hand-Held Fire Extinguishers ............ 1-30

Aft Fuselage Section ........................... 1-31

Limitations .......................................... 1-32

Emergency Procedures......................... 1-32


Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Overview

The Cessna Citation II is a high performance, twin-turbofan,


pressurized, eight to twelve place airplane certificated in accor-
dance with FAR Part 25 airworthiness standards. The standard
airplane is approved for operation in day, night, VFR, IFR, and
known icing conditions as defined by the FAA.

Publications

Cessna Aircraft Company publishes documentation providing


detailed airplane systems information and operating proce-
dures. This Technical Manual is not intended to supersede the
Operating Manual, FAA approved Airplane Flight Manual
(AFM), the Pilot’s Check List, and/or related publications spe-
cific to your airplane.

Airplane Equipment

Airplane systems and equipment provided by the manufacturer


as standard from the factory, as well as manufacturer installed
optional systems or equipment will be covered in this publica-
tion. Vendor supplied Supplemental Type Certificated (STC)
accessories or equipment will not be covered. This chapter
provides a general description of the airplane structure, acces-
sories, and equipment.

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Airframe Structure
The Cessna Citation II is a low-wing airplane of primarily
all-metal construction with retractable landing gear and
aft-mounted engines. The airframe is a conventional
semi-monocoque design of aluminum alloy with
composite structures used in specific areas. Flush RUDDER
riveting, fairings, and aerodynamic joint sealants are ELEVATOR
TRIM
FORWARD
SPAR
used where appropriate to minimize drag. RUDDER
TRIM

ELEVATOR
DORSAL
FIN

ENGINE
AILERON PYLON

ENGINE
SPEED BRAKE REAR
CARRY-THRU
SPAR
FLAP BEAMS

STRINGER

FRAME
AFT
PRESSURE
FLOOR PANEL/ BULKHEAD MAIN
RAIL ASSEMBLIES WHEEL WELL

AFT
SPAR
STRINGER AILERON
TRIM
NOSE
STATIC
WHEEL WELL WINDOW FRAME WING WICKS
CARRY-THRU
DOOR FRAME SPARS
RIB

FRONT
FORWARD SPAR
PRESSURE
BULKHEAD STRINGER
FRAME
LIGHTNING
STRIPS RADOME

Protection against electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio


frequency interference (RFI) is accomplished primarily by the
incorporation of bonding jumpers throughout the airframe. A
conductive finish applied to the inner surface of wing skin
panels provides additional protection against EMI and RFI.
Protection against lightning strikes and accumulation of static
electricity is accomplished by lightning strips installed on the
nose cap (radome), and by static wicks installed on the trailing
edges of the wings, flight control surfaces, and tailcone stinger.

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Fuselage
The fuselage is an aluminum alloy, semi-monocoque structure
consisting of transverse frames and bulkheads, longitudinal
stringers, and external skin panels. The nose wheel well struc-
ture, integral to the fuselage, provides attachment points for the
nose gear assembly and related components. Frames and
fittings are also provided for the attachment of doors and win-
dows. Composite nose and tailcone fairings provide aerody-
namic smoothness and access to avionics components. Carry-
thru spars pass laterally through the lower fuselage for attach-
ment of the wings. Carry-thru beams pass laterally through the
aft fuselage for attachment of the engines.

Chordwise ribs, spanwise stringers, and external skin panels


are fastened to the outboard front (main) and rear wing carry-
thru spars to form the stub wings. The interior of each stub wing
is sealed for fuel storage forward of the rear spar, between the
inboard and outboard ribs. The fuel storage area is chemically
treated and finished with an epoxy primer for corrosion resis-
tance. Aluminum alloy fairings provide aerodynamic smooth-
ness between the fuselage and stub wing, as well as access to
wire bundles and various air and fluid lines.

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Spanwise bulkheads, angles, and stringers; chordwise ribs,
and external skin panels are fastened to the outboard fore and
aft engine carry-thru beams to form the engine pylons. The
outboard ribs are constructed of stainless steel and sealed to
form a firewall and vapor barrier through which control cables,
wire bundles, and various air and fluid lines are routed to and
from the engines.

Access panels on the lower surface of the fuselage, stub


wings, and engine pylons facilitate inspection and mainte-
nance. Drain holes are provided on the lower surface of the
fuselage, stub wings, and pylons where fluids and/or moisture
collect. Drainage from unpressurized areas is continuous.
Drainage from pressurized areas is regulated by check valve
seals which are open only when the airplane is unpressurized.

Note: Moisture drain holes must be clear and free of obstruc-


tions for proper operation.

The nose section, pressurized center section, and aft section of


the fuselage are further described individually in this chapter.

Wings
The wings are aluminum alloy, semi-monocoque structures
consisting of front (main) and rear spars, spanwise stringers,
chordwise ribs, and external skin panels. The wings and stub
wings are mated and secured by threaded fasteners at attach-
ment points on the upper and lower front and rear spars. Main
wheel wells, integral to each wing structure, provide attachment
points for the main gear assemblies and related components.
The skin panel directly above each main wheel well consists of
a honeycomb core material bonded between aluminum skin
panels. The interior of each wing, excluding the main wheel
well, is sealed for fuel storage forward of the rear spar, between
the inboard and outboard ribs. The fuel storage area is chemi-
cally treated and finished with an epoxy primer for corrosion
resistance.

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The wing structures also provide attachment points for the


ailerons, flaps, speed brakes, and their associated actuators.
The ailerons and flaps are of aluminum alloy, semi-monocoque
construction incorporating spanwise spars, chordwise ribs, and
external skin panels. The speed brakes are of aluminum-
reinforced, magnesium alloy construction.

The outboard end of each wing is enclosed by a wing tip of


aluminum alloy, semi-monocoque construction incorporating
chordwise ribs, spanwise stringers, and external skin panels.
Wing tip fairings may be of aluminum alloy or composite con-
struction.

The inboard leading edge of each wing is formed by an electri-


cally-heated anti-ice panel. A Kevlar insulation shield provides
a thermal barrier between the heated leading edge panel and
the wing structure. Pneumatic deice boots are installed on the
outboard leading edge of each wing. Access panels on the
lower surface of the wings facilitate inspection and mainte-
nance of control surface actuators and fuel system
components.

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Empennage
The empennage is an aluminum alloy, semi-monocoque struc-
ture consisting of the vertical stabilizer, horizontal stabilizer,
and associated control surfaces. The vertical stabilizer is con-
structed primarily of fore and aft spars, chordwise ribs, and
external skin panels. The fore and aft spars are secured by
threaded fasteners to the fuselage structure. The horizontal
stabilizer is constructed primarily of fore and aft spars,
spanwise auxiliary spars, chordwise ribs, and external skin
panels. The fore and aft spars are secured by threaded fasten-
ers to the vertical stabilizer. Attachment points are provided for
the rudder, elevators, and their associated actuators. The
rudder and elevators are also constructed of spars, ribs, and
external skin panels.

A composite dorsal fin and saddle fairing provide aerodynamic


smoothness between the upper fuselage and the vertical stabi-
lizer. The emergency locator transmitter is housed within these
fairings. Vertical and horizontal stabilizer tip fairings (caps) may
be of aluminum alloy or composite construction.

Pneumatic deice boots are installed on the leading edge of the


vertical and horizontal stabilizers. Access panels facilitate
inspection and maintenance of control surface actuators and
some navigational components. The access panels located on
the vertical stabilizer directly below the horizontal stabilizer
consist of a honeycomb core material bonded between alumi-
num skin panels.

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Nose Section

The unpressurized nose section contains the avionics bay and


the nose baggage compartment.

The avionics bay is located


just aft of the fiberglass nose
cap (radome) which houses
the weather radar antenna. An
avionics access panel, con-
structed of honeycomb core
material bonded between
aluminum skin panels, en-
closes the width of the upper
surface of the nose section
between the nose cap and the
nose baggage compartment.
▲ AVIONICS BAY
The access panel and nose
cap form a single unit attached by quick-disconnect “Tridair”
fasteners and secured by two key locks, one installed on each
side of the panel.

Note: The avionics access panel and nose cap are removed
and installed as a single unit. The double row of fasteners
should not be disturbed unless separation of the nose cap from
the access panel is required for maintenance.

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The nose baggage compart-
ment is located between the
avionics bay and forward
pressure bulkhead. Access is
through left and right side
doors attached to the fuselage
structure by two hinges each,
and secured by two latches
and one key lock each. Each
door is opened by disengag-
ing the key lock and latches
and lifting the door to the open
▲ NOSE BAGGAGE COMPARTMENT
position. When fully open, a
spring-loaded stop assembly holds the door in position. Clos-
ing the doors is accomplished by releasing the stop, lowering
the door, and reengaging the latches and key lock.

Fore and aft dividers separate the nose baggage compartment


from the avionics bay and forward pressure bulkhead respec-
tively. A hinged access panel on the aft divider, accessible
through the right baggage door, facilitates fluid and pneumatic
servicing. Five inspection windows on the access panel are
positioned to permit viewing the sight gages on the brake fluid
and windshield anti-ice fluid reservoirs, as well as pneumatic
pressure gages for the emergency braking and gear extension
storage cylinder and anti-skid accumulator(s). On airplanes
550-0254 and earlier (not incorporating SB550-35-2) the oxy-
gen storage cylinder is also serviced and accessed through
the right baggage door. In some installations, a hinged access
panel may be located below this door to facilitate oxygen
servicing.

Though limits vary with equipment installation, the maximum


volume and load capacity of the nose baggage compartment
are 17 cubic feet and 350 pounds respectively.

Indication of nose baggage door security is provided by the


amber [DOOR NOT LOCKED] annunciator. The annunciator is
controlled by a microswitch integral to each forward latch
assembly. With electrical power applied to the airplane and
either door unsecured, the door warning circuit is complete and
the annunciator illuminates. When both doors are properly
secured, the door warning circuit is interrupted and the annun-
ciator is extinguished.

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Pressurized Center Section

The airplane center section is reinforced and sealed for pres-


surization to the skin between the forward and aft pressure
bulkheads. Included in the center section are the flight com-
partment, passenger cabin, standard cabin door, optional
cabin/cargo door (if installed), and the emergency exit.

A two-piece windshield, two


side windows, and a foul
weather window provide flight
compartment visibility. The
windshield is a Plexiglas
laminate of stretched acrylic
outer and inner layers with a
vinyl core.

▲ PILOT'S WINDSHIELD

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On airplanes 550-0681 and earlier, both side windows consist
of prestressed Plexiglas outer and inner panes separated by
the window frame and spacers to form a thermal air barrier. On
airplanes 550-0682 and after, both side windows consist of
prestressed Plexiglas outer and middle panes with an acrylic
inner “frost” pane. A thermal air barrier is formed between the
outer pane and middle pane, separated by the window frame
and spacers; and between the middle pane and frost pane,
separated by spacers and seals.

Six windows are located on each side of the passenger cabin


including those located in the cabin door and the emergency
exit. Each includes a Plexiglas laminate outer pane of stretched
acrylic outer and inner layers with a vinyl core, and an acrylic
inner “frost” pane. The outer pane and frost pane are sepa-
rated by the window retainer and a spacer to form a thermal air
barrier. All passenger cabin windows, excluding those located
in the passenger door and the emergency exit, incorporate
integral sliding shades. All windows, forming part of the pres-
sure vessel, are fixed except for the foul weather window.

The foul weather window,


located forward of the pilot’s
side window, is also a
Plexiglas laminate of stretched
acrylic outer and inner layers
with a vinyl core. The window
is hinged at the bottom,
latched at the top, and incor-
porates a peripheral seal
which makes the window
airtight when properly se-
cured. The window is opened
▲ FOUL WEATHER WINDOW
by disengaging the latch and
pulling the window inward. Closing and securing the window is
accomplished by repositioning the window in the frame and
reengaging the latch.

During ground operation, the foul weather window may be


opened to supplement flight compartment ventilation. During
cold weather operation, the flight compartment may be warmed
before flight by routing a preheater hose through the foul
weather window. For pressurized operation, the foul weather
window must be properly secured.

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Windshield and window condition is critical to flight compart-


ment visibility as well as pressure vessel structural integrity and
should be inspected before flight. Obvious damage or deformi-
ties should be evaluated against repair/replacement criteria by
maintenance personnel. Generally, light surface damage and
discoloration or deformities outside of critical vision areas do
not compromise structural integrity or limit flight operations.
Conversely, moderate to heavy surface damage, cracks and
delamination, and discoloration or deformities inside of critical
vision areas require immediate repair or replacement before
resuming flight operations.

Note: Unrepaired damage may reduce windshield/window


service life; therefore, the manufacturer recommends that any
windshield/window damage be repaired as soon as practical.

Plexiglas is easily damaged by improper handling and cleaning


techniques and should be kept clean and waxed using the
methods and materials prescribed by the manufacturer. When
prescribed materials are unavailable, the windshield and win-
dows may be cleaned using a common, mild liquid soap as
long as appropriate precautions are taken:

1. Surfaces should be permitted to cool before cleaning.


2. All hand and wrist jewelry should be removed.
3. Dirt and abrasives should be dislodged with
running water.
4. Cloth or sponge may only be used to transfer soap
to surface.
5. Only light rubbing force with a bare hand should
be applied.
6. After cleaning, surface should be rinsed with
running water.
7. Surface may be dried with clean, damp chamois
or cloth.
8. After drying, contact with the surface should be avoided.

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Flight Compartment
The flight compartment provides for a crew of two, with full
instrumentation for the pilot and copilot. Layout is conventional
in that all controls, switches, and instruments are accessible to
the pilot for single pilot operation.

The pilot’s and copilot’s instrument panels contain primary and


navigational flight instruments and controls. Flood and panel
light controls, light switches, and the standby gyro switch/
light(s) are located on the pilot’s lower instrument panel. Con-
trols for the parking brake, control surface lock, emergency
braking, and auxiliary/emergency gear extension are located
below the pilot’s instrument panel. Windshield bleed air con-
trols, fan switches, and gyro switches are located on the
copilot’s lower instrument panel. The windshield rain removal
augmenter control is located below the copilot’s instrument
panel.

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The upper left instrument panel contains the pilot’s audio con-
trol panel, outside air temperature (OAT) indicator, clock, and
optional angle-of-attack (AOA) indicator. The lower left instru-
ment panel contains electrical system switches and indicators,
fuel system switches and controls, engine switches, ice protec-
tion switches, exterior light switches, and the test selector
switch. The right instrument panel contains the copilot’s audio
control panel, battery temperature indicator (if installed), gyro
pressure gage (550-0626 and earlier), oxygen pressure gage,
and flight hours meter.

The center instrument panel contains engine instrumentation,


the annunciator panel, avionics control panels, weather radar,
supplemental navigation equipment, and the landing gear
controls and position indicators. Circuit breaker panels are
located on the left and right sidewalls. Crew oxygen outlets and
audio jacks are located on the left and right side consoles.
Oxygen system controls are located on the left side console.
Controls and indicators for the engine fire protection system
and thrust reversers are located on a panel directly below the
glareshield.

The center pedestal contains the engine control levers as well


as controls for the flaps, speed brakes, manual trim, autopilot,
and navigation equipment. The environmental panel contains
cabin pressurization switches, controls, and indicators. Refer to
corresponding systems chapters for specific detail.

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1

2 3

1. Height Adjustment Handle


2. Fore and Aft Position Handle
3. Seat Back Tilt Handle

The pilot’s and copilot’s seats are installed on independent rail


assemblies attached to longitudinal floor beams integral to the
fuselage structure. Fore and aft position, height, and tilt angle
are manually adjustable. Each seat moves fore and aft along
the rails on roller and guide assemblies attached to its frame.
Stop pins engage the rails to secure the seat in position. Fore
and aft adjustment is accomplished by lifting the handle lo-
cated below the forward center of the seat to disengage the
stop pins from the rails, and sliding the seat to the desired
position. Height adjustment is accomplished by lifting the
handle located below the inboard forward corner of the seat
and weighting or unweighting the seat to the desired position.
A shock cord (bungee) and pulley arrangement provides ap-
proximately 100 pounds of lift assistance when the seat is
unweighted. Tilt angle adjustment is provided by a pneumatic
actuator attached to each seat frame, and a handle located on
the aft inboard corner of the seat. Pushing down on the forward
end of the handle releases air pressure within the actuator
allowing the seat to be tilted to the desired position. When the
handle is released, air pressure trapped within the actuator
holds the seat in the selected position.

Armrests are installed on each inboard seat back. When not in


use, the armrests are stowed in an upright position behind and
flush with the seat backs. For use, each armrest is pulled in-
board from its stowed position and lowered by pushing down
on its forward end. On airplanes 550-0222 and after, the low-
ered position of the armrest may be selected by means of an
adjustable stop. This adjustment, however, cannot be made
during flight.

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Each crew seat is equipped


with a restraint system incor-
porating an inertia reel type
shoulder harness. Airplanes
550-0431 and after are
equipped with a five-point
restraint system consisting of
two lap belts, a dual-strap
shoulder harness, forward
restraint strap, and padded
rotary buckle. Airplanes 550-
0356 through 550-0430 are
▲ CREW RESTRAINT SYSTEM
equipped with a four-point
restraint system consisting of two laps belts, a dual-strap shoul-
der harness, and padded rotary buckle. In four-point and five-
point installations, the inertia reel is attached to the seat frame
and all restraints engage the rotary buckle. The quick-release
design of the rotary buckle permits simultaneous disengage-
ment of all restraints except the outboard lap belt, to which the
buckle is attached, by rotating the release mechanism counter-
clockwise. Airplanes 550-0355 and earlier are equipped with a
three-point restraint system consisting of two laps belts, a
single-strap shoulder harness, and conventional buckle. In this
installation, the inertia reel is attached to the overhead airframe
structure aft and outboard of each crew seat. The shoulder
harness engages a link on the outboard lap belt which en-
gages the buckle on the inboard lap belt.

Other flight compartment


equipment and furnishings
include a navigation chart
case located behind the
copilot’s seat, a relief tube
storage case located behind
the pilot’s seat, sun visors,
overhead directional air vents,
and overhead flight compart-
ment lighting. The relief tube
incorporates an electrically-
heated drain/vent which is
▲ DIRECTIONAL AIR VENT AND LIGHT
supplied with 28 VDC right
main bus power through the 7.5-amp TOILET circuit breaker
(not accessible from the flight compartment). On airplanes 550-
0627 and after, optional tinted sun visors positionable along a
monorail track may be installed in place of the standard vinyl-
covered “pivoting” sun visors.

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Passenger Cabin
The passenger cabin measures approximately 194.7" from the
forward cabin dividers to the aft pressure bulkhead, 59.2" from
sidewall to sidewall, and 56.0" from the lowest point of the floor
to the ceiling. Passenger cabin configurations vary according
to seating arrangement and installation of standard or optional
furnishings and equipment.

▲ AFT PASSENGER CABIN

Standard configurations typi-


cally include seating for six
passengers, a refreshment
center, and a non-flushing
toilet. Optional configurations
include seating arrangements
for up to ten passengers, a
flush toilet, an executive writ-
ing table, and various storage
cabinets and/or refreshment
centers. Forward and aft
dividers separate the passen-
ger area from the flight com-
partment and aft baggage
compartment respectively.

▲ REFRESHMENT CENTER

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▲ EXECUTIVE WRITING TABLE

The standard passenger seats, numbered 5 through 10 for


payload computation purposes, are installed on independent
rail assemblies attached to longitudinal floor beams integral to
the fuselage structure. These seats may be high back, or low
back with an adjustable headrest. Seats 5 and 6, located
midcabin, may be installed facing forward or aft. Seats 7 and 8,
located immediately forward of the aft cabin dividers, are in-
stalled forward facing only. Seats 9 and 10, located immedi-
ately aft of the forward cabin dividers, are installed aft facing
only.

Each seat moves fore and aft along the rails on roller and guide
assemblies attached to its frame. Stop pins engage the rails to
secure the seat in position. Fore and aft adjustment is accom-
plished by lifting the handle located below the forward center of
the seat to disengage the stop pins from the rails, and sliding
the seat to the desired position. When located “over spar,”
seats 7 and 8 are secured directly to the rails and are not ad-
justable fore and aft once installed.

Seat back angle adjustment from vertical to a reclining position


is provided by spring-loaded “hydrolock” actuators attached to
each seat frame. Pressing the button on the inboard side of the
armrest releases air pressure within the actuators allowing the
seat back to be tilted to the desired position. When the button is
released, air pressure trapped within the actuators holds the
seat back in the selected position.
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Passenger seats equipped for lateral adjustment may be posi-
tioned inboard away from the sidewalls to provide greater
headroom. This is accomplished by lifting the control handle
located below the inboard side of the seat and moving the seat
to the desired position.

Note: Lateral adjustment seats should be locked in the out-


board position during takeoff and landing.

Armrests are installed on each inboard seat frame. When not in


use, armrests are stowed flush with the bottom seat cushions.
For use, each armrest is pulled upward until a spring-loaded
latching mechanism is engaged. Lifting the lever on the forward
end of each armrest disengages the latching mechanism
permitting the armrest to be stowed. Each passenger seat is
equipped with a restraint system consisting of an adjustable
lap belt and inertia reel shoulder harness (550-0550 and after)
or an adjustable lap belt only (550-0505 and earlier).

Optional passenger seating


arrangements may include
two additional standard type
seats located at midcabin and
numbered 3 and 4 for payload
computation purposes, an aft
portable seat, forward lounge
seats, and a two or three-
place forward facing divan
(couch). The optional flush
toilet may be certified for use
as a passenger seat when ▲ AFT FLUSH TOILET
located in the aft baggage
compartment (550-0550 and after) or when located in the
forward passenger cabin (550-0505 and earlier). Non-flushing
toilets are generally not certified for use as a passenger seat.
Aft located toilets are also equipped with a relief tube incorpo-
rating an electrically-heated drain/vent which is supplied with
28 VDC right main bus power through the 7.5-amp TOILET
circuit breaker (not accessible from the flight compartment).
Flush toilets are also powered by this circuit. Privacy for the aft
toilet area may be provided by curtains, sliding doors (550-
0550 and after), or a folding door (550-0505 and earlier) which
extend(s) between the left and right aft cabin dividers.

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1. Passenger Oxygen Masks


2. Reading Light
2
3. Reading Light Switch
4. Ventilation Air Outlet

Individually controlled reading 3


lights, ventilation air outlets,
and oxygen outlets are lo-
cated on the ceiling above
each passenger station. 4
Airflow for heating is provided
through registers located just
above floor level on each side of
the cabin.

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The aft baggage compartment is located between the aft cabin
dividers and the aft pressure bulkhead, and is accessible
during flight. A cargo net and tie-down straps are provided to
secure the contents of the baggage compartment. The net is
held in place by attachment fittings that engage anchor plates
located on the floor, aft pressure bulkhead, and sidewalls.
Though limits vary with passenger cabin configuration, the
maximum volume and load capacity of the aft baggage com-
partment are from 34 to 43 cubic feet and 220 to 600 pounds
respectively.

Note: Refer to the appropriate AFM and airframe placards for


weight and balance limitations specific to your airplane.

Cabin Door and Stair Assembly


The cabin door and stair assembly are located in the forward
left side of the center section. The door is a single-section
assembly of aluminum alloy construction which houses the
forward left passenger cabin window and, when secured with
all locking pins engaged, forms an integral part of the pressure
vessel. The door swings forward to the open position on a
vertical hinge attached to the forward door frame structure and
provides an opening 50.7” high, 23.5” wide at the bottom, and
19.7” wide at the top. The stair assembly is attached at two
hinge points on the lower door frame structure and incorpo-
rates two fold-out steps.

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The cabin door is held securely closed by twelve locking pins


which engage sockets in the door frame structure when the
interior or exterior handle is rotated to the “LOCK” position.
When either handle is rotated to the “OPEN” position, the lock-
ing pins are disengaged. The overcenter locking design of the
door handle linkage combined with an interior handle latching
mechanism function to prevent inadvertent opening of the door,
particularly from inside the airplane.

▲ UPPER LOCKING PINS ▲ LOWER LOCKING PINS

The overcenter locking design


requires that either handle be
rotated fully to the “LOCK” or
“OPEN” position before being
stowed. The latching mecha-
nism secures the interior
handle in the “STOW” position.
Before rotating the interior
handle to the “LOCK” or
“OPEN” position, the latch
must be disengaged by simul-
taneously pressing a release
▲ INTERIOR HANDLE RELEASE
button and squeezing a trig-
ger located on the top and backside of the handle respectively.

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The cabin door is opened
from outside the airplane by
unstowing the flush-mounted
exterior handle, rotating it
clockwise to the “OPEN”
position, and pulling the door
outward and forward. A secu-
rity lock prevents the exterior
handle from being unstowed
without the appropriate key.
From inside the airplane, the
door is opened by disengag-
▲ EXTERIOR CABIN DOOR HANDLE
ing the interior handle latching
mechanism as previously
described, rotating the handle
counterclockwise to the
“OPEN” position, and pushing
the door outward and forward.
When fully open, a spring-
loaded door stop/catch as-
sembly, integral to the hinge,
holds the door in position. The
catch is disengaged by push-
ing a release lever located
immediately forward of the
▲ CATCH RELEASE LEVER
door frame on the passenger
cabin sidewall.

▲ INTERIOR CABIN DOOR HANDLE

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

With the catch engaged,


the stair assembly may be
unstowed and extended.
When fully extended, the
stair assembly is sup-
ported by two chain as-
semblies attached to
fittings on the fore and aft
door frame structure. Chain
assembly tension should
be inspected regularly to
confirm that each carries
an equal load with weight
on the steps.

▲ CABIN STAIR ASSEMBLY

Note: Uneven chain assembly tension or step deflection should


be corrected to prevent damaging the stair assembly or its
attachment points on the door frame structure.

Before closing the cabin door, the stair assembly must first be
stowed. This is accomplished from outside the airplane by
lifting the stair assembly until a retraction lever at its forward
hinge point engages a spring clip in the lower door frame
structure. From inside the airplane, stepping on the retraction
lever causes the stair assembly to pivot on its hinges into the
stowed position. After stowing the stair assembly and disen-
gaging the door catch as previously described, the cabin door
is closed from outside the airplane by pushing the door aft and
inward to position it in the frame, and rotating the exterior
handle counterclockwise to the “LOCK” position. From inside
the airplane, the cabin door is closed by pulling the door aft
and inward to position it in the frame, using the assist chain
provided for this purpose, and rotating the interior handle
clockwise to the “LOCK” position. A rubber bumper is installed
on the forward stair frame to prevent damage if the cabin door
is inadvertently closed while the stair assembly is extended. A
recessed area of the interior door trim panel accommodates
the stowed stair assembly when the door is closed.

Note: After closing the cabin door from outside or inside the
airplane, the handle used must be returned to the stowed
position.

AIRCRAFT GENERAL 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 1-23


2

1. Upper Locking Pin


Indicator Windows
2. Lower Locking Pin 3
Indicator Windows
3. Overcenter Linkage
Indicator Window

Five position indicator win-


dows are provided on the
interior door trim panel to
visually confirm cabin door
security. The upper two and
lower two indicator windows permit inspection of locking pin
engagement. The center indicator window permits inspection of
the overcenter locking position of the door handle linkage. To
facilitate inspection, the visible portion of the upper two and
lower two “square” locking pins are green with white dots. With
the cabin door properly secured, the white dot on each of
these locking pins should be visible in its respective window.
Through the center window, the alignment of two horizontal
markings above the words DOOR CLOSED should be visible.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

1. Cabin Door Microswitch


2. Inflatable Rubber Door Seal

Additional indication of cabin door security is provided by the


amber [DOOR NOT LOCKED] annunciator. The annunciator is
controlled by a microswitch, installed on the door frame struc-
ture, which is actuated by the lower forward locking pin. With
electrical power applied to the airplane and the door unse-
cured, the door warning circuit is complete and the annunciator
illuminates. When the door is properly secured, the door warn-
ing circuit is interrupted and the annunciator is extinguished.

An inflatable rubber seal is installed in a retainer around the


periphery of the door frame to enhance fuselage-to-door seal-
ing. The seal is inflated by 23 ± 1 PSIG regulated engine bleed
air by way of a valve which is actuated open or closed by the
lower forward locking pin. With either or both engines operating
and the door properly secured, the valve is actuated open and
the seal is inflated. A check valve prevents the seal from deflat-
ing should loss of bleed air pressure occur. When the locking
pin is disengaged, the valve is actuated closed and the seal is
deflated to facilitate opening and closing of the cabin door.
Additional protection against cabin door leakage is provided by
a weather seal affixed to the inboard periphery of the door
except in the area of the hinge which is protected by a sepa-
rate rain seal.

AIRCRAFT GENERAL 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 1-25


Cabin/Cargo Door
The optional cabin/cargo door may be installed in place of the
standard cabin door in the forward left side of the center sec-
tion. The door is a two-section assembly of aluminum alloy
construction which, when secured with all locking mechanisms
engaged, forms an integral part of the pressure vessel. The
upper section of the door swings upward to the open position
on a full length, piano-type hinge attached to the upper door
frame structure and houses the forward left passenger cabin
window. The lower (airstair) section of the door swings down-
ward to the open position on a full length, piano-type hinge
attached to the lower door frame structure and incorporates
three fold-out steps. When fully open, the cabin/cargo door
provides an opening 50.7” high and 35.12” wide.

The upper and lower sections of the door are each held se-
curely closed by six cable-operated latch fittings which engage
eccentric latch posts on the door frame structure. Though each
door section is operated independently of the other, two lock-
ing pins integral to the upper door handle linkage secure both
sections together. The overcenter locking design of the upper
door handle linkage functions to prevent inadvertent opening of
the door, particularly from inside the airplane by requiring that
the interior or exterior handle be rotated fully to the “LOCK” or
“OPEN” position before being stowed.

The upper section is opened from outside the airplane by


unstowing the flush-mounted exterior handle, rotating it clock-
wise to the “OPEN” position to disengage the latch fittings and
locking pins, and pulling the door outward. A security lock
prevents the exterior handle from being unstowed without the
appropriate key. From inside the airplane, the upper section is
opened by unstowing the interior handle, rotating it counter-
clockwise to the “OPEN” position, and pushing the door out-
ward. A pair of gas-operated extenders assist in opening the
upper section and hold it in position when fully open. A locking
mechanism on the forward extender stabilizes the upper sec-
tion when fully open in windy conditions. The upper section
must be opened before the lower section is extended.

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With the upper section open, lifting the lower handle disen-
gages the latch fittings allowing the lower section to be ex-
tended. The steps are cable-operated and fold out automati-
cally during extension. When fully extended, the lower section
is supported by two cable assemblies attached to fittings on
the fore and aft door frame structure. A spring-loaded reel
assembly automatically retracts the support cables when the
lower section is closed. A gas-operated snubber dampens the
extension rate of the lower section. Cable assembly tension
should be inspected regularly to confirm that each carries an
equal load with weight on the steps and that no load is carried
by the snubber.

Note: Uneven cable assembly tension or load on the snubber


should be corrected to prevent damaging the lower section
attachment or support points on the door frame structure.

The cabin/cargo door is closed by lifting the lower section to


position it in the frame and returning the lower handle to the
closed position to engage the latch fittings. A T-handle on the
aft support cable facilitates closing the lower section from
inside the airplane. As the lower section is closed, the cable-
operated stairs are automatically stowed against the interior
trim panel. With the lower section secured, the upper section is
pulled down and positioned in the frame, and the upper handle
is rotated (exterior-counterclockwise, interior-clockwise) to the
“CLOSE” position to engage the latch fittings as well as the
locking pins which secure both sections together.

Note: After closing the upper section from outside or inside the
airplane, the handle used must be returned to the stowed
position.

AIRCRAFT GENERAL 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 1-27


Position indicator windows are provided on the upper and
lower section interior trim panels to visually confirm positive
engagement of each latch fitting. To facilitate inspection, the
visible portion of a stop arm on each latch fitting shaft is green
in color. With the cabin/cargo door properly secured, each stop
arm should appear as a green vertical bar within its respective
window. An additional indicator window on the upper section
interior trim panel permits inspection of the overcenter locking
position of the upper door handle linkage. Through this window,
the alignment of two vertical markings between the words
DOOR CLOSED should be visible.

Additional indication of cabin door security is provided by the


amber [DOOR NOT LOCKED] annunciator. The annunciator is
controlled by five microswitches: two actuated by the upper
section latch fittings linkage, one actuated by a lower section
latch fitting linkage, and two actuated by the locking pins. With
electrical power applied to the airplane and the upper or lower
section of the door unsecured, the door warning circuit is
complete and the annunciator illuminates. When both sections
are properly secured, the door warning circuit is interrupted
and the annunciator is extinguished.

An inflatable rubber seal is installed in a retainer around the


periphery of the door frame to enhance fuselage-to-door seal-
ing. The seal is inflated by 23 ± 1 PSIG regulated engine bleed
air by way of a valve which is actuated open or closed by the
upper door handle linkage. With either or both engines operat-
ing and the upper section of the door properly secured, the
valve is actuated open and the seal is inflated. A check valve
prevents the seal from deflating should loss of bleed air pres-
sure occur. When the upper section is unsecured, the valve is
actuated closed and the seal is deflated to facilitate opening
and closing of the cabin/cargo door. A “cross seal,” installed
on the lower door section, seals the gap between the upper
and lower section.

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Emergency Exit Door

▲ EMERGENCY EXIT EXTERIOR ▲ EMERGENCY EXIT INTERIOR

The emergency exit door is located in the forward right side of


the center section. The door is a single-section assembly of
aluminum alloy construction which houses the forward right
passenger cabin window and, when properly secured, forms
an integral part of the pressure vessel. The plug-type door is
installed from inside the airplane and secured in place by two
fixed retainers and a latch pin which engage the door frame
structure. The latch pin is operated by an interior or exterior
handle.

To prevent inadvertent open-


ing of the door, particularly
from inside the airplane, the
latching mechanism is spring-
loaded to the closed position,
and the interior handle is
guarded by a plastic cover.
Ground security is provided
by a locking pin which pre-
vents the latching mechanism
from being operated when
inserted. The locking pin
▲ EMERGENCY EXIT INTERIOR HANDLE
incorporates a REMOVE
BEFORE FLIGHT streamer.

AIRCRAFT GENERAL 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 1-29


The emergency exit door is
opened from inside the air-
plane by removing the locking
pin and the plastic cover (if
installed), then unstowing the
interior handle and rotating it
clockwise to the “OPEN”
position. From outside the
airplane, the flush-mounted
exterior handle must be
unstowed and rotated coun-
terclockwise to the “OPEN”
▲ EMERGENCY EXIT EXTERIOR HANDLE
position. With the latch pin
disengaged, the top of the door is lowered until clear of the
upper frame and the bottom of the door is lifted until the retain-
ers are clear of the lower frame, thereby allowing the door to be
removed. Closing the door is accomplished from inside the
airplane by carefully positioning the retainers on the bottom of
the door in the lower frame, pushing the top of the door into
position in the upper frame, and rotating the interior handle
fully-counterclockwise to engage the latch pin. A one-piece,
self-inflating rubber seal is affixed to the inboard periphery of
the door to enhance fuselage-to-door sealing. The seal is
inflated by cabin pressure entering the seal through a series of
holes.

Note: After closing the cabin door from outside or inside the
airplane, the door handle used must be returned to the stowed
position.

Hand-Held Fire Extinguishers


Typically, two hand-held fire
extinguishers are provided:
one is secured to a bracket on
the copilot’s seat frame, the
other is located in the passen-
ger cabin. Refer to the AFM
emergency procedures and
the instructions printed on the
cylinder for proper operation.

▲ HAND-HELD FIRE EXTINGUISHER

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Aft Fuselage Section

The unpressurized aft fuselage section houses control cables


and linkage for the tail control surfaces and the engines, and
such major components as the autopilot servos, the battery,
electrical power junction “J” boxes, the external power recep-
tacle, the environmental air cycle machine (ACM), and the
oxygen storage cylinder (550-0255 and after, or earlier air-
planes in compliance with SB550-35-2). When optionally in-
stalled, the drag chute, components of the Freon air condition-
ing system, and the tailcone baggage compartment are also
housed within the aft fuselage.

Access to these components


and to the tailcone baggage
compartment is through a
door attached to the lower left
side of the aft fuselage struc-
ture by a piano-type hinge.
The door swings downward to
the open position and is se-
cured by two hook-type
latches and a key lock.

▲ TAILCONE ACCESS DOOR

AIRCRAFT GENERAL 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 1-31


The tailcone baggage compartment consists of floor, side, and
ceiling panels attached to a support structure. A hinged ac-
cess panel facilitates inspection and servicing of components
located forward of the baggage compartment. To reduce the
risk of a baggage compartment fire, the structural elements of
the baggage compartment and the inner surface of the door
are treated with a flame control coating.

A cargo net and tie-down straps are provided to secure the


contents of the baggage compartment. The net is held in place
by attachment fittings which engage anchor plates located on
the floor and aft panel of the baggage compartment. Though
limits vary with equipment installation, the maximum volume
and load capacity of the tailcone baggage compartment range
from 13 to 25 cubic feet and 200 to 500 pounds respectively.

Note: Refer to the appropriate AFM and airframe placards for


weight and balance limitations specific to your airplane.

Indication of tailcone access door security is provided by the


amber [DOOR NOT LOCKED] annunciator. The annunciator is
controlled by a microswitch integral to the forward latch assem-
bly. With electrical power applied to the airplane and the door
unsecured, the door warning circuit is complete and the annun-
ciator illuminates. When the door is properly secured, the door
warning circuit is interrupted and the annunciator is extin-
guished.

Limitations

Refer to the applicable airplane manufacturer’s FAA approved


flight manual or approved manual material, markings and
placards, or any combination thereof for all limitations.

Emergency Procedures

Refer to the applicable airplane manufacturer’s FAA approved


flight manual or approved manual material (supplementary
checklist) as revised, for procedural information.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Citation II Airplane Dimensions

14.80’

18.35’

47.25’

18.83’

8.0’

51.7’

17.59’

AIRCRAFT GENERAL 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 1-33


Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Chapter 2
Engines

Table of Contents

Overview .................................................... 2-1


Engine Installation ...................................... 2-1
Operational Theory and
Power Ratings ............................................ 2-3
Engine Description ...................................... 2-4
Low Compressor Section ....................... 2-4
High Compressor Section ...................... 2-5
Combustion Section .............................. 2-7
High Turbine Section ............................. 2-8
Low Turbine Section .............................. 2-8
Accessory Gearbox ................................ 2-9
Engine Fuel System .................................. 2-10
Engine Driven Fuel Pump .................... 2-11
Fuel Control Unit ................................. 2-12
Oil-to-Fuel Heat Exchanger ................... 2-15
Flow Divider ........................................ 2-16
Fuel Manifold and Nozzles .................. 2-18
Fuel Drains ......................................... 2-18
Ignition System ........................................ 2-19
Engine Oil System .................................... 2-22
Oil Tank ............................................. 2-22
Oil Pressure System ........................... 2-23
Scavenge System ............................... 2-25
Breather System ................................. 2-25
Engine Controls ........................................ 2-26
Throttle Levers .................................... 2-26
Thrust Reverser Levers ........................ 2-27
Engine Synchronizer
Selector Switch ................................... 2-28
Automatic Fuel Shutoff Control ............ 2-28
Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Engines, continued

Table of Contents

Engine Indicating System .......................... 2-29


Fan Tachometer .................................. 2-29
Inter-Turbine Temperature Gage ........... 2-30
Fuel Flow Gage ................................... 2-32
Turbine Tachometer............................. 2-32
Engine Oil Temperature Gage .............. 2-33
Engine Oil Pressure Gage .................... 2-33
Engine Starting System ............................. 2-35
Engine Synchronizer System ...................... 2-38
Thrust Reverser System ............................ 2-40
Thrust Reverser Hydraulics ........................ 2-40
Thrust Reverser Control Valves ............ 2-41
Thrust Reverser Isolation Valves .......... 2-41
Check Valves and Restrictors .............. 2-42
Thrust Reverser Levers ........................ 2-42
Thrust Reverser Deployment ................ 2-43
Thrust Reverser Stowage ..................... 2-45
Thrust Reverser
Emergency Stowage ............................ 2-46
Thrust Reverser
Emergency Stowage Test ..................... 2-46
Engine Fire Detection and
Extinguishing System ................................ 2-47
Thermal Detectors ............................... 2-47
Detector Control Unit .......................... 2-47
Explosive Cartridges ............................ 2-47
Extinguisher Bottles ............................ 2-48
Annunciator Switches .......................... 2-48
System Operation ............................... 2-48
System Testing ................................... 2-51
Limitations ............................................... 2-51
Emergency Procedures .............................. 2-51
Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Overview

This chapter will discuss the engines of the Cessna Citation II,
their major components, controls, operation and indication. The
airplane is powered by two JT15D-4 lightweight, medium-
bypass, axial-flow, turbofan engines manufactured by Pratt &
Whitney Canada, Inc. The engines generate thrust which pro-
pels the airplane and rotational torque which powers all engine-
driven accessories. Indication of engine operating parameters
is displayed by gages on the upper center instrument panel.
Other indications are displayed on the annunciator panel.

Engine Installation

The engines are attached to left and right pylons formed by


carry-thru beams which pass laterally through the aft fuselage.
Each engine is secured to its associated pylon by two forward
mounts and one aft “steady” mount. The mounts incorporate
isolators which function to reduce the transmission of engine
vibration through the fuselage structure. Each forward mount is
secured by four bolts to the engine and one bolt to the forward
carry-thru beam. Each steady mount is secured by four bolts to
the aft carry-thru beam and one bolt to the engine.

ENGINES 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 2-1


The outboard rib of each pylon is constructed of stainless steel
and sealed to form a firewall and vapor barrier through which
control cables, wire bundles, and various air and fluid lines are
routed to and from the engines.

3 2 1

5
6

1. Engine Air Inlet Lip 4. Aft Cowling


2. Forward Cowling 5. Aerodynamic Tangs
3. Upper Cowling 6. Lower Cowling

The engines are enclosed by cowlings which provide aerody-


namic smoothness. The forward cowling houses the engine air
inlet lip and starter/generator cooling air inlet scoop and duct.
The aft cowling surrounds the outer exhaust nozzle and incor-
porates aerodynamic “tangs” that enclose the thrust reverser
actuators when installed.

The upper and lower cowlings are attached to the forward and
aft cowlings by quick-disconnect fasteners to facilitate removal
for inspection or servicing. The upper cowling incorporates the
oil filler access door. The lower cowling incorporates the
starter/generator cooling air outlet and an aerodynamic fairing
which encloses various engine drain lines that extend through
its lower surface. To reduce the transmission of engine noise to
the cabin, the forward and aft cowlings are attached directly to
the engine such that they make no contact with the pylon.

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Operational Theory and Engine Power Ratings

The power output of a jet engine, expressed in pounds of


thrust, is determined by the velocity to which it is capable of
accelerating a given mass of air. As a rule, a smaller volume of
air must be accelerated to a higher velocity than that required
to generate the same amount of thrust from a larger volume of
air. In a turbojet engine, thrust is generated by compressing
and combusting the entire volume of inlet air, and discharging
it from the exhaust nozzle at high velocity. In a turbofan engine,
a portion of the thrust generated by compressing and combust-
ing a smaller volume of air (in the same manner as a turbojet
engine) is utilized to drive a fan which generates thrust from a
larger volume of air at a lower velocity. This is accomplished by
dividing inlet air drawn into the engine by the fan into primary
(inner) and secondary (outer) paths.

The primary path directs a smaller volume of air through the


engine core where it is compressed, combusted, and acceler-
ated to a higher velocity. In the JT15D-4, approximately 42% of
this “core thrust” is used drive the compressor, fan, and acces-
sory gearbox while the remaining 58% is discharged from the
inner exhaust nozzle. The secondary path directs a larger
volume of non-combusted air through a concentric bypass duct
surrounding the engine core and discharges it from the outer
exhaust nozzle.

Of the 2500 LBS thrust produced by each engine at sea level,


approximately 66% is “bypass thrust” generated by the fan
while 34% is generated by the core. However, because fan
efficiency decreases as altitude increases, the ratio of bypass
thrust to core thrust (thrust ratio) progressively reverses be-
tween sea level and approximately 40,000’ MSL.

The relationship between mass airflow through the bypass duct


and mass airflow through the engine core determines the
engine’s “bypass ratio.” Of the total 77.8 LBS/SEC mass air flow
(Wa) developed by the fan, 56.6 LBS/SEC is directed through
the bypass duct while 21.2 LBS/SEC is directed through the
core thereby producing the engine’s 2.7:1 bypass ratio. Unlike
thrust ratio, bypass ratio remains constant regardless of factors
which influence air density such as altitude, temperature, and
airspeed.

ENGINES 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 2-3


Power ratings are also based on the engine’s sea level static
output in ISA conditions. The power ratings and leading par-
ticulars given for the JT15D-4 in the table below are for training
purposes only and are not DOT approved.

Operating Net Thrust Specific Fuel


Condition LBS LBS/HR/LBS THRUST

Takeoff 2500** 0.562


Max. Continuous 2375* 0.556
Max. Climb 2375 0.556
Max. Cruise 2345 0.555

* Available to 15.0°C (59.0°F)


** Available to 15.0°C (59.0°F) time limited to 5-minutes

Engine Description

This section is intended to provide a basic description of the


JT15D-4 engine. Each engine is functionally divided into inde-
pendent high and low pressure sections which rotate on con-
centric, bearing supported shafts.

The outer, high pressure (N2) shaft supports the high turbine
and high compressor, associated primarily with the generation
of core thrust. The inner, low pressure (N1) shaft supports the
low turbines, low compressor (fan), and booster stage, associ-
ated primarily with the generation of bypass thrust. Both shafts
rotate in a clockwise direction at different speeds. In that no
mechanical link exists between the shafts, the engine is classi-
fied as a free-turbine.

The engine is further divided into six principle sections as


follows:

Low Compressor Section


The low compressor section consists of the fan, booster stage,
and associated stator assemblies. The fan is installed on the
forward end of the N1 shaft and incorporates 28 blades that
function to induct and compress all inlet air entering the en-
gine. The induction of inlet air is optimized by the aerodynamic
shape of the nose cone attached to the front of the fan. Imme-
diately aft of the fan, compressed inlet air is divided into con-
centric primary (inner) and secondary (outer) paths.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

The primary path directs a smaller volume of air through a row


of 38 core inlet guide vanes (stators) to the booster stage. The
booster stage, installed aft of the fan on the N1 shaft, is a
single-stage, 43-blade, axial compressor that functions to
increase core inlet pressure. After passing through the booster
stage, core inlet air is directed through a row of 37 stators to
the high compressor.

The secondary path directs a larger volume of air to the bypass


duct through two staggered rows of 66 stators each. This air
passes through the bypass duct without undergoing combus-
tion, after which is it discharged from the outer exhaust nozzle
as bypass thrust.

A T2 thermocouple probe senses inlet air temperature prior to


induction by the fan. A T2.6 thermocouple probe senses by-
pass air temperature within the outer exhaust nozzle. In combi-
nation, these probes constitute the T1 signal producing ele-
ments of the inter-turbine temperature (ITT) sensing system.

Protection against engine air inlet icing is provided by bleed air


heating of the nose cone, core inlet stators, and T2 thermo-
couple. Refer to Chapter 10 for a complete description of
engine ice protection systems.

High Compressor Section


The high compressor section consists of a single-stage cen-
trifugal impeller, stator assembly, impeller shroud, and an array
of 24 diffuser pipes and deflector vanes. The centrifugal impel-
ler is installed on the forward end of the N2 shaft and incorpo-
rates 32 blades (16 full/16 splitter) that function to accelerate
core inlet air. This air is directed to the impeller through a row of
23 stator vanes.

The impeller shroud, diffuser pipes, and deflector vanes are


installed within the gas generator case. The impeller shroud
contains the accelerated core inlet air and directs it radially to
the diffuser pipes. The diffuser pipes function primarily to de-
celerate this air thereby maximizing its pressure. Their second-
ary function is to restore axial flow from radial flow by redirect-
ing the air through 90°. Exiting the diffuser pipes, compressor
discharge air (P3) passes through the deflector vanes. The
angular orientation of the deflector vanes optimizes P3 air flow
for delivery to the combustion chamber.

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JT15D-4 General Arrangement

N1 TACH OIL FILLER NECK ANTI-ICING


Left Front View GENERATOR AND DIPSTICK VALVE
PAD

P3 TO
ANTI-ICING
VALVE
BEARING
SCAVENGE
LINE
STARTER OIL SCAVENGE LINE
GENERATOR RETURN TO TANK
PAD
ACCESSORY
N2 TACH
OIL PUMP GEARBOX
GENERATOR PAD
ASSEMBLY

Right Front View T2 PROBE

NOSE
CONE

LOW
COMPRESSOR
FAN

OIL PRESSURE LINE


TO NO 3 1/2 AND 4 BEARINGS
MAIN OIL
PRESSURE BOSS
P3 LINES FOR
FCU AND T1 PROBE P3 CABIN BLEED
ANTI-ICING OIL-TO-FUEL
HEAT EXCHANGER
OIL PRESSURE OIL FILTER
LINE BYPASS OIL PRESSURE ACCESSORY
VALVE REGULATING VALVE GEARBOX
FUEL FILTER OIL FILTER DRAIN
HOUSING HOUSING

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Combustion Section
The combustion section consists of the combustion chamber,
fuel nozzles, and igniters. The annular, reverse-flow combustion
chamber, installed within the gas generator case, provides an
area for the mixture and ignition of air and fuel, and directs
combustion gas flow to the turbines. Concentric outer and inner
liners extend forward from the aft (domed) end of the combus-
tion chamber. Twelve adapters are positioned around the
domed end for insertion of the fuel nozzles. Two adapters are
positioned at 5 and 7 o’clock on the outer liner for insertion of
the spark igniters. At the forward end of the combustion cham-
ber, a large exit duct and small exit duct join the outer and
inner liners respectively.

P3 air enters the interior of the combustion chamber through a


series of perforations in the inner and outer liners. Metered fuel
from the fuel control unit enters the interior of the combustion
chamber through the fuel nozzles. The air/fuel mixture is initially
ignited by the spark igniters during engine start, after which
combustion is self sustaining under normal engine operating
conditions. The shape, size, and location of the perforations, as
well as the location of the fuel nozzles and spark igniters,
provide the best air/fuel ratio for engine starting and sustained
combustion. The exit ducts redirect the combustion gas flow
inward then aft through 180° to the turbine inlet, thus the term
“reverse-flow.”

Air not used in the combustion process, referred to as second-


ary air, is used by the engine for ice protection, hot section
cooling, bearing compartment sealing, and fuel control. To
ensure even temperature distribution and prevent flame contact
with the interior walls of the combustion chamber, cooling rings
direct a layer of P3 air over these surfaces during combustion.
To prevent exposing the high compressor to excessive com-
bustion gas flow temperatures, the large and small exit ducts
incorporate heat shields through which P3 air is also directed
for cooling purposes.

ENGINES 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 2-7


High Turbine Section
The high turbine section consists of the single-stage high
turbine, segmented shroud assembly, and turbine inlet guide
vane assembly. The high turbine is installed on the aft end of
the N2 shaft and incorporates 71 blades. The segmented
shroud assembly provides an ideal blade tip running clearance
to maximize turbine efficiency.

The turbine inlet guide vane assembly incorporates 14 stator


vanes that direct combustion gas flow against the blades at an
optimal angle and speed. The stator vanes feature cored pas-
sages through which P3 air is directed for cooling purposes. Air
enters through inlet ports at each vane’s root and is evacuated
into the gas flow path through outlet ports at each vane’s trail-
ing edge.

The high turbine extracts energy from the combustion gas flow
to generate the rotational torque that drives the N2 shaft, high
compressor, and engine-driven accessories. The energy not
absorbed by the high turbine is directed to the low turbine
section.

Note: Engines in compliance with P&WC SB7293 feature “D.S.”


high turbine blades produced using a directionally-solidified
casting process.

Low Turbine Section


The low turbine section consists of two low turbines and their
associated turbine inlet stator vane assemblies. The low tur-
bines (referred to as 2nd and 3rd stage turbines) are installed
in tandem on the aft end of the N1 shaft. The 2nd stage turbine
incorporates 61 blades. The 3rd stage turbine incorporates 55
blades. Both feature shrouded blade tips to maximize turbine
efficiency.

Each turbine inlet stator vane assembly incorporates 43 stator


vanes that direct combustion gas flow against the turbine
blades at an optimal angle and speed. The low turbines extract
energy from the combustion gas flow to generate the rotational
torque that drives the N1 shaft, fan, and booster stage. After
driving the turbines, the combustion gas flow is discharged
from the inner exhaust nozzle as core thrust.

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Six thermocouple probes sense combustion gas flow tempera-


ture within the inner exhaust nozzle. In combination, these
probes constitute the T6 signal producing elements of the ITT
sensing system.

Accessory Gearbox
The accessory gearbox (AGB), located on the lower intermedi-
ate case of the engine, houses the gearing and provides sup-
port for all engine-driven accessories except the N1 tachom-
eter generator. The AGB consists of a cast magnesium alloy
housing and rear cover. The housing provides bearing sup-
ported gear shafts which drive the centrifugal air/oil separator
and all externally-mounted engine accessories. External mount-
ing pads are provided for the starter/generator, engine-driven
fuel pump, hydraulic pump, oil pump assembly, and N2 ta-
chometer generator.

The AGB main shaft engages the starter/generator directly, and


is linked to the N2 shaft by a vertical tower shaft. The tower
shaft is splined at each end to engage upper and lower bevel
gears. The upper bevel gear meshes with a bevel gear fitted to
the N2 shaft. The lower bevel gear meshes with a bevel gear
fitted to the AGB main shaft.

During engine start, the tower shaft transmits starter/generator


rotation to the N2 shaft to turn the engine. During engine opera-
tion, the tower shaft transmits N2 shaft rotation to the AGB main
shaft to turn the starter/generator and other engine-driven
accessories. A second vertical tower shaft engages the N1
tachometer generator at its upper end. A bevel gear fitted to
the lower end of this shaft meshes with a bevel gear fitted to
the N1 shaft.

ENGINES 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 2-9


Engine Fuel System

The engine fuel system functions to regulate fuel flow to the


engines. Major components for each engine include an engine-
driven fuel pump, fuel control unit, oil-to-fuel heat exchanger,
flow divider, fuel manifold, and 12 dual-orifice type nozzles.

Engine-Driven Fuel Pump


One single-stage, positive- 3
displacement, gear-type,
engine-driven fuel pump is 1
mounted on and driven by the
accessory gearbox of each
engine. Each pump functions
to supply clean fuel under
high pressure to the fuel
control unit (FCU) of its asso- 2
ciated engine, and motive flow
pressure to its associated
primary ejector pump. Typical 1. Fuel Pump Body
pump capacity is 3935 PPH 2. Fuel Filter Housing (inlet)
and 580 PSI at 100% N2. Fuel 3. Fuel Filter Housing (outlet)
entering the pump passes through a 74 micron, wire mesh inlet
filter before entering the pump chamber. The inlet filter is self
relieving at 9 to 12 PSID should it become obstructed. Exiting
the pump chamber, high pressure fuel passes through a 10
micron, nonmetallic, disposable outlet filter en route to the FCU.
A spring-loaded, ball-type, bypass valve, preset to open at 40
to 60 PSID, allows high pressure fuel to bypass the outlet filter
element should it become obstructed. Pump chamber inlet
pressure is maintained by a jet pump nozzle located upstream
of the inlet filter. When pump pressure exceeds metered pres-
sure, a portion of FCU bypass fuel is returned to the pump
chamber inlet through this nozzle.

Fuel Control Unit (FCU)


The fuel control unit (FCU) is mounted on and driven by the
engine-driven fuel pump through an integral splined coupling
shaft. The FCU determines the correct fuel schedule to pro-
duce desired engine power in response to THROTTLE lever
movement. Major components include the fuel metering sec-
tion, computing section, and N2 governing section. Other
associated components include a T2 temperature compensator
and step modulator.

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Fuel Metering Section


The fuel metering section includes a pressure relief valve,
metering valve, and bypass valve. Unmetered fuel pressure
(P1) is supplied to the FCU from the engine-driven fuel pump.
The pressure relief valve functions to prevent system
overpressurization by opening when P1 exceeds 1260 PSID,
thereby returning excess fuel pressure (P0) to the pump inlet.
The metering valve is essentially a tapered needle valve posi-
tioned by the FCU computing section to regulate fuel flow to the
engine. The bypass valve functions to maintain a constant 15 to
24 PSI differential (delta P) between P1 and metered fuel pres-
sure (P2) across the metering valve orifice. Because bypass
valve position and fuel flow are functions of metering valve
position, the bypass valve responds to increased fuel flow
through the metering valve by decreasing the amount of P0
returned to the pump inlet. When fuel flow through the metering
valve is decreased, the bypass valve responds by increasing
the amount of P0 returned to the pump inlet.

1. Fuel Control Unit 3. Throttle Lever Input


2. Fuel Outlet (P2) 4. Fuel Bypass Line

Minimum flow through the metering valve is factory adjusted to


approximately 155 to 160 pounds per hour (LBS/HR) to provide
the correct amount of fuel flow for engine starting and to pre-
vent engine failure during rapid deceleration.

ENGINES 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 2-11


Computing Section
The computing section includes a pneumatic governor bellows
and an acceleration bellows connected to a common torque
tube linkage that positions the metering valve. In combination,
these components control acceleration, deceleration, and
steady engine operating states in response to pneumatic sig-
nals supplied by the N2 governing section.

The body of the computing section is divided into two cham-


bers separated by the governor bellows. The upper chamber is
supplied with Py (governing) pressure; the lower chamber is
supplied with Px (enrichment) pressure. As such, the exterior of
the governor bellows is exposed to Py pressure and the interior
of the governor bellows is exposed to Px pressure. The accel-
eration bellows is sealed at absolute pressure and located
within the lower chamber. The force of Px pressure acting on
the acceleration bellows is cancelled by the force of Px pres-
sure acting on the same area of the interior of the governor
bellows. This “area of cancellation” ensures that any change in
Py pressure will have a greater effect on metering valve posi-
tion than an equal change in Px pressure.

Because Px and Py are derived from P3 (compressor dis-


charge air), and because P3 is proportional to N2 and air
density, the acceleration bellows provides an absolute pressure
reference to compensate for reduced air density at higher
altitudes. An air filter is installed in-line to prevent foreign mate-
rial present in the P3 air from entering the FCU.

N2 Governing Section
The N2 governing section is associated primarily with engine
speed setting and speed control. Major components include a
speed scheduling cam, governor flyweights, feedback springs,
a governor lever, enrichment lever, enrichment valve, and
backup valve.

The speed scheduling cam sets feedback spring resistance in


response to THROTTLE lever position. The smaller of the two
feedback springs resists enrichment lever movement; the
larger spring resists governor lever movement. The enrichment
valve is spring-loaded open and regulates the introduction of
P3 air into the body of the N2 governing section in response to
enrichment lever movement. Movement of the governor lever
regulates the bleeding of Py air to the atmosphere through
vents in the body of the N2 governing section.

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The flyweights are driven by the FCU coupling shaft such that
their lifting force varies with engine speed. Above approxi-
mately 85% N2, when flyweight lifting force is sufficient to
overcome the resistance of the smaller feedback spring, the
enrichment lever moves the enrichment valve toward closed
and less P3 air enters the FCU. As flyweight lifting force in-
creases, the enrichment lever makes contact with the governor
lever pivoting about the same point. When flyweight lifting force
is sufficient to overcome the resistance of the larger feedback
spring, the enrichment lever moves the governor lever toward
open and more Py pressure is bled to the atmosphere. The
corresponding decrease in Py pressure at the computing
section moves the metering valve toward closed and reduces
fuel flow to the engine. Conversely, an increase in Py pressure
at the computing section moves the metering valve toward
open and increases fuel flow to the engine. When Px and Py
are simultaneously decreased during decceleration or in-
creased during acceleration, Py pressure will have a greater
effect on metering valve position than Px pressure.

Following a change in power setting, the corresponding “lag” in


Px and Py pressure change at the computing section regulates
the transition from the previous fuel flow rate through the meter-
ing valve to that which will produce the desired engine power.
As such, an excessively lean condition or excessively rich
condition are prevented. When the sum of all forces acting on
the position of the metering valve are in equilibrium, fuel flow
and N2 remain essentially constant.

The backup (overspeed) valve is spring-loaded closed and


normally seals a secondary governing air pressure (Py) orifice
plumbed to the computing section. When N2 exceeds the
selected speed by approximately 9%, the valve is forced open
by the governor lever and more Py pressure is bled to the
atmosphere. The corresponding rapid decrease in Py pressure
at the computing section moves the metering valve toward
closed and reduces fuel flow to the engine, thereby preventing
N2 overspeed.

ENGINES 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 2-13


1. T2 Temperature Compensator
The T2 temperature compensator functions to maintain consis-
tent acceleration response by modifying the engine’s fuel flow
schedule for variations in outside air temperature. To accom-
plish this, the unit incorporates a bimetallic disk temperature
probe that senses ambient air temperature, and a metering pin
that regulates the bleeding of Px pressure to the atmosphere
through vents in the compensator housing. The metering pin is
spring-loaded open and moves toward closed when the bime-
tallic disks expand under increasing temperature. As such, Py
pressure at the computing section is increased and decreased
inversely proportional to bypass air temperature.

2
1

2. Step Modulator
The step modulator functions to maintain consistent accelera-
tion response by maintaining a constant P3 supply pressure to
the FCU. To accomplish this, the unit incorporates an electri-
cally-actuated restrictor orifice that is energized open primarily
when the engine ice protection system is activated. When
open, more P3 air than normal is supplied to the FCU to com-
pensate for that consumed in the bleed air heating of induction
air inlet components. The restrictor orifice is also energized
open when the engine ignition system is activated. When
closed, the supply of P3 air to the FCU returns to normal.

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Oil-to-Fuel Heat Exchanger


The oil-to-fuel heat exchanger functions to reduce engine oil
temperature and prevent ice formation in the fuel.

4
2 1

1. Fuel Inlet 3. Oil Inlet Manifold


2. Fuel Outlet 4. Oil Outlet Manifold

The unit consists primarily of a cylindrical outer “shell” and an


inner “core.” The core is formed by 85 transfer tubes which run
axially through the interior of the shell. Fuel from the FCU enters
the core at the forward end of the unit and exits at the aft end of
the unit en route to the flow divider. Oil from the pressure pump
enters the shell through an external inlet port and manifold that
directs the oil to the aft end of the unit. As the oil flows forward
through the interior of the shell, its heat is transferred to the
lower temperature fuel flowing in the opposite direction through
the core. An array of baffles, alternately positioned on opposite
sides of the shell interior, repeatedly diverts the oil laterally over
the core to maximize heat transfer. Upon reaching the forward
end of the unit, the oil exits the shell through an external mani-
fold and outlet port en route to the flow divider.

ENGINES 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 2-15


Flow Divider
The flow divider integrates a minimum pressurizing and flow
divider valve, fuel cut-off valve, spill valve, and dump valve in a
single unit. The minimum pressurizing and flow divider valve
maintains a sufficient minimum system pressure and divides
metered fuel flow between the primary and secondary fuel
manifolds. This plunger-type valve is spring-loaded closed and
opened by fuel pressure. When fuel pressure reaches approxi-
mately 75 PSID, the valve opens to an internal passage that
supplies the primary manifold. When engine speed increases
above approximately 60% N2, increasing fuel pressure further
opens the valve to an internal passage that supplies the sec-
ondary manifold also.

1
7
8
6

5
4
3

1. Flow Divider 5. Primary Outlet


2. Fuel Inlet (P1) 6. Drain Outlet
3. Bypass Outlet 7. Secondary Outlet
4. P3 Line 8. Throttle Linkage

The rotary-type fuel cut-off valve is positioned by the


THROTTLE lever and functions to control fuel flow between the
FCU and the flow divider. When the THROTTLE lever is posi-
tioned to “OFF,” the valve is fully-closed and restricts fuel flow.
When positioned to “IDLE” the valve is fully-open.

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Engine Fuel System Schematic

© PCW

During engine start, when the THROTTLE lever is initially posi-


tioned to “IDLE,” the fuel pressure supplied to the primary
manifold is regulated by the spill valve as a function of P3
pressure. When P3 pressure is low, the spill valve is fully-open
and fuel in excess of that required for engine starting is re-
turned to the pump inlet. As engine speed increases to idle, the
corresponding increase in P3 pressure moves the spill valve
toward closed and progressively less fuel is returned to the
pump inlet. When P3 pressure reaches approximately 30 PSI,
the spill valve is fully-closed.

During engine shutdown, when the THROTTLE lever is posi-


tioned to “OFF” and the cut-off valve is fully-closed, the mini-
mum pressurizing and flow divider valve returns to its spring-
loaded closed position. As fuel pressure falls below approxi-
mately 5 PSI, the dump valve opens and residual fuel is
drained from the primary and secondary manifolds to an EPA
canister mounted below the engine. During engine operation,
the EPA canister is charged with air tapped from the bypass
duct and the residual fuel is returned to the tank. Each return
line incorporates a check valve to prevent backflow from the
fuel tank to the canister. Residual fuel in excess of the canister’s
15-ounce capacity is dumped overboard through a drain tube
that extends through the lower engine cowling.

ENGINES 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 2-17


Fuel Manifold and Nozzles
The fuel manifold consists of primary and secondary transfer
tubes, and twelve manifold adaptors which carry metered fuel
from the flow divider to the fuel nozzles. Each manifold adapter
independently supplies primary and secondary fuel flow to its
associated nozzle. The dual-orifice type nozzles are enclosed
in sheaths which extend into the combustion chamber. Atom-
ized fuel is introduced to the combustion chamber through the
primary orifice when the flow divider is supplying the primary
manifold, or through both the primary and secondary orifices
when the flow divider valve is supplying the primary and sec-
ondary manifolds. Each sheath is slotted to permit the passage
of secondary air for nozzle cooling and improved atomization.

Fuel Drains
Two fuel drains, installed in the 1
6 o’clock position of the gas
generator case below the
combustion chamber, ensure
that all residual fuel which
accumulates in this area is
drained overboard after en-
gine shut down. Each drain is
fitted with a transfer tube that 3
2
carries residual fuel to a com-
mon drain valve installed on
the outer bypass duct. The 1. Combustion Drain Line
drain valve is spring-loaded to 2. Overboard Breather Tube
the open position and held 3. EPA Canister
closed during engine opera-
tion by P3 air pressure. When open, residual fuel is routed to an
overboard breather tube that extends through the lower engine
cowling. Residual fuel is also drained from the inner exhaust
nozzle through an overboard drain line that extends through the
lower engine cowling.

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Ignition System

3
1

1. Spark Igniter
2. Ignition Exciter Box
3. High Tension Wire

The ignition system functions primarily to supply the electrical


spark necessary to initiate combustion during engine start.
Each engine’s ignition system operates independently of the
other and consists of two engine mounted ignition exciters, two-
high tension cables, and two spark igniters. Nominal 28 VDC
power is supplied to the system; however, the system is oper-
able between 9 and 30 VDC.

Note: On airplanes 550-0470 and earlier not incorporating


SB550-74-01 (P&WC SB 7178), each engine is equipped with a
single ignition exciter.

ENGINES 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 2-19


The ignition exciters are sealed boxes which house the compo-
nents that transform DC voltage into high-energy electrical
pulses that are supplied to the spark igniters. The pulses are
supplied to the spark igniters through high tension cables
which are encased in flexible metal braiding for protection from
heat. On engines with dual exciters, each is a single-output
type that supplies its associated igniter only. On engines with a
single exciter, each is a dual-output type that supplies both
ignitors. In either installation, the system is designed such that
one igniter will remain operable should failure of the opposite
igniter occur.

The spark igniters are located at 5 and 7 o’clock positions on


the gas generator case and extend inward to the interior of the
combustion chamber through its outer liner. Each igniter is
comprised of a threaded outer casing and central electrode
separated by a semiconducting material. When the ignition
exciter is energized, a capacitor is progressively charged until
sufficient voltage is produced to ionize the gap between the
positive electrode and the negative casing. When this occurs,
capacitor voltage is discharged across the gap in the form of a
high-energy spark. To extend service life and reduce the risk of
failure, the igniters are cooled by secondary air.

Each engine’s ignition system


is independently controlled by
a corresponding two-position
(ON/NORM) LH or RH IGNI-
TION switch on the lower left
instrument panel. Under most
operating conditions, these
switches should remain in the
“NORM” (off) position. In this
position, ignition system acti-
vation occurs automatically
during engine start and en-
▲ IGNITION SWITCHES
gine ice protection system
operation.

Independent indication of left (LH) or right (RH) ignition system


operation is provided by green lights located above each
IGNITION switch. When power is being supplied to either
system, the corresponding light will be illuminated regardless of
operating condition.

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Ignition System Schematic

© PCW

During engine start, ignition system activation is carried out by


a series of relays in the start control circuit which supply 28
VDC hot battery bus power to the appropriate exciter(s)
through a 7.5-amp IGNITION circuit breaker located in the aft
fuselage electrical power junction “J” box. When the ENGINE
ANTI-ICE switches or IGNITION switches are set to the upper
(on) position, each exciter receives 28 VDC power through its
associated 15-amp LH IGN or RH IGN circuit breaker on the
left CB panel, correspondingly supplied by the left or right main
bus.

Note: The position of the LH IGN and RH IGN circuit breakers


has no effect on ignition system operation during the engine
starting sequence.

Note: The IGNITION switches should be positioned to “ON”


during takeoff, approach and landing, and turbulent air pen-
etration.

ENGINES 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 2-21


Engine Oil System

The engine oil system consists of pressure, scavenge, and


breather sub-systems. The pressure system pumps oil from the
tank to lubricate and cool all internal moving engine compo-
nents by way of cored passages and transfer tubes. The scav-
enge system returns oil to the tank by way of gravity drains,
transfer tubes, cored passages, and scavenge pumps. The
breather system functions essentially to vent air pressure from
the scavenge oil system. An oil-to-fuel heat exchanger is pro-
vided to regulate engine oil temperature. Engine oil tempera-
ture and pressure indication is provided by the independent
OIL °C and OIL PSI gages on the upper center instrument
panel. Total oil capacity is 2.08 US gallons, of which 1.25 US
gallons are usable.

Oil Tank
The oil tank is integral to the
intermediate case. The tank is
serviced through a filler neck
located on the outboard inter-
mediate case, and is acces-
sible through a hinged door on
the upper cowling. A dipstick,
integral to the filler cap, is
provided for oil level inspec-
tion. The dipstick is calibrated
to indicate the approximate
▲ OIL FILLER NECK
tank quantity in US quarts
when the engine is hot, therefore, oil level should be inspected
within ten minutes of engine shutdown.

Note: The engine should be serviced with approved synthetic


oils listed in the most current revision of P&WC SB 7001.

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Engine Oil System Schematic

© PCW

Oil Pressure System


Engine oil pressure is devel-
oped by a gear-type pressure
pump that is mounted on and
shaft-driven by the accessory
gear box (AGB). The pressure
pump is integral to an oil
pump assembly that also
houses the scavenge pumps.
From the tank, oil is drawn
through a filter screen to the
inlet side of the pump. Engine
▲ OIL PUMP ASSEMBLY
oil pressure developed by the
pump is routed through an external transfer tube to an assem-
bly that houses a pressure regulating valve, check valves, oil
filter, and filter bypass valve. The spring-loaded, piston-type
pressure regulating valve prevents operating pressure from
exceeding 73 ± 6 PSI by diverting excess oil pressure back to
the pump inlet. Regulated oil pressure is directed through the
oil-to-fuel heat exchanger en route to the oil filter.

ENGINES 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 2-23


The oil filter utilizes a 10 micron, cartridge-type element which
prevents particles of foreign matter present in the oil from
circulating through the engine. Should the filter element be-
come partially restricted or blocked, an integral spring-loaded
bypass valve permits continued though unfiltered oil flow to the
engine. The bypass valve is opened when the differential be-
tween filter inlet and outlet pressure reaches approximately 15
to 24 PSID.

4
3
2

1. Oil Filter Housing


2. Fuel Filter Housing
3. Oil Pressure Regulating Valve
4. Oil-to-Fuel Heat Exchanger

The check valves open at 5 PSI when the engine is operating to


permit oil flow from the pressure pump to the engine, and from
the pressure regulating valve to the pump inlet. When the
engine is not operating, the check valves function to prevent
gravity draining of oil from the tank to the bearing cavities
(primarily after engine shutdown), and allow the oil filter to be
removed for inspection without draining the tank.

From the filter, pressure oil flow is divided into three paths. The
first path directly supplies the AGB through an internal transfer
tube. The second path supplies the N1 shaft front (#1) bearing,
the N2 shaft front and rear (#2 and #3) bearings, and the tower
shaft bevel gears through an external transfer tube and internal
passages. The third path supplies the N1 shaft intermediate
and rear (#3½ and #4) bearings through an external transfer
tube and internal passages. Labyrinth air seals are used to
confine pressure oil to the bearing compartments.

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Scavenge System
The scavenge system incorporates a pair of gear-type pumps
that are integral to the oil pump assembly and shaft-driven by
the AGB. The gearshaft that drives the oil pressure and scav-
enge pumps also drives the N2 tachometer generator.

Scavenge oil gravity drains from the #1, 2, 3, and #3½ bearings
to the AGB assisted by secondary air pressure from the bear-
ing compartment labyrinth seals. Scavenge oil from the #4
bearing is drawn through an external transfer tube by the
smaller of the two scavenge pumps. Scavenge oil from the
AGB is drawn through a filter screen by the larger scavenge
pump. From these pumps, scavenge oil is returned to the tank
through an external transfer tube and internal passage.

Breather System
The breather system incorporates a centrifugal impeller driven
by the AGB main shaft which also drives the starter/generator.
The impeller, also referred to as the centrifugal breather, sepa-
rates air from the AGB scavenge oil by centrifugal force. In
operation, air is drawn radially inward while oil is thrown radially
outward. Once separated, the relatively oil-free air is vented to
the atmosphere through an overboard breather tube that ex-
tends through the lower engine cowling.

ENGINES 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 2-25


Engine Controls

Primary engine control is provided by left and right THROTTLE


levers located on the center pedestal between the pilot’s and
copilot’s seats. When thrust reversers are optionally installed,
thrust reverser control levers are mounted “piggyback” on the
THROTTLE levers. When the engine synchronizer system is
optionally installed, an ENGINE SYNC selector switch is also
located on the center pedestal.

1. Throttle Levers 3. Thrust Reverser Lever


2. Release Triggers 4. Engine Sync Switch

Throttle Levers
The THROTTLE levers function to set engine speed and shut
down the engines. To accomplish this, THROTTLE lever move-
ment is transmitted to its associated FCU by “controlex” cables
and bellcrank assemblies. The FCU, in turn, is mechanically-
linked to the flow divider cut-off valve by an interconnect rod.

When positioned forward of IDLE, the THROTTLE lever sets the


FCU to maintain the selected engine speed. When positioned
to “IDLE,” the FCU is set to provide approximately 49% N2
minimum. The IDLE position also provides the correct fuel
schedule during engine start. When positioned to “OFF,” the
flow divider cut-off valve restricts fuel flow to the engine.

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A detent prevents inadvertent THROTTLE lever movement from


“IDLE” to “OFF.” To clear this detent, spring-loaded triggers on
the outboard sides of the levers must be lifted.

Throttle lever friction is adjusted using an INCREASE FRICTION


knob located on the right side of the control pedestal. Rotating
this knob clockwise increases throttle lever friction; counter-
clockwise rotation decreases friction.

Thrust Reverser Levers


The thrust reverser (TR) levers are mounted on the THROTTLE
levers and function to control thrust reverser operation. To
accomplish this, independent left and right, deploy and stow
microswitches, located within the center pedestal, are actuated
by TR lever movement. The deploy switches are actuated when
the TR levers are pulled aft; the stow switches are actuated
when the TR levers are pushed forward. When these switches
are actuated, corresponding deploy or stow solenoids integral
to the thrust reverser control valves are energized, thereby
positioning these valves to permit thrust reverser operation as
selected.

To prevent inadvertent thrust reverser operation, the


THROTTLE levers must be set to “IDLE” before the TR levers
can be moved. During thrust reverser transition, the throttle
feedback system holds the throttle linkage at idle until the
reverser doors are fully-deployed or fully-stowed. A pair of
locking solenoids prevents aft movement of the TR levers to
increase reverse thrust until the reverser doors are fully-de-
ployed. TR lever stops limit reverse thrust N1 to approximately
92% in sea level ISA conditions. Refer to the thrust reverser
section of this chapter for functional detail.

Warning: The THROTTLE levers should not be restrained manu-


ally or by lever friction during takeoff as this will prevent the
throttle feedback system from automatically returning the
throttle linkage and THROTTLE levers to “IDLE” should inad-
vertent thrust reverser deployment occur.

ENGINES 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 2-27


Engine Synchronizer Selector Switch
The ENGINE SYNC selector switch is located aft of the right
THROTTLE lever on the center pedestal and functions to con-
trol engine synchronizer system operation. When positioned to
“FAN,” the system synchronizes left (master) and right (slave)
fan RPM (N1). When positioned to “TURB,” the system synchro-
nizes turbine RPM (N2). When positioned to “OFF,” the system
is deactivated. Refer to the engine synchronizer section of this
chapter for functional detail.

Automatic Fuel Shutoff Control


The automatic fuel shutoff control is a mechanically-operated
system that functions to shutdown the engine in the event of #4
bearing failure or N2 shaft decoupling. To accomplish this, the
system incorporates an actuator rod that is linked by bellcrank
to a piston-type valve. Should 0.070” rearward, axial displace-
ment of the N2 shaft occur, N2 shaft contact with the rod will
actuate the valve thereby cutting off the supply of fuel to the
nozzles.

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Engine Indicating System

The engine indicating system provides visual indication of


critical engine operating parameters and provides annunciation
where these parameters are exceeded. Each engine’s indicat-
ing system operates independently of the other and includes
an N1 (fan) tachometer generator, inter-turbine temperature
(ITT) sensing system, fuel flow transmitter, N2 (turbine) tachom-
eter generator, oil pressure transmitter, and oil temperature
sensor which supply input signals to the corresponding left or
right channel of their associated gages. Other engine indica-
tions are displayed on the annunciator panel.

The primary engine gages are arranged in a horizontal row on


the upper center instrument panel. From left to right these are
FAN % RPM, ITT, FUEL FLOW, TURBINE % RPM, OIL TEMP,
and OIL PRESS. With the exception of the TURBINE % RPM
digital readout, indication is provided by the position of inde-
pendent left (L) and right (R) vertical tape bars relative to a
graduated, vertical instrument scale. The FAN % RPM gage
also features a digital readout. Where appropriate, colored
markings on the instrument scale denote operating ranges and
limitations corresponding to the indicated parameter.

Fan Tachometer
The FAN tachometer provides indica-
tion of N1 shaft rotational speed in %
RPM, with 100% equaling approxi-
mately 15,904 RPM. The instrument
scale is graduated in 10% incre-
ments between 20 and 90%, and 2%
increments between 90 and 110%.
Numerical values are marked at each
10% increment between 20 and
110%. Green markings between 25
and 104% denote the normal indicat-
ing range. Red warning lines at
104% denote the maximum N1
limitation (16,540 RPM). Input signals
are supplied to each channel of the
gage by its associated left or right
N1 tachometer generator located on
the upper intermediate case.

ENGINES 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 2-29


The digital readout on the lower instrument face provides
supplemental indication of FAN % RPM. The readout displays
in tenths between 00.0 and 99.9%. A mechanical counter,
mounted above the gage, may be set to reference a target
power setting.

Each channel of the gage receives 28 VDC power through its


associated 2-amp LH FAN SPEED or RH FAN SPEED circuit
breaker, correspondingly supplied by the left or right main bus.
When power is removed from either channel, the affected
digital readout will be extinguished. The vertical tape indicating
portion of the gage is essentially “self-generating” and will
remain operable above 50 N1 even when power is removed
from the instrument. No OFF flag is provided.

Inter-Turbine Temperature Gage


The ITT gage provides indication of
inter-turbine temperature in °C. The
instrument scale is graduated in
100° increments between 200 and
800°C, and 10° increments be-
tween 500 and 800°C. Numerical
values are marked at each 100°
increment between 200 and 800°C.
Green markings between 150 and
680°C denote the normal indicating
range. Yellow markings between
680 and 700°C denote the caution
range. Red warning lines at 700°C
denote the maximum ITT limitation
during engine start, which is time
limited to 2-seconds.

Note: During normal engine start, ITT indication should not


exceed 500°C.

Note: ITT indication exceeding 500°C during normal engine


start should be investigated for cause.

Each channel of the gage receives 28 VDC power through its


associated 2-amp LH ITT SPEED or RH ITT circuit breaker,
correspondingly supplied by the left or right main bus. A red
OFF warning flag will appear at the top of the vertical scale
whenever power is removed from the corresponding channel of
the gage.

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Input signals are supplied to each channel of the gage by its


associated left or right ITT sensing system which computes a
“simulated” inter-turbine temperature (T5) from signals pro-
duced by eight thermocouple probes. One thermocouple
probe senses inlet air temperature (T2) prior to induction by the
fan. Another senses bypass air temperature (T2.6) within the
outer exhaust nozzle. In combination, the T2 and T2.6 probes
constitute the T1 signal producing elements of the system. Six
probes sensing combustion gas flow temperature within the
inner exhaust nozzle constitute the T6 signal producing ele-
ments of the system.

The bimetallic (alumel/chromel) thermocouples generate a mild


electrical current which varies in response to the temperature
sensed. The T2 and T2.6 probes contain three thermocouples
each, wired in series. The T6 probes contain one thermocouple
each, wired in parallel to compensate for uneven heat distribu-
tion and to obtain an average temperature reading. Each probe
is connected to its associated T1 or T6 wiring harness. The
wiring harnesses are also bimetallic, having an alumel negative
circuit and chromel positive circuit.

In operation, the difference between T2.6 and T2 represents


the temperature rise in non-combusted airflow as it passes
through the bypass duct. Because the three thermocouples in
each of these probes are wired in series, the temperature rise is
multiplied by three to produce the T1 signal. The T1 signal and
composite T6 signal are corrected for sampling errors by a
variable resistor. The variable resistor is set to a required trim
value during final engine acceptance checks and is sealed at
that setting. The sum of the corrected signals, computed from
the formula T1 + T6 = T5, is displayed by the ITT gage.

ENGINES 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 2-31


Fuel Flow Gage
The FUEL FLOW gage provides
indication of engine fuel flow in LBS/
HR. The instrument scale is gradu-
ated in 100 pound per hour incre-
ments between 0 and 2000 LBS/HR.
Numerical values are marked at each
200 pound per hour increment be-
tween 0 and 2000 LBS/HR. Input
signals are supplied to each channel
of the gage by its associated left or
right fuel flow transmitter.

Each channel of the gage receives 28 VDC power through its


associated 2-amp LH FUEL FLOW or RH FUEL FLOW circuit
breaker, correspondingly supplied by the left or right main bus.
A red OFF warning flag will appear at the top of the vertical
scale whenever power is removed from the corresponding
channel of the gage. Refer to Chapter 3 for a complete descrip-
tion of the fuel flow indicating system.

Turbine Tachometer
The TURBINE tachometer provides
digital indication of high pressure
(N2) shaft rotational speed in %
RPM, with 100% equaling approxi-
mately 32,760 RPM. The readout
displays in tenths between 00.0 and
99.9%, and single-digits above
100%. A red light is located below each digital readout. When
N2 reaches the maximum 96% limitation (31,450 RPM), the
corresponding light will illuminate and readout will flash. Input
signals are supplied to each channel of the gage by its associ-
ated left or right N2 tachometer generator installed on the
forward AGB.

Each channel of the gage receives 28 VDC power through its


associated 2-amp LH TURB SPEED or RH TURB SPEED circuit
breaker, correspondingly supplied by the left or right main bus.
When power is removed from either channel, the affected
digital readout will be extinguished.

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Engine Oil Temperature Gage


The OIL TEMP gage provides indica-
tion of oil temperature in °C. The
instrument scale is graduated in 10°
increments between 0 and 130°C.
Numerical values are marked at each
20° increment between 0 and 120°C.
Green markings denote the normal
indicating range. Red warning lines
at 121°C denote the maximum oil
temperature limitation. Input signals
are supplied to each channel of the
gage by its associated left or right oil
temperature sensor installed in the oil filter housing.

Each channel of the gage receives 28 VDC power through its


associated 2-amp LH OIL TEMP or RH OIL TEMP circuit
breaker, correspondingly supplied by the left or right main bus.
A red OFF warning flag will appear at the top of the vertical
scale whenever power is removed from the corresponding
channel of the gage.

Engine Oil Pressure Gage


The OIL PRESS gage provides indi-
cation of oil pressure in PSI. The
instrument scale is graduated in 10
PSI increments between 0 and 100
PSI. Numerical values are marked at
each 20 PSI increment between 0
and 100 PSI. Green markings denote
the normal indicating range. Yellow
markings denote the low pressure
caution range. Red warning lines at
35 PSI denote the minimum oil pres-
sure limitation. Input signals are
supplied to each channel of the gage
by its associated left or right oil pressure transmitter installed in
the oil filter housing.

Each channel of the gage receives 28 VDC power through its


associated 2-amp LH OIL PRESS or RH OIL PRESS circuit
breaker, correspondingly supplied by the left or right main bus.
A red OFF warning flag will appear at the top of the vertical
scale whenever power is removed from the corresponding
channel of the gage.

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Should oil pressure fall below approximately 35 PSI, a red [LH]
or [RH] [OIL PRESS WARN] annunciator (550-0550 an after) or
[L OIL PRESS LO] or [R OIL PRESS LO] annunciator (550-0505
and earlier) will illuminate. Input signals are supplied by an oil
pressure transmitter and low pressure switch installed on the
AGB.

Note: The normal oil pressure indicating range applies to en-


gine speeds above 60% N2.

Caution: Engine operation at oil pressures below 70 PSI is un-


desirable. Should oil pressure fall below 70 PSI in-flight, flight
may be completed at oil pressures between 35 and 70 PSI
when engine power is reduced.

Warning: Engine operation at oil pressures below 35 PSI is un-


safe. Should oil pressure fall below 35 PSI in-flight, the airplane
should be landed as soon as possible using the minimum en-
gine power required to sustain flight.

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Engine Starting System

Engine starting is accomplished semi-automatically by inde-


pendent left and right start control circuits which activate and
deactivate the starter/generator, ignition system, and boost
pump through a series of relays. The engines may be started
using battery power or external power. With one engine operat-
ing, the opposite engine may also be started using generator
power. LH and RH momentary-on, push-button ENGINE START
switches, located on the lower left instrument panel, control
start sequence activation. A STARTER DISENGAGE switch,
located between the ENGINE START switches, permits manual
termination of the start sequence. Either engine may be started
first, however, the left engine is typically started first due to its
proximity to the battery.

Of the numerous relays in each start control circuit, only three


are associated primarily with engine starting, these are the
auxiliary (aux) start relay, start relay, and start control relay. A
left engine start sequence is activated by pressing and releas-
ing the LH ENGINE START switch. The resulting momentary
flow of current energizes the aux start relay, after which it re-
mains energized through a latching circuit. Current flowing
across the closed contacts of the aux start relay simultaneously
energizes the start relay and start control relay and illuminates
the engine instrument floodlights.

ENGINES 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 2-35


With the start relay energized, the LH ENGINE START switch
illuminates and the starter-generator begins turning the engine.
Current flowing across the closed contacts of the start control
relay energizes the left boost pump and illuminates the amber
[LH] [FUEL BOOST ON] annunciator (550-0550 and after) or [L
FUEL BOOST ON] annunciator. When N2 reaches 8 to 10%,
lifting the spring-loaded trigger and advancing the left
THROTTLE lever to “IDLE” opens the flow divider cut-off valve
to supply fuel to the engine. Simultaneously, a throttle position
switch permits current flow across the closed contacts of the
start control relay to the ignition system and illuminates the
green light above the LH IGNITION switch.

From this point on, normal initiation of combustion should be


indicated by a steady rise in N1, N2, and ITT. If no indication of
N1 exists when N2 reaches 20 to 25%, or if ITT approaches
700°C or fails to rise within 10-seconds, the start sequence
should be manually terminated by pressing the STARTER
DISENGAGE switch. If indications are normal, the start control
circuit will automatically terminate the start sequence by
deenergizing the aux start relay, thereby deenergizing the start
relay and start control relay, under the following conditions:

On airplanes 550-0406 and after, and earlier airplanes incorpo-


rating SB550-28-1, the starting sequence is terminated by the
engine speed sensing circuit of the generator control unit
(GCU) when N2 reaches approximately 40%. On airplanes 550-
0405 and earlier not incorporating SB550-28-1, the starting
sequence is terminated by the motive flow pressure switch
when the engine-driven fuel pump is supplying at least 180 ± 5
PSI motive flow to the primary ejector pump. This pressure is
typically achieved when N2 reaches approximately 30%.
Should the motive flow switch fail to open, the engine speed
sensing circuit of the GCU will terminate the starting sequence
when N2 reaches approximately 40%.

Note: During normal engine start, ITT indication should not


exceed 500°C.

Note: ITT indication exceeding 500°C during normal engine


start should be investigated for cause.

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The following precautions apply primarily during engine starting


and ramp area ground operations.

Warning: An engine running at higher power is capable of


generating sufficient suction to pull a person into the intake
duct; even the suction generated by an idling engine is ca-
pable of pulling small objects through the intake duct sufficient
to cause injury to persons and/or engine damage. As a rule,
personnel and equipment should not be positioned within an
arc extending a minimum of 25 feet forward of and 90° either
side of the intake duct when starting or running the engine.

Warning: An engine running at higher power is capable of


generating an exhaust wake sufficient in temperature and
velocity to cause injury to persons and/or damage to property.
During engine start, it is possible for accumulated fuel within
the exhaust duct to be ejected from the engine as long streams
of flame. Exhaust gases can cause respiratory and/or eye
irritation. At high engine speeds, the jet wake may propel loose
dirt, sand, stones, and/or other debris for considerable dis-
tances. As a rule, personnel, equipment, structures, and flam-
mable material should be clear of an area extending aft from
the exhaust nozzle to a minimum width of 30 feet and a mini-
mum distance of 160 feet when starting or running an engine.

ENGINES 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 2-37


Engine Synchronizer System

The engine synchronizer system automatically matches the fan


or turbine speed of the right (slave) engine to the left (master)
engine. Major components of the system include a control box,
motorized speed setting actuator, trimmer assembly, flexible
drive shaft, selector switch, and indicator light.

The control box monitors RPM


signals supplied by the N1
(fan speed) and N2 (turbine
speed) tachometer generators
of each engine and provides
operating commands to the
speed setting actuator. The
speed setting actuator, lo-
cated within the right engine
pylon, operates the trimmer
assembly via the flexible drive
shaft. The trimmer assembly
▲ SPEED SETTING ACTUATOR
adjusts the right (slave)
engine’s fuel control unit to maintain N1 or N2 within 1.5% of the
left (master) engine. Based on the RPM signals received and
the mode selected, the control box commands the speed
setting actuator to adjust slave N1 or N2

The system is controlled by


the ENGINE SYNC selector
switch located aft of the right
THROTTLE lever on the center
pedestal. When positioned to
“FAN,” the system synchro-
nizes N1. When positioned to
“TURB,” the system synchro-
nizes N2. When positioned to
“OFF,” the system is deacti-
vated. The amber indicator
light, located adjacent to the
▲ ENGINE SYNCHRONIZER SWITCH
selector switch, illuminates
when the engine synchronizer system is operating.

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The “FAN” position should be selected when passenger com-


fort is a primary consideration, because fan speed mismatch is
more noticeable in the passenger cabin. The “TURB” position
should be selected when crew comfort is a primary consider-
ation, because turbine speed mismatch is more noticeable in
the flight compartment.

On airplanes 550-0165 and earlier, indication of synchronizer


system performance may be monitored using an optional
synchroscope mounted to the right of the engine instruments
on the upper center instrument panel.

The engine synchronizer system is powered by 28 VDC from


the left main bus (550-0550 and after) or right main bus (550-
0505 and earlier). Circuit protection is provided by a 5-amp
(550-0626 and earlier) or 2-amp (550-0627 and after) ENGINE
SYNC circuit breaker located on the left CB panel.

ENGINES 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 2-39


Thrust Reverser System

Optional external target-type thrust reversers may be installed


allowing engine thrust to be used to help decelerate the air-
plane during landing rollout. The thrust reversers consist of two
hydraulically-actuated doors per engine. Each door is attached
to the outer exhaust nozzle by means of an aluminum support
casting and four interconnecting links. The interconnecting
links are attached to sliding carriage mechanisms that are
driven by the hyrdraulic actuators. When deployed, the re-
verser doors are positioned behind the exhaust nozzles. The
upper doors direct thrust upward and forward; the lower doors
direct thrust downward and forward. When stowed, the reverser
doors are flush contoured to form the aft portion of the engine
nacelle. The reverser doors are held in the stowed position by
the overcenter locking design of the linkage.

Thrust Reverser Hydraulics

Hydraulic pressure for thrust reverser operation is supplied by


the same system that supplies the and landing gear and speed
brakes. This section will describe the various valves and
switches that control thrust reverser operation. Refer to Chapter
8 for a complete description of the hydraulic system.

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Thrust Reverser Control Valves


The solenoid-operated thrust reverser control valves function to
direct hydraulic pressure to, and return flow from, the deploy or
stow ports of their corresponding actuators. To accomplish this,
each control valve contains an internal selector spool that is
spring-loaded to a neutral position and operated by indepen-
dent deploy and stow solenoids. In the neutral position, when
both solenoids are deenergized, the deploy and stow ports are
both connected to the return line so that hydraulic pressure will
not be trapped in the lines between each control valve and its
associated actuators. When the deploy solenoid is energized,
the selector spool is positioned to direct hydraulic pressure to
the deploy ports of the actuators, and direct return flow from
the stow ports of the actuators to the reservoir. Conversely,
when the stow solenoid is energized, the selector spool is
positioned to direct hydraulic pressure to the stow ports, and
direct return flow from the deploy ports to the reservoir.

The solenoids are energized and deenergized primarily by the


thrust reverser (TR) levers through corresponding deploy and
stow microswitches. The deploy solenoid is energized through
the deploy microswitch when its associated TR lever is pulled
aft to the “idle deploy” position. The stow solenoid is energized
through the stow microswitch when its associated TR lever is
pushed forward to the “stow” position.

To prevent overheating the deploy solenoid when energized,


holding voltage is gradually reduced from 28 VDC to 6 VDC by
a transistorized circuit while its associated thrust reverser doors
are deployed. To prevent overheating the stow solenoid, limit
switches deenergize the solenoid when its associated thrust
reverser doors are fully-stowed.

Thrust Reverser Isolation Valves


The thrust reverser isolation valves, installed upstream of each
control valve pressure inlet, function to isolate the hydraulic
components of the corresponding thrust reverser system from
the main hydraulic system when the thrust reversers are not in
use. The isolation valves are normally spring-loaded closed,
and energized open primarily by the TR levers through the
deploy and stow microswitches. Each isolation valve remains
open when its associated TR lever is in the “idle deploy” posi-
tion, and closes when its associated thrust reverser doors are
fully-stowed.

ENGINES 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 2-41


Check Valves and Restrictors
Check valves are installed in the return line to prevent reverse
fluid flow through the control valve and isolation valve. A re-
strictor is installed between the control valve and the actuator
stow ports to prevent the rate of return flow from the actuators
from exceeding the rate of pressure flow to the actuators when
the thrust reversers are deployed at ground speeds above 120
knots.

Thrust Reverser Levers


Thrust reverser operation is controlled by the TR levers
mounted “piggyback” on the THROTTLE levers. To prevent
inadvertent thrust reverser operation, the THROTTLE levers
must be set to “IDLE” before the TR levers can be moved.
Additionally, thrust reverser deployment is inhibited by either
main gear safety switch when the airplane is in flight.

During thrust reverser transition, the throttle feedback system


holds the throttle linkage at idle until the reverser doors are
fully-deployed or fully-stowed. A pair of locking solenoids
prevents aft movement of the TR levers to increase reverse
thrust until the reverser doors are fully-deployed.

Warning: The THROTTLE levers should not be restrained manu-


ally or by lever friction during takeoff as this will prevent the
throttle feedback system from automatically returning the
throttle linkage and THROTTLE levers to “IDLE” should inad-
vertent thrust reverser deployment occur.

Note: The thrust reversers should be deployed only during


landing rollout following touchdown and only after all three
wheels are on the ground. Thrust reverser deployment prior to
nose wheel touchdown can generate sufficient pitch up move-
ment to cause aft fuselage contact with the ground.

Note: The thrust reversers should not be deployed during


touch-and-go landings due to increased takeoff distance result-
ing from the time required to restow the reverser doors prior to
takeoff power being set.

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Thrust Reverser Deployment


Thrust reverser deployment is initiated by pulling the TR levers
aft to the “idle deploy” position. In this position, the control valve
deploy solenoid, isolation valve, and hydraulic system center
valve are energized to permit thrust reverser deployment.

1 2

1. Stow Position
2. Idle Deploy Position
3. Full Reverse Position 3

When the center valve is


energized and hydraulic
pressure is being supplied to
the thrust reversers, the amber
[HYD PRESS ON] annunciator
will be illuminated. When
pressure downstream of each
isolation valve reaches ap-
proximately 200 PSI, a pressure switch causes the correspond-
ing amber [ARM] annunciator on the glareshield panel to illumi-
nate. As the actuators begin driving the sliding carriages for-
ward along guides rods to extend the interconnecting links and
deploy the doors, a stow limit switch is actuated causing the
corresponding amber [UNLOCK] annunciator on the glare-
shield panel to illuminate. When the doors have fully-deployed,
a deploy limit switch is actuated causing the corresponding
white [DEPLOY] annunciator on the glareshield panel to illumi-
nate.

Following thrust reverser deployment, engine thrust is in-


creased by pulling the TR levers further aft. Full reverse thrust
is obtained when the TR levers are positioned fully-aft against
their stops. The TR lever stops limit reverse thrust N1 to ap-
proximately 92% in sea level ISA conditions.

ENGINES 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 2-43


Thrust Reverser Deployment Schematic

© PCW

Thrust Reverser Stowed Schematic

© PCW

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Thrust Reverser Stowage


Thrust reverser stowage is initiated by pushing the TR levers
forward to the “stow” position. In this position, the control valve
deploy solenoid, isolation valve, and hydraulic system center
valve are energized to permit thrust reverser stowage.

As the actuators begin driving the sliding carriages aft, the


corresponding [DEPLOY] annunciator extinguishes. When the
doors are fully-stowed, the corresponding [UNLOCKED] annun-
ciator extinguishes and the control valve deploy solenoid,
isolation valve, and hydraulic system center valve will are
deenergized. In this condition, the [HYD PRESS ON] and
[ARM] annunciators will also be extinguished.

5
3

1. Hydraulic Actuator 4. Stow Limit Switch


2. Sliding Carriage 5. Deploy Limit Switch
3. Interconnect Links 6. Throttle Feedback Linkage

Electrical components of the left and right thrust reverser sys-


tems are supplied with 28 VDC power from the left main bus
and right main bus respectively, through corresponding 7.5-
amp LH and RH THRUST REVERSER (550-0550 and after) or
LH and RH THRU REV (550-0505 and earlier) circuit breakers
on the left CB panel. The control valve and isolation valve
function with an input power of 18 to 30 VDC. When electrical
power is removed from the system, the thrust reversers will fail
to the stowed position providing the linkage is not in its
overcenter position.

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Thrust Reverser
Emergency Stowage
Should either reverser fail to 2
stow in response to TR lever
movement due to failure of the
deploy or stow switches or
due to loss of electrical power
to the control circuit, the
affected reverser(s) can be 1
stowed by positioning the
corresponding emergency
stow switch (STOW SW) to the
“EMER” position. The STOW 1. Emergency Stow Switch
SW for each thrust reverser is 2. Thrust Reverser
correspondingly located on Annunciators
the left and right side of the
glareshield panel. Each emergency stow circuit receives elec-
trical power through the opposite thrust reverser circuit breaker.

Thrust Reverser Emergency Stowage Test


Emergency stow switch function can be verified on the ground
by deploying the reversers normally and then positioning each
switch to “EMER.” In this condition, the reversers should stow
normally, sequentially extinguishing the [DEPLOY] and [UN-
LOCK] annunciators, while the [ARM] and [HYD PRESS ON]
annunciators remain illuminated. After testing, each TR lever
should be returned to the “stow” position, and the correspond-
ing emergency stow switch should be positioned to “NOR-
MAL.”

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Engine Fire Detection and Extinguishing System

This system is designed to give immediate warning and pro-


vides extinguishing capabilities should a fire occur in either
engine nacelle. The system includes thermal detectors, a
detector control unit, two explosive cartridges, two extinguisher
bottles, discharge tubing, and four annunciator/switches.

Thermal Detectors
Each engine is equipped with a thermal detector installed in
high-heat areas within each engine nacelle. The detector con-
sists of a 188-inch flexible steel tube containing a single wire
centered within a highly compacted semiconductor material.
The steel tube is hermetically sealed with fireproof connectors
at each end. The sensing elements form a closed-loop circuit
that detects fire within its associated engine compartment by
decreasing electrical resistance in response to heat.

Detector Control Unit


The detector control unit, located within the aft fuselage, evalu-
ates the resistance of the sensing elements to minimize false
alarms, and illuminates the [ENG FIRE PUSH] annunciator/
switches and sounds a fire warning bell (if installed) when
sensor cable resistance indicates that fire is present within the
nacelle. If resistance gradually falls below the preset fire alarm
point of 200 ohms, the detector control unit illuminates the
appropriate [ENG FIRE PUSH] annunciator/switch and sounds
the fire warning bell. If resistance instantaneously falls below
the preset short discriminating value, indicating a short circuit
rather than a fire, an electronic lockout is actuated that pre-
vents illumination of the [ENG FIRE PUSH] annunciator/switch
and sounding of the fire warning bell.

Explosive Cartridges
The explosive cartridges are pyrotechnic devices installed
within the discharge valve assembly on each extinguisher
bottle. When the corresponding [BOTTLE ARMED PUSH]
annunciator/switch is depressed, its respective explosive
cartridge detonates, rupturing the cartridge housing assembly,
thereby removing the mechanical locking force against the
valve plug and allowing the valve plug to be expelled by extin-
guishing agent pressure. The valve plug and housing assembly
parts are captured by a strainer assembly.

ENGINES 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 2-47


Extinguisher Bottles
The extinguisher bottles,
located within the aft fuselage,
contain Halon-1301 fire extin-
guishing agent pressurized
with dry nitrogen. Each bottle
is equipped with two dis-
charge valves and outlets, a
combination safety outlet/fill
port, and a pressure gage. On
airplanes equipped with thrust
reversers, the bottles are
cylindrical with a capacity of 125 cubic inches. On airplanes
without thrust reversers, the bottles are spherical with a capac-
ity of 86 cubic inches.

Annunciator/Switches
The fire extinguishing system
is controlled using the left and
right red [ENG FIRE PUSH]
and white [BOTTLE ARMED
PUSH] annunciator/switches
on the glareshield panel. The
To prevent inadvertant actua-
tion, the [ENG FIRE PUSH]
annunciator switches are
guarded by hinged, spring-
loaded, transparent covers.

System Operation
If an overheat condition is detected, the appropriate [ENG FIRE
PUSH] annunciator/switch will illuminate. Depressing the [ENG
FIRE PUSH] annunciator/switch closes the corresponding fuel
and hydraulic firewall shutoff valves, takes the corresponding
starter/generator off-line, and arms both extinguisher bottles.
When the appropriate [BOTTLE ARMED PUSH] annunciator/
switch is depressed, the corresponding explosive cartridge is
detonated and extinguishing agent is routed through tubing
and discharged within the forward nacelle. Airplanes equipped
with thrust reversers also discharge extinguishing agent into
the area between the upper thrust reverser door and the engine
exhaust duct assembly through holes in the front flange of the
upper thrust reverser door.

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Engine Fire Detection System Schematic

© PCW

Engine Fire Extinguishing System Schematic

© PCW

ENGINES 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 2-49


The fire extinguishing system is plumbed such that either or
both extinguishing bottles can be discharged into either engine
by pressing the appropriate [ENG FIRE PUSH] and [BOTTLE
ARMED PUSH] annunciator/switches.

When each extinguisher bottle has been discharged, the corre-


sponding red [ENG FIRE PUSH] annunciator/switch should no
longer be illuminated, indicating that the fire in the associated
engine has been extinguished. If the [ENG FIRE PUSH] annun-
ciator/switch remains illuminated, the remaining extinguishing
agent can be discharged into the affected engine by pressing
the appropriate [BOTTLE ARMED PUSH] annunciator/switch.

A gage indicating extinguishing agent supply pressure is lo-


cated on each extinguisher bottle within the aft fuselage com-
partment. Each gage provides the only indication that extin-
guishing agent may be leaking from its respective bottle. A
table of acceptable bottle pressures per ambient temperature
is placarded adjacent to each pressure gage and/or printed in
the Operating Limitations section of the Operating Manual.

On airplanes 550-0550 and after, 28 VDC electrical power is


supplied to the left fire detection system and the left firewall
shutoff valves/extinguishing system by the right main bus, and
the right fire detection and the right firewall shutoff valves/
extinguishing system by the left main bus, through correspond-
ing 2-amp LH and RH FIRE DET and 7.5-amp LH and RH F/W
SHUTOFF circuit breakers on the left CB panel. On airplanes
550-0505 and earlier, the left and right fire detection system
and the left and right firewall shutoff valves/extinguishing sys-
tems are supplied with 28 VDC power from the left main bus
and right main bus respectively, through corresponding 2-amp
LH and RH FIRE DETECT circuit breakers on the left CB panel.

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System Testing
A test function is provided to
test the fire detection system
annunciator/actuators and to
check continuity of their asso-
ciated sensors and detector
control units. When the rotary
TEST selector switch on the
lower left instrument panel is
positioned to “FIRE WARN”,
both red [ENG FIRE PUSH]
annunciator/actuators should
▲ TEST SELECTOR SWITCH
illuminate. Pressing either
[ENG FIRE PUSH] annunciator/actuator will then illuminate both
[BOTTLE ARMED PUSH] annunciator/actuators. The fire extin-
guishing system may be tested on the ground or in flight.

Limitations

Refer to the applicable aircraft manufacturers FAA approved


flight manual or approved manual material, markings and
placards, or any combination thereof for all limitations.

Emergency Procedures

Refer to the applicable aircraft manufacturers FAA approved


flight manual or approved manual material (supplementary
checklist) as revised, for procedural information.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Chapter 3
Fuel System

Table of Contents

Overview ............................................... 3-1

Fuel Storage System ............................. 3-1


Fuel Tanks ....................................... 3-1
Servicing........................................... 3-2

Fuel Venting System ............................. 3-5

Fuel Drains ........................................... 3-6

Distribution System ............................... 3-8


Motive Flow Ejector Pumps ................ 3-8
Motive Flow Pressure Switches .......... 3-9
Motive Flow Shutoff Valves ................ 3-9
Boost Pumps .................................... 3-9
Fuel Filters ..................................... 3-11
Maintenance Shutoff Valves ............. 3-11
Fuel Firewall Shutoff Valves ............. 3-12
Crossfeed Valves ............................ 3-13
Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Fuel System, continued

Table of Contents

Fuel System Indication ........................ 3-14


Fuel Quantity Indication ................... 3-14
Low Fuel Level Warning ................... 3-15
Low Fuel Pressure Warning .............. 3-15
Fuel Flow Indication ......................... 3-16
Fuel Remaining/
Consumed Indication ..................... 3-17

Operational Summaries ....................... 3-18


Engine Starting ............................... 3-18
Normal Operation ............................ 3-19
Low Fuel Pressure .......................... 3-19
Crossfeeding ................................... 3-20

Limitations .......................................... 3-26

Emergency Procedures......................... 3-26


Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Overview

This chapter will describe the Cessna Citation II fuel system, its
major components, controls, operation, and indication. The
airplane fuel supply is contained in two independent wing
systems connected by crossfeed lines. Fuel transfer and deliv-
ery of fuel to the engines is carried out by a distribution system
of motive flow ejector pumps, electrically-powered boost
pumps, engine-driven fuel pumps, and control valves. The
distribution system supplies fuel to the engines in excess of
that required for all operations. Indication of fuel quantity and
flow are displayed by gages on the upper center instrument
panel. Other system indications are displayed on the annuncia-
tor panel. Emergency fuel shutoff systems are provided.

Fuel Storage System

The fuel storage system includes the fuel tanks, filler caps,
venting system, and fuel drains.

Fuel Tanks
The airplane fuel supply is stored in one integral tank per wing.
Each tank occupies roughly the entire inner area of the wing
forward of the rear spar, excluding the main wheel well, and is
formed by sealing all structural joints between the extreme
inboard and outboard ribs. The front spars and all interior ribs
incorporate holes that permit fuel migration within the tank.
Outboard interior ribs incorporate baffle plates to prevent rapid
fuel load shift when the airplane transitions to and from a wing-
low attitude. The fuel storage area is chemically-treated and
finished with an epoxy primer for corrosion resistance. During
normal operation, each engine is supplied by its associated
tank. During crossfeeding, fuel may be supplied from one tank
to both engines or, in the event of engine failure, from either
tank to the operative engine. Refer to the fuel system opera-
tional summaries in this chapter for a complete description of
these conditions.

FUEL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 3-1


Each fuel tank is divided into a main area and sump area. The
sump area is located within the main area, inboard of the main
wheel well, and functions as a reservoir to which fuel is either
gravity-fed or transferred, and from which fuel is supplied to the
engines. Each sump area is enclosed by a cover assembly that
houses the boost pump, the primary motive flow ejector pump,
and a pair of flapper-type check valves. The flapper valves
permit the gravity feeding of fuel from the main area to the
sump area while preventing back flow from the sump area to
the main area. This arrangement ensures that sufficient fuel is
contained within each sump area to supply the engines during
all normal maneuvering, and a minimum of five seconds fuel
supply during negative gravity maneuvers not exceeding -0.5
G. Aside from gravity feeding, all other transferring of fuel is
carried out by the distribution system.

Servicing
Each tank is serviced through a single, flush-mounted filler cap
located on the outboard upper surface of the wing. The loca-
tion of the filler caps ensures that sufficient fuel expansion
space will exist within the tanks when topped off. Filler cap
security should be checked during preflight. A fuel nozzle
grounding point is located on the lower surface of each wing
tip.

The fuel tanks have an approximate usable capacity of 371 US


gallons each, and 742 US gallons (5000 LBS) total. The fuel
tanks should be kept full between flights (providing weight and
balance considerations permit) to reduce explosive vapors and
condensation. Maintaining fuel load symmetry during servicing
is unnecessary; however, the maximum permissible asymmetry
is 200 LBS during normal flight operations and 600 LBS in an
emergency.

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Approved fuels are JET A, JET A-1, JET B, JP-4, JP-5, or JP-8,
all with 0.15% PFA55MB anti-icing additive in solution. When
preblended fuel is not available, anti-icing additives conforming
to MIL-I-27686E (Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether (EGME)) or
MIL-I-85470 (Diethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether (DIEGME))
specifications such as “Prist” may be introduced directly into
the nozzle fuel stream during servicing. Concentrations of less
than 0.06% (20 fluid ounces of additive per 260 gallons of fuel
or more) may be insufficient to prevent fuel system icing or
microbiological contamination. Conversely, concentrations of
more than 0.15% (20 fluid ounces of additive per 104 gallons of
fuel or less) could cause damage to internal components of the
fuel system or erroneous fuel quantity indications.

Caution: EGME and DIEGME are aggressive chemicals and


should not exceed 0.15% of fuel volume. Improperly handled,
these materials will damage the epoxy primer and sealants
used in the fuel tanks, O-ring seals, and any part of the
airplane’s exterior finish with which it comes in contact.

Warning: Anti-icing additives containing EGME or DIEGME are


harmful if inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through the skin,
and will cause eye irritation. Refer to all instructions and warn-
ings regarding toxicity and flammability before using these
materials.

All grades of aviation gasoline (AVGAS) conforming to MIL-G-


5572 specifications are approved for use under emergency
circumstances only, providing the airplane is operated in ac-
cordance with related procedures and limitations specified in
the AFM. Use of AVGAS is limited to no more than 3500 US
gallons or 50 hours of engine operation during any period
between engine overhaul. For record keeping purposes, 1 hour
of engine operation may be considered equivalent to 70 US
gallons.

Note: For a complete listing of approved fuels and additives,


refer to the latest revision of Pratt & Whitney Service Bulletin
7144.

Warning: Do not allow open flame or smoking in the vicinity of


the airplane during fuel system servicing.

Warning: Do not operate avionics, communications, or other


electrical equipment on the airplane during fuel system
servicing.

FUEL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 3-3


Warning: Appropriate fire fighting equipment must be available
during fuel system servicing.

Access panels on the lower surface of each wing are provided


to facilitate inspection and maintenance of the fuel tanks as
well as components of the distribution and indicating systems.
These panels incorporate liquid-tight perimeter seals. Prior to
flight, the lower surface of each wing should be inspected for
evidence of fuel leakage. If observed, the source and cause of
leakage should be determined by maintenance personnel and
evaluated against classification criteria and repair action re-
quirements. Generally, light to moderate seepage does not limit
flight operations, unless observed in proximity to the heated
leading edge panels. Conversely, heavy seepage, running
leaks, or any fuel leakage observed in proximity to the heated
leading edge panels require immediate repair before resuming
flight operations.

Caution: Any fuel leakage caused by structural failure such as


cracks, or failure of components such as fuel lines, must be
repaired before resuming flight operations.

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Fuel Venting System

An independent venting sys-


tem is installed within each
wing to equalize external and
internal tank pressures. Each
tank is vented to the atmo-
sphere through a flush-
mounted, NACA-type, anti-
icing vent scoop located on
the outboard lower surface of
the wing. The design of the
vent scoop prevents icing
without the need for supple-
mental heat. Additional venting system components include a
vent float valve, two check valves, a vent line, and a canister-
type vent surge tank (550-0006 and after) located within each
tank. On airplanes 550-0005 and earlier, the vent surge tank is
integral to the wing structure.

Pressure caused by expanding fuel is automatically vented


from the tank through the vent line which extends from the
inboard end of the tank to the vent scoop near the outboard
end of the tank. Air pressure building within the tank normally
enters this line through the vent float valve and escapes to the
atmosphere through the vent scoop. When the float valve is
closed or when the airplane is in a climb attitude with a wing
low, air pressure building within the affected tank enters the
vent line through an opening at its inboard end. When the float
valve is closed during level flight or descent, the check valves
allow ambient air to enter the tank. When the airplane is parked
on an inclined surface such that the float valve is closed, inter-
nal tank pressure caused by expansion will force fuel through
the open end of the vent line to the surge tank inlet. Because
the outlet is positioned higher in the tank than the inlet, fuel
accumulations in the surge tank must reach the level of the
outlet before being forced overboard through the vent scoop.

A secondary venting system is incorporated in the fuel filler


caps to ensure fuel flow in the event of normal venting system
obstruction. Should internal tank pressure drop below external
pressure, the filler cap vent allows ambient air to be drawn into
the tank thereby equalizing these pressures.

Note: All vents should be free of obstructions prior to flight.

FUEL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 3-5


Fuel Drains

Fuel drain valves, used to check for contamination and to


remove water and sediment from the tanks, are located on the
lower surface of each wing. Four (550-0060 and after) or six
(550-0059 and earlier) “quick-drain” type valves are provided
for each fuel tank. One drain valve is also provided for each
fuel filter assembly. All drain valves are actuated by pushing up
the inner portion (poppet) of the valve assembly.

Note: Rotating the poppet of the quick-drain valve assemblies


while draining fuel will lock the valve in its open position. This is
accomplished using a phillips head screwdriver (550-0060 and
after) or flat-bladed screwdriver (550-0059 and earlier).

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Airplanes 550-0409 and after incorporate semi-flush mounted


fuel tank drain valves which permit poppet O-ring replacement
without defueling the airplane or valve assembly removal.

Normal preflight fuel draining procedures will generally remove


most excess water from the fuel tanks. However, small amounts
of water will remain in solution within the fuel. This residual
water will facilitate microbe and bacterial growth in settlement
areas of the fuel system which can lead to fuel flow obstruction
and/or corrosion. To minimize the effects of fuel contamination,
the pilot should ensure that the fuel does not contain unap-
proved additives and has been properly handled by the
source. Before every flight, a sample should be taken from
each fuel tank drain and inspected for contamination. If con-
tamination is detected, draining from that point should continue
until contamination is no longer present. If after continued
draining contamination still exists, the airplane should not be
flown.

Note: Operators not acquainted with a particular airfield should


confirm that the fuel supply there is routinely checked for con-
tamination, contains approved additives, and is properly fil-
tered before allowing the fuel system to be serviced.

Note: At least 30 minutes should elapse between fuel system


servicing and sample taking.

Warning: Under no circumstances should the airplane be flown


with contaminated or unapproved fuel.

FUEL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 3-7


Distribution System

The distribution system functions to maintain a continuous


supply of fuel to the engines in excess of that required for all
operations. Major components of the system include primary
and transfer motive flow ejector pumps, electrically-powered
boost pumps, and engine-driven fuel pumps. Other compo-
nents, located in the “dry bay” area between the front and rear
spars within each lower fuselage to stub wing fairing, include
maintenance shutoff valves, firewall shutoff valves, crossfeed
valves, motive flow check valves, fuel filters, motive flow pres-
sure switches (550-0405 and earlier not incorporating SB550-
28-1), and motive flow valves.

Motive Flow Ejector Pumps


Motive flow ejector pumps are operated by fuel pressure sup-
plied primarily by the engine-driven fuel pumps. During engine
start and crossfeeding, motive flow pressure is supplied by the
boost pumps. One primary ejector pump and two transfer
ejector pumps are located in each fuel tank. The transfer
pumps transfer fuel from the main area of the fuel tank to the
sump area. The primary pump supplies fuel from the sump
area to the engine-driven fuel pump. Each primary ejector
pump operates on bypass fuel from its associated engine-
driven fuel pump when the engine is operating and the engine-
driven fuel pump is developing sufficient pressure to maintain
motive flow. Each pair of transfer ejector pumps operates on
bypass fuel from its associated primary ejector pump.

As motive flow fuel enters each ejector pump through its pres-
sure inlet, pressure is reduced by venturi effect thereby draw-
ing fuel through its suction inlet. The suction inlet incorporates
a wire mesh fuel strainer to prevent solid particles from entering
the pump. A spring-loaded, ball-type check valve is installed in
each primary pump outlet to prevent reverse flow through the
pump when its associated boost pump is in operation. On
airplanes 550-0405 and earlier not incorporating SB550-28-1, a
motive flow pressure switch is located in each primary ejector
pump supply line. Refer to the motive flow pressure switch
description and engine starting operational summary in this
chapter for functional details.

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Motive Flow Pressure Switches


On airplanes 550-0405 and earlier not incorporating
SB550-28-1, a motive flow pressure switch is installed in each
primary ejector pump supply line. Each switch is normally-
closed permitting current flow through the start control circuit to
its respective starter motor, ignition system, and boost pump
during the engine starting sequence. After light-off has oc-
curred and the engine-driven fuel pump is developing at least
180 ± 5 PSI motive flow, the switch is opened interrupting
current flow to the starter motor, ignition system, and boost
pump, thereby terminating the starting sequence. During en-
gine shutdown, as motive flow pressure decreases below
approximately 120 PSI, each switch returns to its normally-
closed position. The motive flow pressure switches should not
be confused with the fuel pressure switches also described in
this chapter.

On airplanes 550-0406 and after, and earlier airplanes incorpo-


rating SB550-28-1, termination of the starting sequence occurs
as a function of engine speed. Refer to the engine starting
operational summary in this chapter for functional details.

Motive Flow Shutoff Valves


An electrically-operated motive flow shutoff valve is installed in
each primary ejector pump supply line. Each shutoff valve is
normally-open permitting motive flow to its corresponding
primary ejector pump. During crossfeeding, the shutoff valve
for the system not supplying fuel is energized closed by 28
VDC power supplied through its associated 15-amp LH BOOST
or RH BOOST circuit breaker on the left CB panel. Refer to the
crossfeeding operational summary in this chapter for functional
details.

Boost Pumps
One electrically-powered, centrifugal-type boost pump is sub-
merged in the sump area of each fuel tank. Each boost pump
provides fuel pressure to its respective engine during engine
start and opposite engine during crossfeeding. During condi-
tions of low fuel pressure or low fuel level, the boost pumps
may be activated to ensure uninterrupted fuel flow to the en-
gines. A check valve is installed in each pump outlet to prevent
reverse flow through the pump when it is not in operation.

FUEL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 3-9


Each boost pump is indepen-
dently controlled by a three-
position (ON/OFF/NORM)
switch labeled FUEL BOOST,
located on the lower left instru-
ment panel. Under most
operating conditions, these
switches should remain in the
“NORM” (normal) position. In
this position, boost pump
activation occurs automati-
cally during engine start,
▲ BOOST PUMP SWITCHES
crossfeeding, and conditions
of low fuel pressure.

During engine start, automatic boost pump activation is carried


out by a series of relays in the start control circuit that supply
28 VDC power to the appropriate pump. During crossfeeding
and conditions of low fuel pressure, automatic boost pump
activation is carried out by various relays and switches that
supply 28 VDC power to the appropriate pump(s). Refer to the
corresponding operational summaries in this chapter for com-
plete descriptions of these conditions.

With the FUEL BOOST switches set to “ON,” 28 VDC power is


supplied directly to each boost pump through its associated
15-amp LH BOOST or RH BOOST circuit breaker on the left CB
panel. In this condition, on airplanes 550-0550 and after, the
left boost pump is supplied by the right main bus and the right
boost pump is supplied by the left main bus. On airplanes 550-
0505 and earlier, the left boost pump and right boost pump are
correspondingly supplied by the left main bus and right main
bus. When set to “OFF,” automatic activation of the boost
pumps will occur only during engine start or crossfeeding as
previously described.

Note: The position of the LH BOOST and RH BOOST circuit


breakers on the left CB panel has no effect on boost pump
operation during the engine starting sequence.

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Indication of boost pump operation is provided by an amber,


three lens [LH] [RH] [FUEL BOOST ON] annunciator (550-0550
and after) or by independent, amber [L FUEL BOOST ON] and
[R FUEL BOOST ON] annunciators (550-0505 and earlier).
When power is being supplied to either boost pump, the corre-
sponding annunciator will be illuminated regardless of operat-
ing condition.

Fuel Filters
Each fuel filter incorporates a disposable paper element that
functions to trap solid particle contaminants present in the fuel.
A differential pressure sensing switch and bypass valve are
integral to each filter head assembly. Should the differential
between filter inlet and outlet pressure exceed approximately
3.75 PSID, the corresponding amber [LH] or [RH] [FUEL FLTR
BYPASS] annunciator (550-0550 and after), or the amber [FUEL
FILT BYPASS] annunciator (550-0505 and earlier) will illuminate
indicating filter element obstruction and an impending bypass
condition. Should this differential exceed approximately 4.75
PSID, the bypass valve will open providing continued though
unfiltered fuel flow to the engine.

A spring-loaded drain valve is installed in the base of each filter


bowl and extends through the lower surface of the stub wing.
Before flight, a sample should be drained from each of these
valves and inspected for contamination. A manually-operated
shutoff valve in the outlet port of each filter head permits re-
placement of the paper element without fuel drainage from the
engine supply line.

Maintenance Shutoff Valves


The maintenance shutoff valves function to isolate components
of the distribution system downstream of the fuel tanks during
maintenance operations. Each ball-type valve is spring-loaded
to the open position and manually closed by rotating its handle
to a detent in the valve body.

FUEL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 3-11


Fuel Firewall Shutoff Valves
The fuel firewall shutoff valves function to terminate fuel supply
in the event of an engine fire. Each ball-type valve is motor-
operated and electrically-controlled by independent [LH ENG
FIRE] and [RH ENG FIRE] annunciator/switches on the glare
shield panel fire tray. A transparent, spring-loaded guard is
installed over each switch to protect against inadvertent
actuation.

When either switch is pressed, the corresponding valve is


closed by 28 VDC power supplied through its associated 7.5-
amp LH F/W SHUTOFF or RH F/W SHUTOFF circuit breaker on
the left CB panel. When fully closed, the corresponding amber
[LH] or [RH] [F/W SHUT OFF] annunciator (550-0550 and after)
or amber [L F/W SHUTOFF] or [R F/W SHUTOFF] annunciator
(550-0505 and earlier) should be illuminated. Additionally, both
[BOTTLE ARMED PUSH] annunciator/switches on the glare
shield panel fire tray should be illuminated. A closed valve may
be reopened by pressing the corresponding annunciator/
switch to release it from its locked position.

Note: The hydraulic firewall shutoff valve is also closed when


the fuel firewall shutoff valve is closed. Refer to Chapter 8 for a
complete description of the hydraulic firewall shutoff valve.
Refer to Chapter 2 for a complete description of the engine fire
protection system.

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Crossfeed Valves
The crossfeed valves
function to permit sup-
plying fuel from one
tank to both engines or,
in the event of engine
failure, from either tank
to the operative engine.
Each ball-type valve is
motor-operated and
electrically-controlled
by a three-position LH
TANK/OFF/RH TANK
CROSSFEED selector
switch on the lower left
instrument panel. When positioned to “LH TANK” or “RH
TANK,” both valves are simultaneously energized open by 28
VDC power supplied through corresponding 15-amp LH
BOOST and RH BOOST circuit breakers on the left CB panel.
When open, either or both engines are supplied with fuel from
the selected tank. When positioned to “OFF,” both valves are
simultaneously deenergized closed and each engine is sup-
plied by its associated tank. Refer to the crossfeeding opera-
tional summary in this chapter for functional details.

Note: During crossfeeding, the motive flow shutoff valve for the
system not supplying fuel is energized closed by 28 VDC
power supplied through the same circuit that opens the
crossfeed valves.

FUEL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 3-13


Fuel System Indication

Indication of fuel quantity and flow are displayed by indepen-


dent gages located on the upper center instrument panel. Fuel
used and fuel remaining are displayed on optional gages,
typically located on the lower copilot’s instrument panel.

Fuel Quantity Indication


The fuel quantity indicating system consists of capacitance-
type probes, compensator modules, and a dual-channel, verti-
cal-scale FUEL QTY gage.

Five probes measure the level of fuel


in each tank. The combined capaci-
tance signal generated by the
probes is transmitted to the corre-
sponding channel of the gage where
they are displayed as a measure-
ment of fuel quantity in pounds
(LBS). The compensator module,
located in the sump area of each
tank, modifies these signals to cor-
rect for changes in fuel temperature.
The instrument scale is graduated in
100 pound increments between 0 to
3000 LBS. The position of indepen-
dent left (L) and right (R) white verti-
cal tape bars against the instrument
scale, indicates the fuel quantity of
the corresponding tank.

28 VDC left main bus power is supplied to the left fuel quantity
indicating system through the 2-amp LH FUEL QTY circuit
breaker. 28 VDC right main bus power is supplied to the right
fuel quantity indicating system from the right main bus through
the 2-amp RH FUEL QTY circuit breaker. On airplanes 550-
0550 and after, the LH FUEL QTY and RH FUEL QTY circuit
breakers are located on the left and right CB panels respec-
tively. On airplanes 550-0505 and earlier, the LH FUEL QTY
and RH FUEL QTY circuit breakers are both located on the
right CB panel.

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Low Fuel Level Warning


A normally-open, float-type switch monitors the level of fuel in
the sump area of each tank. When the fuel quantity in either
tank decreases to between 169 and 219 pounds, the affected
float switch closes thereby illuminating the corresponding
amber [LH] or [RH] [FUEL LOW LEVEL] annunciator (550-0550
and after) or amber [L FUEL LEVEL LO] or [R FUEL LEVEL LO]
annunciator (airplanes 550-0505 and earlier). The low fuel level
warning system operates independently of the fuel quantity and
optional fuel remaining indicating systems.

Low Fuel Pressure Warning


A normally-open, pressure switch monitors motive flow fuel
pressure between each primary ejector pump and its associ-
ated engine-driven fuel pump. When this pressure falls below
approximately 5 PSI, the affected fuel pressure switch closes
thereby illuminating the corresponding amber [LH] or [RH]
[FUEL LOW PRESS] annunciator (550-0550 and after) or amber
[L FUEL PRESS LO] and [R FUEL PRESS LO] annunciator (550-
0505 and earlier), and activating the corresponding boost
pump. The low fuel pressure warning system operates inde-
pendently of all other fuel indicating systems. Refer to the fuel
system operational summaries in this chapter for a complete
description of low fuel pressure conditions.

FUEL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 3-15


Fuel Flow Indication
The fuel flow indicating system consists of fuel flow transmitters
and a dual-channel, vertical-scale FUEL FLOW gage.

The fuel flow transmitters are posi-


tioned in-line between the FCU and
the oil-to-fuel heat exchanger of each
engine. Each transmitter generates
an electrical signal proportional to
the rate of fuel flow to its associated
engine. These signals are supplied
to the corresponding channel of the
gage where they are displayed as a
measurement of fuel flow in pounds
per hour (LBS/HR). The instrument
scale is graduated in 100 pound per
hour increments between 0 to 2000
LBS/HR. The position of independent
left (L) and right (R) white vertical tape bars against the instru-
ment scale, indicates the rate of fuel flow to the corresponding
engine. Although the indicating range of the gage is 0 to 2000
LBS/HR, the operating range of each transmitter is approxi-
mately 145 to 1800 LBS/HR. Typical fuel flow rates at cruise
power settings vary between approximately 450 and 650 LBS/
HR per engine depending on operating conditions.

28 VDC left main bus power is supplied to the left fuel flow
indicating system through the 2-amp LH FUEL FLOW circuit
breaker. 28 VDC right main bus power is supplied to the right
fuel flow indicating system through the 2-amp RH FUEL FLOW
circuit breaker. On airplanes 550-0550 and after, the LH FUEL
FLOW and RH FUEL FLOW circuit breakers are located on the
left and right CB panels respectively. On airplanes 550-0505
and earlier, the LH FUEL FLOW and RH FUEL FLOW circuit
breakers are both located on the right CB panel. To prevent
erratic indication at low engine power settings, each fuel flow
indicating system channel is disabled by a corresponding
throttle cutoff switch when its associated THROTTLE lever is
positioned below approximately 10% N2.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Fuel Remaining/Consumed Indication


Optional fuel remaining or fuel consumed indicators may be
located on the lower copilot’s instrument panel if installed.

On airplanes 550-0550 and after, a four-digit LCD readout


displays the total FUEL LBS remaining from signals supplied by
the left and right fuel quantity indicating channels. The indicator
has a range of 0 to 6000 LBS.

On airplanes 550-0505 and earlier, a four-digit electromechani-


cal counter displays the total FUEL REMAINING in LBS. On
airplanes 550-0062 through -0505, an additional four-digit
electromechanical counter displays the total FUEL CONSUMED
in LBS. Each of these indicators receives signals from the left
and right fuel flow indicating channels and has a range of 0 to
9999 LBS. Before takeoff, the FUEL REMAINING indicator must
be set to the known pounds of fuel on board the airplane. The
FUEL CONSUMED indicator must be set to 0000. This is ac-
complished using the PRESET knob on the indicator face plate.
Rotating this knob clockwise or counterclockwise correspond-
ingly increases or decreases the displayed value. The normal
rate of change is approximately 4 pounds per second in both
directions. When the knob is pressed inward, the rate of
change increases to approximately 20 pounds per second. The
knob may be locked in this “fast” position when pressed fully-
inward, and returned to the “slow” position when pulled out-
ward. When released, the knob returns to its spring-loaded
center position.

FUEL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 3-17


Operational Summaries

The following operational summaries describe the function and


interaction of fuel system components under particular operat-
ing conditions. Refer to the fuel distribution section of this
chapter for specific component descriptions.

Engine Starting
During the engine starting sequence, activation and deactiva-
tion of the starter motor, ignition system, and boost pump is
carried out by a series of relays in the start control circuit. When
activated, the boost pump supplies fuel pressure directly to the
engine. After light-off has occurred and the engine is operating
at a speed sufficient to sustain combustion, the starter motor,
ignition system, and boost pump are deactivated, thereby
terminating the starting sequence.

On airplanes 550-0406 and after, and earlier airplanes incorpo-


rating SB550-28-1, the starting sequence is terminated by the
engine speed sensing circuit of the generator control unit
(GCU) when N2 reaches approximately 40%. On airplanes 550-
0405 and earlier not incorporating SB550-28-1, the starting
sequence is terminated by the motive flow pressure switch
when the engine-driven fuel pump is supplying at least 180 ± 5
PSI motive flow to the primary ejector pump. This pressure is
typically achieved when N2 reaches approximately 30%.
Should the motive flow switch fail to open, the engine speed
sensing circuit of the GCU will terminate the starting sequence
when N2 reaches approximately 40%.

Automatic boost pump activation will occur during engine start


with the FUEL BOOST switches in the “NORM” or “OFF” posi-
tion. Under most operating conditions, however, these switches
should remain in the “NORM” position. When activated during
engine start, each boost pump receives 28 VDC power through
its associated 15-amp LH BOOST or RH BOOST circuit
breaker, located in the aft fuselage electrical power “J” box,
correspondingly supplied by the left or right main bus. Boost
pump operation is indicated by illumination of the correspond-
ing amber [LH] or [RH] [FUEL BOOST ON] annunciator (550-
0550 and after) or amber [L FUEL BOOST ON] and [R FUEL
BOOST ON] annunciator (550-0505 and earlier).

Note: The position of the LH BOOST and RH BOOST circuit


breakers on the left CB panel in the flight compartment has no
effect on boost pump operation during the engine starting
sequence.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Normal Operation
With the engine operating and the engine-driven fuel pump
developing sufficient pressure to maintain motive flow, the
primary ejector pump supplies the engine-driven fuel pump
and transfer ejector pumps. En route to the engine-driven
pump, fuel passes through the maintenance shutoff valve, fuel
filter, and firewall shutoff valve. From the engine-driven pump,
fuel is directed through the FCU, fuel flow transmitter, oil-to-fuel
heat exchanger, and flow divider, to the fuel nozzles.

Low Fuel Pressure


To ensure uninterrupted fuel flow to the engine-driven fuel
pumps, boost pump activation occurs automatically as a func-
tion of fuel pressure. When the output of either primary ejector
pump falls below approximately 5 PSI, the corresponding fuel
pressure switch closes thereby energizing its associated pres-
sure switch relay and boost pump relay. With the boost pump
relay closed, 28 VDC is supplied to the boost pump which then
supplies fuel pressure to the engine-driven fuel pump.

Closure of the fuel pressure switch is indicated by illumination


of the corresponding amber [LH] or [RH] [FUEL LOW PRESS]
annunciator (550-0550 and after) or amber [L FUEL PRESS LO]
and [R FUEL PRESS LO] annunciator (550-0505 and earlier).
Boost pump operation is indicated by illumination of the corre-
sponding amber [LH] or [RH] [FUEL BOOST ON] annunciator
(550-0550 and after) or amber [L FUEL BOOST ON] and [R
FUEL BOOST ON] annunciator (550-0505 and earlier).

The boost pump relay is initially energized through the pressure


switch relay, but remains energized through an integral latching
circuit. In this condition, the relay will remain energized closed
and the boost pump will continue operating as long as the
associated FUEL BOOST switch remains in the “NORM” posi-
tion, regardless of fuel pressure. Should indication of boost
pump operation exist without corresponding indication of low
fuel pressure, the boost pump relay circuit should be reset by
moving the switch to “ON” and returning it to “NORM.” Should
indication of low fuel pressure accompany indication of boost
pump operation, the associated FUEL BOOST switch should
remain in the “NORM” position with the pump operating. Should
indication of low fuel pressure exist without indication of boost
pump operation, the associated FUEL BOOST switch should be
set to the “ON” position.

FUEL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 3-19


Automatic boost pump activation will occur during conditions of
low pressure only when the FUEL BOOST switches are in the
“NORM” position. When activated during conditions of low
pressure, each boost pump receives 28 VDC power through its
associated 15-amp LH BOOST or RH BOOST circuit breaker,
located in the aft fuselage electrical power “J” box, corre-
spondingly supplied by the left or right main bus. Each pres-
sure switch relay and boost pump relay is energized closed by
28 VDC power through its associated 15-amp LH BOOST or RH
BOOST circuit breaker, located on the left CB panel in the flight
compartment.

To prevent low fuel pressure boost pump activation at low


engine power settings, each pressure switch relay is disabled
by a corresponding throttle cutoff switch when its associated
THROTTLE lever is positioned below approximately 10% N2.

Crossfeeding
Crossfeeding permits fuel to be supplied from one tank to both
engines or, in the event of engine failure, from either tank to the
operative engine. Under normal operating conditions,
crossfeeding for the purpose of maintaining fuel load symmetry
is seldom necessary unless asymmetry exceeds 200 LBS.
When crossfeeding is necessary, the crossfeed selector switch
should be positioned to the tank indicating the higher fuel
quantity until fuel load symmetry is achieved.

When either tank is selected, the corresponding boost pump is


activated and both crossfeed valves are simultaneously ener-
gized open. Approximately one second is required for the
crossfeed valves to fully open. During this time, a green
[INTRANSIT] annunciator, located above the crossfeed selector
switch, should be illuminated. Approximately three seconds
after the crossfeed valves have fully opened, the non-selected
tank motive flow shutoff valve is energized closed through a
time delay relay. This time delay provides sufficient time for the
crossfeed valves to fully open before motive flow is interrupted,
and prevents non-selected tank boost pump activation due to
low motive flow pressure. Should activation of both boost
pumps occur, crossfeeding would be prevented due to equal
pressure at each crossfeed valve. Therefore, indication of boost
pump operation should be closely monitored when
crossfeeding is initiated.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

If both boost pumps are activated, the non-selected tank boost


pump should be deenergized by moving the associated FUEL
BOOST switch to “ON” and returning it to “NORM.” When
crossfeeding, indication of boost pump operation should occur
immediately, correspond to the selected tank only, and be
continuous until crossfeeding is terminated.

When both crossfeed valves are open, either or both engines


are supplied with fuel under boost pump pressure from the
selected tank. Regardless of which tank is supplying the
engine(s), a portion of crossfed fuel is returned to the non-
selected tank through the transfer ejector pumps at a rate of
approximately 600 LBS/HR. As a result, the indicated quantity
of the non-selected tank will increase as the indicated quantity
of the selected decreases.

When fuel load symmetry is achieved, the crossfeed selector


switch should be positioned to “OFF.” In this position, the non-
selected tank motive flow shutoff valve is deenergized open.
Approximately three seconds later, both crossfeed valves and
the corresponding boost pump are deenergized. Approxi-
mately one second is required for the crossfeed valves to fully
close. During this time, the green [INTRANSIT] annunciator
should be illuminated. When both crossfeed valves are fully-
closed, each engine is supplied by its associated tank.

Automatic boost pump activation will occur during


crossfeeding with the FUEL BOOST switches in the “NORM” or
“OFF” position. When activated during crossfeeding, the left
boost pump, crossfeed valve, and motive flow valve are sup-
plied with 28 VDC power from the left main bus (550-0550 and
after) or right main bus (550-0505 and earlier) through the 15-
amp LH BOOST circuit breaker located on the left CB panel.
The right boost pump, crossfeed valve, and motive flow valve
are supplied with 28 VDC power from the right main bus (550-
0550 and after) or left main bus (550-0505 and earlier) through
the 15-amp RH BOOST circuit breaker also located on the left
CB panel.

FUEL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 3-21


Fuel Distribution System Schematic (normal operation)
© PCW
3-22 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY CITATION II CHAPTER 3 12/99
Cessna Citation II Technical Manual
Fuel Distribution System Schematic (left tank feeds both engines)
© PCW
FUEL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 3-23
Fuel Distribution System Schematic (right engine inoperative)
© PCW
3-24 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY CITATION II CHAPTER 3 12/99
Cessna Citation II Technical Manual
Fuel Distribution System Schematic (left fuel firewall valve shutoff closed)
© PCW
FUEL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 3-25
Limitations

Refer to the applicable aircraft manufacturers FAA approved


flight manual or approved manual material, markings and
placards, or any combination thereof for all limitations.

Emergency Procedures

Refer to the applicable aircraft manufacturers FAA approved


flight manual or approved manual material (supplementary
checklist) as revised, for procedural information.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Chapter 5
Flight Controls

Table of Contents

Overview ............................................... 5-1

Control Wheels ..................................... 5-2

Ailerons ................................................ 5-3


Aileron Trim ...................................... 5-4

Elevators .............................................. 5-6


Elevator Trim .................................... 5-7
Electric Elevator Trim ......................... 5-9

Rudder Pedals .................................... 5-10

Rudder ............................................... 5-11


Rudder Trim .................................... 5-12

Control Lock ....................................... 5-14

Nosewheel Steering............................. 5-15

Wing Flaps ......................................... 5-18


Flap Actuation System ..................... 5-19
Flap Control .................................... 5-19
Flap Position Indication ................... 5-20
Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Flight Controls, continued

Table of Contents

Speed Brakes ..................................... 5-22


Speed Brake Hydraulics ................... 5-23
Speed Brake Control Valve .............. 5-23
Speed Brake Safety Valve ............... 5-23
Speed Brake Thermal Relief Valve ... 5-24
Speed Brake Switch ........................ 5-24

Stall Warning ...................................... 5-28


Stick Shaker ................................... 5-28
Stick Shaker Self Test .................... 5-28

Limitations .......................................... 5-29

Emergency Procedures......................... 5-29


Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Overview

The flight controls of the Cessna Citation II consist of statically


mass-balanced ailerons, elevators, rudder, and associated trim
systems for each. The control surfaces are bearing supported
and operated through conventional cable systems and me-
chanical linkage. Trim tabs are attached to the trailing edge of
the left aileron, right elevator, and rudder. The elevator trim tab
is positioned manually or by an electrically operated servo-
actuator. The rudder trim tab and aileron trim tab are positioned
manually only. The manual trim controls and their associated
mechanical position indicators are located on the center ped-
estal. This chapter also includes coverage of the wing flaps,
speed brakes, nosewheel steering system, stick shaker, and
stall warning system.

FLIGHT CONTROLS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 5-1


Control Wheels

Dual control wheels for aileron and elevator operation are


positioned on columns in front of the pilot’s and copilot’s seats.
Control wheel rotation is transmitted to a drum around which
the aileron control cables are attached. The control wheel and
drum are installed on opposite ends of a common shaft that is
bearing supported within a cover assembly attached to the top
of each column. The control cables are guided by pulleys
through the interior of the column to the aileron operating link-
age. The control wheels are interconnected by crossover and
synchronizing cables such that both rotate simultaneously.

Each control column is bearing supported at its base and


pivots about this point in response to fore and aft control wheel
movement. The control columns are interconnected by a torque
tube such that both move simultaneously. Control column
movement is transmitted to the elevator operating linkage by a
push-pull rod attached to the torque tube.

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Ailerons

The ailerons are of aluminum alloy, semi-monocoque construc-


tion and are attached at two hinge points on the rear spar of
each wing, outboard of the flaps. On airplanes 550-0049 and
after, and earlier airplanes incorporating SB550-57-2, a small
fence installed on the inboard edge of each aileron functions to
maintain aileron effectiveness by reducing airflow spillage
when the flaps are extended.

Control wheel rotation is transmitted through cables and pulleys


to an aileron sector assembly located below the passenger
cabin floor. Rotation of the sector is transmitted through cables
and pulleys to an aileron actuator assembly located within each
wing. Each actuator assembly consists of a quadrant, yoke,
and pivot/stop plate. The quadrant rotates on a sealed bearing
at its center axis and provides attachment points for the aileron
control cables. An additional sealed bearing pressed into the
arm of the quadrant provides an off-center pivoting attachment
point for the yoke which serves as the mechanical link between
the quadrant and the aileron. As the quadrant rotates, the
eccentric motion of the yoke positions the aileron up or down
accordingly.

FLIGHT CONTROLS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 5-3


To prevent overtravel, aileron deflection between approximately
19° up and 15° down is limited by the quadrant arm’s range of
motion between up and down travel limit stop bolts fitted to the
pivot/stop plate.

During autopilot operation, the aileron autopilot servo-actuator


rotates the sector assembly through separate cables and
pulleys, and sector rotation is transmitted back to the control
wheels. In the event of malfunction, the servo-actuator may be
overridden with control wheel pressure.

Aileron Trim
Aileron trim is provided by a
trim tab attached to the in-
board trailing edge of the left
aileron by a full-length, piano-
type hinge. The trim tab is
actuated by a pair of push-pull
rods attached to a dual jack
screw type actuator installed
within the left wing, forward of
the aileron. The actuator is
driven through a chain/cable
assembly that is operated by the aileron trim control knob. Due
to the positioning of the actuator, the trim tab moves in the
opposite direction of aileron movement, thereby functioning as
a servo-type trim tab and reducing the control forces required
to position the aileron during flight.

To prevent overtravel, aileron trim tab deflection between ap-


proximately 20° up and 20° down is limited by travel stop
blocks fitted to the chain/cable assembly.

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Ailerons and Aileron Trim

AILERON SECTOR
ASSEMBLY

WING
CABLES

COPILOT’S FUSELAGE
CONTROL CABLES
WHEEL

PILOT’S
RIGHT CONTROL CONTROL
COLUMN CABLE WHEEL
ASSEMBLY

TURNBUCKLES

SYNCHRONIZING
CABLES
PULLEYS

TRIM TAB
INTERCONNECT HORN
CABLES AND
TURNBUCKLE

AILERON
CABLES CABLE AND
PULLEY
ASSEMBLY

INBOARD
ADJUSTABLE
PUSHROD
AILERON
QUADRANT

TRIM
KNOB

AILERON ACTUATOR
CABLES CHAINS AILERON
TAB ACTUATOR

CABLE AND
PULLEY
CHAIN ASSEMBLY
GUARD

FLIGHT CONTROLS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 5-5


Elevators

The elevators are of aluminum alloy, semi-monocoque con-


struction and are attached at two hinge points each on the rear
spar of the horizontal stabilizer. The left and right elevator are
interconnected by torque tubes and an elevator horn thereby
forming a single moving elevator assembly.

Fore and aft control wheel movement is mechanically transmit-


ted by a push-pull rod to an elevator sector assembly located
below the flight compartment floor. Rotation of the sector is
transmitted through cables and pulleys to an elevator bellcrank
assembly located within the aft fuselage. Bellcrank rotation is
mechanically transmitted to the elevator assembly by a pair of
push-pull rods. An elevator bob weight (attached to the control
column interconnect tube) and an elevator down spring (at-
tached to the bellcrank) function to improve stability and eleva-
tor balance during flight.

To prevent overtravel, elevator deflection between approxi-


mately 20° up and 15° down is limited by the sector’s range of
motion between up and down travel limit stop bolts, and by the
bellcrank’s range of motion between up and down limit stop
blocks fitted to their corresponding support brackets.

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During autopilot operation, the elevator autopilot servo-actuator


rotates the sector assembly and bellcrank assembly through
separate cables and pulleys attached by clevis fittings to the
elevator control cables within the aft fuselage. Sector rotation is
transmitted back to the control column and in the event of
malfunction, the servo-actuator may be overridden with control
wheel pressure.

Elevator Trim
Elevator trim is provided by a
trim tab attached to the
inboard trailing edge of the
right elevator by a full-length,
piano-type hinge. The trim
tab is actuated by a pair of
push-pull rods attached to a
dual jack screw type actuator
installed within the right
horizontal stabilizer, forward
of the elevator. The actuator
▲ ELEVATOR TRIM CONTROL WHEEL
is driven through chain/cable
assemblies that are operated by the manual or electric elevator
trim controls.

An elevator trim sector assembly, located within the aft fuse-


lage, provides a mechanical link between the actuator and the
trim controls. The sector assembly rotates on a sealed bearing
at its center axis and consists of two sectors which provide
attachment points for the trim control chain/cable assemblies.
One sector is round and provides attachment points for the
chain/cable assembly operated by the trim controls. The other
sector is elliptical and provides attachment points for the chain/
cable assembly that drives the actuator. The elliptical sector
functions primarily to increase the speed of actuator response
to nose up trim control input to expedite the reduction of eleva-
tor control forces during go-around. Actuator response to trim
control input progressively increases in speed between the
NOSE DN and NOSE UP ranges, and vice versa. In the neutral
(T.O.) range, actuator response to trim control input is approxi-
mately equal.

To prevent overtravel, elevator trim tab deflection between


approximately 15° up and 17° down (550-0576 and earlier) or
17° up and 15° down (550-0577 and after) is limited by travel
stop blocks fitted to the chain/cable assembly between the
sector and the actuator.

FLIGHT CONTROLS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 5-7


Elevators and Elevator Trim

SPROCKET

ELEVATOR
TRIM SECTOR
CABLE/CHAIN
ASSEMBLY

TURNBUCKLES

TRIM CONTROL WHEEL

PULLEYS
TAB HORN

ELEVATOR TRIM TAB


AND PUSHROD
ASSEMBLY

ELEVATOR
TAB ACTUATOR
ELEVATOR HORN TAB PUSHRODS

ELEVATOR
PUSHRODS

TORQUE TUBE

ELEVATOR BELLCRANK
ASSEMBLY

ELEVATOR SECTOR
ASSEMBLY

BEARING STOP BLOCK

ELEVATOR
BELLCRANK

CABLE

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Electric Elevator Trim


Electric elevator trim is pro- 2
vided by a servo-actuator 1
located within the aft fuselage.
The servo-actuator consists of
a motor that drives a clutch/
drum assembly around which
the elevator nose down trim
control cable is wrapped.
Controls consist of a two-
piece, momentary-on type trim
switch labeled DOWN/UP, and
a push-button type disconnect 1. Trim Switch
switch labeled AP/TRIM DISC, 2. Trim Disconnect Switch
located on the outboard horn
of the pilot’s control wheel and copilot’s control wheel
(if installed).

When both halves of the trim switch are held in the “UP” or
“DOWN” position, the servo-actuator motor and clutch are
energized by 28 VDC power supplied from the left main bus
(550-0550 and after) or right main bus (550-0505 and earlier)
through the 5-amp PITCH TRIM circuit breaker. When ener-
gized, the clutch engages the drum and the motor rotates the
assembly in the desired direction. When released, the motor
and clutch are deenergized, and both halves of the trim switch
return to their spring-loaded center (off) positions. On airplanes
550-0162 and after, when simultaneous or conflicting elevator
trim commands are given by the pilot and copilot, the pilot’s
commands override those of the copilot.

In the event of electric elevator trim malfunction, the servo-


actuator may be overridden by pressing and holding the AP/
TRIM DISC switch until the PITCH TRIM circuit breaker, located
on the left CB panel, is pulled. Until the fault is identified and
corrected, the PITCH TRIM circuit breaker should remain
pulled, the elevator should be trimmed manually, and the auto-
pilot should not be used.

Proper operation of the electric trim system can be checked


prior to flight by confirming correct rotation of the elevator trim
control wheel and position indicator in response to “UP” and
“DOWN” trim switch input. While the trim switch is being held in
the “UP” position and “DOWN” position, proper operation of the
AP/TRIM DISC switch can be checked by pressing and holding
the switch and confirming that the elevator trim control wheel
and position indicator stop rotating.

FLIGHT CONTROLS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 5-9


Rudder Pedals

Pilot and copilot rudder pedals are provided for rudder opera-
tion, nosewheel steering, and airplane braking. Each rudder
pedal is fitted to an arm assembly that is suspended from a
pair of concentric, bearing supported torque tubes. The pilot’s
and copilot’s left rudder pedals are connected to the inner
torque tube; the pilot’s and copilot’s right rudder pedals are
connected to the outer torque tube. The outer torque tube is
comprised of two sections interconnected by a bridge assem-
bly which provides travel clearance for the copilot’s left rudder
pedal. Each torque tube incorporates link arms for the attach-
ment of its associated rudder and nosewheel steering control
cables. The inner and outer torque tubes are linked by an
interconnect cable such that each pair of pedals moves simul-
taneously.

Each rudder pedal is independently adjustable fore and aft by


means of a lever located on the pedal arm. Pressing on the
lower end of this lever disengages a spring-loaded locking pin
from a hub that is fitted to the torque tube. With the locking pin
disengaged, the pedal may be moved to one of three positions
provided by the hub. Reengaging the locking pin secures the
pedal arm in the selected position.

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Rudder

The rudder is of aluminum alloy, semi-monocoque construction


and is attached at three hinge points on the rear spar of the
vertical stabilizer. Rudder pedal operation is transmitted
through cables and pulleys to a bellcrank in the aft fuselage.
The bellcrank is attached directly to a torque tube extending
from the base of rudder. In addition to the three hinge points,
the bellcrank pivots on a bearing/stop plate.

To prevent overtravel, rudder deflection up to approximately


22° either side of center is limited by the bellcrank’s range of
motion between left and right travel limit stop bolts fitted to the
bearing/stop plate.

During autopilot operation, the rudder autopilot servo-actuator


rotates the bellcrank through separate cables and pulleys
attached by clevis fittings to the rudder control cables within
the aft fuselage. Bellcrank rotation is transmitted back to the
rudder pedals and in the event of malfunction, the servo-actua-
tor may be overridden with rudder pedal pressure.

FLIGHT CONTROLS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 5-11


Rudder Trim
Rudder trim is provided by a trim tab attached to the trailing
edge of the rudder by a full-length, piano-type hinge. The trim
tab is actuated by a pair of push-pull rods attached to a dual
jack screw type actuator installed within the vertical stabilizer,
forward of the rudder. The actuator is driven through a chain/
cable assembly that is operated by the rudder trim control
knob. Due to the positioning of the actuator, the trim tab moves
in the opposite direction of rudder movement, thereby function-
ing as a servo-type trim tab and reducing the control forces
required to position the rudder during flight.

To prevent overtravel, rudder trim tab deflection up to approxi-


mately 10° either side of center is limited by travel stop blocks
fitted to the chain/cable assembly.

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Rudder and Rudder Trim

TRIM TAB
HORN

RUDDER TORQUE TUBE

RUDDER
ADJUSTABLE BELLCRANK
PUSHROD

LEFT CABLE
AUTOPILOT PULLEY
SERVO CABLE

AUTOPILOT
SERVO CABLE

RUDDER TRIM
ACTUATOR
TURNBUCKLE
TRIM
CONTROL
WHEEL SPROCKET

INTERCONNECT CABLE

CABLE/CHAIN
ASSEMBLY

OUTER TUBE ASSEMBLY

RUDDER PEDAL BEARING


ASSEMBLY SUPPORT
BRACKET

LEFT FORWARD
RIGHT FORWARD PEDAL ASSEMBLY
CABLE
CABLE

FLIGHT CONTROLS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 5-13


Control Lock

The control lock (also called


the gust lock) prevents move-
ment of and possible damage
to the ailerons, elevator, and
rudder by locking these sur-
faces in a neutral position and
locking the THROTTLE levers
in the "OFF" position. With the
control lock engaged, nose-
wheel deflection is limited to
60°. The control lock system
consists of a control handle,
cable assemblies, push rods, slide plate, and bellcranks.

Operationally, pulling the control lock handle moves the slide


plate, which pulls the aileron, elevator, and rudder cables by
capturing balls swaged onto the cables. The cables also move
the bellcrank, which rotates the throttle locking cams into the
locked position. When control surfaces reach the neutral posi-
tion and the throttle cams reach the locked position, the control
lock handle should reach its locking detent. Before pulling the
control lock handle, the nosewheel should be centered, the
aileron control wheels should be level, and the THROTTLE
levers should be in the "OFF" position.

The control lock is released by rotating the control lock handle


45° and lowering it into the release position.

Warning: The control lock should be released before starting


the engine.

Caution: The control lock should be released before towing the


airplane.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Nosewheel Steering

The nosewheel
steering system is
operated by the
rudder pedals and
allows airplane 1
directional control
during ground
operations. Rudder
pedal operation is 3
transmitted by
cables to a
bellcrank located
within the nose
2
wheel well.
Bellcrank movement
is transmitted by a
spring-loaded 1. Steering Bellcrank
steering rod to a 2. Steering Rod
steering arm that 3. Steering Arm
operates a steering
gear mechanism mounted atop the trunnion. The steering arm
and gear mechanism are interconnected by a universal joint
that automatically centers the nosewheel during retraction. The
spring-loaded steering rod (bungee) allows the nosewheel to
be positioned beyond rudder pedal travel limits when using
differential braking or power, or when the airplane is being
towed.

The nosewheel steering gear mechanism is attached using


shear bolts that are designed to protect nose gear components
by breaking at a torque load exceeding 15,000 inch pounds,
which corresponds to a left or right tow bar excursion of more
than 60° left or right with the control lock engaged or more than
95° under any condition. Should the shear bolts break, the
nose gear strut becomes free wheeling. Differential braking
must then be used for steering control.

FLIGHT CONTROLS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 5-15


Steering is accomplished by allowing the aircraft to roll while
displacing the appropriate rudder pedal. The nosewheel can
be steered up to 20° left or right of center during taxi.

When taxiing, the minimum wing tip turning radius using differ-
ential braking and partial power is 69.3 feet. This method
causes excessive wear on the tires, and should be employed
sparingly. If the airplane is parked with the nose wheel cocked
to one side, initial taxiing should proceed with caution.

The nosewheel steering gear mechanism is attached using


shear bolts that are designed to protect nose gear components
by breaking at a torque load exceeding 15,000 inch pounds,
which corresponds to a left or right tow bar excursion of more
than 95°.

The airplane may be towed if the parking brake is not engaged.


If the control locks are engaged, turning angle during tow is
limited to 60° to avoid control lock damage. If the control locks
are not engaged, turning angle during tow is limited to 95° to
avoid breaking the steering gear shear bolts. Should the shear
bolts break, the nose gear strut becomes free wheeling. Differ-
ential braking must then be used for steering control.

Caution: Nose gear forced beyond the towing stop (95° limit)
will shear bolts attaching steering gear assembly to cylinder.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Minimum Turning Radius (wing tip)

AIRPLANES 550-0627 AND AFTER = 69’4"


AIRPLANES 550-0626 AND EARLIER = 69’2 ‰ "

AIRPLANES 550-0627 AND AFTER = 35’


AIRPLANES 550-0626 AND EARLIER = 35’2"

20.2’
17.6’

PIVOT POINT

TURNING RADIUS:
AIRPLANES 550-0627 AND AFTER = 34’8"
AIRPLANES 550-0626 AND EARLIER = 34’7 ‰ "

FLIGHT CONTROLS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 5-17


Wing Flaps

Each wing is fitted with a single-piece, Fowler-type flap posi-


tioned by an electromechanical drive system and “track-and-
roller” type operating linkage. When extended, the flaps move
rearward and downward, effectively modifying wing camber
and increasing wing area to reduce the stalling speed of the
airplane. When retracted, the flaps form the trailing edge of the
wing.

Each flap is of aluminum alloy, semi-monocoque construction


and is attached to the wing structure at three positions by its
operating linkage. A pair of rollers is attached to the inboard
and outboard ends, and lower middle surface of each flap.
Each pair of rollers engages a corresponding inboard, out-
board, and center track which extend aft from their attachment
points on the wing structure. Three bracket assemblies form
attachment points for inboard, center, and outboard bellcrank
assemblies, each of which is linked to the flap by a push-pull
rod.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Flap Actuation System


The flap operating linkage is 1
electromechanically driven by
3
two 28 VDC motors, reduction
gearing, and chain/cable
assemblies that actuate the
bellcranks in each wing. The
chain/cable assemblies mate
2
with sprockets fitted to drive
shafts that each engages its
associated reduction gearbox.
Each reduction gearbox is
driven by its associated motor. 1. Bellcrank
The drive shafts are linked by 2. Flap Track
an interconnect chain such 3. Roller Pivot Point
that they operate simulta-
neously. Normally, both motors and drive shafts operate to-
gether to position the flaps. Should one motor or drive shaft fail,
the functioning motor or drive shaft should permit continued
flap operation.

Flap Control
Flap position is controlled
using the FLAP lever located
on the center pedestal to the
right of the THROTTLE levers.
The FLAP lever can be set to
any flap position between
“FLAPS UP” (0°) and “LAND”
(40°); the FLAP lever incorpo-
rates a mechanical detent at
the “T.O. & APPR” (15°) posi-
tion. Full flap extension is
selected by pushing the FLAP lever fully down past the “T.O. &
APPR” detent to the “LAND” position.

FLIGHT CONTROLS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 5-19


Flap Position Indication
A flap position indicator is located on the center pedestal to the
left of the FLAP lever. The indicator is mechanically connected
to the flaps by a cable-operated sector assembly; the indicator
therefore moves with the flaps and provides verification that the
flaps have assumed the selected position. Down (extend) and
up (retract) position switches are attached to the position indi-
cator sector assembly. A cam on the FLAP lever actuates these
switches. When the FLAP lever is positioned to extend the
flaps, the cam contacts the down position switch, thereby
energizing the flap actuator motors such that they extend the
flaps. When the FLAP lever is positioned to retract the flaps, the
cam contacts the up position switch, thereby energizing the
flap actuator motors such that they retract the flaps. As the flap
indicator moves to correspond with FLAP lever position, the
sector assembly carries the respective position switch out of
contact with the cam, thereby deenergizing the flap motors. Up
and down flap limit switches function as backups to the posi-
tion switch, and deenergize the flap motors when the flaps
reach the fully-retracted or fully-extended position.

The landing gear warning horn sounds if the FLAP lever is set
below the T.O. & APPR position and the gear is not down and
locked, regardless of airspeed or THROTTLE lever position.
The horn is energized by one or more downlock switches within
the landing gear actuators in conjunction with a flap approach
switch incorporated within the FLAP lever assembly. The flap
approach switch is actuated closed by the FLAP lever when set
below the T.O. & APPR position (approximately 15°).

The flap control circuit and actuator motors receive 28 VDC left
main bus power through the 5-amp FLAP CONTROL and 15-
amp FLAP MOTOR circuit breakers respectively, each located
on the left CB panel.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Flap Motor and Actuator Assembly

BRACKET AND RIGHT FLAP


PULLEY ASSEMBLY INTERCONNECT
CABLES

RIGHT FLAP
ACTUATION
CABLES

TO FLAP
FLAP DRIVE INTERCONNECT
MOTOR ASSEMBLY

TO INBD
BELLCRANK
LH RETURN ACTUATOR
CABLE ASSEMBLY

FLAP DRIVE
GEARBOX

ACTUATION CABLE

OUTBOARD FLAP BELLCRANK

ACTUATION PULLEY ASSEMBLY

FLIGHT CONTROLS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 5-21


Speed Brakes

1. Operating Linkage
2. Limit Switch
2
3. Hydraulic Actuator
3
Hydraulically-operated, electri-
cally-controlled speed brakes
are located on the upper and
lower surfaces of the wings,
forward of the flaps. When
extended, the speed brakes
increase drag sufficiently to
allow increased airplane rate-
of-descent without exceeding VMO/MMO. The speed brakes may
also be extended during landing rollout, to spoil lift and provide
aerodynamic braking.

The speed brakes are of aluminum-reinforced magnesium alloy


construction and are attached to the rear wing spar at five
hinge points each. Operating linkage for each pair of speed
brakes consists of a bellcrank, push-pull rods, and a hydraulic
actuator. The push-pull rods link the upper and lower speed
brakes to the bellcrank such that they operate simultaneously.
The cylinder end of the hydraulic actuator is attached to the
wing structure; the rod end is attached to the bellcrank. Normal
operation is initiated by the SPEED BRAKE switch on the center
pedestal.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Speed Brake Hydraulics

Hydraulic pressure for speed brake operation is supplied by


the same system that supplies the landing gear and thrust
reversers. This section will describe the various valves and
switches that control speed brake operation. Refer to Chapter 8
for a complete description of the hydraulic system.

Speed Brake Control Valve


The solenoid-operated speed brake control valve functions to
direct hydraulic pressure to, and return flow from, the extend or
retract ports of the actuators. To accomplish this, the control
valve contains an internal selector spool that is spring-loaded
to a neutral position and operated by independent extend and
retract solenoids. In the neutral position, when both solenoids
are deenergized, the extend and retract ports are blocked,
trapping hydraulic pressure in the lines between the control
valve and the actuators. When the extend solenoid is ener-
gized, the selector spool is positioned to direct hydraulic pres-
sure to the extend ports of the actuators, and direct return flow
from the retract ports of the actuators to the reservoir. Con-
versely, when the retract solenoid is energized, the selector
spool is positioned to direct hydraulic pressure to the retract
ports, and direct return flow from the extend ports to the
reservoir.

The solenoids are energized and deenergized primarily by the


SPEED BRAKE switch through up (extend) and down (retract)
limit switches. The limit switches are mechanically-actuated
during speed brake extension and retraction. On airplanes 550-
0015 and after, and earlier airplanes incorporating SB550-27-2,
the limit switches are actuated by the speed brake bellcranks
and lower speed brakes. On airplanes 550-0014 and earlier not
incorporating SB550-27-2, the limit switches are integral to the
speed brake actuators.

Speed Brake Safety Valve


The speed brake safety valve, installed between the control
valve extend port and the return line, functions to inhibit speed
brake extension by relieving hydraulic pressure from the extend
lines when engine speed is set above approximately 85% N2.
The safety valve is normally energized closed, spring-loaded
open, and controlled by throttle position switches. A check
valve, installed downstream of the safety valve, prevents
backflow from the return line to the extend lines.

FLIGHT CONTROLS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 5-23


Speed Brake Thermal Relief Valve
The speed brake thermal relief valve, installed between the
control valve retract port and the return line, functions to relieve
hydraulic pressure in excess of approximately 1500 PSI from
the retract lines to prevent system overpressure caused prima-
rily by thermal expansion. A check valve, installed downstream
of the relief valve, prevents backflow from the return line to the
retract lines.

Speed Brake Switch


Speed brake operation is
initiated by the SPEED BRAKE
switch on the center pedestal.
The switch is solenoid-oper-
ated, spring-loaded to the
upper (RETRACT) position
and requires electrical power
to remain in the lower (EX-
TEND) position. The circuit
that supplies electrical power
to the solenoid is completed
through the throttle position switches when the speed of both
engines is set below approximately 85% N2. When the speed
of either or both engines is set above approximately 85% N2,
the circuit is interrupted, the switch returns to the "RETRACT"
position, and speed brake extension is inhibited.

Note: On airplanes 550-0231 and earlier not incorporating SB-


550-27-4, the throttle position switch circuit may be bypassed
and the speed brakes extended by holding the SPEED BRAKE
switch in the "EXTEND" position.

Electrical components of the speed brake system are supplied


with 28 VDC power from the left main bus (550-0550 and after)
or right main bus (550-0505 and earlier) through the 5-amp
SPEED BRAKE circuit breaker on the left CB panel. The control
valve and safety valve function with an input power of 18 to 30
VDC. When electrical power is removed from the system, the
speed brakes fail to the retracted position.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Speed Brakes

UPPER
SPEEDBRAKE

PUSHROD

TRUNNION

HINGE PINS

ACTUATOR

RETRACT HOSE ATTACH 90 PORT

EXTEND HOSE ATTACH 45 PORT

BELLCRANK
ACTUATOR
PUSHROD

LUG

ACTUATOR HOUSING

FLIGHT CONTROLS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 5-25


Speed Brake Extension Schematic

© PCW

Speed brake extension is initiated by setting the SPEED BRAKE


switch to "EXTEND." In this position, the control valve extend
solenoid, safety valve, and hydraulic system center valve are
energized to permit speed brake extension. During extension,
the extend solenoid and center valve are energized through the
up limit switches. When the speed brakes are fully-extended
and the up limit switches are open, the extend solenoid and
center valve are deenergized and the white [SPEED BRAKE
EXTEND] annunciator (550-0550 and after) or [SPD BRAKE
EXTENDED] annunciator (550-0505 and earlier) is illuminated.
In this condition, the hydraulic system returns to "open center"
mode and the control valve selector spool returns to its neutral
position, thereby trapping hydraulic pressure in the extend
lines and holding the speed brakes in the selected position.

Note: Setting the speed of either or both engines above ap-


proximately 85% N2 with the speed brakes extended will cause
them to retract.

Note: When the center valve is energized and hydraulic pres-


sure is being supplied to the speed brakes, the amber [HYD
PRESS ON] annunciator will be illuminated.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Speed Brake Retraction Schematic

© PCW

Speed brake retraction is normally initiated by setting the


SPEED BRAKE switch to "RETRACT." In this position, the con-
trol valve retract solenoid, safety valve, and hydraulic system
center valve are energized to permit speed brake retraction.
During retraction, the retract solenoid and center valve are
energized through the down limit switches. When the speed
brakes are fully-retracted and the down limit switches are open,
the retract solenoid and center valve are deenergized and the
white [SPEED BRAKE EXTEND] or [SPD BRAKE EXTENDED]
annunciator is extinguished. In this condition, the hydraulic
system returns to "open center" mode and the control valve
selector spool returns to its neutral position, thereby trapping
hydraulic pressure in the retract lines and holding the speed
brakes in the selected position.

On airplanes 550-0014 and earlier not incorporating SB550-27-


2, a self-locking device integral to each actuator secures its
associated speed brake in the retracted position. On airplanes
550-0015 and after and earlier airplanes incorporating SB550-
27-2, each lower speed brake incorporates two spring-loaded
retainers that function to prevent droop when the actuators are
depressurized following retraction.

FLIGHT CONTROLS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 5-27


Stall Warning

Stall warning is provided by stall strips installed on the inboard


section of each wing deice boot. These strips disrupt airflow,
thereby providing aerodynamic warning of an impending stall
by inducing prestall buffet. Aerodynamic prestall warning buffet
commences at an airspeed of approximately VS1 +10 in the
clean configuration and VSO +5 in the landing configuration.

Stick Shaker
The optional stick shaker functions to provide warning of an
impending stall by imparting a low-frequency vibration to the
pilot’s control column when the AOA system senses an im-
pending stall. The stick shaker is mounted on the forward side
of the pilot’s control column and consists of an electric motor,
rotating weights, stick shaker relay, resistor, and test switch.

In-flight activation of the stick shaker is initiated by a signal


from the AOA system that closes an angle-of-attack stall warn-
ing switch in the AOA indicator and energizes the stick shaker
relay. With the relay energized, 28 VDC left main bus power is
supplied to the motor through the 5-amp ANG OF ATTACK
circuit breaker. The resistor regulates power to maintain a stick
shaker frequency of between 23 and 24 Hz.

Activation of the stick shaker during ground operations is inhib-


ited by the left main gear safety switch except during system
testing.

Stick Shaker Self Test


Operation of the stick shaker may be verified by rotating the
TEST selector switch on the lower left instrument panel to the
“STICK SHAKER” position. If the system is functioning normally,
the AOA indicator should flag and drive to zero. The indicator
flag should then pull from view and the indicator needle should
drive to 1.0. As the needle passes 0.75, the stick shaker should
activate for several seconds. The cycle should repeat until the
TEST selector switch is repositioned.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Limitations

Refer to the applicable aircraft manufacturer’s FAA approved


flight manual or approved manual material, markings and
placards, or any combination thereof for all limitations.

Emergency Procedures

Refer to the applicable aircraft manufacturer’s FAA approved


flight manual or approved manual material (supplementary
checklist) as revised, for procedural information.

FLIGHT CONTROLS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 5-29


Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Chapter 6
Electrical System

Table of Contents

Overview ............................................... 6-1

DC Power Sources ................................ 6-2


Battery ............................................. 6-2
Battery Overheat Warning .................. 6-3
Starter/Generators ............................ 6-4
Generator Control Units ..................... 6-5
Starter/Generator Ground Cooling ...... 6-7

External Power System .......................... 6-8


External Power Requirements ............. 6-8
Overvoltage/
Overcurrent Protection ....................... 6-9

DC Power Distribution ......................... 6-10


Hot Battery Bus .............................. 6-10
Battery Bus .................................... 6-10
Left and Right Main Busses ............ 6-11
Emergency Bus ............................... 6-11
Battery Switch................................. 6-12
Starter/Generator Switch ................. 6-13

DC System Indication .......................... 6-14


Voltmeter ........................................ 6-14
Ammeters ....................................... 6-14

DC Circuit Protection ........................... 6-15


Circuit Breakers .............................. 6-15
Current Limiters .............................. 6-15
Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Electrical System, continued

Table of Contents

Bus Distribution Tables ....................... 6-34

Alternating Current
(AC) Power System.............................. 6-44

Dual Split Bus AC System ................... 6-44


Inverters ......................................... 6-44
AC Control ...................................... 6-44
Inverter Testing ............................... 6-45

“Tied” Split Bus AC System ................ 6-46


Inverters ......................................... 6-46
AC Control ...................................... 6-46
Inverter Testing ............................... 6-47

Single Bus System .............................. 6-48


Inverters ......................................... 6-48
AC Control ...................................... 6-48
Inverter Testing ............................... 6-48

AC Circuit Protection ........................... 6-51

Lighting .............................................. 6-52

Exterior Lighting .................................. 6-52


Taxi/Landing Lights ......................... 6-54
Wing Recognition Lights................... 6-54
Rotating/Flashing Beacon ................ 6-55
Wing Inspection Light ...................... 6-55
Tail Floodlights ................................ 6-55
Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Electrical System, continued

Table of Contents

Interior Lighting ................................... 6-56


Control and Instrument Lighting ....... 6-56
Instrument Panel Floodlights ............ 6-56
Vertical Scale Engine
Instrument Light .............................. 6-56
Counter Light .................................. 6-57
Cathode Tube Lights ....................... 6-57
Map Lights ..................................... 6-57
Indirect Cabin Lights ....................... 6-58
Overhead Console Sign ................... 6-58
Entrance Lights ............................... 6-58
Emergency Exit Sign ........................ 6-59
PSU Light ....................................... 6-59
Passenger Reading Lights................ 6-59
Aft Fuselage Interior Light ................ 6-60
Baggage Compartment Lights .......... 6-60

Limitations .......................................... 6-61

Emergency Procedures......................... 6-61


Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Overview

This chapter describes systems that supply and control air-


plane electrical power. Interior and exterior airplane illumination
will also be discussed.

The Cessna Citation II electrical system is powered by two


28 Volt Direct Current (VDC), 400-ampere (amp), negative-
ground, engine-driven starter/generators. A 24 VDC nickel-
cadmium battery provides current for engine starting and
serves as an emergency source of power. An external power
receptacle located below the left engine pylon allows an exter-
nal power source to energize the airplane for ground operations
or engine start. Electrical power from these sources is distrib-
uted to the airplane’s systems through a multiple bus arrange-
ment designed to provide continued operation in the event of
an electrical source failure. Items in the system requiring alter-
nating current (AC) for their operation are powered by two
inverters rated at 300 to 600 volt-amp (VA).

▲ PRIMARY ELECTRICAL SYSTEM CONTROLS AND INDICATORS

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-1


DC Power Sources

The section describes the sources of airplane DC power, in-


cluding the battery, starter/generators, and external power
system.

Battery
The 20-cell 44 amp-
hour (550-0550 and 2
after) or 19-cell 40
amp-hour (550-0505
and earlier) nickel-
cadmium (NiCad)
battery is secured by
a hold-down clamp
to a battery tray
mounted within the
aft fuselage. The 1
amp-hour rating
3
indicates that when
new and fully
charged, the battery
is capable of deliver- 1. Battery Vent Tube
ing one amp of 2. Battery Hold Down
current for 44 hours 3. Battery Tray
(in the case of 44
amp-hr battery), before reaching a fully discharged condition.
The following formula: amp-hr rating ÷ amp load = hours avail-
able, may be used to approximate hours of battery power avail-
able in the event of a dual generator failure. In the case of a 44
amp-hr battery, this is accomplished as shown in the following
example: 44 amp-hr ÷ 88-amp load = 0.5 hours.

Note: A nickel-cadmium battery will maintain a constant output


voltage during approximately 90 percent of its discharge cycle,
after which available power will rapidly deteriorate. The electro-
lyte in a NiCad battery serves only as a conductor and does not
react with the battery plates. Because of these characteristics,
the condition of a NiCad battery cannot be reliably determined
by voltage checks or specific gravity readings. However, the
plates within a NiCad battery absorb electrolyte as the battery
discharges, so battery condition can be approximated by
observing electrolyte level.

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Electrolyte level in the NiCad battery should be 1/8 inch above


the visible insert or plates two to four hours following a full
charge, or 1/4 inch above the visible insert or plates immedi-
ately after full charge.

To prevent the accumulation of fluid and vapors, the battery box


is equipped with independent drain and vent tubes that extend
through the lower surface of the aft fuselage.

It is recommended that the battery electrolyte level be checked


every 100 flight hours or every 14 days, whichever occurs first.
Distilled water should be used when servicing is required.

Battery Overheat Warning


Indication of excessive battery
temperature is provided by the
battery overheat warning system.
It consists of a battery temperature
sensor, temperature module, and
battery overheat annunciator. The
temperature sensor is installed
between the cells near the center
of the battery and provides input
to the temperature module. Bat- ▲ BATTERY TEMPERATURE GAGE
tery temperature should remain
below 145°F. Should battery temperature exceed 145 to 160°F,
the temperature module will cause illumination of the red [BATT
O’TEMP] (airplanes 550-0550 and after) or [BATT O’HEAT]
(550-0505 and earlier) annunciator. If battery temperature ex-
ceeds 160°F, the [BATT O’TEMP] or [BATT O’HEAT] annuncia-
tor will flash. A battery temperature gage may be optionally
installed on airplanes 550-0626 and earlier and is standard on
airplanes 550-0627 and after. The battery overheat warning
system receives 28 VDC left main bus power through the 2-amp
BATT TEMP circuit breaker on the left CB panel.

Note: The battery should be serviced if battery temperatures


exceeding 145°F are indicated.

Battery overheat warning system operation may be verified by


rotating the TEST selector switch, located on the lower left
instrument panel, to the “BATT TEMP” position. In this position,
a test mode is activated that simulates a temperature exceeding
160°F, thereby causing the [BATT O’HEAT] or [BATT O’TEMP]
annunciator to flash.

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-3


Starter/Generators
The starter/generators supply 28 VDC electrical power to all
distribution busses, provide charging current to the battery, and
are also used as engine starting motors. The starter/generators
are each capable of producing a continuous current of 400
amps.

The starter/generators can each sustain an overload of up to


600 amps for five minutes. On airplanes 550-0550 and after,
and earlier airplanes incorporating SB550-54-4, sustained
generator load is limited to 325 amps above 35,000 feet. On
airplanes 550-0505 and earlier not incorporating SB550-54-4,
sustained generator load is limited to 250 amps above 25,000
feet.

Each generator is capable of powering the entire airplane


electrical system with the exception of the optional Freon air
conditioning system, which should be turned off in the event of
generator failure.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Generator Control Units


Once on-line and supplying power, each generator’s output is
controlled by an independent generator control unit (GCU). The
GCU provides voltage regulation, load sharing, ground fault
protection, overvoltage and overexcitation protection, as well as
differential voltage and reverse current protection. The GCU
also regulates field excitation and starter cut-off functions dur-
ing engine start.

Voltage Regulation
Voltage regulation is accomplished by an integrated circuit
which essentially compares actual generator output to a
regulated reference voltage (28.5 VDC ± 1 VDC). When
sensing a differential between these two voltages, the inte-
grated circuit regulates field excitation thereby regulating
generator output. The circuit also incorporates a field relay
which operates in conjunction with its respective GCU’s
control relay. Input to each GCU relative to the output of its
respective generator is routed through the 10-amp LH GEN
SENSE and RH GEN SENSE circuit breakers (not accessible
from the flight compartment.)

Load Sharing
Load sharing is accomplished by an equalizer connection
between the left and right GCUs and an integrated equalizer
circuit resident to each GCU. This circuit essentially “regu-
lates” voltage regulator output to maintain load sharing within
± 40 amps (under normal operating conditions). The circuit
incorporates an equalizer relay which operates in conjunc-
tion with its respective GCU control relay. Essentially, when-
ever the control relay is deenergized, the equalizer relay is
deenergized thereby interrupting the equalizer circuit and
isolating a “tripped” generator should a ground fault occur.

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-5


Reverse Current Protection
Differential voltage and reverse current protection are pro-
vided by each GCU through independent sensing circuits.
Each differential voltage sensing circuit enables closure of
its associated power relay (permitting current flow from the
generator to its associated main bus) when the output volt-
age of the generator is within .30 volts of its associated main
bus. Input to each GCU relative to the voltage of its corre-
sponding main bus is through the 2-amp LH BUS SENSE
and RH BUS SENSE circuit breakers (not accessible from
the flight compartment). Once the power relay is closed,
reverse current protection is enabled thereby preventing a
failing generator from imposing a load on the other. In this
condition, when generator output falls 10% or more below its
rated output, the generator is taken off-line until output is
restored to a level which will ensure forward current flow to
its corresponding main bus.

Overvoltage/Overexcitation Protection
Overvoltage and overexcitation protection is provided by
each GCU in conjunction with its voltage regulation and load
sharing equalizer circuits. Should either GCU’s voltage
regulation circuit fail, generator output will increase to 35
VDC and an overvoltage integrator will trip the associated
field relay after a predetermined period of time thereby taking
the generator off-line. When the generators are paralleled
and sufficiently loaded, overvoltage may not occur; however,
a malfunctioning voltage regulation circuit can result in its
associated generator assuming a greater percentage of the
load. When this occurs, a “deexcitation” signal is provided
by the equalizer circuit to the voltage regulation circuit and
the overvoltage integrator thereby taking the generator
off-line.

Field Weakening
The GCU field weakening feature regulates field excitation to
assure that the starter/generator operates as a starter and
does not generate power during engine start. This function is
accomplished by controlling field excitation so as to main-
tain starter/generator interpole winding current below the
level needed to initiate power generation. The field weaken-
ing circuitry initiates current regulation when starter/genera-
tor interpole winding current drops below the field weaken-
ing threshold value, and continues until starter speed
reaches the cut-off value (approximately 40% N2). To avoid
nuisance trips, all other GCU protection functions are dis-
abled during engine start.

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Ground Fault Protection


Ground fault protection is provided by a “feeder to ground
short” sensing circuit integral to each GCU. After engine start
and during initial generator “build-up” (between opening of
the start relay and closing of the control relay), if the genera-
tor begins to assume a load equal to or greater than its rated
output before the control relay has closed, a ground short will
be sensed. In this condition, closure of the control relay and
continuous excitation of the generator are prevented until
“tripping” (opening) of the start relay occurs. After the control
relay has closed and the generator is on-line, occurrence of
a ground fault condition will cause its associated field relay
to trip open thereby taking the generator off-line. Additional
protection against generator build-up with an open field
relay is a function of the voltage regulation reset circuit. This
circuit operates in conjunction with the RESET position of the
generator switches. Essentially, generator build-up with an
open field relay cannot occur until the switch is momentarily
positioned to “RESET.” With the field relay reset, the reset
circuit is isolated such that build-up cannot occur if the
generator is reset into a ground fault condition.

Starter Cut-Off
A starter cut-off circuit, integral to each GCU, functions to
terminate the start sequence as a function of engine speed
(approximately 40% N2). Speed sensing is provided by a
tach drive integral to the starter/generator. The field weaken-
ing circuitry of each GCU, functions to regulate field excita-
tion during the engine start sequence until starter cut-off
occurs. Should the starter cut-off circuit malfunction below
cut-off speed, the power relay will be closed, the equalizer
relay will be open, and the starter will continue motoring the
engine until manually disengaged.

Starter/Generator Ground Cooling


When operating on the ground, each starter/generator is cooled
by an internal fan connected to the generator shaft. The fan
draws cooling air through an inlet scoop and duct, located in
the lower forward engine cowling, after which it is exhausted
through an outlet in the lower cowling. In flight, starter/generator
cooling is primarily accomplished by ambient air entering
through the inlet scoop.

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-7


External Power System

The external power system


consists of an external power
receptacle located below the
left engine pylon and an
external power relay located in
the aft fuselage electrical
power junction “J” box. The
receptacle is a three-pin type
design with permanent mark-
ings identifying the positive
and negative pins. The relay is
energized closed upon appli-
cation of external power, ▲ EXTERNAL POWER RECEPTACLE

thereby permitting electrical


flow to the hot battery bus.

With the battery switch set to “BATT” and the battery relay
closed, external power is made available to the distribution
system and charging current is supplied to the battery. During
engine start using external power, a battery disconnect relay
opens, thereby isolating the battery from the distribution system.
With 28 VDC external power applied, battery power is con-
served during engine starting, or when testing electrical equip-
ment on the ground.

External Power Requirements


Maximum external power source output should be at least 28
VDC and no more than 1,000 amps.

Caution: If an external power source without reverse current


protection is turned off while connected to the airplane, rapid
battery discharge and battery damage can result. If the external
power source is turned off, it should be disconnected from the
airplane.

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Note: External power engine starts may be accomplished with


the generator switches positioned to either “ON” or “OFF;”
however, it is recommended that the generator switches be
positioned to “OFF” during external power engine start. If the
generator switch is in the “ON” position, the generator will come
on-line automatically upon completion of the start sequence. If
the generator switch is in the “OFF” position, the generator must
be brought on-line by positioning the generator switch to “ON.”
When the generator begins to supply power to the DC bus, an
external power disable relay automatically disconnects external
power. Therefore, the generator switch for the operating engine
must be positioned to “OFF” to start the second engine using
external power.

Overvoltage/Overcurrent Protection
The overvoltage/overcurrent protection system prevents dam-
age to the starter/generators, avionics equipment, lights, and/or
other electrical equipment if external power source voltage and/
or current exceeds limits. The system also prevents battery
current from augmenting external power source current, which
would cause an electrical overload.

The system includes an overvoltage/overcurrent monitor and a


current sensor. The monitor disconnects external power from
the airplane electrical system if external power voltage remains
between 32 and 33 VDC for more than 200 milliseconds. The
monitor also operates in conjunction with the current sensor to
protect against overcurrent. The current sensor compares
external input voltage to a reference voltage supplied by the
monitor. When the current sensor detects external power current
exceeding 1100 to 1300 amps for 1.7 to 2.3 seconds, the moni-
tor disconnects the airplane electrical system from external
power.

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-9


DC Power Distribution

Electrical power is distributed to the airplane’s systems through


interconnected busses normally supplied by the battery or the
starter/generators. The busses may also be supplied by an
external power source.

Hot Battery Bus


The hot battery bus is connected directly to the battery, and is
connected to the battery bus and the emergency bus through
their associated relays. External power is also supplied directly
to the hot battery bus.

Battery Bus
Battery power is routed from the hot battery bus to the battery
bus through the battery relay, which is controlled by the battery
switch. When the battery switch is in the “BATT” position and
battery voltage is at least 17 volts, the battery relay is energized
closed and battery power is supplied to the battery bus. When
set to “OFF” the battery is isolated from all but the hot battery
bus. When set to “EMER” the battery is isolated from all but the
hot battery bus and the emergency battery bus.

With both engines operating and both generators on-line, the


battery bus is supplied with 28 VDC power from the left and
right main busses. With the starter/generators or an external
power source supplying 28 volts and the battery supplying 24
volts or less, current flow reverses, thereby charging the battery.

Note: If there are no indications of battery power availability to


the system with the battery switch in the “BATT” or “EMER”
positions, battery service may be required.

Note: Charging current from the starter/generator will be avail-


able to the battery only when the battery switch is set to “BATT.”

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Left and Right Main Busses


Electrical power may be supplied to the left and right main
busses by the battery, the starter/generators, or an external
power source. Battery power or external power are supplied to
the main busses through the battery bus. When the starter/
generators are on-line, 28 VDC power is routed directly to the
main busses through their corresponding power relays. The left
and right main busses are tied together by the battery bus
through corresponding 225-amp current limiters. Each main
bus supplies its associated circuit breaker panel through three
80-amp current limiters and three 75-amp circuit breakers. The
majority of the airplane’s electrical components receive their
power from these busses.

Emergency Bus
The emergency bus is powered by the battery when the battery
switch is set to “BATT” or “EMER”. When in the “EMER” position,
the battery relay is opened, disconnecting the main DC busses
and the battery bus from the emergency bus. Use of the emer-
gency bus enables critical airplane components to be powered
by the battery but electrically isolated from malfunctioning
starter/generator(s) or other components. The emergency bus
circuit is protected by a 20-amp EMER POWER circuit breaker
(not accessible from the flight compartment).

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-11


Battery Switch
The battery switch primarily
controls the battery relay
through which battery power is
supplied to the battery bus or
charging current is supplied to
the battery. The battery switch
also controls the emergency
relay through which power is
supplied to the emergency
bus.

When set to the upper “BATT” position, the battery relay and
emergency relay are simultaneously energized closed thereby
connecting the battery to the battery bus and the emergency
bus to the hot battery bus (550-0626 and earlier) or to the bat-
tery bus (550-0627 and after). When set to the center “OFF”
position, the battery relay and emergency relay are
deenergized open thereby isolating the battery from all but the
hot battery bus. When set to the lower “EMER” position, the
battery relay is deenergized open while the emergency relay
remains energized closed thereby isolating the battery from all
but the hot battery bus and the emergency bus. In this condi-
tion, no more than 30 minutes of battery power is available to
the emergency bus.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Starter/Generator Switch
Each starter/generator switch,
located on the lower left instru-
ment panel, controls the oper-
ating state of its associated
starter/generator. When set to
the upper (on) position each
generator switch supplies an
“on-line” signal to its associ-
ated GCU thereby activating
its generator mode functions.

When either switch is set to the center “OFF” position, the on-
line signal is interrupted. The momentary “RESET” position of
each generator switch functions to restore the signal supplied
to the GCU.

It is sometimes necessary to set the generator switch to “RE-


SET” following a windmilling airstart of an engine.

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-13


DC System Indication

Indication of electrical system operation is provided by a volt-


meter and two ammeters located on the lower left instrument
panel, and by annunciators located on the upper center instru-
ment panel.

Voltmeter
The voltmeter provides a means of monitoring starter/generator
output voltage or battery bus voltage as determined by the
position of a selector switch adjacent to the meter. When set to
“LH GEN” (left starter/generator), or “RH GEN” (right starter/
generator), the voltage of the selected source is indicated.
When set to “BATT,” electrical system voltage monitored at the
battery bus is indicated.

The voltmeter scale is graduated in 1-volt increments between


10 and 40 D.C. Volts, with numerical values marked at each 10-
volt increment.

Ammeters
Independent left and right ammeters indicate the load carried
by each generator. The ammeter scale is graduated in 50-amp
increments from 0 to 400 amps, with numerical values marked
at each 100-amp increment.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

DC Circuit Protection

Individual electrical system circuits and components are pro-


tected against overload by circuit breakers and current limiters.

Circuit Breakers
Most circuit breakers are located on left and right CB panels on
the flight compartment sidewalls so as to be readily accessible
to the flight crew. The applicable amperage is marked on each
circuit breaker. Labels above each breaker identifies the circuit
protected. These push-to-reset type circuit breakers will pop
out, or “trip,” when heat is generated by an electrical overload.
Should an overload occur, a tripped circuit breaker may be
reset after a cooling period of approximately three minutes by
pushing it back in. If the circuit breaker trips a second time, a
short circuit is indicated and it should not be reset, as this could
cause system damage. Additional circuit breakers are installed
in various electrical power junction “J” boxes located within the
aft fuselage.

Current Limiters
Primary bus tie circuit protection is provided by a 225-amp
current limiter in-line between the battery bus and the left and
right main DC busses. Three 80-amp bus feeder current limiters
are wired in parallel between each main bus and its associated
circuit breaker panel bus.

Note: The flight crew should ensure that all circuit breakers are
engaged and serviceable fuses are installed before all flights.
The airplane should never be operated with any disengaged
circuit breakers or open current limiters without a thorough
knowledge of the consequences.

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-15


Electrical Schematic (hot battery bus energized, 550-0626 and earlier)
© PCW
6-16 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY CITATION II CHAPTER 6 12/99
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Electrical Schematic (battery powering system, 550-0626 and earlier)
© PCW
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-17
Electrical Schematic (left engine starting, 550-0626 and earlier)
© PCW
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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual
Electrical Schematic (generator assisted right engine start, 550-0626 and earlier)
© PCW
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-19
Electrical Schematic (both engines operating, both generators on-line, 550-0626 and earlier)
© PCW
6-20 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY CITATION II CHAPTER 6 12/99
Cessna Citation II Technical Manual
Electrical Schematic (external power applied, 550-0626 and earlier)
© PCW
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-21
Electrical Schematic (left generator failed, 550-0626 and earlier)
© PCW
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Electrical Schematic (right main extension bus overload, 550-0626 and earlier)
© PCW
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-23
Electrical Schematic (battery switch in emergency position, 550-0626 and earlier)
© PCW
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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual
Electrical Schematic (hot battery bus energized, 550-0627 and after)
© PCW
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-25
Electrical Schematic (battery powering system, 550-0627 and after)
© PCW
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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual
Electrical Schematic (left engine starting, 550-0627 and after)
© PCW
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-27
Electrical Schematic (generator assisted right engine start, 550-0627 and after)
© PCW
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Electrical Schematic (both engines operating, both generators on-line, 550-0627 and after)
© PCW
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-29
Electrical Schematic (external power applied, 550-0627 and after)
© PCW
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Electrical Schematic (left generator failed, 550-0627 and after)
© PCW
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-31
Electrical Schematic (right main extension bus overload, 550-0627 and after)
© PCW
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Electrical Schematic (battery switch in emergency position, 550-0627 and after)
© PCW
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-33
DC Bus Distribution Table (550-0550 and after)
Electrical Power Junction Box

Power Source Circuit


and Equipment Breaker Amperage

Hot Battery Bus


Aft & Nose Baggage Compartment Lights AFT/FWD COMP LT 3
Emergency Lights EMER LT 5
Engine Ignition (during start) IGNITION 7.5
Emergency Power EMERGENCY POWER 20

Battery Bus
Battery Voltmeter BATT VOLTAGE 2

Left Isolation Bus


Left Generator Ammeter LH AMMETER (2) 2
Left Generator Sense LH GEN SENSE 10
Left Engine Start Light LH START LT 2
Left Generator Voltmeter LH VOLTMETER 2

Right Isolation Bus


Right Generator Ammeter RH AMMETER (2) 2
Right Generator Sense RH GEN SENSE 10
Right Engine Start Light RH START LT 2
Right Generator Voltmeter RH VOLTMETER 2

Left Main Bus


Left Bus Sense LH BUS SENSE 2
Left Fuel Boost Pump LH BOOST 15
Left Generator Off Light LH GEN OFF 2
Left Landing Light LH LDG LT 15
Passenger Advisory Lights OXY/SEAT BELT 5
Left Recognition Light LH RECOG LT 5
Indirect Cabin Lights INDIRECT LT 7.5
Entertainment Center ENT CTR 5
Tail Flood Lights TAIL LIGHTS 5

Right Main Bus


Right Bus Sense RH BUS SENSE 2
Right Fuel Boost Pump RH BOOST 15
Right Generator Off Light RH GEN OFF 2
Right Landing Light RH LDG LT 15
Right Recognition Light RH RECOG LT 5
Cabin Lights CABIN LT 7.5
Toilet/Shaver Outlet TOILET 7.5

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

DC Bus Distribution Table (550-0550 and after)


Left Circuit Breaker Panel

Power Source Circuit


and Equipment Breaker Amperage

Left CB Panel
Left Engine Fan Speed Digital Indicator LH FAN SPEED 2
Left Engine Turbine Speed Digital Indicator LH TURB SPEED 2
Left 5V Panel Lights LH PANEL 5
AC Inverter 1 AC INVERTER NO 1 15
Anti-Collision Light ANTICOLL 7.5
AOA System Control ANG OF ATTACK 5
AOA System Heater AOA HTR 5
Battery Overtemp System BATT TEMP 2
Cabin Fan CABIN FAN 20
Cockpit Voice Recorder VOICE RECORDER 5
Left Digital Clock LH CLOCK 2
Electroluminescent Panel Lights EL PANEL 1
Left Engine Control LH ENG 7.5
Engine Synchronization System ENGINE SYNC 5
Right Engine Fire Detection RH FIRE DET 2
Right Engine Firewall Shutoff RH FW SHUTOFF 7.5
Flap Control FLAP CONTROL 5
Flight Data Recorder FLIGHT RECORDER 5
Right Fuel Boost Pump RH BOOST 15
Left Engine Fuel Flow Indicator LH FUEL FLOW 2
Left Fuel Quantity Indicator LH FUEL QTY 2
Right Engine Ignition System RH IGN 7.5
Left Engine ITT Indicator LH ITT 2
Landing Gear Control GEAR CONTROL 5
Landing Gear Warning LDG GEAR 2
Left Engine Start Control LH START 7.5
Wing Inspection Light WING INSP 5
Nose Wheel Spinup System NOSE WHL RPM 2
Outside Air Temperature OAT 2
Left Engine Oil Pressure Indicator LH OIL PRESS 2
Left Engine Oil Temp Indicator LH OIL TEMP 2
Pitch Trim Control PITCH TRIM 5
Left Pitot/Static Heater LH PITOT STATIC 7.5
Power Brakes and Anti-Skid Control SKID CONTROL 20
Normal Pressurization System NORM PRESS 5
Right Circuit Breaker Panel RH CB PANEL 35
Rotating Beacon ROTATING BEACON 5
Speed Brake Control SPEED BRAKE 5
Standby Gyro STBY GYRO 5
True Airspeed Probe Heater (Sperry) TAS HTR 5
Cabin Temperature Control TEMP 5
Left Engine Thrust Reverser Control LH THRUST REVERSER 7.5
Warning Lights 1 WARN LTS 1 2
Windshield Bleed Air Control W/S BLEED AIR TEMP 15
Windshield Bleed Air Power W/S BLEED AIR 5
Wing Navigation Lights NAV 5
Cockpit Voice Recorder VOICE RECORDER 5
Flap Motors FLAP MOTOR 15

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-35


DC Bus Distribution Table (550-0550 and after)
Left Circuit Breaker Panel

Power Source Circuit


and Equipment Breaker Amperage

Left Main Bus


Left CB Panel Bus LH BUS NO 1 75
Left CB Panel Bus LH BUS NO 2 75
Left CB Panel Bus LH BUS NO 3 75

Right Crossover Bus


Center 5V Panel Lights CENTER PANEL 5
Right 5V Panel Lights RH PANEL 5
Windshield Alcohol Pump W/S ALCOHOL 5
Right Altimeter Vibrator RH ALT 2
Right Digital Clock RH CLOCK 2
Emergency Pressurization System EMER PRESS 5
Right Engine Control RH ENG 7.5
Left Engine Fire Detection LH FIRE DET 2
Left Engine Firewall Shutoff LH FW SHUTOFF 7.5
Flight Hour Meter FLT/HR 2
Left Engine Ignition LH IGN 7.5
Overspeed Warning OVERSPEED 2
Right Pitot/Static Heater RH PITOT STATIC 7.5
Surface Deice Boots SURFACE DEICE 5
Right Thrust Reverser Control RH THRUST REVERSER 7.5
Warning Lights 2 WARN LTS 2 5
Left Fuel Boost Pump LH BOOST 15

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DC Bus Distribution Table (550-0550 and after)


Right Circuit Breaker Panel

Power Source Circuit


and Equipment Breaker Amperage

Avionics Bus 1
Automatic Direction Finder 1 ADF 1 3
Audio Control 1 AUDIO 1 3
Autopilot Warning WARN 3
DME 1 (550-0627 and after) DME 1 3
EADI 1 (550-0627 and after) EADI 1 5
EFIS 1 (550-0627 and after) EFIS 1 5
EFIS 1 Control (550-0627 and after) EFIS 1 CONT 1
EHSI 1 (550-0627 and after) EHSI 1 5
Flight Director 1 FD 1 3
Navigation 1 NAV 1 3
Radio Altimeter RAD ALT 2
Radio Magnetic Indicator 1 RMI 1 2
Transponder 1 XPDR 1 3
B&D True Airspeed System TAS 2
Communication 2 COMM 2 7.5
Directional Gyro 1 DG 1 5

Avionics Bus 2
EFIS 2 (550-0627 and after) EFIS 2 5
EFIS 2 Control (550-0627 and after) EFIS 2 CONT 1
EHSI 2 (550-0627 and after) EHSI 2 5
Flight Director 2 FD 2 3
Transponder 2 XPDR 2 3
Communication 2 COMM 2 7.5
DME 2 (550-0627 and after) DME 2 3
EADI 2 (550-0627 and after) EADI 2 5
True Air Speed Heater TAS HTR 2
Audio Control 2 AUDIO 2 3
Automatic Direction Finder 2 ADF2 2

Avionics Bus 3
AFIS AFIS 7.5
Autopilot Servo AP 7.5
Communication 3 COMM 3 5
Flight Management System FMS 5
VLF Navigation VLF 5

Avionics Bus 4
Flitefone PHONE 5
Multifunction Display MFD DISP 5
Multifunction Symbol Generator MFD SYM GEN 7.5
Weather Radar RADAR 7.5
Radio Magnetic Indicator 2 RMI 2 2

Emergency Bus
Directional Gyro 2 DG 2 3
Cockpit Flood Lights FLOOD 7.5
Radio Magnetic Indicator 2 RMI 2 2
Navigation 2 NAV 2 3
Attitude Director Indicator 2 ADI 2 2
Audio Control 1 AUDIO 1 3
Communication 1 COMM 1 7.5

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-37


DC Bus Distribution Table (550-0550 and after)
Right Circuit Breaker Panel

Power Source Circuit


and Equipment Breaker Amperage

Right CB Panel
Right Engine Fan Speed Digital Indicator RH FAN SPEED 2
Right Engine Turbine Speed Digital Indicator RH TURB SPEED 2
Right Engine ITT Indicator RH ITT 2
Right Fuel Flow Indicator RH FUEL FLOW 2
Right Fuel Quantity Indicator RH FUEL QTY 2
Right Oil Pressure Indicator RH OIL PRESS 2
Right Oil Temperature Indicator RH OIL TEMP 2
Right Engine Start Control RH START 7.5
AC Inverter 2 AC INVERTER 2 25
Left CB Panel LH CB PANEL 35

Right Main Bus


Right CB Panel Bus RH BUS NO 1 75
Right CB Panel Bus RH BUS NO 2 75
Right CB Panel Bus RH BUS NO 3 75

Dual Split AC Bus Distribution Table (550-0550 and after)


Right Circuit Breaker Panel

Power Source Circuit


and Equipment Breaker Amperage

115 VAC BUS 1


Autopilot Control AP 1
Flight Director 1 FD 1 1
Sperry True Airspeed System AIR DATA 2
Vertical Gyro 1 VG 1 1
Weather Radar RADAR 1

115 VAC BUS 2


Flight Director 2 FD 2 1
Vertical Gyro 2 VG 2 1

26 VAC BUS 1
EFIS 1 (550-0627 & after) EFIS 1 2
Navigation 1 NAV 1 3
Radio Magnetic Indicator 1 RMI 1 2

26 VAC BUS 2
Navigation 2 NAV 2 3
Radio Magnetic Indicator 2 RMI 2 2
Horizontal Situation Indicator 2 HSI 2 2
EFIS EFIS 5

Right Sub CB Panel


115VAC 1 115VAC 1 5
115VAC 2 115VAC 2 5
26VAC 1 26VAC 1 10
26VAC 2 26VAC 2 10

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

DC Bus Distribution Table (550-0505 and earlier)


Electrical Power Junction Box

Power Source Circuit


and Equipment Breaker Amperage

Hot Battery Bus


Aft/Forward Cargo Compartment Lights AFT/FWD COMP LT 3
Emergency Flood Lights EMER LT 5
Engine Ignition IGNITION 7.5
Emergency Power EMERGENCY POWER 20

Battery Bus
Battery Voltmeter BATT VOLTAGE 2

Left Isolation Bus


Left Generator Ammeter LH AMMETER (2) 2
Left Generator Sense LH GEN SENSE 10
Left Engine Start Light LH START LT 2
Left Generator Voltmeter LH VOLTMETER 2

Right Isolation Bus


Right Generator Ammeter RH AMMETER (2) 2
Right Generator Sense RH GEN SENSE 10
Right Engine Start Light RH START LT 2
Right Generator Voltmeter RH VOLTMETER 2

Left Main Bus


Left Bus Sense LH BUS SENSE 2
Left Fuel Boost Pump LH BOOST 15
Left Generator Off Light LH GEN OFF 2
Left Landing Light LH LDG LT 15
Passenger Advisory Lights OXY/SEAT BELT 5
Left Recognition Light LH RECOG LT 5
Indirect Lighting System INDIRECT LT 7.5
Entertainment Center ENT CTR 5

Right Main Bus


Right Bus Sense RH BUS SENSE 2
Right Fuel Boost Pump RH BOOST 15
Right Generator Off Light RH GEN OFF 2
Right Landing Light RH LDG LT 15
Right Recognition Light RH RECOG LT 5
Cabin Lights CABIN LT 7.5
Toilet/Shaver Outlet TOILET 7.5

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-39


DC Bus Distribution Table (550-0505 and earlier)
Left Circuit Breaker Panel

Power Source Circuit


and Equipment Breaker Amperage

Left CB Panel
Left Engine Fan Speed Digital Indicator LH FAN SPEED 2
Left Engine Turbine Speed Digital Indicator LH TURB SPEED 2
Left 5V Panel Lights LH PANEL 5
AC Inverter 1 AC INVERTER NO 1 15
Anti-Collision Light ANTICOLL 7.5
AOA System Control ANG OF ATTACK 5
AOA System Heater AOA HTR 5
Battery Overtemp System BATT TEMP 2
Cabin Fan CABIN FAN 20
Cockpit Voice Recorder VOICE RECORDER 5
Left Digital Clock LH CLOCK 2
Electroluminescent Panel Lights EL PANEL 1
Left Engine Control LH ENG 7.5
Engine Synchronization System ENGINE SYNC 5
Left Engine Fire Detection LH FIRE DET 2
Left Engine Firewall Shutoff LH FW SHUTOFF 7.5
Flap Control FLAP CONTROL 5
Flight Data Recorder FLIGHT RECORDER 5
Right Fuel Boost Pump RH BOOST 15
Left Engine Fuel Flow Indicator LH FUEL FLOW 2
Left Fuel Quantity Indicator LH FUEL QTY 2
Right Engine Ignition System RH IGN 7.5
Left ITT Indicator LH ITT 2
Landing Gear Control GEAR CONTROL 5
Landing Gear Warning LDG GEAR 2
Left Engine Start Control LH START 7.5
Left Wing Inspection Light LH WING INSP 5
Nose Wheel Spinup System NOSE WHL RPM 2
Outside Air Temperature OAT 2
Left Engine Oil Pressure Indicator LH OIL PRESS 2
Left Engine Oil Temp Indicator LH OIL TEMP 2
Pitch Trim Control PITCH TRIM 5
Left Pitot/Static Heater LH PITOT STATIC 7.5
Power Brakes and Anti-Skid Control SKID CONTROL 20
Normal Pressurization System NORM PRESS 5
Right Circuit Breaker Panel RH CB PANEL 35
Rotating Beacon ROTATING BEACON 5
Speed Brake Control SPEED BRAKE 5
Standby Gyro STBY GYRO 5
True Air Speed Probe Heater (Sperry) TAS HTR 5
Cabin Temperature Control TEMP 5
Left Engine Thrust Reverser Control LH THRUST REVERSER 7.5
Warning Lights 1 WARN LTS 1 2
Windshield Bleed Air Control W/S BLEED AIR TEMP 5
Windshield Bleed Air Power W/S BLEED AIR 5
Wing Navigation Light NAV 5
Cockpit Voice Recorder Voice Recorder 5
Flap Motors FLAP MOTOR 15

Left Main Bus


Left CB Panel Bus LH BUS NO 1 75
Left CB Panel Bus LH BUS NO 2 75
Left CB Panel Bus LH BUS NO 3 75

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DC Bus Distribution Table (550-0505 and earlier)


Left Circuit Breaker Panel

Power Source Circuit


and Equipment Breaker Amperage

Right Crossover Bus


Center 5V Panel Lights CENTER PANEL 5
Right 5V Panel Lights RH PANEL 5
Winshield Alcohol Pump W/S ALCOHOL 5
Right Altimeter Vibrator RH ALT 2
Right Digital Clock RH CLOCK 2
Emergency Pressurization System EMER PRESS 5
Right Engine Control RH ENG 7.5
Right Engine Fire Detection RH FIRE DET 2
Right Engine Firewall Shutoff RH FW SHUTOFf 7.5
Flight Hour Meter FL/ HR 2
Left Engine Ignition LH IGN 7.5
Overspeed Warning OVERSPEED 2
Right Pitot/Static Heater RH PITOT STATIC 7.5
Surface Deice Boots SURFACE DEICE 5
Right Thrust Reverser Control RH THRUST REVERSER 7.5
Warning Lights WARN LTS 5
Left Fuel Boost Pump LH BOOST 15
Equipment Cool Equipt Cool 7.5

Emergency Bus
Directional Gyro 2 DG 2 3
Cockpit Flood Lights FLOOD 7.5
Navigation 2 NAV 2 3
Communication 1 COMM 1 7.5

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-41


DC Bus Distribution Table (550-0505 and earlier)
Right Circuit Breaker Panel

Power Source Circuit


and Equipment Breaker Amperage

Right CB Panel
Right Engine Fan Speed Digital Indicator RH FAN SPEED 2
Right Engine Turbine Speed Digital Indicator RH TURB SPEED 2
AC Inverter 2 AC INVERTER NO 2 15
Right Fuel Flow Indicator RH FUEL FLOW 2
Right Fuel Quantity Indicator RH FUEL QTY 2
Right Engine ITT Indicator RH ITT 2
Left Circuit Breaker Panel LH CB PANEL 35
Right Engine Oil Pressure Indicator RH OIL PRESS 2
Right Oil Temperature Indicator RH OIL TEMP 2
Right Engine Start Control RH START 7.5
Communication 2 COMM 2 7.5
Distance Measuring Equipment 2 DME 2 3
Transponder 2 XPDR 2 3
Automatic Direction Finder 2 ADF 2 2
Communication 3 COMM 3 5
Audio Control 2 AUDIO 2 3
AC Switch AC SWITCH 3
Autopilot Warning WARN 3
Area Navigation AREA NAV 2
Ground Proximity Warning GROUND PROX 1
True Air Speed Heater HTR TAS 15
VLF Navigation VLF NAV 7.5
Nav Data Bank NAV DATA BANK 5
Flight Management Systems FMS 7.5
Weather Radar RADAR 7.5

Right Main Bus


Right DC Bus Number 1 RH BUS NO 1 75
Right DC Bus Number 2 RH BUS NO 2 75
Right DC Bus Number 3 RH BUS NO 3 75

Left Crossover Bus


Navigation 1 NAV 1 3
Automatic Direction Finder 1 ADF 1 3
Audio Control 1 AUDIO 1 3
Distance Measuring Equipment 1 DME 1 3
Attitude Director Indication 1 ADI 1 5
EFIS Disp EFIS Disp 1
EFIS EFIS 5
EHSI 1 EHSI 1 5
Flight Director 1 FD 1 3
Radio Altimeter RAD ALT 2
Radio Magnetic Indicator 1 RMI 1 2
Transponder 1 XPDR 1 3
Communication 2 COMM 2 7.5
Directional Gyro 1 DG 1 5
Autopilot Servo AP 7.5
Flitefone PHONE 5
Horizontal Situation Indicator 1 HSI 1 5
Cockpit Voice Advisory VOICE ADV 5
Flight Management System FMS 5

Emergency Bus
Navigation 2 NAV 2 2
Communication 1 COMM 1 7.5
Directional Gyro 2 DG 2 3
Cockpit Flood Lights FLOOD 5

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Split AC Bus Distribution Table (550-0505 and earlier)


Right Circuit Breaker Panel

Power Source Circuit


and Equipment Breaker Amperage

115 VAC BUS 1


Autopilot Control AP 1
Flight Director 1 FD 1 1
Sperry True Airspeed System AIR DATA 2
Vertical Gyro 1 VG 1 1
Weather Radar RADAR 1

115 VAC BUS 2


Flight Director 2 FD 2 1
Vertical Gyro 2 VG 2 1

26 VAC BUS 1
Navigation 1 NAV 1 3
RMI /ADF 1 RMI /ADF 1 2
Attitude Director Indicator 1 ADI 1 1

26 VAC BUS 2
Navigation 2 NAV 2 3
Radio Magnetic Indicator 2 RMI 2 2
Horizontal Situation Indicator 2 HSI 2 2
EFIS EFIS 2
RMI /ADF 2 RMI /ADF 2 2
Attitude Director Indicator 2 ADI 2 2

Right Sub CB Panel


115VAC 115VAC 5
26VAC 26VAC 10

Single AC Bus Distribution Table (550-0505 and earlier)


Right Circuit Breaker Panel

Power Source Circuit


and Equipment Breaker Amperage

115 VAC BUS 1


Flight Director 1 FD 1 1
Flight Director 2 FD 2 1
Vertical Gyro 1 VG 1 1
Vertical Gyro 2 VG 2 1
AC Monitor AC MONITOR 3
Sperry True Airspeed System AIR DATA 2
Autopilot Control AP 1
Weather Radar RADAR 1

26 VAC BUS 1
Navigation 1 NAV 1 3
Radio Magnetic Indicator 1 RMI 1 2
Radio Magnetic Indicator 2 RMI 2 1
Automatic Direction Finder 1 ADF 1 2
Automatic Direction Finder 2 ADF 2 2
Attitude Director Indicator 1 ADI 1 2
Horizontal Situation Indicator 1 HSI 1 1

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-43


Alternating Current (AC) Power System

Various airplane components requiring AC power for their


operation are supplied by AC inverters through a multiple bus
distribution system which varies depending on airplane con-
figuration and unit number.

Dual Split Bus AC System (550-0550 and after)

Inverters
During normal operation, each AC bus is supplied by its asso-
ciated inverter. Should failure of either inverter occur, the oppo-
site inverter supplies power to all AC busses through an auto-
matic switching circuit. When an inverter has failed, the red [AC
FAIL] annunciator and the corresponding [1] or [2] [INV FAIL]
annunciator will illuminate, and the red [MASTER WARNING]
light/switch will flash. Resetting the [MASTER WARNING] light/
switch will extinguish the [AC FAIL] annunciator but will not
reset the failed inverter.

Should an AC Bus circuit breaker trip, either or both [INV FAIL]


annunciators, the [AC FAIL] annunciator and the red [MASTER
WARNING] light/switch will illuminate. The tripped circuit
breaker may be reset by pushing it back in, and the annuncia-
tors extinguished by pressing the [MASTER WARNING] light/
switch which may return either or both inverters to operation
providing the fault has cleared. If the A/C Bus circuit breaker
cannot be reset, the bus isolated by the associated circuit
breaker is no longer energized and all systems powered by it
become inoperative.

AC Control
Positioning the AC switch to
the upper (on) position acti-
vates inverter 1 and 2, momen-
tarily illuminating the [AC
FAIL] annunciator until both
inverters are on-line and in
phase. A synchronization
circuit between the inverters is
used as the reference for
phase relationship.

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Inverter Testing
Each inverter may be tested by positioning the AC switch to the
upper (on) position and holding the test switch to the “INV 1” or
“INV 2” position and observing illumination of the correspond-
ing [1] or [2] [INV FAIL] annunciator. When the test switch is
released the annunciator should extinguish.

Each 115 VAC and 26 VAC


dual split bus circuit breaker,
located on the right flight
compartment sidewall, func-
tions to isolate its associated
AC bus when overloaded and
to illuminate the [AC FAIL]
annunciator.

▲ AC SYSTEM CIRCUIT BREAKERS

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-45


“Tied” Split Bus AC System
(optional 550-0162~0505 with dual flight director installation)

Inverters
During normal operation, each AC bus is supplied by its asso-
ciated inverter. Each 26 VAC and 115 VAC bus are tied through
a bus tie circuit breaker. Should failure of either inverter occur,
the opposite inverter supplies power to all AC busses through
the bus tie circuit breakers. Failure of either inverter will cause
the corresponding [1] or [2] [INV FAIL] annunciator, and the red
[MASTER WARNING] light/switch to illuminate. Resetting the
[MASTER WARNING] light/switch will extinguish the light but
will not reset the failed inverter. Should a bus-tie circuit breaker
trip, either or both [INV FAIL] annunciator(s), and the red [MAS-
TER WARNING] light/switch will illuminate. The tripped circuit
breaker may be reset by pushing it back in and the annunciator
extinguished by pressing the [MASTER WARNING] light/switch
which may return either or both inverters to operation providing
the fault has cleared. If the bus tie circuit breaker(s) cannot be
reset, the bus isolated by the associated circuit breaker is no
longer energized and all systems powered by it become
inoperative.

AC Control
Positioning the AC switch to
the upper (on) position acti-
vates inverter 1 and 2, momen-
tarily illuminating the [AC
FAIL] annunciator until both
inverters are on-line and in
phase. A synchronization
circuit between the inverters is
used as the reference for
phase relationship.

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Inverter Testing
Each inverter may be tested by positioning the AC switch to the
upper (on) position and holding the test switch to the “INV 1” or
“INV 2” position and observing illumination of the correspond-
ing [1] or [2] [INV FAIL] annunciator. When the test switch is
released the annunciator should extinguish.

Each 26 VAC bus and 115


VAC bus are tied together
through corresponding 26V
and 115V AC POWER BUS
TIE circuit breakers located on
the right flight compartment
sidewall.

▲ AC SYSTEM CIRCUIT BREAKERS

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-47


Single Bus System (standard 550-0505 and earlier)

Inverters
During normal operation, inverter 1 supplies all AC bus require-
ments. Should failure of inverter 1 occur, the voltage sensor
which monitors the 115 VAC power bus will cause illumination
of the [AC FAIL] annunciator. Positioning the inverter switch to
“INV 2” will provide a ground for the inverter on/off circuit and
energize the inverter switching relay, thereby supplying power
from inverter 2 to the AC power busses, and extinguish the [AC
FAIL] annunciator.

AC Control
Positioning the inverter switch
to “INV 1” provides the ground
path for the inverter on/off
circuit resulting in power
being supplied to the AC
power busses from inverter 1.

Inverter Testing
Each inverter may be tested by positioning the inverter switch to
the “INV 1” or “INV 2” position which should cause the [AC
FAIL] annunciator to extinguish. Setting the inverter switch to its
“OFF” position should cause the [AC FAIL] annunciator to
illuminate.

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Dual Split Bus AC Power System (550-0550 and after)

AC Power Indication (550-0550 and after)

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AC Power System (550-0505 and earlier)

Split Bus AC Power System (550-0550 and after)

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

AC Circuit Protection

Circuit breakers for the airplane’s AC powered flight instru-


ments and avionics are located on the right CB panel on the
flight compartment sidewall so as to be readily accessible to
the flight crew. The applicable amperage is marked on each
circuit breaker. Labels above each breaker identify the circuit
protected. These push-to-reset type circuit breakers will pop
out, or “trip,” when heat is generated by an electrical overload.
Should an overload occur, a tripped circuit breaker may be
reset after a cooling period of approximately three minutes by
pushing it back in. If the circuit breaker trips a second time, a
short circuit is indicated and it should not be reset, as this could
cause system damage.

Note: The flight crew should ensure that all circuit breakers are
engaged and serviceable fuses are installed before all flights.
The airplane should never be operated with any disengaged
circuit breakers without a thorough knowledge of the conse-
quences.

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-51


Lighting

The airplane is equipped with a variety of exterior lights to


facilitate takeoff, landing, in-flight recognition, and wing inspec-
tion, plus interior lights that provide varying degrees of cockpit,
cabin, and baggage compartment illumination.

Exterior Lighting

Exterior lighting consists of navigation lights, anti-collision


lights, taxi/landing lights, a rotating or flashing beacon, tail flood
lights, a wing inspection light, and recognition lights. Exterior
lighting switches are located on the lower left instrument panel
and the pilot’s lower instrument panel.

▲ LOWER LEFT INSTRUMENT PANEL ▲ PILOT’S LOWER INSTRUMENT PANEL

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

1. Navigation Lights
Navigation lights are installed
on each wing tip and on the
tailcone stinger. The lights are 1
controlled by the NAV switch
and supplied with 28 VDC
power from the right main bus
(550-0550 and after) or left
main bus (550-0505 and 2
earlier) through the NAV circuit
breaker on the left CB panel.

When darkness permits, operation of the navigation lights can


be confirmed during preflight by observing their reflection on
the ground and/or other surrounding objects. During daylight
hour preflight, the operation of each light should be confirmed
from outside of the airplane.

2. Anti-Collision Strobe Lights


High-intensity anti-collision strobe lights are installed on each
wing tip adjacent to the navigation lights. The strobe lights are
energized by bus voltage boosted through independent power
supplies installed within the wing tip. The lights are controlled
by the ANTI COLL switch and supplied with 28 VDC left main
bus power through the ANTI COLL circuit breaker on the left CB
panel.

Note: Strobe lights should not be operated in clouds, fog, or


haze as their reflection on water droplets in the atmosphere can
induce disorientation or vertigo.

Note: To avoid interfering with the vision of other pilots, strobe


lights should not be operated when taxiing in the vicinity of
other aircraft.

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-53


Taxi/Landing Lights
A sealed beam taxi/landing
light is installed on the forward
drag brace of each main gear
assembly (airplanes not incor-
porating SB550-33-5), or on
each main gear door (air-
planes incorporating SB550-
33-5). The lights are exposed
and operable only when the
main gear is extended. Each
light is independently con-
trolled by its associated LH or RH LANDING switch. 28 VDC
power is supplied to each from its corresponding left or right
main bus, through circuit breakers located in the aft fuselage
electrical power junction “J” box.

Wing Recognition Lights


Optional recognition lights,
used to provide additional
exterior lighting and increase
airplane visibility, are installed
on the leading edge of each
wing tip. Glareshields are
installed slightly inboard of the
lights to reduce glare within
the cockpit. The recognition
lights are controlled by the
RECOG switch. 28 VDC power
is supplied to each from its corresponding left or right main bus,
through circuit breakers located in the “J” box.

Caution: Recognition lights use a pressurized, halogen cycle-


type lamp which produces extremely high intensity light which
could cause eye damage if viewed directly. The lamp should
be protected from abrasions, scratches, impact, and contact
with liquids. Handling the lamp should be avoided. Allow the
lamp to cool, and wear protective clothing and dark glasses if
contact is necessary.

Note: Recognition lights should be turned on shortly before


takeoff and during descent, and extinguished during climb,
cruise, and after landing as soon as the airplane is clear of the
runway.

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Rotating/Flashing Beacon
Rotating or flashing beacons, used to increase airplane visibil-
ity, may be installed on the top of the rudder. Any of three differ-
ent types of beacons may be installed on individual airplanes,
two of which use flashing lamps and one of which uses a rotat-
ing light assembly that employs a stationary lamp and electri-
cally-driven rotating reflector. The beacon is controlled by the
BEACON switch and supplied with 28 VDC left main bus power
through the ROTATING BEACON circuit breaker on the left CB
panel.

Wing Inspection Light


The wing inspection light,
used to check for ice accumu-
lation on the leading edge of
the wing during night opera-
tions, is flush-mounted on the
left side of the fuselage for-
ward of the wing. The light is
controlled by the WING INSP
switch and supplied with 28
VDC power from the left main
bus (550-0550 and after) or
right main bus (550-0505 and earlier) through the WING INSP
circuit breaker on the left CB panel.

Note: Operation of the wing inspection light is mandatory for


flight in icing conditions as defined by the FAA.

Tail Floodlights
Optional floodlights may be installed on the upper left and right
surfaces of the horizontal stabilizer to illuminate the vertical
stabilizer. These lights may also be referred to as identification
lights, logo lights, or tail lights. The floodlights are controlled by
the BEACON switch (550-0038 and after) or the NAV switch
(550-0037 and earlier), and supplied with 28 VDC left main bus
power through the TAIL LIGHTS circuit breaker located in the
“J” box.

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-55


Interior Lighting

Airplane interior lighting systems provide illumination, advisory


and warning within the flight compartment and passenger
cabin, plus baggage compartment illumination.

Control and Instrument Lighting


Electroluminescent “backlit” panels provide primary illumina-
tion of labels on various switch, control, and circuit breaker
panels as well as the center pedestal. The electroluminescent
panels are powered by 40 to 60 VAC, 400 Hz inverters. Addi-
tional panel and instrument illumination is provided by integral
5 VDC powered lights. Panels and instruments that are not
internally lighted are illuminated by 5 VDC or 28 VDC powered
post lights. Panel and instrument illumination is controlled by
ON/OFF switches and rheostats located on the pilot’s lower
instrument panel.

▲ PANEL AND INSTRUMENT LIGHT CONTROLS

Instrument Panel Floodlights


The instrument panel floodlights, located on the aft overhead
console behind a blue tinted lens, are normally used during
thunderstorms to provide supplemental instrument panel illumi-
nation to compensate for lightning-induced night vision loss.
These lights are controlled by the FLOOD LTS rheostat and
supplied with 28 VDC emergency bus power through the
FLOOD circuit breaker on the right CB panel.

Vertical Scale Engine Instrument Light


The vertical scale engine instrument light, located on the lower
surface of the glareshield panel fire tray, illuminates the vertical
scale engine instruments on the upper center instrument panel.

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This light is automatically illuminated during the engine start


sequence and extinguished upon start sequence completion.
During engine start, the light is supplied with 28 VDC emer-
gency bus power through the EMER LT circuit breaker located
in the “J” box. During normal operation, the light is supplied
with 28 VDC emergency bus power through the FLOOD circuit
breaker.

In the event of electrical system failure the light is supplied with


28 VDC power from the standby gyro battery pack (if installed).
The light is also supplied with 28 VDC power from an emer-
gency lighting battery pack, located above the cabin headliner,
through an inertial switch which closes when exposed to an
acceleration force of 5Gs or more.

Counter Light
The post-type counter light illuminates the mechanical counter
located above the FAN tachometer on the upper center instru-
ment panel. This light is controlled by the CENTER panel rheo-
stat and supplied with 28 VDC left main bus power through the
CENTER PANEL circuit breaker on the left CB panel

Cathode Tube Lights


Two cathode tube lights are installed under the glareshield to
provide supplemental instrument panel lighting. The lights are
powered by a high-voltage inverter located within the left side
console. This light and the inverter are controlled by the EL
panel rheostat and supplied with 28 VDC left main bus power
through the EL PANEL circuit breaker on the left CB panel.

Map Lights
Map lights, providing direc-
tional flight compartment
illumination, are located on the
overhead console. Each light
is independently controlled by
an associated rheostat, lo-
cated on the forward end of
each side console, and sup-
plied with 28 VDC right main
bus power through the 5-amp
RH PANEL circuit breaker on
the left CB panel.

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-57


Indirect Cabin Lights
Primary cabin illumination is
provided by an indirect light-
ing system, consisting of
twelve overhead fluorescent
lights powered by two invert-
ers located above the cabin
headliner. The lights and the
inverters are controlled by a
three-position (OFF/BRIGHT/
DIM) switch, located on the
cabin sidewall forward of the
▲ OFF/BRIGHT/DIM SWITCH
entrance door, and supplied
with 28 VDC left main bus power through the INDIRECT LT
circuit breaker located in the “J” box. The indirect lighting
system is optional on airplanes 550-0550 and after, and stan-
dard on airplanes 550-0505 and earlier.

Overhead Console Sign


The lighted overhead console
sign, mounted just aft of the
forward divider, displays
universal “no smoking” and
“fasten belt” symbols. This
light is controlled by a PASS
SAFETY switch and supplied
with 28 VDC left main power
through the OXY/SEAT BELT
SIGN circuit breaker located in
the “J” box.

Entrance Lights
Entrance lights are provided to illuminate the passenger door
entrance, emergency exit door, and aft baggage compartment.
Each entrance light may be illuminated by an integral switch, or
by the PASS SAFETY switch. 28 VDC hot battery bus power is
supplied to these lights through the CABIN LIGHTS circuit
breaker located in the “J” box.

In the event of electrical system failure these lights may be


supplied with 28 VDC power from the emergency lighting
battery pack and are automatically illuminated through the
inertial switch with an acceleration force of 5Gs or more.

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Emergency Exit Sign


A lighted EMERGENCY EXIT sign is located over the emer-
gency exit door to clearly identify its location. The light is con-
trolled by an illuminated switch located on the cabin sidewall
forward of the entrance door, or by the PASS SAFETY switch. 28
VDC left main bus power is supplied to the light through the
OXY/SEAT BELT circuit breaker located in the “J” box.

In the event of electrical system failure this light may be sup-


plied with 28 VDC power from the emergency lighting battery
pack and is automatically illuminated through the inertial switch
with an acceleration force of 5Gs or more.

PSU Light
On airplanes 550-0550 and after, an optional fluorescent light is
available to provide passenger service unit (refreshment center
or vanity) area illumination. The light is controlled by the three-
position (OFF/BRIGHT/DIM) switch, located on the cabin
sidewall forward of the entrance door, and supplied with 28
VDC left main bus power through the INDIRECT LT circuit
breaker located in the “J” box.

Passenger Reading Lights


Reading lights, providing
directional illumination, are
located above each passen-
ger station. Each light is inde-
pendently controlled by an
integral switch and supplied
with 28 VDC right main bus
power through the CABIN
LIGHTS circuit breaker on the
left CB panel.

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-59


Aft Fuselage Interior Light
Aft fuselage interior illumina-
tion is provided by a detach-
able light mounted on a swiv-
eling base between the for-
ward and aft engine carry-thru
beams. The light is controlled
by an ON/OFF switch located
on the tailcone access door
frame. The ON/OFF switch is
wired through a microswitch
such that when the switch is
▲ ON/OFF SWITCH
set to “ON” the light will illumi-
nate when the door is opened and extinguish when the door is
closed. The light is supplied with 28 VDC hot battery bus power
through the AFT/FWD COMPARTMENT LIGHT circuit breaker
located in the “J” box.

Baggage Compartment Lights


Nose baggage compartment illumination is provided by a light
mounted overhead near the center of the compartment. The
light is controlled by an illuminated, rocker-type, on/off switch
located adjacent to the light. The on/off switch is wired through
a microswitch such that when the switch is set to “on” the light
will illuminate when the door is opened and extinguish when
the door is closed.

Tailcone baggage compartment illumination is provided by a


light mounted above the access door. The light is controlled by
an ON/OFF switch located on the tailcone access door frame.
The ON/OFF switch is wired through a microswitch such that
when the switch is set to “ON” the light will illuminate when the
door is opened and extinguish when the door is closed.

The baggage compartment lights are supplied with 28 VDC hot


battery bus power through the AFT/FWD COMPARTMENT
LIGHT circuit breaker located in the “J” box.

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Limitations

Refer to the applicable airplane manufacturers FAA approved


flight manual or approved manual material, markings and
placards, or any combination thereof for all limitations.

Emergency Procedures

Refer to the applicable airplane manufacturers FAA approved


flight manual or approved manual material (supplementary
checklist) as revised, for procedural information.

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 6-61


Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Chapter 7
Flight Instrumentation

Table of Contents

Overview ............................................... 7-1

Flight Environment Data System ............. 7-2

Pitot-Static System ................................ 7-2


Pitot Tubes ...................................... 7-2
Static Ports ..................................... 7-3
Alternate Static Air Source ................ 7-3

Airspeed/Mach Indicators ...................... 7-4


Airspeed Pointer............................... 7-4
Mach Sub-Dial ................................. 7-4
Airspeed Mach Indicator Markings ..... 7-5
Index Marker ................................... 7-5

Overspeed Warning System ................... 7-6

True Airspeed System (optional) ............. 7-7


Sperry TAS System .......................... 7-7
B&D TAS System ............................. 7-8
Barometric Altimeters ....................... 7-9
Pilot’s Altimeter ............................. 7-10
Copilot’s Altimeter .......................... 7-11

Altitude Alerting and


Reporting System ................................ 7-12
Altitude Alerting .............................. 7-12
Altitude Reporting ........................... 7-13

Vertical Speed Indicators ..................... 7-15


Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Flight Instrumentation, continued

Table of Contents

Radio Altimeter System (optional) ........ 7-16


Transceiver and Antennas ............... 7-16
Conventional Indicator
(excluding RAD/BAR) ...................... 7-17
Conventional Indicator (RAD/BAR) ... 7-18
Mechanical Flight Director
Radio Altitude Indication ................. 7-19
EFIS Radio Altitude Indication ......... 7-20

Attitude and Direction System .............. 7-21


Conventional Attitude Indicator ........ 7-21
Air Driven Gyro............................... 7-22
Gyro Pressure Gage ....................... 7-23
Electrically-Driven Gyro .................... 7-23
Turn-and-Bank Indicator ................... 7-24

Mechanical Flight Directors .................. 7-25


Attitude Directional Indicator ........... 7-25
Horizontal Situation Indicator .......... 7-25
Gyro Slaving .................................. 7-26
ADI Display Features ...................... 7-27
HSI Display Features ...................... 7-31

Electronic Flight
Instrumentation System ....................... 7-33

Autopilot/Flight Director System ........... 7-33

Limitations .......................................... 7-33

Emergency Procedures......................... 7-33


Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Overview

▲ PILOT’S FLIGHT INSTRUMENTATION

The primary flight instruments


of the Cessna Citation II are
positioned on panels directly
in front of the pilot and copilot.
Pitot-static instrumentation
consists of airspeed/mach
indicators, barometric altim-
eters, and vertical speed
indicators. Gyroscopic instru-
mentation consists of attitude
directional indicators (ADIs)
and horizontal situation indica-
▲ COPILOT’S FLIGHT INSTRUMENTATION
tors (HSIs) of mechanical or
electronic (EFIS) type depending on installation. Turn coordina-
tion information is provided either by independent mechanical
indicators or by a rate-of-turn indicator and conventional incli-
nometer integral to each ADI/EADI. A standby attitude indicator
may be installed as an emergency backup to the ADI(s) or
EADI(s). Additional navigational guidance is provided by radio
magnetic indicators (RMIs) displaying both VOR and ADF
magnetic bearing information, an optional radio altimeter, and a
magnetic compass mounted on the windshield center post
above the glareshield. An outside air temperature (OAT) indica-
tor, clock, and optional angle-of-attack (AOA) indicator are
located on the upper left instrument panel. An optional true
airspeed (TAS) system may also be installed.

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For organizational purposes, this chapter is divided into sepa-
rate flight environment data and attitude and direction systems
according to the conditions or forces utilized in their operation.
The flight environment data system includes equipment and
instruments which are sensitive to environmental conditions
which influence navigation. The attitude and direction system
includes equipment and instruments which are sensitive to
gyroscopic, inertial, and magnetic forces which influence navi-
gation.

Flight Environment Data System

The flight environment data system includes the pitot-static


system and associated flight instruments, the overspeed warn-
ing system, altitude alerting and reporting system, as well as
the optional true airspeed (TAS), radio altimeter, and AOA
systems when installed.

Pitot-Static System

The pilot’s and copilot’s pitot-static flight instruments are sup-


plied by independent pitot-static systems consisting of one
pitot tube and two static ports each.

Pitot Tubes
The pitot tubes are located on
the lower left and right surface
of the nose section. The left
pitot tube supplies ram pres-
sure to the pilot’s airspeed/
mach indicator, the air data
computer, and airspeed/mach
warning switch. The right pitot
tube supplies ram pressure to
the copilot’s airspeed indica-
tor, the landing gear warning
▲ PITOT TUBE
airspeed switch (550-0627
and after), B&D TAS pressure transducer (if installed), and
airspeed/mach warning switch (Canadian (CAA) certified air-
planes).

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Static Ports
The static ports are located on
the left and right sides of the
fuselage. The upper right and
lower left static port are inter-
connected and supply ambi-
ent pressure to the pilot’s
airspeed/mach indicator, IVSI,
the air data computer, and
airspeed/mach warning
switch. The upper left and
lower right static port are
▲ STATIC PORTS
interconnected and supply
ambient pressure to the copilot’s airspeed/mach indicator,
barometric altimeter, IVSI, the landing gear warning airspeed
switch (550-0627 and after), B&D TAS pressure transducer (if
installed), and airspeed/mach warning switch (CAA certificated
airplanes). Ambient pressure is also provided to the cabin
differential pressure indicator through the copilot’s static ports.
The interconnection and location of the static ports on opposite
sides of the fuselage minimizes system pressure errors caused
by uncoordinated flight.

The pitot tubes and static ports are protected against icing by
integral, electrically-powered heating elements. Refer to Chap-
ter 10 for a complete description of pitot-static ice protection.

Note: The pitot tubes and static ports must be clear and free of
obstructions for proper operation.

Alternate Static Air Source (if installed)


Should restriction of the static ports occur, as evidenced by
erratic indication of the pitot-static flight instruments, the
copilot’s instruments may be provided with ambient pressure
from within the nose section through an alternate static air
source. A manually-operated control valve, located below the
copilot’s instrument panel, is used to select the normal or alter-
nate static air source. Though optional on most Citations, the
alternate static air source system is standard on French
(DGAC) certificated airplanes.

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Airspeed/Mach Indicators

The airspeed/mach indicators


provide visual indication of the 2 1
airplane’s speed in relation to
the ambient air and the speed
of sound. Each unit consists of
a stationary indicator dial,
airspeed pointer, rotating
mach sub-dial, moveable
index marker, and an airtight
instrument case which houses
a pair of airtight diaphragms 3
linked to drive mechanisms
that operate the pointer and 1. Airspeed Pointer
sub-dial. The instrument case 2. Mach Sub-Dial
is supplied with static (ambi- 3. Index Marker Knob
ent) air pressure through its
associated static ports. The airspeed diaphragm is supplied
with pitot (ram) pressure through its associated pitot tube while
the mach diaphragm is sealed at standard sea level atmo-
spheric pressure (29.92 inHg/1013.2 mb (reference pressure)).

Airspeed Pointer
As airspeed increases or decreases, the differential between
static pressure and pitot pressure causes the airspeed dia-
phragm to expand or contract. As it does, its movement is
transmitted by the drive mechanism to position the pointer at
the corresponding KIAS value on the indicator dial.

Mach Sub-Dial
The inner (rotating) mach sub-dial is visible through a window
on the face of the instrument between 140 and 320 knots on the
outer (stationary) KIAS indicator dial. Unlike the airspeed
pointer which is positioned relative to speed, the mach sub-dial
is positioned relative to altitude. As altitude increases or de-
creases, the differential between static pressure and reference
pressure causes the mach diaphragm to expand or contract.
As it does, its movement is transmitted by the drive mechanism
to rotate the sub-dial such that the relationship between its
position and that of the pointer will correspond to the approxi-
mate mach number (M).

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Airspeed/Mach Indicator Markings


The airspeed indicator dial is calibrated in knots per hour
(KIAS) and incorporates two radial slots (9500 LB ZFW) or one
radial slot (11,000 LB ZFW) in positions corresponding to the
airplane’s Maximum Operating Speed (VMO) limitation(s) listed
below. Rotation of the sub-dial, occurring with changes in
altitude, causes the color red to become visible through the
slot(s) within the appropriate altitude range.

Zero Fuel Weight Altitude Range VMO

9500 LB SL ~ 14,000' 262 KIAS


9500 LB 14,000' ~ 28,000' 277 KIAS
11,000 LB SL ~ 30,500' 262 KIAS

A red radial line on the mach sub-dial denotes the airplane’s


Maximum Mach Operating (MMO) limitation of 0.705 M at alti-
tudes above 28,000 feet (9500 LB ZFW) or 30,500 feet (11,000
LB ZFW). Essentially, when operating above these altitudes,
alignment of the airspeed pointer with the MMO radial line will
produce a true airspeed of 0.705 M regardless of indicated
speed. To avoid exceeding this limitation, the airspeed pointer
must never be permitted to rotate beyond the MMO radial line.

Index Marker
The index marker is controlled by a knob located on the lower
left corner of the instrument face and may be moved to any
position around the KIAS scale to reference a desired airspeed.

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Overspeed Warning System

The overspeed warning system consists primarily of an air-


speed/mach warning switch located on the forward pressure
bulkhead, and a warning horn located in the overhead flight
compartment outboard of the pilot’s station. The warning switch
senses airspeed and altitude via the pilot’s pitot-static system,
or copilot’s pitot-static system on Canadian (CAA) certified
airplanes, and causes the warning horn to sound when VMO/
MMO is reached or exceeded.

On 9500 LB ZFW airplanes, the warning switch integrates two


airspeed switches, an altitude switch, and a mach number
switch. One airspeed switch (S1) operates in conjunction with
the altitude switch (S2) to sound the horn when airspeed
reaches 262 KIAS at altitudes below 14,000 feet. The other
airspeed switch (S3) and the mach number switch (S4) function
to sound the horn at 277 KIAS and 0.705 M respectively, re-
gardless of altitude.

On 11,000 LB ZFW airplanes, the warning switch utilizes air-


speed switch S1 and the mach number switch S4 to sound the
horn at 262 KIAS and 0.705 M respectively, regardless of alti-
tude (switches S2 and S3 are not required to be operational in
this installation).

28 VDC power is normally


supplied to the warning horn
by the right main bus through
the 2-amp OVERSPEED circuit
breaker. Operation of the
overspeed warning system
may be verified by rotating the
TEST selector switch, located
on the lower left instrument
panel, to the “OVERSPEED”
position. In this position,
power supplied through the 2-
▲ TEST SELECTOR SWITCH
amp WARN LTS 1 circuit
breaker will cause the horn to sound if the system is functional.

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True Airspeed (TAS) System (optional)

True airspeed systems incorporate equipment which senses


and measures pitot-static pressures and ambient air tempera-
ture to compute a correction for compressibility and ram rise.
Once computed, a signal corresponding to true airspeed is
supplied to the TAS indicator and/or flight guidance systems
which utilize this data in their operation. One of two systems
manufactured by Sperry or B&D may be installed.

Sperry TAS System


Components of the Sperry TAS system include the air data
computer (ADC), located in the nose avionics bay; a tempera-
ture probe, located on the lower right surface of the nose sec-
tion; and an indicator, located on the center instrument panel.

AC power is supplied to the ADC, temperature probe, and


indicator through the 2-amp AIR DATA circuit breaker. The ADC
is supplied by the number one 115 VAC bus (split bus AC
configuration), or by the 115 VAC bus (single bus AC configura-
tion) and incorporates a transformer which steps 115 VAC
down to 26 VAC to supply the temperature probe and indicator.

The temperature probe is protected against icing by an inte-


gral, electrically-powered heating element controlled by the
PITOT & STATIC switch on the lower left instrument panel. The
heating element is supplied with 28 VDC power through the 15-
amp TAS HTR circuit breaker.

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B&D TAS System
Components of the B&D system include a true airspeed (TAS)
computer, located below the flight compartment floor; a tem-
perature probe, located on the lower right surface of the nose
section; and a pressure transducer located on the forward side
of the lower right instrument panel. The TAS computer is in-
stalled in addition to, and functions independently of, the ADC
addressed in the Sperry TAS system description.

The TAS computer processes signals supplied by the copilot’s


pitot-static system and the temperature probe. Like the Sperry
system, the temperature sensed by the probe is corrected for
Mach effect to obtain a measurement of static air temperature
(SAT) which is computed with pitot-static pressures to produce
an electrical signal proportional to true airspeed (TAS). Unlike
the Sperry system, however, this signal is supplied only to the
flight guidance systems which require TAS data for their opera-
tion. The B&D system does not feature a digital indicator or
temperature probe ice protection.

Should malfunction of this


system occur, as evidenced
by erratic indication of the
copilot’s pitot-static flight
instruments, the copilot’s pitot-
static system may be isolated
from the TAS computer by
closing a pair of valves lo-
cated on the lower right instru-
ment panel. The valves are
labeled TAS COMP - STATIC -
PITOT and protected by red
▲ TAS COMPUTER PITOT-STATIC VALVES
guard covers which must be
lifted when actuation is required. In the normal “OPEN” position,
TAS signals are supplied to the flight guidance systems requir-
ing this data for their operation. In the “CLOSED” position, TAS
data is no longer supplied by the computer, but may still be
supplied to flight guidance equipment which provides for
manual entry of this data.

The system is supplied with 28 VDC power through the 2-amp


TAS circuit breaker. When closing the TAS COMP valves is
required, this circuit breaker should be pulled to ensure that
flight guidance equipment does not receive erroneous airspeed
data.

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Barometric Altimeters
The barometric altimeters provide visual indication of airplane
altitude in relation to mean sea level (MSL) atmospheric pres-
sure. Each unit incorporates an indicating pointer, drum-type
counter, and barometric scale. The pointer dial is calibrated in
increments of 20 and 100 feet, while the counter displays alti-
tude in increments of 20, 100, 1000, and 10,000 feet. A black
and white crosshatched area appearing in the left most digit of
the counter signifies that indicated altitude is below 10,000 feet.
The barometric scale, calibrated in inches of mercury (inHg)
and millibars (mb), displays the current correction setting for
non-standard atmospheric conditions.

At flight altitudes below 18,000 feet, the barometric scale must


be set to the current altimeter setting provided by en route
reporting stations within 100 nautical miles of the airplane’s
position. This setting reflects a computed correction, for non-
standard conditions, of the barometric pressure measured near
ground level in the vicinity of the reporting station and provides
indication of true altitude above mean sea level (MSL). At flight
altitudes 18,000 feet (FL 180) and above, the barometric scale
must be set to standard sea level pressure (29.92 inHg/1013.2
mb). This setting provides indication of pressure altitude above
the standard datum plane, a theoretical level where atmo-
spheric pressure is equal to standard sea level pressure. Since
the assigned altitudes of all aircraft operating at FL 180 and
above are referenced to this setting, collision avoidance and
vertical separation are assured.

To ensure adequate separation from aircraft operating below


18,000 feet and compliance with minimum altitude rules, local
reported pressure must be monitored and cruise altitudes in the
vicinity of FL 180 proportionally increased by 500 feet for every
half inch that current altimeter setting falls below 29.92 inHg/
1013.2 mb as specified in FAR 91 and the table below:

Altimeter Lowest Usable Adjustment


Setting Flight Level Factor

29.92 or higher FL 180 0'


29.91 ~ 29.42 FL 185 500'
29.41 ~ 28.92 FL 190 1000'
28.91 ~ 28.42 FL 195 1500'
28.41 ~ 27.92 FL 200 2000'
27.91 ~ 27.42 FL 205 2500'
27.41 ~ 26.92 FL 210 3000'

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Pilot’s Altimeter
The pilot’s altimeter is a servo-
type indicator which is electri-
cally-driven by the air data
computer (ADC) located in the
nose avionics bay. The ADC
processes pneumatic signals
supplied by the pilot’s pitot-
static system and computes
an electrical signal propor-
tional to the airplane’s altitude.
This signal is transmitted to
the altimeter drive mechanism such that the corresponding
altitude is displayed by the pointer and counter. Correction for
non-standard atmospheric conditions is accomplished by
rotating the barometric setting knob, located on the lower left
instrument bezel, until the desired pressure appears on the
inHg or mb scale. This setting transmits an electrical signal to
the ADC which, in turn, transmits a barometrically-corrected
signal to the altimeter drive mechanism. Should an error be-
tween these signals occur, a failure warning flag will extend
across the counter indicating that altitude readout is not reli-
able.

AC power is supplied to the ADC and the pilot’s altimeter


through the 2-amp AIR DATA circuit breaker. The ADC is sup-
plied directly by the 115 VAC bus (single bus AC configuration)
or the number one 115 VAC bus (split bus AC configuration)
and incorporates a transformer which steps 115 VAC down to
26 VAC to power the altimeter. The failure warning flag will also
extend across the counter whenever electrical power is re-
moved from the instrument.

An optional radio/barometric (RAD/BAR) altimeter may be


installed in place of the standard pilot’s altimeter. Operation and
setting of the barometric portion of the instrument are consis-
tent with the standard altimeter. Operation of the radio altimeter
portion of the instrument is addressed in the description of
radio altimeter systems.

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Copilot’s Altimeter
The copilot’s conventional
altimeter consists of an airtight
instrument case which houses
an aneroid diaphragm assem-
bly linked to a drive mecha-
nism that operates the pointer
and counter. The instrument
case is supplied with static
(ambient) air pressure through
the static ports, while the
diaphragm assembly is sealed
at standard sea level atmospheric pressure (29.92 inHg/1013.2
mb (reference pressure). As altitude increases or decreases,
the differential between static pressure and reference pressure
causes the diaphragm assembly to expand or contract. As it
does, its movement is mechanically transmitted by the drive
mechanism such that the corresponding altitude is displayed
by the pointer and counter.

Correction for non-standard atmospheric conditions is accom-


plished by rotating the barometric setting knob, located on the
lower left instrument bezel, until the desired pressure appears
on the inHg or mb scale. This setting rotates the indicator drive
mechanism to produce the necessary altimeter correction.

The copilot’s altimeter incorporates a vibrator which functions to


optimize indicator response. 28 VDC power is supplied to the
vibrator by the right main bus through the 2-amp RH ALT circuit
breaker.

When the airplane is configured for dual-altitude reporting


capability, the standard copilot’s altimeter is replaced by an
optional encoding altimeter. Operation and setting of the baro-
metric portion of the instrument are consistent with the standard
altimeter. Operation of the encoder portion of the instrument is
addressed in the description of altitude alerting and reporting
systems.

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Altitude Alerting and Reporting System

The altitude alerting and reporting system incorporates those


components which provide visual and aural alerting of
preselected reference altitudes, and those which supply en-
coded altitude data to the transponder(s).

Altitude Alerting
Altitude alerting components include the air data computer
(ADC), located in the nose avionics bay; vertical navigation
computer/controller (VNCC), located on the center instrument
panel; altitude alert light(s) and a warning horn. One altitude
alert light is located on the upper right instrument bezel of the
standard pilot’s altimeter. Others are located on the upper left
bezel of the optional pilot’s RAD/BAR altimeter and optional
copilot’s encoding altimeter when these instruments are in-
stalled. The altitude alert warning horn is located within the left
flight compartment sidewall.

The VNCC references altitude


signals transmitted to the
pilot’s altimeter from the ADC,
as previously described, and
provides data input and output
for altitude alerting and vari-
ous vertical navigation (VNAV)
modes. Mode selection and
data input are controlled by a
rotary switch and concentric
setting (SET) knob, and an-
nunciated by a three-digit
▲ VNAV COMPUTER/CONTROLLER
incandescent display. A dim-
mer (DIM) knob permits adjustment of display intensity. When
“ALT” (altitude mode) is selected, rotating the SET knob slews
the display in increments of 100 feet between 000(00) and
500(00) feet to the desired altitude preselect. Slew rate is pro-
portional to the speed at which the SET knob is rotated.

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As the airplane climbs or descends to within 1000 feet of the


preselected altitude, the warning horn will sound for one sec-
ond and the altitude alert light(s) will illuminate and remain
illuminated until the airplane is within 250 feet of the
preselected altitude. Should the airplane deviate from the
preselected altitude by 250 feet or more, the warning horn will
sound for one second and the altitude alert light(s) will illumi-
nate and remain illuminated until the airplane returns to within
250 feet of the preselected altitude or until a new altitude
preselect is set.

AC power is supplied to the VNCC by the number one 115 VAC


bus (split bus AC configuration) or the 115 VAC bus (single bus
AC configuration) through the 1-amp FD 1 circuit breaker. 28
VDC power is supplied to the warning horn and altitude alert
light(s) by the corresponding DC AVIONICS bus through the 3-
amp FD 1 circuit breaker.

Altitude Reporting
Altitude reporting components include the air data computer
(ADC), transponder(s), and the optional copilot’s encoding
altimeter when installed. These components function to gener-
ate a logic code corresponding to the airplane’s pressure alti-
tude which is transmitted to the Air Traffic Control Radar Bea-
con System (ATCRBS) through the transponder in response to
Mode C (altitude reporting) interrogations. Barometric pressure
setting of the altimeter(s) has no effect on this function since
encoder output is always referenced to standard sea level
atmospheric pressure (29.92 inHg/1013.2 mb).

In standard configuration, a single transponder (transponder 1)


receives encoded altitude signals from the ADC. One optional
configuration adds a second transponder (transponder 2)
which also receives encoded altitude signals from the ADC. In
this installation, either transponder may be assigned to altitude
reporting by means of a select switch, co-located with the
transponder controls, while the other remains in standby condi-
tion. Another option configures the system for dual-altitude
reporting. In this installation, the selected transponder may
receive encoded altitude signals from the ADC (primary source)
or the optional copilot’s encoding altimeter (secondary source)
by means of a combination annunciator/switch (550-0258 and
after) or crossover switch and relay (550-0257 and earlier).

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The encoder portion of the copilot’s altimeter incorporates a
lightweight optical digitizer which imparts no load on the baro-
metric portion of the instrument. 28 VDC power is supplied to
the encoder by the right main bus through the 2-amp RH ALT
circuit breaker. A failure warning flag will appear in the upper
left corner of the instrument face whenever electrical power is
removed from the instrument or when the encoder has failed.
Should this occur, the instrument will continue to function as a
barometric altimeter, but the ADC will provide the only source of
encoded altitude.

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Vertical Speed Indicators

The vertical speed indicators


are instantaneous type (IVSI)
and provide visual indication
of the airplane’s rate of climb
or descent in feet per minute
(FT/MIN X 1000). Each unit
consists of an indicator dial, a
pointer, and an airtight instru-
ment case which houses an
airtight diaphragm and accel-
erometer linked to a drive
mechanism that operates the
pointer. Static (ambient) air pressure from the static ports is
supplied to the diaphragm directly, and to the instrument case
through a calibrated restrictor orifice. As the airplane climbs or
descends, the static air pressure supplied to the instrument
decreases or increases accordingly. Due to the restrictor ori-
fice, however, the rate of pressure change within the instrument
case occurs more slowly than within the diaphragm. This pro-
duces a pressure differential which causes the diaphragm to
expand or contract in proportion to the rate of altitude change.
As it does, its movement is transmitted by the drive mechanism
to position the pointer at the corresponding value on the indica-
tor dial.

During a climb, the pressure within the diaphragm decreases at


a faster rate than the pressure within the instrument case. The
resulting differential causes the diaphragm to contract and the
pointer to indicate a rate of climb. During descent, the pressure
within the diaphragm increases at a faster rate than the pres-
sure within the instrument case. The resulting differential
causes the diaphragm to expand and the pointer to indicate a
rate of descent. As the airplane resumes level flight, the pres-
sure within the instrument case and the diaphragm become
equalized and pointer indication returns to zero.

The time required to stabilize the pressure differential which


causes pointer deflection can result in a delay of up to nine
seconds before vertical speed indication becomes reliable. To
compensate for this, the accelerometer’s sensitivity to vertical
G-loading provides instantaneous indication of vertical speed
by displacing the pointer prior to the instrument’s response to
changes in pressure. During level flight or steady rates of climb
or descent, the IVSI function as a conventional VSI.

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Radio Altimeter System (optional)

The radio altimeter system measures absolute altitude above


ground level (AGL) and supplies this data to flight guidance
systems, ground proximity warning systems (GPWS), and/or
indicators when installed. Though models and manufacturers of
these systems differ, all share a basic configuration which
includes an indicator, a transceiver, and corresponding transmit
and receive antennas. Operation is continuous when electrical
power is supplied to the system, however, radio altitude readout
is limited by the indicator’s usable range.

Transceiver and Antennas


The transceiver incorporates solid-state circuitry which makes
instantaneous comparisons between the frequency of a fre-
quency-modulated microwave signal that is beamed down from
the transmit antenna to a return signal that is reflected back to
the receive antenna from the terrain. Because the difference
between these frequencies is proportional to the transmit
signal’s “round-trip” time to the terrain and back, the frequency
difference is processed to generate an electrical signal propor-
tional to absolute altitude. Once generated, this signal is sup-
plied to the indicator(s) and/or flight guidance systems which
utilize radio altitude data in their operation. Depending on
installation, the transceiver may be located within the right flight
compartment sidewall or below the cabin floor. The antennas
are located on the lower surface of the fuselage.

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Conventional Indicator
(excluding RAD/BAR)
The indicator may be located
on the pilot’s or copilot’s instru-
ment panel and incorporates
an altitude scale and pointer,
decision height (DH) index
marker and setting knob, DH
alert light, and a test switch.
The altitude scale is calibrated
in 10 foot increments below
500 feet, 100 foot increments
above 500 feet, and identifies the indicator’s usable range. The
pointer is visible at the corresponding AGL value within the
usable range only. Outside this range, or if the airplane is
steeply banked, the pointer will be positioned behind a mask in
the upper left corner of the indicator dial.

The DH setting knob, located on the lower right instrument


bezel, is rotated to preselect a desired decision height. The DH
alert light, located on the upper right instrument bezel, illumi-
nates in conjunction with the sounding of an alert tone when
decision height is reached or when the system is tested. The
test switch is located on the lower left instrument bezel. The DH
alert horn is located in the overhead flight compartment out-
board of the pilot’s station.

28 VDC power is supplied to the system by the emergency


avionics bus through the 5-amp RAD ALT circuit breaker. A
failure warning flag will appear across the upper instrument
face whenever electrical power is removed from the instrument
or when radio altitude indication becomes invalid. Refer to the
appropriate Operating Manual or Airplane Flight Manual for test
procedures and information regarding specific capabilities of
the system installed in your airplane.

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Conventional Indicator (RAD/BAR)
The RAD/BAR indicator is located on the pilot’s instrument
panel as previously described and incorporates a four-digit
incandescent radio altitude display, decision height (DH) set-
ting knob and alert light, and a test switch. The radio altitude
display functions independently of the barometric portion of the
instrument. During initial climb-out, radio altitude is displayed in
10 foot increments between 0 and 990 feet AGL. During de-
scent, radio altitude is displayed in 100 foot increments be-
tween 2500 and 1000 feet AGL, and 10 foot increments be-
tween 1000 and 0 feet AGL. Above 2500 feet AGL the display
is blank. The DH setting knob, located on the upper right instru-
ment bezel, is rotated to preselect a desired decision height.
The ALT alert light, located on the upper left instrument bezel,
illuminates in conjunction with the sounding of an alert tone or
GPWS vocal alert when decision height is reached or when the
system is tested. The test switch is located on the lower left
instrument bezel. The ALT alert light, also functions as a baro-
metric altitude alert light by way of the VNCC as previously
described.

The RAD/BAR system also incorporates a converter, located in


the nose avionics bay, which processes radio altitude signals
supplied by the transceiver and glideslope signals supplied by
the flight guidance system to support GPWS vocal alert func-
tions. 28 VDC power is supplied to the system by the emer-
gency avionics bus through the 5-amp RAD ALT circuit breaker.
Should radio altitude data become invalid, a failure warning flag
will appear adjacent to the RAD/ALT display. The failure warn-
ing flag in the upper center of the instrument face appears only
when power is removed from the barometric portion of the
instrument. Refer to the appropriate Operating Manual or Air-
plane Flight Manual for test procedures and information regard-
ing specific capabilities of the system installed in your airplane.

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Mechanical Flight Director Radio Altitude Indication


Radio altitude and decision height may also be displayed on
the ADI(s) in mechanical flight director installations. Though
configurations vary, reference to absolute altitude is generally
provided by a bar with chevron markings or a rising runway
symbol which appears in the lower center of the attitude sphere
as the airplane descends below 200 feet AGL and moves
toward the airplane symbol in relation to ground proximity until
contact between the two occurs at the point of touchdown.

Decision height is generally annunciated by a DH alert light,


located on the upper right instrument bezel, which illuminates in
conjunction with the sounding of an alert tone when decision
height is reached or when the radio altitude system is tested.
With the exception of the Sperry AD-650, the DH alert light
does not illuminate when the ADI is tested.

In addition to the features


described above, radio alti-
tude and decision height are
also digitally displayed on the
Sperry AD-650 (pictured)
when installed. The four-digit
incandescent RAD ALT dis- 2 1
play, located on the lower right
instrument face, is calibrated
in 5 foot increments between 0
and 200 feet AGL, and 10 foot 4 3
increments between 200 and
2500 feet AGL. Above 2500 1. RAD ALT Display
feet AGL the RAD ALT display 2. DH Display
is blank. Reference to ground 3. DH SET/DIM Knob
proximity is provided by a 4. RA Test Button
rising runway symbol as previ-
ously described. Should radio altitude data become invalid,
four dashes will appear in the RAD ALT display.

The three-digit decision height (DH) display, located in the


lower left corner of the ADI, is calibrated in 10 foot increments
between 0 and 990 feet AGL. The inner decision height (DH
SET) setting knob, located on the lower right instrument bezel,
is rotated to preselect a desired decision height between 0 and
990 feet AGL. The surrounding DIM ring permits adjustment of
RAD ALT and DH display intensity. Should decision height data
become invalid, three dashes will appear in the DH display.

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In dual AD-650 flight director installations, the alert tone is
activated through the DH setting of the pilot’s ADI only. The DH
setting of the copilot’s ADI and/or conventional radio altitude
indicator, if installed, have no effect on alert tone activation.
Refer to the appropriate Operating Manual or Airplane Flight
Manual for test procedures and information regarding specific
capabilities of the system installed in your airplane.

EFIS Radio Altitude Indication


Radio altitude and decision height may also be digitally dis-
played on the EADI(s) in EFIS installations. The four-digit radio
altitude (RA) display, located in the lower right corner of the
EADI, is calibrated in 5 foot increments between 0 and 200 feet
AGL, and 10 foot increments between 200 and 2500 feet AGL.
Above 2500 feet AGL the RA display is blank. Additional refer-
ence to absolute altitude is provided by a rising runway symbol
which appears in the lower center of the attitude sphere as the
airplane descends below 200 feet AGL and moves toward the
airplane symbol in relation to ground proximity until contact
between the two occurs at the point of touchdown. Should radio
altitude data become invalid, four amber dashes will appear in
the RA display and the rising runway will not be visible in the
attitude sphere.

The three-digit decision height (DH) display, located in the


lower left corner of the EADI, is calibrated in 5 foot increments
between 0 and 200 feet AGL, and 10 foot increments between
200 and 990 feet AGL. The decision height (DH/TST) setting
knob, located on the EFIS display controller, is rotated to
preselect a desired decision height between 0 and 990 feet
AGL. Rotating this knob fully counterclockwise removes the DH
display from the EADI. As the airplane descends to within 100
feet of decision height, a white box will appear above and left of
the radio altitude (RA) display. An amber DH will appear within
this box in conjunction with the sounding of an alert tone when
decision height is reached or when the EFIS system is tested.
Should decision height data become invalid, three amber
dashes will appear in the DH display.

In dual EFIS installations, the alert tone is activated through the


DH setting of the pilot’s EADI only. The DH setting of the
copilot’s EADI and/or conventional radio altitude indicator, if
installed, have no effect on alert tone activation. Refer to the
appropriate Operating Manual or Airplane Flight Manual for test
procedures and information regarding specific capabilities of
the system installed in your airplane.

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Attitude and Direction System

The attitude and direction system consists of all gyroscopic


flight instruments (including mechanical and EFIS flight direc-
tors), turn-and-bank indicators, the RMIs, and the magnetic
compass.

Conventional Attitude Indicator


The attitude indicator provides visual indication of pitch and roll
in relation to the actual horizon. The unit consists of a gyro
stabilized in the horizontal plane, an attitude sphere, airplane
symbol, and roll index pointer. The gyro is air-driven on air-
planes 550-0626 and earlier, or electrically-driven on airplanes
550-0627 and after, and responds to pitch and roll movements
of the airplane. An electrically driven attitude indicator may also
be installed on airplanes 550-0550 through 0626 as optional
equipment.

The attitude sphere is divided into sky and ground hemispheres


by a horizon bar which provides visual reference to the actual
horizon. The airplane symbol is secured to the instrument face
and provides visual reference of the airplane’s attitude relative
to the horizon bar. The roll index pointer is located at the top of
the instrument face and provides visual reference of the
airplane’s bank angle relative to the actual horizon.

An inclinometer is installed on the lower instrument bezel of the


electrically-driven attitude indicator to provide visual indication
of turn coordination. The inclinometer is comprised of a ball
contained in a sealed, silicone liquid filled, glass tube and
responds to gravitational and centrifugal forces acting on the
airplane. The tube is curved and mounted such that the ball will
rest in the center lowest position when the airplane is in coordi-
nated flight. In uncoordinated flight, the ball will move from the
center to the outside of a turn (indicating a skid) or the inside of
a turn (indicating a slip).

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Air-Driven Gyro
On airplanes 550-0626 and earlier, the gyro is air-driven by
regulated engine bleed air. Bleed air used by the system is
tapped from the supply tubes between the compressor section
of each engine and the environmental flow control/shutoff
valves within the fuselage tailcone. On airplanes 550-0484,
0483, 0481 and earlier, the bleed air is routed through a
precooler within each engine nacelle prior to entering the fuse-
lage tailcone. On airplanes 550-0482, 0485 and after, availabil-
ity of bleed air to the system is continuous when either or both
engines are operating and is not influenced by the position of
the PRESS SOURCE selector. On airplanes 550-0484, 0483,
0481 and earlier, however, setting the PRESS SOURCE selector
to “LH” or “RH” correspondingly results in bleed air being made
available to the system from the left engine or right engine only.
The bleed air tapped from each source is routed through inde-
pendent supply tubes to a common cross fitting within the
fuselage tailcone. A check valve in each of these tubes pre-
vents the backflow of bleed air to either engine when the oppo-
site engine has failed or is operating at a sufficiently lower RPM.

From the cross fitting, bleed air is routed to the windshield anti-
ice/rain removal system, cabin pressurization control system
ejector, and pneumatic distribution pressure regulator. From
this regulator, 23.0 +/- 1.0 PSIG bleed air is routed to the pneu-
matic surface deice system, cabin temperature manual control
system, inflatable cabin door seal, and the instrument air sys-
tem. The instrument air system consists of a water separator/
filter, instrument pressure regulators, the air-driven attitude
indicator, and gyro pressure gage.

The water separator/filter is installed on the forward pressure


bulkhead within the nose section and functions to filter and
extract moisture from the bleed air prior to being routed to the
instrument pressure regulators. Extracted moisture collects in
the lower filter bowl and is eliminated through an orificed drain
either to be vented overboard through an instrument air vent/
drain line which extends through the lower surface of the nose
section (550-0173 ~ 0626), or evaporated within the nose
section (550-0172 and earlier).

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The instrument pressure regulators are also installed on the


forward pressure bulkhead within the nose section and function
in series to reduce and stabilize bleed air pressure prior to
supplying the instruments. The “first-stage” regulator reduces
the pressure to approximately 6.0 PSIG; the “second-stage”
regulator further reduces the pressure to approximately 2.5
PSIG. Regulated bleed air entering the attitude indicator case is
directed against “buckets” machined into the rim of the gyro
causing it to spin at a high rate of speed. After driving the gyro,
bleed air is exhausted from the instrument case through the
overboard instrument air vent/drain line previously described.

Gyro Pressure Gage


On airplanes 550-0626 and earlier, the gyro pressure gage
provides visual indication of the bleed air pressure driving the
gyro. The normal indicating range is denoted by a green arc
between 2.0 and 3.0 PSIG. Pressure indications which are
erratic and/or outside the normal range indicate that a malfunc-
tion may exist in the pneumatic system. From the gyro pressure
gage, bleed air is also exhausted through the overboard instru-
ment air vent/drain line.

Electrically-Driven Gyro
On airplanes 550-0627 and after, the gyro is electrically driven
by 28 VDC power through the 2-amp ADI 2 circuit breaker.
Power is supplied to the gyro from the emergency avionics bus
whenever the battery switch is in the “BATT” (on) position and
the DC avionics power switch is also in the “ON” position.
Power is also supplied to the gyro when the battery switch is in
the “EMER” (emergency) position, regardless of DC avionics
power switch position. A red GYRO failure warning flag will be
visible in the upper left instrument face when power is removed
from the instrument. A spring-loaded caging knob is located on
the lower right instrument bezel.

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Turn-and-Bank Indicator
In single mechanical flight director systems, a turn-and-bank in-
dicator is installed on the pilot’s and copilot’s instrument panel. In
dual mechanical flight director installations, a turn-and-bank indi-
cator is typically installed on the copilot’s instrument panel only.
In dual 5” mechanical flight director installations, an air-driven
“standby” attitude gyro replaces the copilot’s turn-and-bank indi-
cator.

The turn pointer is attached to a DC electrically-driven gyro which


indicates the airplane’s turning rate in degrees per second. If in-
stalled, the copilot’s turn indicator is vacuum-driven. Operation of
the turn indicator can be checked by initiating a standard rate
turn and cross checking the turn rate with the heading indicator.
An indicated standard rate turn should show a turning rate of 3°
per second on the heading indicator.

Visual indication of turn coordination is provided by an inclinom-


eter on the lower instrument face. The inclinometer is comprised
of a ball contained in a sealed, silicone liquid filled, glass tube
and responds to gravitational and centrifugal forces acting on
the airplane. The tube is curved and mounted such that the ball
will rest in the center lowest position when the airplane is in coor-
dinated flight. In uncoordinated flight, the ball will move from the
center to the outside of a turn (indicating a skid) or the inside of a
turn (indicating a slip).

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Mechanical Flight Directors

Mechanical flight director system configurations are generally clas-


sified as 4” or 5”, single or dual flight director. In dual flight direc-
tor systems, the pilot’s and copilot’s ADI and HSI may be identical
or one of various combinations of 4” or 5” instruments depending
on installation.

The combination of instruments in each installation varies suffi-


ciently between airplanes as to make specific descriptions of every
possible system configuration impractical. The following descrip-
tion, therefore, primarily addresses the functional characteristics
and operational features which are common among the mechani-
cal ADIs and HSIs, as well as any relevant technical differences
that exist between them.

Attitude Directional Indicator


The ADI or flight director indi-
cator (FDI) functions as a con-
ventional attitude indicator and
displays command information
provided by the autopilot/flight
director computer. Depending
on avionics equipment installed
and modes available, the ADI
may be utilized to intercept and
maintain a desired heading, al-
titude, VOR radial, or localizer
course and glideslope. Refer to the appropriate operating manual
for specific capabilities of the system installed in your airplane.

Horizontal Situation Indicator


The HSI functions essentially
as a slaved heading indicator
and (depending on avionics
equipment installed and
modes available) provides
visual indication of airplane
position relative to VOR radi-
als, RNAV courses, localizer
courses, and glideslope
beams. Refer to the appropri-
ate operating manual for
specific capabilities of the system installed in your airplane.

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To function as a slaved heading indicator, the HSI incorporates
components which electromechanically produce a controlled pre-
cession of the gyro which corrects the compass card to agree
with the correct magnetic heading. This installation eliminates the
need for periodic resetting of the gyro due to precession drift.

Gyro Slaving
Gyro slaving is provided by a remotely-mounted magnetic flux
detector and slaving accessory. The flux detector senses the di-
rection of the earth’s magnetic field and transmits these signals
to the slaving accessory where they are compared with gyro ref-
erence signals corresponding to the position of the compass card.
The resulting error signal is amplified and transmitted to compo-
nents which electromechanically produce a controlled preces-
sion of the gyro that corrects indicated heading to agree with the
magnetic heading.

The gyro slaving system is con-


trolled by switches located on
the lower left instrument panel
and lower copilot’s instrument
panel. A slaving meter, used to
monitor displacement errors
which may exist between indi-
cated heading and magnetic
heading, may also be installed.
Indicator needle deflection in 1 2
either direction from center cor-
responds to the polarity of the
error. 1. Mode Selection Switch
2. Manual Slaving Switch
The gyro slaving switches permit selection of automatic slaving
(slaved gyro) when positioned to “AUTO,” or manual slaving (free
gyro) modes when positioned to “MAN.” In the slaved gyro mode,
heading displacement errors are corrected automatically through
the gyro slaving circuit. In the free gyro mode, heading displace-
ment errors are corrected using the corresponding LH/RH switch
to rotate the compass card left or right to agree with the magnetic
heading, and return the slaving meter indicating needle to center
(if installed). The rate of manual compass card rotation is ap-
proximately 30° per minute. Refer to the appropriate operating
manual for specific capabilities of the system installed in your
airplane.

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ADI Display Features


The following summary describes the functional characteristics
and operational features which are common to mechanical ADIs
typically installed in the Cessna Citation II. Refer to the appropri-
ate operating manual for specific capabilities of the system in-
stalled in your airplane.

Attitude Sphere
The attitude sphere is divided into sky (blue) and ground
(brown) hemispheres by a horizon line which provides visual
reference to the actual horizon.

Eyelid Display
The eyelid display surrounds the attitude sphere and provides
visual reference of the relative position of the sky (blue) and
ground (brown), independent of attitude sphere position, to
facilitate recovery from unusual flight attitudes.

Airplane Symbol
The airplane symbol is located in the center of the instrument
face and provides visual reference of the airplane’s attitude
relative to the horizon line. Depending on ADI installation, the
symbol may be conventional or reference delta type.

Pitch Attitude Indication


Pitch attitude is indicated by the relative position of the air-
plane symbol’s nose above or below the horizon line. A pitch
scale on the attitude sphere references deviation above or
below the horizon line in increments of 5°.

Roll Attitude Indication


Roll attitude is indicated by the relative position of the airplane
symbol’s wings in relation to the horizon line. A roll attitude
pointer and scale on the upper center instrument face refer-
ences deviation from wings level attitude. The scale is marked
at 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, and 90° to the left and right of the triangu-
lar 0° index mark at its center. To facilitate roll attitude recogni-
tion, the 30 and 60° marks are longer and heavier, while each
45° mark is displayed as a dot or a triangle.

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Depending on ADI installation, the pointer may be a moveable
“sky pointer” or fixed “roll pointer.” In sky pointer configuration,
the moveable pointer references the relative position of the sky
in relation to the fixed scale index mark which references the
airplane’s vertical axis. Roll recovery, therefore, is made in the
direction of the pointer. In roll pointer configuration, the fixed
pointer references the airplane’s vertical axis in relation to the
moveable scale index mark which references the relative posi-
tion of the sky. Roll recovery, therefore, is made in the direction
of the scale index mark.

Flight Director Command Bar(s)


Depending on ADI installation, the command bar(s) may be
double or single-cue. In double-cue flight directors, computed
commands are displayed by independent pitch (horizontal) and
steering (vertical) command bars as a conventional VOR/ILS
indicator. Movement of the bars indicates pitch and steering
control inputs required to satisfy computed commands of the
selected flight director operating mode. In single-cue flight
directors, computed pitch and steering commands are dis-
played by a single (delta) command bar. To satisfy computed
pitch and steering commands of the selected flight director
operating mode, the airplane symbol is “flown” to align with
the command bar. Should loss of pitch or steering command
signals from the flight director computer occur, the single-cue
command bar or the affected double-cue command bar will
retract from view. The non-affected double-cue command bar
will continue to display normally.

Glideslope Indication
Glideslope deviation is indicated by the relationship between
a moveable pointer and fixed vertical deviation scale commonly
located on the right side of the instrument face. When a valid
glideslope signal is being received, deviation above the beam
centerline is indicated by displacement of the pointer below
scale center. Deviation below the beam centerline is indicated
by displacement of the pointer above scale center. Each dot
above and below scale center represents approximately 0.4°
deviation from the beam centerline. A green area on the scale
denotes the category II (CAT II) approach window. Pointer dis-
placement in this area indicates glideslope deviation within
approximately 0.2° of the beam centerline.

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Expanded Localizer Indication


Expanded localizer deviation is indicated by the relationship
between a moveable “runway” pointer and fixed lateral devia-
tion scale located on the lower center instrument face. When a
valid localizer signal is being received, deviation left of the beam
centerline is indicated by displacement of the pointer to the
right of scale center. Deviation right of the beam centerline is
indicated by displacement of the pointer to the left of scale
center. Amplification of localizer data from the navigation re-
ceiver permits increased pointer sensitivity within the CAT II
approach window. Because this increase in sensitivity makes
tracking the localizer more difficult throughout the entire ap-
proach, the expanded localizer pointer should be referenced
for position assessment only, until established on final approach.
During final approach within the CAT II window, pointer dis-
placement within the lateral deviation scale indicates localizer
deviation within approximately 0.25° of the beam centerline, or
within 33 feet of the runway centerline.

Radio Altitude Indication


Refer to the description of radio altimeter systems.

Test Switch
The attitude (ATT) test switch, located on the lower left instru-
ment bezel, initiates an attitude self-test function. When
pressed, the attitude sphere should be positioned to indicate
approximately 20° right bank and 10° positive pitch, and the
ATT warning flag should appear across the instrument face.
Refer to the appropriate Operating Manual or Airplane Flight
Manual for test procedures specific to the system installed in
your airplane.

GA Light
The go-around light illuminates when the go-around mode has
been selected

DH Light
The decision height light illuminates when the airplane de-
scends below the selected decision height as set on the radio
altitude indicator.

Mode Annunciators (5”)


Ten/twelve annunciators indicate which vertical and horizontal
modes are engaged with the flight director.

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Turn and Bank Indication
Rate-of-turn is indicated by the relationship between a move-
able pointer and fixed scale located on the lower center instru-
ment face of 5" ADIs. Pointer displacement over the left or right
scale markings indicates a standard rate turn (2-minute/3° per
second) in that direction.

A conventional inclinometer is installed on the lower instrument


bezel of ADIs to provide visual indication of turn coordination.
The inclinometer is comprised of a ball contained in a sealed,
silicone liquid filled, glass tube and responds to gravitational
and centrifugal forces acting on the airplane. The tube is curved
and mounted such that the ball will rest in the center lowest
position when the airplane is in coordinated flight. In uncoordi-
nated flight, the ball will move from the center to the outside of
a turn (indicating a skid) or the inside of a turn (indicating a
slip).

Angle-of-Attack Indication (5” ADIs)


Angle-of-attack (AOA) is indicated on 5” ADIs by the relation-
ship between a moveable “speed command” pointer and fixed
FAST/SLOW scale commonly located on the left side of the
instrument face. The circular speed command pointer is posi-
tioned by signals received from the AOA transmitter. The pointer
is calibrated such that its position relative to the scale corre-
sponds with the AOA indicator on the upper left instrument
panel. The FAST and SLOW scale markings correspond to the
.4 and .8 AOA indicator markings respectively. The scale cen-
ter marking corresponds to the .6 AOA indicator marking and
represents the optimum landing approach speed (1.3 times
stalling speed) for the current airplane configuration. Refer to
the description of AOA systems for complete detail.

Failure Warning Flags


Depending on ADI installation, various failure warning flags
will appear across the instrument face whenever electrical
power is removed from the instrument or when the correspond-
ing indication becomes invalid. Typically, 4” ADIs provide warn-
ing flags for attitude (ATT) and flight director (FD) indication
failure only, while most 5” ADIs also provide warning flags for
localizer (LOC), glideslope (GS), rate-of-turn (RT), and angle-
of-attack (SPD) indication failure.

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HSI Display Features


The following summary describes the functional characteristics
and operational features which are common to mechanical HSIs
typically installed in the Cessna Citation II. Refer to the appropri-
ate operating manual for specific capabilities of the system in-
stalled in your airplane.

Compass Card and Heading Index


A 360° rotating white compass card indicates airplane head-
ing when referenced to the white triangular heading index in
the upper center of the display. The compass scale is divided
into 5° increments with 10° division markings being twice as
long as the 5° markings. Fixed 45° index markings are posi-
tioned adjacent to the scale. Compass heading is referenced
to magnetic north.

Airplane Symbol
The airplane symbol, located in the center of the instrument
face, provides visual indication of the airplane’s position in re-
lation to the course deviation bar. Alignment of the airplane
symbol with the course deviation bar simulates alignment of
the airplane’s flight path to the centerline of the selected navi-
gation course or localizer.

Course Deviation Indication


Lateral deviation from the centerline of a selected navigation
course or localizer is indicated by the relationship between a
moveable bar and fixed deviation scale located in the center
of the instrument. The deviation scale consists of two filled white
circles evenly spaced on each side of the airplane symbol.
The outer circles reference full scale deviation while the inner
circles reference half scale deviation. Alignment of the course
deviation bar with the airplane symbol represents alignment of
the airplane’s flight path with the centerline of the selected navi-
gation course or localizer.

Heading Bug
An orange heading bug is manually rotated about the com-
pass card by the heading (HDG) select knob on the lower right
corner of the instrument bezel. Once set, the heading bug ro-
tates with the compass card. The heading bug functions to
indicate desired heading and provides selected heading ref-
erence for autopilot steering.

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Course Pointer
The course pointer is manually rotated about the compass card
by the course (CRS) select knob on the lower left corner of the
instrument bezel. Once set, the course pointer rotates with the
compass card and provides indication of the desired naviga-
tion course to be flown. Depending on HSI installation, the se-
lected course may be indicated in the upper left corner of the
display.

To/From Indicator
A filled white triangle, pointing either toward the head (to) or
the tail (from) of the course pointer, functions to provide visual
indication that the selected course will take the airplane to or
from the selected navaid or waypoint. The to/from indicator is
not displayed during ILS operation or when an invalid navaid
or waypoint signal is received.

Distance to Station (DME) Indication


Depending on HSI installation, DME information in nautical miles
may be indicated in the upper right corner of the display.

Glideslope Indication
Glideslope deviation is indicated by the relationship between
a moveable pointer and fixed vertical deviation scale commonly
located on the right side of the instrument face. The deviation
scale consists of two filled white circles evenly spaced above
and below a filled white diamond. The outer circles reference
full-scale deviation while the inner circles reference half-scale
deviation. Alignment of the green pointer with the center dia-
mond represents alignment of the airplane’s glide path with
the glideslope centerline.

Failure Warning Flags


Depending on HSI installation, various failure warning flags will
appear across the instrument face whenever electrical power
is removed from the instrument or when the corresponding in-
dication becomes invalid. Typically, warning flags are provided
for navigation (NAV) and heading (HDG) indication failure, and
vertical gyro (VERT) failure.

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Electronic Flight Instrumentation System (EFIS)

Refer to the appropriate operating manual for specific capabilities


of the system installed in your airplane.

Autopilot/Flight Director System (AP/FD)

Refer to the appropriate operating manual for specific capabilities


of the system installed in your airplane.

Limitations

Refer to the applicable airplane manufacturer’s FAA approved


flight manual or approved manual material, markings and plac-
ards, or any combination thereof for all limitations.

Emergency Procedures

Refer to the applicable airplane manufacturer’s FAA approved


flight manual or approved manual material (supplementary check-
list) as revised, for procedural information.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Chapter 8
Hydraulics and Landing Gear

Table of Contents

Overview ............................................... 8-1


Landing Gear System Description ........... 8-1
Nose Gear ............................................ 8-2
Main Gear ............................................ 8-6
Hydraulic Actuators........................... 8-8
Uplock Sequence Actuators .............. 8-9
Left Main Gear Safety Switch .............. 8-10
Landing Gear Control and
Position Indicator ................................ 8-12
Landing Gear Control Handle .......... 8-12
Landing Gear Warning Horn ................. 8-15
Landing Gear Indicator Light
and Warning Horn Test .................. 8-16
Landing Gear Hydraulics ...................... 8-17
Landing Gear Hydraulic
Pressure Source ............................ 8-17
Hydraulic Power
System Components ...................... 8-17
Hydraulic Fluid Reservoir ................. 8-17
Engine-Driven Hydraulic Pumps ........ 8-21
Hydraulic Filters ............................. 8-21
Hydraulic Firewall Shutoff Valves ..... 8-22
Hydraulic System Indication ................. 8-23
Hydraulic Flow Annunciators ............ 8-23
Hydraulic Pressure Annunciator ....... 8-24
Landing Gear Control Valve............. 8-25
Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Hydraulics and Landing Gear, continued

Table of Contents

Landing Gear Operation ....................... 8-26


Landing Gear Retraction ................. 8-26
Landing Gear Extension .................. 8-28
Static (Open Center) Condition ........ 8-28
Landing Gear Extension/Retraction
Speeds and Cycle Times ................ 8-28
Auxiliary/Emergency Landing Gear
Extension System ............................... 8-30
Auxiliary/Emergency Air
Storage Bottle ............................... 8-30
Auxiliary/Emergency Gear Extension
System Operation .......................... 8-31
Emergency Hydraulic Dump Valve .... 8-33
Brakes ............................................... 8-34
Power Brake System ...................... 8-34
Touchdown Protection ..................... 8-37
Anti-Skid System ............................ 8-38
Anti-Skid System Test .................... 8-39
Locked Wheel Crossover
Protection ...................................... 8-40
Auxiliary/Emergency
Braking System .............................. 8-40
Auxiliary/Emergency
Braking System Usage ................... 8-41
Parking Brake System .................... 8-41
Limitations .......................................... 8-42
Emergency Procedures......................... 8-42
Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Overview

The Cessna Citation II is equipped with retractable tricycle


landing gear that is electrically-controlled and hydraulically-
operated. The main gear assemblies are located in each wing.
The nose gear assembly is located in the nose section of the
fuselage. Normal gear extension and retraction is activated by
the landing gear control handle. Emergency gear extension is
provided by a mechanical uplock release “free-fall” system and
a pneumatic “blowdown” system. The airplane has an indepen-
dent hydraulic system for the main gear wheel brakes. Emer-
gency braking, anti-skid and other braking systems are pro-
vided.

Landing Gear System Description

Normal extension and retraction is accomplished by directing


hydraulic fluid under engine-driven pump pressure to an actua-
tor at each gear assembly. All three gear assemblies are held
in the extended position by mechanical downlock latches
internal to each actuator, and held in the retracted position by
uplock hooks. Hydraulic pressure releases the downlock
latches during gear retraction, and uplock hooks during gear
extension.

Six microswitches are incorporated; three actuated by the


uplock hooks and three actuated by the downlock latches.
These microswitches operate in conjunction with the landing
gear control, position indication, and warning circuitry.

HYDRAULICS AND LANDING GEAR 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 8-1
Nose Gear

The nose gear is of conventional design incorporating a lower


piston/fork assembly, upper trunnion assembly, shock strut
assembly, torque links, and a hydraulic shimmy damper. The
piston/fork assembly provides attachment points and running
clearance for the nosewheel. Attachment points for installation
of the nose gear to the nose wheel well structure are provided
by the trunnion assembly which also houses the shock strut
assembly. Upper and lower torque links connect the piston/fork
assembly to the trunnion assembly and maintain alignment of
the nosewheel.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

The nose gear incorporates an air-oil type shock strut assembly


which functions to support the weight of the airplane and ab-
sorb shock loads encountered during ground operation. The
shock strut assembly consists primarily of an inner cylinder re-
tained within a hydraulic fluid filled outer cylinder. The inner cyl-
inder is integral to the piston/fork assembly while the outer cyl-
inder is housed within the trunnion assembly. A floating isola-
tion piston divides the interior of the inner cylinder into a hy-
draulic fluid filled upper chamber and nitrogen gas or dry air
charged lower chamber. A fixed orifice separates the upper
chamber of the inner cylinder from the outer cylinder. A tapered
metering pin regulates the flow of hydraulic fluid through this
orifice in relation to increasing or decreasing load.

Under increasing load, hydraulic fluid flows from the outer cylin-
der to the upper chamber of the inner cylinder. As the strut
compresses, the metering pin progressively restricts the orifice.
When the rate of hydraulic fluid flow through the orifice is insuf-
ficient to absorb compression shocks, the isolation piston is
forced downward against gas/air pressure to assume the addi-
tional load. Under decreasing load, the isolation piston is
forced upward by gas/air pressure and hydraulic fluid flows
from the upper chamber of the inner cylinder to the outer cylin-
der until the pressure on each side of the orifice is equal.

The shimmy damper consists


of a hydraulic fluid filled outer 2
cylinder assembly and an
internal piston assembly,
attached to the nose gear
such that the piston effectively 1
moves within the cylinder as
the nosewheel is turned.
Movement of the piston,
caused by lateral oscillation of
the nosewheel, is dampened
by the hydraulic fluid which
must be forced through ori- 1. Shimmy Damper
fices in the piston as it moves 2. Compensating Chamber
within the cylinder. The
shimmy damper also incorporates a compensating chamber
which houses a spring-loaded valve that relieves thermal ex-
pansion of the hydraulic fluid.

HYDRAULICS AND LANDING GEAR 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 8-3
The nose gear retracts
forward into the nose wheel 1
well and, when fully re-
2
tracted, is enclosed by 2
three doors. The two for-
ward doors are linked by
push-pull rods to a com-
mon torque tube and 4
bellcrank assembly such 3
that they operate simulta-
neously. The torque tube
and bellcrank assembly is
linked by a single push-
pull rod to the trunnion 1. Torque Tube
assembly such that the 2. Push-Pull Rods
forward doors mechani- 3. Trunnion Assembly
cally open during exten- 4. Forward Door Hinges
sion and retraction, and
close following extension or retraction. The aft door is also
linked by a single push-pull rod to the trunnion assembly such
that it mechanically opens during extension and closes during
retraction. A universal joint straightening mechanism centers
the nose gear during retraction.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Landing Gear Assemblies

Main Gear

HYDRAULIC OIL CHAMBER


FILL PLUG TRUNNION
ACTUATOR ASSEMBLY

SWIVEL
FITTING

DRAG
BRACE

SHOCK
STRUT MAIN GEAR
DOOR LINKAGE

SQUAT
SWITCH

AIR CHAMBER
AIR VALVE
BRAKE LINES

TORQUE
Nose Gear LINKS

AXLE
BRAKE
ASSEMBLY
STEERING
GEARS

SHIMMY HYDRAULIC
DAMPER ACTUATOR
STEEL
UNIVERSAL
JOINT
FORWARD
DOOR
LINKAGE
DOWNLOCK
SWITCH

TRUNNION

AFT
DOOR
LINKAGE

TORQUE
LINKS

HYDRAULICS AND LANDING GEAR 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 8-5
Main Gear

The main gear is of conventional design incorporating a lower


piston/axle assembly, upper trunnion assembly, shock strut
assembly, drag brace, and torque links. The piston/axle assem-
bly provides attachment points and running clearance for the
main wheel and wheel brake assembly. Attachment points for
installation of the main gear to the front and rear wing spar are
provided by the trunnion assembly which also houses the
shock strut assembly. The drag brace interconnects the aft
upper and lower ends of the trunnion assembly and functions to
reduce fore and aft forces on the shock strut assembly. Upper
and lower torque links connect the piston/axle assembly to the
trunnion assembly and maintain alignment of the main wheel.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Each main gear assembly incorporates an air-oil type shock


strut assembly which functions to support the weight of the air-
plane and absorb shock loads encountered during ground op-
eration. The shock strut assembly consists primarily of an inner
cylinder retained within a hydraulic fluid filled outer cylinder.
The inner cylinder is integral to the axle/piston assembly while
the outer cylinder is housed within the trunnion assembly. A
floating isolation piston divides the interior of the inner cylinder
into a hydraulic fluid filled upper chamber and nitrogen gas or
dry air charged lower chamber. A variable orifice separates the
upper chamber of the inner cylinder from the outer cylinder and
regulates the flow of hydraulic fluid between these areas in rela-
tion to increasing or decreasing load.

Under increasing load, hydraulic fluid flows from the outer cylin-
der to the upper chamber of the inner cylinder. As the strut
compresses, the variable orifice is progressively restricted.
When the rate of hydraulic fluid flow through the orifice is insuf-
ficient to absorb compression shocks, the isolation piston is
forced downward against gas/air pressure to assume the addi-
tional load. Under decreasing load, the isolation piston is
forced upward by gas/air pressure and hydraulic fluid flows
from the upper chamber of the inner cylinder to the outer cylin-
der until the pressure on each side of the orifice is equal.

The main gear assemblies retract inward into the wing wheel
wells and, when fully retracted, each is partially enclosed by a
hinged door which opens during extension and closes during
retraction. Push-pull rods mechanically link the doors to their re-
spective trunnions such that they operate simultaneously.

HYDRAULICS AND LANDING GEAR 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 8-7
Hydraulic Actuators
Each hydraulic actuator is comprised of a cylinder body with an
internal piston and rod assembly. The cylinder body of each
actuator is attached to the airframe structure. Each rod end is
attached to its associated gear trunnion assembly. Retract and
extend ports on each cylinder are plumbed to the landing gear
hydraulic system. Separate pneumatic extend ports are
plumbed to the pneumatic blowdown system.

5
4

6
2
1
3

1. Cylinder Body 4. Hydraulic Retract Port


2. Piston Rod 5. Hydraulic Extend Port
3. Downlock Indicator 6. Pneumatic Retract Port

The nose gear actuator piston “pulls” the nose gear to the
extended position and “pushes” it to the retracted position. The
main gear actuator piston “pushes” the main gear to the ex-
tended position and “pulls” it to the retracted position. The nose
gear actuator incorporates a shuttle valve that is normally
spring-loaded open to the hydraulic extend port. During auxil-
iary/emergency gear extension, the shuttle valve is repositioned
open to the pneumatic extend port by gas/air pressure. Each
main gear actuator incorporates a separate, concentric, pneu-
matic extension chamber that is always open to the pneumatic
extend port. All three gear actuators incorporate integral “ring
and groove” type downlock latches which hold the gear assem-
blies in the fully-extended position when hydraulic pressure is
removed. Approximately 300 PSI is required to release these
latches.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Uplock Sequence
Actuators 4
Independent uplock 1
sequence actuators are
provided for each gear
assembly to hydrauli-
cally release the uplock
hooks during normal
gear extension. Each
consists of an actuator 3
body, a spring-loaded
internal piston and rod 2
assembly, and a check
valve. The actuator
body is attached to the 1. Actuator Body
airframe structure. The 2. Uplock Hook
uplock hook is linked to
3. Release Cable
the rod end. Three
4. Uplock Switch
ports are located on
each actuator body: the first (pressure inlet) is plumbed to the
extend circuit of the landing gear hydraulic system, the second
(pressure outlet) is plumbed to the extend port of its associated
gear assembly’s hydraulic actuator, the third is plumbed to the
retract port of its associated gear assembly’s hydraulic actua-
tor. The check valve is positioned between the pressure inlet
port and pressure outlet port such that hydraulic fluid flow to
the extend port of the hydraulic actuator is restricted until the
uplock hook is released. During normal gear extension, hydrau-
lic pressure applied to the internal piston “pulls” the rod inward
thereby releasing the uplock hook. Following uplock hook
release, continued inward movement of rod unseats the check
valve allowing hydraulic fluid flow to the extend port of the
hydraulic actuator. During gear retraction, return hydraulic fluid
flow from the extend port of the hydraulic actuator unseats the
check valve. During emergency gear extension, the uplock
hooks are mechanically-released.

HYDRAULICS AND LANDING GEAR 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 8-9
Left Main Gear Safety Switch

A safety switch, located on the


left main gear, is installed
primarily to prevent inadvert-
ent retraction of the gear
during ground operation when
the left main gear strut is
compressed. Numerous addi-
tional functions are listed
below.

On Ground, Strut Compressed, Safety Switch Open

Enables:
1. Generator-assisted engine start
2. Automatic ground cabin depressurization
3. Wheel brake anti-skid
4. Locked wheel crossover protection (550-0437 and after)
5. Thrust reverser deployment
6. Sperry TAS heater probe low heat level (550-0505 and earlier)
7. Tailcone pressurization

Disables:
1. Landing gear handle movement
2. Emergency pressurization control valve
3. Touchdown protection (550-0437 and after)
4. Air Data Computer (550-0324 and after)
5. Stick shaker
6. Optional approach indexer (550-0627 and after)
7. Air data warning horn (550-0505 and earlier)
8. Ground Proximity Warning System (550-0376 and after)
9. Flight data recorder (550-0550 and after)
10. Cockpit voice recorder (550-0550 and after)
11. Angle of attack probe heat
12. Sperry TAS heater probe high heat level (550-0505 and earlier)
13. Hobbs meter
14. Davtron digital clock flight time function
15. Panel light dimming (550-0689 ~ 0698; 550-0703 and after)
16. Angle of attack indexer dimming (550-0550 and after)

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

In Flight, Strut Extended, Safety Switch Closed

Enables:
1. Landing gear handle movement
2. Emergency pressurization control valve
3. Touchdown protection (550-0437 and after)
4. Air Data Computer (550-0324 and after)
5. Stick shaker
6. Optional approach indexer, if nose gear is down and locked
(550-0627 and after)
7. Altitude alert warning horn
8. Ground Proximity Warning System (550-0376 and after)
9. Flight data recorder (550-0550 and after)
10. Cockpit voice recorder (550-0550 and after)
11. Angle of attack probe heat
12. Sperry TAS heater probe high heat level (550-0505 and earlier)
13. Hobbs meter
14. Davtron digital clock flight time function
15. Panel light dimming (550-0689 ~ 0698; 550-0703 and after)
16. Angle of attack indexer dimming (550-0550 and after)

Disables:
1. Generator-assisted engine start
2. Automatic ground cabin depressurization
3. Wheel brake anti-skid
4. Locked wheel crossover protection (550-0437 and after)
5. Thrust reverser deployment
6. Sperry TAS heater probe low heat level (550-0505 and earlier)
7. Tailcone pressurization

HYDRAULICS AND LANDING GEAR 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 8-11
Landing Gear Control and Position Indication

Landing Gear Control Handle


The landing gear hydraulic system is activated by a two-posi-
tion, wheel-shaped control handle, labeled LDG GEAR - UP/
DOWN, located in the lower left corner of the center instrument
panel. Three microswitches are actuated by the control handle:
a retract switch, an extend switch, and a selector switch. The
retract switch is actuated when the control handle is moved to
the “UP” position; the extend switch is actuated when the con-
trol handle is moved to the “DOWN” position. When either
switch is actuated, a corresponding retract or extend solenoid
integral to the landing gear control valve is energized, thereby
positioning the valve to permit gear retraction or extension as
selected. The control handle is spring-loaded to the selected
position and must be pulled outward before it can be moved.

Protection against inadvertent retraction of the gear during


ground operation is provided by a spring-loaded, solenoid-
operated handle lock. The solenoid is energized and deener-
gized through the left main gear safety switch. When the left
main gear strut is compressed, the solenoid is deenergized
and the spring-loaded lock prevents the control handle from
being moved to the “UP” position. When the left main gear strut
is uncompressed, the solenoid is energized by 28 VDC left
main bus power through the 2-amp LDG GEAR circuit breaker,
and the handle lock is released.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

The selector switch is integral to the landing gear position


indication and warning system and has two positions (up and
down) that correspond with control handle position. When the
control handle is in the “UP” position, the selector switch estab-
lishes a circuit to the GEAR UNLOCKED light module through
the uplock and downlock microswitches. When the control
handle is in the “DOWN” position, the selector switch estab-
lishes a circuit to the GEAR UNLOCKED light module through
downlock microswitches only.

HYDRAULICS AND LANDING GEAR 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 8-13
1. Gear Down and
Locked Light Module
A light module incorporating 1
three green lenses individually
labeled NOSE, LH, and RH,
located to the right of the
landing gear control handle,
provides indication that the 2
landing gear is in the down
and locked position. The LH
and RH main gear position
indicators are illuminated by
one bulb each. The NOSE
gear position indicator is illuminated by two bulbs wired in
parallel for continued operation should one bulb fail. The down
and locked position indicators are individually illuminated
through the downlock microswitches as each gear assembly
reaches its fully-extended position and its associated downlock
latch is engaged.

2. Gear Unlocked Light Module


A light module incorporating a single red lens labeled GEAR
UNLOCKED, located below the gear down and locked light
module, provides indication that the landing gear is in transit or
that one or all three landing gear assemblies are not in the
same position as the landing gear control handle. This indicator
is illuminated by two bulbs wired in parallel for continued
operation should one bulb fail. During gear retraction, the
indicator is illuminated through the selector switch, downlock
microswitches, and uplock microswitches when the control
handle is positioned to “UP,” the downlock latches are re-
leased, and uplock hooks are not engaged. During gear exten-
sion, the indicator is illuminated through the selector switch and
the downlock microswitches only, when the control handle is
positioned to “DOWN” and the downlock latches are not en-
gaged. During extension and retraction, the downlock
microswitches provide the ground required for GEAR UN-
LOCKED indicator illumination only when downlock latches are
not engaged. When all three gear assemblies have reached
their fully-retracted or fully-extended position the GEAR UN-
LOCKED indicator should be extinguished. When all three gear
assemblies are up and locked, all position indicators should be
extinguished.

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R-6/27/96
Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Landing Gear Warning Horn

The landing gear warning horn is located in the overhead flight


compartment, aft and outboard of the pilot’s station, and pro-
vides audible indication that the gear is not down and locked
when the airplane is configured for landing. The horn is ener-
gized through a pair of throttle position switches, a flap position
switch, and an airspeed switch (550-0627 and after), integral to
the landing gear position indication and warning circuit. Each
throttle position switch is actuated closed when its associated
THROTTLE lever is set below approximately 70% N2. The flap
position switch is actuated closed by the FLAP lever when set
below the T.O. & APPR position (approximately 15°). The air-
speed switch, incorporated on airplanes 550-0627 and after
only, is closed below approximately 150 KIAS. In combination,
these switches and the downlock microswitches will cause the
horn to sound when any one or all three gear assemblies are
not down and locked under the following conditions:

Airplanes 550-0626 and earlier

1. Either or both THROTTLE levers set below approximately 70% N2


regardless of airspeed
2. FLAP lever set below T.O. & APPR position, regardless of airspeed or
THROTTLE position

Airplanes 550-0627 and after

1. Either or both THROTTLE levers set below approximately 70% N2 when


airspeed is below approximately 150 KIAS
2. FLAP lever set below T.O. & APPR position, regardless of airspeed or
THROTTLE lever position

A HORN SILENCE button,


located right of the control
handle, energizes a pair of
relays associated with the
throttle position switches.
When this button is pressed,
both relays are energized
thereby interrupting the throttle
position switch circuit and
silencing the warning horn.

▲ HORN SILENCE BUTTON

HYDRAULICS AND LANDING GEAR 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 8-15
Each relay remains energized through an integral latching
circuit as long as its associated throttle position switch remains
closed and all three gear assemblies are not down and locked.
If the horn has been energized through the throttle position
switches only, it may also be silenced by advancing the
THROTTLE levers above approximately 70% N2, or by increas-
ing airspeed above 150 KIAS (550-0627 and after only). If the
horn has been energized through the flap position switch,
pressing the HORN SILENCE button, advancing the THROTTLE
levers, or increasing airspeed (550-0627 and after only), will not
silence the horn.

Landing Gear Indicator Light


and Warning Horn Test
Operation of the landing gear
position indication and warn-
ing system may be verified by
rotating the TEST selector
switch, located on the lower
left instrument panel, to the
“LDG GEAR” position. This
energizes a test relay that
bypasses the downlock
microswitches which normally
▲ TEST SELECTOR SWITCH
provide the ground required to
illuminate the position indicators and sound the warning horn.
In this condition, if the system is functioning normally, the LH,
RH, NOSE, and GEAR UNLOCKED position indicators should
be illuminated and the warning horn should sound. Operation of
the HORN SILENCE button may also be verified during this test.
If functioning normally, pressing the button should silence the
horn.

The position indicators and warning horn normally receive 28


VDC power from the left main bus (550-0550 and after) or right
main bus (550-0505 and earlier) bus through the 2-amp LDG
GEAR circuit breaker. During system testing, the test relay and
GEAR UNLOCKED position indicator receive 28 VDC power
from the left main bus (550-0550 and after) or right main bus
(550-0505 and earlier) through the 5-amp WARN LTS 1 circuit
breaker.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Landing Gear Hydraulics

Landing Gear Hydraulic Pressure Source


The hydraulic power system provides hydraulic pressure for
landing gear retraction and normal extension. The system also
supplies hydraulic pressure for operation of the speed brakes
and optional thrust reversers when installed. A detailed de-
scription of the hydraulic power system is provided below.

Hydraulic Power System Components


Major components of the hydraulic power system include a
hydraulic fluid reservoir, engine-driven hydraulic pumps, sole-
noid-operated control valve, and annunciators that indicate
system operating conditions.

Hydraulic Fluid Reservoir


The hydraulic fluid reservoir, located within the aft fuselage,
stores fluid and supplies the hydraulic pumps. The reservoir is
comprised of two cylindrical sections joined end-to-end. The
larger cylinder houses the fluid reservoir; the smaller cylinder
(neck) primarily houses a fluid level sight gage. A piston di-
vides the larger cylinder into separate fluid-filled and air-filled
chambers. On airplanes 550-0180 and after, and airplanes 550-
0065 and earlier not incorporating SB550-29-1 or -2, the reser-
voir is considered pressurized. On airplanes 550-0066 through
0179, and airplanes 550-0065 and earlier incorporating SB550-
29-1 or -2, the reservoir is considered non-pressurized.

In pressurized reservoirs, the large reservoir piston is attached


to and positioned by a small piston located within the neck. The
small piston is positioned by hydraulic pressure. With 1350 to
1500 PSI hydraulic pressure acting on the small piston, the
large piston maintains approximately 15 PSI within the fluid-
filled chamber. The large piston is spring-loaded to maintain
approximately 3 to 4 PSI within the fluid-filled chamber when
hydraulic pressure is not available.

In non-pressurized reservoirs, the piston is spring-loaded to


maintain approximately 3 to 4 PSI within the fluid-filled chamber.
The air-filled chamber is vented to facilitate piston movement.

HYDRAULICS AND LANDING GEAR 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 8-17
Hydraulic Distribution System
© PCW
8-18 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY CITATION II CHAPTER 8 12/99
Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Overpressurization of the fluid-filled chamber is prevented by a


relief valve that begins opening at 40 PSI and fully opens at 60
PSI. When open, excess hydraulic fluid is routed through an
overboard relief line. On airplanes 550-0482, 0485 through
0698 incorporating SB550-29-06, and airplanes 550-0699 and
after, this fluid drains into a plastic EPA bottle within the aft
fuselage. On airplanes 550-0484, 0483, 0481 and earlier, and
airplanes 550-0482, 0485 through 0658 not incorporating
SB550-29-06, this fluid drains overboard through the hydraulic
service panel vent mast located on the lower right surface of the
aft fuselage.

© PCW

The fluid level sight gage consists of an indicator rod, visible


through a window on the reservoir neck, that is attached to and
positioned by the reservoir piston. The position of the rod in
relation to REFILL, FULL, and OVERFULL markings above the
window, and corresponding 38, 125, and 150 IN3 markings
below the window, indicates the reservoir fluid level. The 38,
125, and 150 IN3 markings correspond to 0.2, 0.5, and 0.6
gallons respectively. A microswitch is attached to the neck such
that it is held open by the indicator rod when it is positioned
above REFILL. When the rod is positioned below REFILL, the
microswitch closes illuminating the amber [HYD LOW LEVEL]
annunciator (550-0550 and after) or [HYD LEVEL LO] annuncia-
tor (550-0505 and earlier).

HYDRAULICS AND LANDING GEAR 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 8-19
The reservoir is serviced through a pressure line coupling on
the hydraulic service panel. Reservoir capacity is approxi-
mately 0.65 gallons with the gear down and locked. The hy-
draulic system reservoir may be serviced with Skydrol 500A,
500B, 500B-4, 500C, and LD-4; Hyjet, Hyjet W, III, or IVA; or any
equivalent phosphate ester based hydraulic fluid. Mixing hy-
draulic fluids should not impair system operation.

Caution: Phosphate ester based hydraulic fluid will attack a


wide range of materials, including rubber, copper, various
plastics, and paints.

Caution: If heated beyond 270°F, Skydrol decomposes into


acids and other products that can damage metal structures.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Engine-Driven Hydraulic Pumps


Hydraulic pressure is provided
by constant-displacement
hydraulic pumps that are gear-
driven by and mounted on the
accessory gearbox of each
engine. When hydraulic pres-
sure is not required to operate
airplane systems, the hydraulic
system functions in an “open
center” fashion, as the pumps
draw hydraulic fluid from the
reservoir, circulate it through the
hydraulic system, and return it to the reservoir through the return
line. When hydraulic pressure is required to operate landing
gear or other systems, a bypass valve is energized closed,
thereby allowing hydraulic pressure to increase. A check valve
is installed in the return line to the reservoir to prevent reverse
flow from the reservoir. Check valves, installed downstream from
each pump and its associated filter, prevent reverse fluid flow in
the event of opposite pump failure. These check valves also
incorporate flow switches or flow detectors that illuminate corre-
sponding annunciators to indicate low hydraulic flow/pressure
from each hydraulic pump. A restrictor check valve is installed
in the pressure line downstream of the right hydraulic pump to
prevent reverse fluid flow during servicing.

Hydraulic Filters
A hydraulic filter is installed in each pump pressure line and in
the hydraulic reservoir return line to prevent foreign material
from contaminating the hydraulic fluid. The pump pressure line
filters have a 3 GPM nominal flow capacity, and incorporate a
100 PSI differential bypass valve that permits continued flow in
the event of filter blockage. The reservoir return line filter has a
12 GPM nominal flow capacity and incorporates a 100 PSI
differential bypass valve. These filters have a 5-micron nominal
rating and a 15-micron absolute rating.

HYDRAULICS AND LANDING GEAR 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 8-21
Hydraulic Firewall Shutoff Valves
A hydraulic firewall shutoff valve is installed within the aft fuse-
lage in each hydraulic pump suction line. The hydraulic firewall
shutoff valves function to terminate hydraulic fluid flow in the
event of an engine fire. Each ball-type valve is motor-operated
and electrically-controlled by independent [LH ENG FIRE] and
[RH ENG FIRE] annunciator/switches on the glare shield panel
fire tray. A transparent, spring-loaded guard is installed over
each switch to protect against inadvertent actuation.

When either switch is pressed, the corresponding valve is


closed by 28 VDC power supplied through its associated 7.5-
amp LH F/W SHUTOFF or RH F/W SHUTOFF circuit breaker on
the left CB panel. When fully closed, the corresponding amber
[LH] or [RH] [HYD FLOW LO] annunciator (550-0550 and after)
or [L] or [R] [HYD PRESS LO] annunciator (550-0505 and ear-
lier) should be illuminated. Additionally, both [BOTTLE ARMED
PUSH] annunciator/switches on the glare shield panel fire tray
should be illuminated. A closed valve may be reopened by
pressing the corresponding switch to release it from its locked
position.

Note: The fuel firewall shutoff valve is also closed when the
hydraulic firewall shutoff valve is closed. Refer to Chapter 3 for
a complete description of the fuel firewall shutoff valve. Refer to
Chapter 2 for a complete description of the engine fire protec-
tion system.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Hydraulic System Indication

Indication of hydraulic system operation is provided by flow,


pressure, and fluid level lights located on the annunciator
panel.

Hydraulic Flow Annunciators


Independent amber [LH] and [RH] [HYD FLOW LOW] annun-
ciators (550-0550 and after) or [L HYD PRESS LO] and [R HYD
PRESS LO] annunciators (550-0505 and earlier) illuminate to
indicate low hydraulic flow from each engine-driven pump.

On airplanes 550-0050 through 0063, 0065 and after, the hy-


draulic fluid flow annunciators are illuminated by independent
left and right flow switch/check valves. Each flow switch/check
valve is comprised of a sliding magnet that is attached to and
moves with the check valve poppet. If the system is operating
normally, each annunciator will illuminate when the airplane
electrical system is energized, and will remain illuminated until
its associated hydraulic pump develops sufficient pressure to
unseat the check valve, thereby magnetically opening the
switch and extinguishing the corresponding annunciator.

On airplanes 550-0064, 0049 and earlier, the hydraulic fluid


flow annunciators are illuminated by a combination check
valve/flow detector that is comprised of a sliding magnet and
two switches. One switch controls illumination of the amber
[L HYD PRESS LO] annunciator; the other switch controls illumi-
nation of the amber [R HYD PRESS LO] annunciator. The sliding
magnet is spring-loaded to a neutral position. When an inlet
port pressure differential exists, the magnet is forced toward the
area of lowest pressure. If one pump is generating at least 25
PSI more than the other, the magnet closes the switch corre-
sponding to the pump that is generating the lower pressure,
thereby illuminating the associated annunciator. If the system is
operating normally, the annunciator corresponding to the en-
gine started last will illuminate following initial engine start, and
will remain illuminated until its associated hydraulic pump
develops sufficient pressure to move the flow detector magnet
to the neutral position, thereby magnetically opening the switch
and extinguishing the corresponding annunciator.

HYDRAULICS AND LANDING GEAR 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 8-23
Hydraulic Pressure Annunciator
Pressurization of hydraulic components is indicated by an
amber [HYD PRESS ON] annunciator. This annunciator is
illuminated when pressure exceeds approximately 155 PSI, by
a hydraulic pressure switch, located upstream of the landing
gear control valve.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Landing Gear Control Valve


The landing gear control valve functions to direct hydraulic fluid
to the hydraulic actuator retract or extend ports. The hydraulic
landing gear control valve is operated by “retract” and “extend”
solenoids. The control valve contains an internal selector spool
that is spring-loaded to a neutral position when the solenoids
are not energized. In this position, both the retract and extend
ports are connected to the return port so that fluid will not be
trapped under pressure within the hydraulic lines. The other
selector spool positions depend upon the position of the land-
ing gear control handle. When the control handle is moved to
the “UP” position, the retract solenoid is energized, which
positions the selector spool to connect the hydraulic inlet port to
the retract port and connect the extend port to the return port.
When the control handle is moved to the “DOWN” position the
extend switch is actuated, energizing the extend solenoid,
which positions the selector spool to connect the hydraulic inlet
port to the extend port and connect the retract port to the return
port. The control handle is spring-loaded to the selected posi-
tion and must be pulled outward before it can be moved.

The landing gear control valve functions with an input power of


18 to 30 VDC.

System pressure is regulated by a relief valve that begins to


open at approximately 1350 PSI, and prevents hydraulic system
pressure from exceeding 1500 PSI. The relief valve also pre-
vents hydraulic fluid flow rate from exceeding 6.6 GPM. Excess
fluid released through the relief valve flows into the reservoir
return line.

During landing gear extension or retraction, the [HYD PRESS


ON] annunciator should be illuminated as an indication of
adequate hydraulic pressure. Failure of this light to illuminate
indicates that hydraulic pressure is insufficient for system op-
eration. Continued illumination after all three landing gear
assemblies have reached the selected position indicates
malfunction of a hydraulic system component.

HYDRAULICS AND LANDING GEAR 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 8-25
Landing Gear Operation

The following paragraphs describe normal landing gear retrac-


tion, as well as normal and emergency landing gear extension.
The airplane has no emergency landing gear retraction
capability.

Landing Gear Retraction


Landing gear retraction is initiated by positioning the landing
gear control handle to “UP.” In this position, the control valve
retract solenoid and hydraulic system center valve are ener-
gized to permit landing gear retraction. During retraction, the
control valve selector spool to is positioned to direct hydraulic
fluid to the retract port of each actuator and the center valve
closes, illuminating the amber [HYD PRESS ON] annunciator.
Once hydraulic pressure releases the downlock latches, the
retract side of the gear actuator pistons is pressurized, thereby
initiating gear retraction. Release of the downlock latches
actuates downlock switches that illuminate the red GEAR UN-
LOCKED light while the gear is in transit.

As each gear assembly reaches its fully-retracted position, it is


held in position by a gear uplock hook that engages an uplock
roller on the gear trunnion. An uplock switch is actuated closed
by each uplock hook. When the landing gear is fully retracted
and all three microswitches have closed, the red GEAR UN-
LOCKED light is extinguished, the hydraulic system center
valve opens, and the retract solenoid is deenergized. In this
condition, the control valve selector spool returns to its neutral
position and the hydraulic system returns to “open center”
mode, extinguishing the amber [HYD PRESS ON] annunciator.

Note: When the center valve is energized and hydraulic pres-


sure is being supplied to the landing gear, the amber [HYD
PRESS ON] annunciator will be illuminated.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual
Landing Gear System Schematic (retraction)
© PCW
HYDRAULICS AND LANDING GEAR 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 8-27
Landing Gear Extension
Landing gear extension is normally initiated by positioning the
landing gear control handle to “DOWN.” In this position, the
control valve extend solenoid and hydraulic system center
valve are energized to permit landing gear extension. During
extension, the control valve selector spool to is positioned to
direct hydraulic fluid to the uplock sequence actuators and the
center valve closes, illuminating the amber [HYD PRESS ON]
annunciator. As sufficient hydraulic pressure builds within these
actuators, the uplock hooks are released. After each uplock
hook is fully released, fluid is routed to the extend port of its
respective landing gear actuator and the gear begins to extend.
Individual microswitches, actuated open by the release of the
uplock hooks, energize the red GEAR UNLOCKED light while
the gear is in transit.

As each gear actuator reaches its fully-extended position,


internal downlock latches mechanically engage to hold the
gear extended. Individual microswitches are actuated closed
by the downlock latches, illuminating their respective green
NOSE, LH, and RH gear down indicators. When all three gear
assemblies are fully down and locked and their respective
microswitches are closed, the red GEAR UNLOCKED light is
extinguished, the hydraulic system center valve opens, and the
extend solenoid is deenergized. In this condition, the control
valve selector spool returns to its neutral position and the hy-
draulic system returns to “open center” mode, extinguishing the
amber [HYD PRESS ON] annunciator.

Note: When the center valve is energized and hydraulic pres-


sure is being supplied to the landing gear, the amber [HYD
PRESS ON] annunciator will be illuminated.

Static (Open Center) Condition


When normal extension or retraction is complete, the hydraulic
fluid contained in both the retract and extend circuits remains
static while fluid circulation through the pumps, filters, check
valves, and reservoir continues.

Landing Gear Extension/Retraction Speeds and Cycle Times


On airplanes 550-0626 and earlier, maximum landing gear
extended speed is 250 KIAS. On airplanes 550-0627 and after,
maximum landing gear extended speed is 262 KIAS. Maximum
landing gear retraction speed is 200 KIAS. Normal cycle time
for landing gear operation is approximately six seconds.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual
Landing Gear System Schematic (extension)
© PCW
HYDRAULICS AND LANDING GEAR 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 8-29
Auxiliary/Emergency Landing Gear Extension System

An auxiliary/emergency landing gear extension system is


installed for use in the event of hydraulic system failure. Auxil-
iary/emergency gear extension is provided by a mechanical
uplock release “free-fall” system and a pneumatic “blowdown”
system. The free-fall system allows mechanical gear release
using a T-handle connected by cables to each uplock hook.
Pulling the T-handle releases the uplock hooks mechanically.
The pneumatic blowdown system is used to assure that the
gear is fully extended and locked, and is actuated using a
blowdown knob located behind the T-handle. Major compo-
nents of the system include an auxiliary/emergency air storage
“blowdown” bottle and discharge valve, the auxiliary/emer-
gency gear release T-handle, the blowdown knob, and associ-
ated cables and plumbing.

Auxiliary/Emergency
Air Storage Bottle 1
The auxiliary/emergency air
storage “blowdown” bottle is
located behind the aft divider
within the right nose baggage
compartment and is pressur-
ized with dry nitrogen or clean,
dry compressed air. The bottle
supplies pneumatic pressure 2
to operate both the auxiliary/
emergency landing gear
blowdown system and the 1. Pressure Gage
auxiliary/emergency 2. Air Storage Bottle
braking system.

A bottle pressure gage is visible through an inspection window


positioned on an access panel. The access panel is hinged to
facilitate servicing and is accessible through the right nose
baggage door. The gage is marked with a green arc, denoting
the normal system indicating range, from 1800 to 2050 PSIG.
The bottle should be serviced when indicated bottle pressure is
less than 1800 PSIG. The bottle holds from 75 to 100 cubic
inches of air.

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The blowdown bottle is equipped with a thermal relief valve that


functions to release excessive pressure overboard through a
vent line. The relief valve is designed to rupture at approxi-
mately 3750 to 4250 PSIG. The thermal relief valve is not reus-
able; if it ruptures, the valve or the complete bottle assembly
must be replaced.

Warning: Thermal relief valve rupture will render the auxiliary/


emergency landing gear extension and braking systems inop-
erable.

Note: The blowdown bottle requires hydrostatic testing every


five years.

Auxiliary/Emergency Gear
Extension System Operation
Should the landing gear fail to
extend hydraulically, requiring
operation of the auxiliary/
emergency extension system,
the red AUX GEAR CONTROL
T-handle should be pulled 2
fully out to release the landing
gear uplocks. The T-handle 1
should then be rotated 45°
clockwise to unlock. This
action allows the landing gear 1. T-Handle
to free-fall, and also unlocks 2. Blowdown Knob
the red, collar-type pneumatic
blowdown knob. To assure that the landing gear is fully down
and locked, the blowdown knob should be pulled to actuate a
valve that discharges the blowdown bottle.

The blowdown knob is connected by cable to the blowdown


bottle discharge valve. Pulling the blowdown knob opens the
discharge valve, and routes pneumatic pressure directly to the
nose and main gear actuator pneumatic extend ports, thereby
forcing the gear into the down and locked position. Hydraulic
fluid within the gear actuators is returned directly to the hydrau-
lic fluid reservoir by means of a dump valve.

Note: Before operating the AUX GEAR CONTROL T-handle, the


flight crew should assure that the landing gear control handle is
in the “DOWN” position.

HYDRAULICS AND LANDING GEAR 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 8-31
Landing Gear System Schematic (emergency extension)
© PCW
8-32 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY CITATION II CHAPTER 8 12/99
Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Note: When the blowdown knob is pulled, the blowdown bottle


discharge valve latches in the open position and cannot be
reset by the flight crew. Therefore, the blowdown system cannot
be reused until the discharge valve is reset and the storage
bottle is refilled by service personnel. When the blowdown
bottle discharge valve is reset to the closed position during
servicing, it connects the landing gear actuators to a vent line,
allowing gas/air trapped within the gear actuators to be re-
leased overboard when the gear is next operated hydraulically.

Note: To ensure the highest probability of full extension, the


auxiliary/emergency gear extension system should be operated
at an airspeed of approximately 150 KIAS with flaps retracted.
The landing gear may not fully extend if free-fall landing gear
extension is attempted at airspeeds above 200 KIAS.

As in normal extension, respective gear down indicators should


illuminate when each gear assembly reaches its fully-extended
position.

Emergency Hydraulic Dump Valve


Following auxiliary/emergency (pneumatic) gear extension,
hydraulic fluid within the retract side of the landing gear actua-
tors is returned directly to the hydraulic fluid reservoir by means
of a dump valve that is connected to the hydraulic gear retract
line, the hydraulic system return line, and the pneumatic gear
extension line. When pneumatic pressure within the landing
gear system exceeds 200 PSI, the dump valve opens, allowing
hydraulic fluid to flow through the dump valve into the return line
to the reservoir.

HYDRAULICS AND LANDING GEAR 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 8-33
Brakes

The left and right wheel brakes


are hydraulically operated by
independent master cylinders
attached to the pilot’s and
copilot’s rudder pedals. The
brake system is pressurized
when either pilot depresses
the toe pedals. Interconnect
assemblies allow either pilot to
operate the brakes with equal
authority. The brake system is
power-assisted and provides
touchdown protection capability. An anti-skid system provides
skid and locked wheel crossover protection. A backup pneu-
matic system can be used for auxiliary/emergency braking in
the event of hydraulic brake system failure; on airplanes 550-
0460 and earlier not incorporating SB550-32-12, backup
manual braking is available as well. Parking brake capability is
provided by locking the normal brakes.

Power Brake System


The power brake system is composed of a brake hydraulic fluid
reservoir, an electrically-driven hydraulic pump and filter as-
sembly, one or two accumulators, and an anti-skid servo valve.

Hydraulic fluid for brake sys-


tem operation is supplied from
a reservoir installed within the 2
nose compartment on the right
side of the forward pressure
bulkhead. On airplanes 550- 1
0281 and after, airplanes 550-
0039 and earlier, and air-
planes incorporating SB550-
32-8, the brake reservoir is
pressurized by cabin pres-
sure, which enters the reservoir
through an assembly that 1. Fluid Reservoir
incorporates a check valve to 2. Accumulator
Pressure Gage
prevent hydraulic fluid or
fumes from entering the cabin,
and a filter to protect the brake fluid from contamination. The
reservoir is vented by an overboard vent line connected to a
relief valve that incorporates a restrictor orifice.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual
Brake System Schematic
© PCW
HYDRAULICS AND LANDING GEAR 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 8-35
The restrictor orifice allows pressurization to accumulate within
the reservoir, but is never fully closed, thereby allowing continu-
ous venting of fumes. On airplanes 550-0040 through 0280 and
airplanes not incorporating SB550-32-8, the reservoir is not
pressurized, and is vented by an overboard line.

Pressure for power brake system operation is provided by


pressurized hydraulic fluid supplied by an electrically-driven
hydraulic pump installed within the left side of the nose com-
partment. The pump is controlled by a pressure switch that
opens when the pressure approaches 1300 PSI and closes
when system pressure approaches 900 PSI. The pump sup-
plies hydraulic fluid to the power brake system and to one or
two accumulators under the left nose baggage compartment
floor. Each accumulator is divided by a floating piston into an
air compartment and a fluid compartment. The air compartment
is pneumatically pressurized to a nominal pressure of 650 to
700 PSIG, and acts to pressurize the contents of the fluid com-
partment.

The accumulator(s) functions to maintain hydraulic pressure


without the need to continuously operate the hydraulic pump,
thereby assuring that hydraulic power-assist is immediately
available to the brake actuators. Fluid expelled from the accu-
mulator during brake operation is returned to the accumulator
by the pump. On airplanes 550-0453 and after, the main gear
power brake system includes one 50 cubic inch accumulator.
On airplanes 550-0437 through 0452, the main gear power
brake system includes two 25 cubic inch accumulators. On
airplanes 550-0436 and earlier, the main gear power brake
system includes one 25 cubic inch accumulator.

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Applying pressure to the brake pedals actuates a piston as-


sembly in each master cylinder. Master brake cylinder piston
displacement transfers hydraulic pressure to the anti-skid servo
valve. Braking is power-assisted by hydraulic pressure sup-
plied from the accumulator(s). Hydraulic fluid from the
accumulator(s) is released by the anti-skid servo valve through
the parking brake valve below the flight compartment floor to
the main gear brake assemblies. The additional fluid pressure
hydraulically amplifies the effect of brake pedal pressure.

A color band gage is provided for checking brake hydraulic


accumulator pressure. The pressure gage is visible through an
inspection window positioned on an access panel. The access
panel is hinged to facilitate servicing and is accessible through
the right nose baggage door. The gage is marked with a red
arc between 0 and 650 PSIG denoting underpressure, a green
arc between 650 to 700 PSIG denoting normal operating pres-
sure range, a yellow arc between 700 to 900 PSIG denoting
caution range, a green crosshatched arc between 900 to 1350
PSIG denoting precharge range, and a red arc between 1350 to
1500 PSIG denoting overpressure.

Note: The accumulator pressure gage denotes pressure


ranges only; it is not marked with numerals denoting specific
pressures.

The power brake system receives 28 VDC left main bus power
through a 20-amp SKID CONTROL circuit breaker on the left CB
panel.

Touchdown Protection
On airplanes 550-0437 and after, the touchdown protection
system prevents landing with pressure applied to the brakes.
The touchdown protection system energizes the power brake
anti-skid control valve open at airplane touchdown through the
left main gear safety switch. The valve therefore remains closed
until the airplane is on the ground, preventing hydraulic fluid
from entering the brake actuators and thereby assuring that the
brakes are not applied at airplane touchdown.

HYDRAULICS AND LANDING GEAR 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 8-37
Anti-Skid System
The anti-skid system is integral to the power brake system and
provides maximum braking capability on wet or icy runways.
The system consists of two wheel speed transducers, an elec-
tronic control box, an anti-skid servo valve, pressure switches,
mode switch, circuit breakers, and indicator lights.

The wheel speed transducers are installed in the main gear


axles. Each transducer generates electrical signals proportional
to wheel rotational speed; these signals are then transmitted to
the electronic control box. The control box also receives signals
from the left main gear safety switch and the brake hydraulic
pump pressure switch. The control box averages signals from
left and right transducers to generate a composite reference
voltage and compares this voltage to left and right transducer
voltage. The control box then generates signals that actuate the
anti-skid servo valve within the appropriate disc brake assem-
bly to reduce braking pressure as required to prevent wheel
skidding.

The system detects incipient skids by using a wheel speed


transducer to measure the deceleration of each landing wheel,
and then prevents skids by reducing the brake pressure in
proportion to the deviation of each wheel from normal braking
deceleration. The system also modulates brake pressure to
maximize braking efficiency.

The anti-skid system is acti-


vated by positioning the ANTI-
SKID switch on the LDG GEAR
control panel to “ON.” If the
ANTI-SKID switch is set to
“OFF,” power braking should
be available without the anti-
skid function, and the amber
[ANTISKID INOP] annunciator
should illuminate. If the brake
system hydraulic pressure
decreases to 900 PSI, the
▲ ANTI-SKID SWITCH
brake hydraulic pump pres-
sure switch closes, causing the control box to illuminate the
amber [POWER BRAKE LOW PRESS] annunciator (550-0550
and after) or [POWER BRK PRESS LO] annunciator (550-0505
and earlier).

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The anti-skid brake system automatically disengages when


ground speed falls below approximately 12 knots.

The anti-skid system receives 28 VDC left main bus power


through the 20-amp SKID CONTROL circuit breaker on the left
CB panel.

Warning: On airplanes 550-0461 and after and earlier airplanes


incorporating SB550-32-12, power brake system failure renders
hydraulic braking completely inoperable. If the power brake
system fails, auxiliary/emergency pneumatic braking must be
used.

Note: When the anti-skid system is operating, the pilot should


apply maximum braking pressure throughout the braking run. If
the pilot attempts to modulate brake pressure while the system
is releasing applied brake pressure to avoid a skid, the applied
brake signal can be interrupted, resulting in a considerable
increase in braking distance.

Anti-Skid System Test


Anti-skid system ground self-
test may be activated by
rotating the test selector switch
on the lower left instrument
panel to the “ANTISKID”
position, then returning it to the
“OFF” position. The anti-skid
test circuit monitors anti-skid
system electrical function. If
the anti-skid system is func-
tioning normally, the amber
▲ TEST SELECTOR SWITCH
[ANTISKID INOP] annunciator
will illuminate, then extinguish 3 to 4 seconds after the TEST
switch is returned to “OFF.” If an anti-skid system fault is de-
tected, the [ANTISKID INOP] annunciator will remain illumi-
nated. While airborne, the anti-skid test circuit is automatically
activated when the landing gear control handle is positioned to
“DOWN” (if the ANTI-SKID switch is positioned to “ON”). If anti-
skid system test detects a fault, the [ANTISKID INOP] annuncia-
tor will remain illuminated.

Note: If an anti-skid system fault is detected, the ANTI-SKID


switch can be positioned to OFF. If the SKID CONTROL circuit
breaker is engaged, normal power-assisted hydraulic braking
is available without anti-skid protection.

HYDRAULICS AND LANDING GEAR 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 8-39
Locked Wheel Crossover Protection
On airplanes 550-0437 and after, locked wheel crossover
protection prevents loss of airplane control caused by unequal
wheel rotation rates. When the anti-skid system detects that one
main gear wheel is rotating 50% slower than the other, brake
pressure to the slow wheel is dumped, allowing wheel speeds
to equalize. Locked wheel crossover protection is functional at
ground speeds greater than 40 knots.

Auxiliary/Emergency Braking System


Auxiliary/emergency braking is accomplished pneumatically,
by releasing high-pressure nitrogen or dry compressed air to
the main gear braking assemblies. During auxiliary/emergency
braking, a shuttle valve that is normally spring-loaded open to
the hydraulic port is repositioned open to the pneumatic port by
gas/air pressure, thereby allowing the brakes to be operated
pneumatically instead of hydraulically.

Auxiliary/emergency braking
is initiated by pulling the
EMER BRAKE-PULL valve
handle located below the
pilot’s instrument panel. This
action releases gas/air to the
brakes from the same air
storage bottle that is used for
auxiliary/emergency landing
gear deployment. Pneumatic
pressure within the auxiliary/
emergency brake valve re-
▲ EMERGENCY BRAKE VALVE HANDLE
turns the auxiliary/emergency
brake handle forward upon release, terminating pneumatic flow
to the brakes and releasing the brakes by venting air within the
brake assemblies overboard. Pulling the auxiliary/emergency
brake handle progressively increases brake pressure. For most
efficient use of pneumatic braking, the auxiliary/emergency
brake handle should be pulled aft until sufficient deceleration is
achieved, then should be held in position until the airplane has
stopped.

Note: Normal braking using the rudder pedals should not be


attempted if auxiliary/emergency pneumatic braking is in use.
Depressing the rudder pedals opens the shuttle valves, allow-
ing high-pressure air from the brake housing to enter the hy-
draulic reservoir, possibly rupturing it.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Note: The capacity of a properly serviced air storage bottle is


sufficient for at least ten individual brake applications if the
landing gear has not been extended pneumatically. Bottle
capacity is adequate to provide auxiliary/emergency braking
for most conditions even if the landing gear has been extended
pneumatically. After use of auxiliary/emergency braking, it is
recommended that the engines be shut down and the airplane
be towed to the ramp, as there is no gage, light, or other warn-
ing device in the cockpit to alert the flight crew when the pneu-
matic bottle is depleted.

Auxiliary/Emergency Braking System Usage


On airplanes 550-0460 and earlier incorporating SB550-32-12
and airplanes 550-0461 and after, the auxiliary/emergency
braking system must be used if the power brake system fails.
On airplanes 550-0460 and earlier not incorporating SB550-32-
12, the brakes can be applied without power assist and/or the
auxiliary/emergency braking system can be used if the power
braking system fails.

Parking Brake System


The parking brake handle,
located below the lower left
instrument panel, operates a
parking brake control valve
installed in-line downstream of
the master cylinders and
upstream of the brake assem-
blies. The parking brake is set
by pressing the rudder toe
pedals until sufficient hydrau-
lic pressure has developed in
the lines, then pulling the parking brake handle out to close the
control valve. With the control valve closed, hydraulic pressure
is retained in the lines, thereby holding the brakes in the ap-
plied position. Pushing the parking brake handle in opens the
control valve, thereby releasing the brakes.

Note: The parking brake should not be set if the flight crew
suspects that the brakes may be unusually hot. Setting the
brake increases cool down time by impeding airflow, and
therefore may allow sufficient heat transfer to open the parking
brake thermal relief valves and/or melt the thermal relief plugs
in the wheel, causing tire deflation.

HYDRAULICS AND LANDING GEAR 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 8-41
Limitations

Refer to the applicable airplane manufacturer’s FAA approved


flight manual or approved manual material, markings and
placards, or any combination thereof for all limitations.

Emergency Procedures

Refer to the applicable airplane manufacturer’s FAA approved


flight manual or approved manual material (supplementary
checklist) as revised, for procedural information.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Chapter 9
Environmental System

Table of Contents

Overview ............................................... 9-1


Pressurization Air Source and Selection .. 9-2
Source Selection .............................. 9-2
Air Cycle Machine and Temperature
Control System ..................................... 9-6
Air Cycle Machine ............................ 9-6
Temperature Control System ............. 9-8
Temperature Control System
Indication and Warning ..................... 9-9
ACM Overpressure Warning and
Protection ........................................ 9-9
ACM Overheat Warning and
Protection ...................................... 9-10
Pressurization Air Source and
Selection ............................................ 9-13
Nacelle Precooler System ............... 9-14
Source Selection ............................ 9-15
Air Cycle Machine and Temperature
Control System ................................... 9-18
Air Cycle Machine .......................... 9-18
ACM Overpressure Protection .......... 9-22
ACM Overheat Warning and
Protection ...................................... 9-22
Temperature Control System ................ 9-24
Conditioned Air Temperature
Warning and Protection .................. 9-25
Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Environmental System, continued

Table of Contents

Air Distribution System ........................ 9-27


Distribution Control ........................ 9-27
Blowers ......................................... 9-29
Distribution Ducting and
Air Outlets ..................................... 9-30
Cabin Pressurization Control System .... 9-31
Cabin Outflow Valves...................... 9-31
Cabin Pressurization Controller ........ 9-34
Pneumatic Relay ............................ 9-37
Cabin Altitude Limit Valves ............. 9-38
Pressurization System Indication ..... 9-39
Cabin Altitude and Differential
Pressure Indicator .......................... 9-39
Cabin Rate-of-Change Indicator ........ 9-39
Cabin Altitude Warning
Annunciator ................................... 9-39
Emergency Dump ........................... 9-40
Ambient Air Sources ............................ 9-41
Vapor Cycle Air Conditioning System .... 9-43
Refrigerant Circulation System ........ 9-43
Vapor Cycle Air Conditioning
System Protection .......................... 9-45
Vapor Cycle Air Conditioning System
Controls and Indicators .................. 9-46
Vapor Cycle Air Conditioning
System Protection .......................... 9-46
Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Environmental System, continued

Table of Contents

Emergency Oxygen System .................. 9-47


Oxygen Outlets............................... 9-48
Crew Oxygen Masks ....................... 9-49
Passenger Oxygen Masks ............... 9-50
Oxygen System Controls, Malfunction
Warning, and Indication ....................... 9-51
Limitations .......................................... 9-53
Emergency Procedures......................... 9-53
Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Overview

The environmental system of the Cessna Citation II functions to


control cabin pressure, temperature, and ventilation to ensure
the comfort and safety of the flight crew and passengers.
Engine bleed air is the primary source of air for cabin pressur-
ization and ventilation. An air cycle machine conditions the
bleed air for delivery to the cabin. A cabin pressurization con-
trol system regulates cabin pressure. During unpressurized
operation, ambient air may be used for cabin ventilation. An
optional flood cooling system may be installed to enhance
ambient air ventilation. An optional vapor cycle air conditioning
system may be installed to provide supplemental cabin cooling
primarily during ground operations.

In this chapter, the environmental system is divided into the


following major groupings: pressurization air source and selec-
tion, the air cycle machine and temperature control system, the
air distribution system (including cabin ventilation and wind-
shield defogging), cabin pressurization control and indication,
ambient air sources (including flood cooling and tailcone pres-
surization), the vapor cycle air conditioning system, and the
emergency oxygen system.

Depending on airplane unit number, two basic environmental


system configurations exist, differing primarily in relation to
pressurization air source and selection as well as the air cycle
machine (ACM) and temperature control system. For organiza-
tional purposes and clarity, these primary differences are
described separately according to unit number range.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-1


Pressurization Air Source and Selection
(550-0482, 0485 and after)

Bleed air used for cabin pressurization and ventilation is ex-


tracted from the compressor section of each engine through
ports located at 4 and 8 o’clock positions on the gas generator
case. From these ports, bleed air is primarily routed through
independent supply tubes to the ACM located within the aft
fuselage. An environmental flow control/shutoff valve in each of
these tubes controls the flow of bleed air from each source to
the ACM and functions as a check valve to prevent the
backflow of bleed air to the opposite source when either engine
has failed or is operating at a sufficiently lower RPM. A ground
shutoff valve bypasses the right environmental flow control/
shutoff valve permitting increased right engine bleed air flow
through the ACM to enhance cabin ventilation during ground
operation. During normal operation, all bleed air flows through
the ACM en route to the cabin. In an emergency, left engine
bleed air may be supplied directly to the cabin through an
emergency supply tube and pressurization valve.

The environmental flow control/shutoff valves are normally-


open, electrically-actuated closed, and have a nominal flow
rate of approximately 6 pounds per minute (PPM) each. The
ground shutoff valve is motor-operated, electrically-actuated
open and closed, and has a nominal flow rate of approximately
18 PPM. The emergency pressurization valve is normally-
closed and electrically-actuated open.

Source Selection
All four valves are controlled
primarily by the PRESS
SOURCE selector switch on
the environmental “tilt” panel.
The valves are also controlled
by various switches that sense
bleed air pressure and tem-
perature. The effects of rotat-
ing the selector switch to each
of its six positions are de-
scribed in the following para-
graphs.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

NORM Position
During normal operation with both engines operating and
the PRESS SOURCE selector switch set to “NORMAL,” both
environmental flow control/shutoff valves will be open,
permitting bleed air flow through the ACM and into the
cabin at a rate of approximately 12 PPM.

LH and RH Positions
When set to “LH” or “RH,” bleed air is correspondingly
supplied by the left engine or right engine only at a rate of
approximately 6 PPM. In this condition, the environmental
flow control/shutoff valve for the non-selected source is
energized closed by 28 VDC left main bus power through
the 5-amp NORM PRESS circuit breaker on the left CB
panel.

OFF Position
When set to “OFF,” both environmental flow control/shutoff
valves are energized closed through the NORM PRESS
circuit breaker.

GND Position
To enhance cabin ventilation during ground operation,
primarily when the right engine is operating only, the PRESS
SOURCE selector switch should be set to “GND.” In this
position, both environmental flow control/shutoff valves are
energized closed, the ground shutoff valve is energized
open, and the amber [BLD AIR GND] annunciator is illumi-
nated through the NORM PRESS circuit breaker. With the
ground shutoff valve open, right engine bleed air flows
through the ACM and into the cabin at a rate of approxi-
mately 18 PPM. Selection of this source is inhibited by the
left main gear safety switch when the airplane is in flight.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-3


EMER Position
Should bleed air flow through the ACM be insufficient to
maintain selected cabin altitude, the PRESS SOURCE selec-
tor switch should be set to “EMER.” In this position, the
amber [EMERG PRESS ON] annunciator is illuminated, both
environmental flow control/shutoff valves are energized
closed, and the emergency pressurization valve is ener-
gized open. 28 VDC right main bus power is supplied to the
valves and the annunciator through the 5-amp EMER
PRESS circuit breaker on the left CB panel. Selection of this
source is inhibited by the left main gear safety switch when
the airplane is on the ground.

With the emergency pressurization valve open, uncondi-


tioned left engine bleed air is supplied directly to the cabin
through the emergency supply tube. The emergency supply
tube terminates within a mixing tube below the aft passen-
ger cabin floor where it forms an ejector nozzle. The ejector
nozzle produces a suction force that opens a check valve
through which cabin air is drawn into the mixing tube. The
cabin air mixes with and reduces the temperature of the
bleed air prior to entering the distribution system. Additional
bleed air temperature reduction is provided by the emer-
gency supply tube itself, which features a “beaded” or
“spiral” exterior that increases surface area to maximize
heat transfer. A check valve installed in the aft pressure
bulkhead prevents cabin pressure backflow through the
emergency supply tube during normal pressurized opera-
tion.

Note: When emergency pressurization is selected, the ACM


and temperature control system are disabled. Limited control of
cabin temperature may be accomplished using the left
THROTTLE lever to regulate bleed air flow; however, excessive
engine power reduction can cause an increase in cabin alti-
tude.

Note: Emergency pressurization is automatically activated


when the temperature of bleed air flow through the ACM ex-
ceeds approximately 435°F. Refer to the ACM Overheat Warn-
ing and Protection section of this chapter for a complete de-
scription of ACM overheat protection.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual
Pressurization Air Source Schematic (550-0482, 550-0485 and after)
© PCW
ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-5
Air Cycle Machine and Temperature Control System
(550-0482, 550-0485 and after)

Bleed air is cooled, mixed with uncooled bleed air, and dehu-
midified to provide conditioned air with the desired temperature
to the air distribution subsystem. Major components of the
system include an air cycle machine (ACM) containing a
precooler, primary and secondary heat exchangers and a
cooling turbine, a water separator, a bypass modulating valve,
a water ejector nozzle, a fan, and necessary ducting.

Air Cycle Machine


From the environmental control/shutoff valves or the ground
shutoff valve, bleed air is supplied to the ACM, directed to the
bypass modulating valve, and passes through the precooler.
From the precooler, bleed air passed through the primary heat
exchanger and is cooled by heat transfer. After passing
through the primary heat exchanger, the bleed air is supplied
to the cooling turbine. The cooling turbine essentially consists
of an impeller-type compressor and a turbine, mounted on the
same shaft. The shaft rotates at approximately 80,000 RPM and
its bearings are lubricated by oil drawn by wicks from a sump
mounted on the turbine housing. A fan, external to the cooling
turbine and used to circulate ambient air for cooling, is also
mounted on the shaft.

© PCW

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

In the cooling turbine, bleed air first enters the compressor,


where its pressure and temperature are increased. The air is
then directed to the secondary heat exchanger, where it is
cooled again by heat transfer. Water, drawn by the water ejec-
tor nozzle from the water separator, is sprayed over the sec-
ondary heat exchanger to provide additional cooling. A small
amount of high velocity air from the secondary heat exchanger
output line is used to create the suction required to draw the
water from the water separator.

From the secondary heat exchanger, the compressed air is


directed to the turbine where its temperature and pressure are
rapidly reduced by expansion. From the turbine outlet, this
super-cooled air is passed through a mixing tube where it is
mixed with hot bleed air supplied through the bypass modulat-
ing valve. The electrically controlled and operated bypass
modulating valve is located in a bypass duct connected be-
tween the bleed air inlet and the mixing tube at the outlet side
of the cooling turbine. The valve functions to control the tem-
perature of the conditioned air by opening and closing to
modulate the flow of hot bleed air to the mixing tube.

From the mixing tube, the conditioned air passes through the
water separator, which collects moisture from the passing air
and forms large droplets that are removed by centrifugal force.
This removed moisture is drawn away by the water ejector
nozzle previously described. An integral spring-loaded relief
valve allows air to bypass the unit should the water separator
become obstructed by ice or foreign material.

Cooling air for the precooler, primary, and secondary heat


exchangers is drawn from within the aft fuselage by the fan that
is driven by the cooling turbine shaft. After passing over the
heat exchangers, the cooling air is exhausted through an
overboard vent on the lower surface of the aft fuselage.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-7


Temperature Control System
Temperature control is primarily achieved by varying the
amount of hot bleed air that the bypass modulating valve mixes
with cold air from the ACM. Cabin temperature may be set
manually or controlled automatically as desired.

Automatic
2 1
Temperature
Selection
Automatic tempera-
ture selection is
accomplished using
the AUTOMATIC
temperature control
knob on the environ-
mental panel. Rotat- 1. Automatic Temperature Control Knob
ing the knob clock- 2. Manual Mode Toggle Switch
wise for a higher cabin temperature or counterclockwise for a
lower cabin temperature operates a potentiometer that estab-
lishes a reference voltage corresponding to the selected tem-
perature. The reference voltage is supplied to the temperature
control computer, where it is compared with signals from the
duct temperature sensor (ACM conditioned air temperature)
and the cabin temperature sensor (actual cabin temperature).
The temperature control computer then generates a signal to
drive the bypass modulating valve open or closed to maintain
the desired cabin temperature. The bypass modulating valve
receives power from the left main bus through the 5-amp TEMP
circuit breaker.

Manual Temperature Selection


The manual temperature selection mode is selected by rotating
the AUTOMATIC temperature control knob fully counterclock-
wise till it clicks into the “MANUAL” position. In this mode, the
three-position manual mode toggle switch controls the position
of the bypass modulating valve. The switch is spring-loaded to
the “OFF” position. When held in the “MANUAL HOT” position,
the bypass valve moves toward open, allowing more hot air to
mix with the cooled air. When released, it returns to the “OFF”
position, but the bypass valve remains in the selected position.
When held in the “MANUAL COLD” position, the bypass valve
moves towards closed. The manual mode toggle switch is only
usable when the AUTOMATIC temperature control knob is in
the “MANUAL” position.

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Temperature Control System Indication and Warning


When conditioned air temperature at the water separator outlet
(550-0550 and after) or inlet (550-0482 and 0485 ~ 0505)
exceeds approximately 315°F, a temperature switch functions
to illuminate the amber [AIR DUCT O’HEAT] annunciator. Illumi-
nation of this annunciator indicates that corrective action
should be taken to lower the cabin temperature in order to
avoid duct damage.

Following [AIR DUCT O’HEAT] annunciator illumination, the


TEMP circuit breaker should be pulled and reset, and manual
temperature control mode should be selected. The manual
mode toggle switch should be held in the “MANUAL COLD”
position until the [AIR DUCT O’HEAT] annunciator extinguishes.
Automatic temperature control should then be reselected. If the
[AIR DUCT O’HEAT] annunciator reilluminates, cabin tempera-
ture should be controlled manually for the remainder of the
flight.

ACM Overpressure Warning and Protection


To protect the ACM from overpressurization, a primary and
secondary pressure switch are installed in the environmental
supply tubing upstream and downstream of the ground shutoff
valve respectively.

During ground operations with the PRESS SOURCE selector


switch in the “GND” position, when bleed air pressure reaches
approximately 38 PSI, the primary pressure switch functions to
close the ground shutoff valve and extinguish the [BLD AIR
GND] annunciator. In this condition, retarding the right
THROTTLE lever below approximately 72% N2 should reduce
bleed air pressure sufficiently to cause the valve to reopen and
the [BLD AIR GND] annunciator to illuminate.

Should the primary pressure switch fail, the secondary pres-


sure switch will activate when bleed air pressure reaches
approximately 42 PSI, functioning to close the ground shutoff
valve, extinguish the [BLD AIR GND] annunciator, and illumi-
nate the amber [ACM O’PRESS] annunciator. In this condition,
the valve will remain closed and the [ACM O’PRESS] annuncia-
tor will remain illuminated regardless of N2/bleed air pressure
reduction or PRESS SOURCE selector switch position until the
pressure switch circuit is restored. This may be accomplished
by pulling and resetting the NORM PRESS circuit breaker;
however, the cause of the malfunction should be identified and
repaired before resuming flight operations.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-9


Note: Illumination of both the [ACM O’PRESS] and [BLD AIR
GND] annunciators may indicate that the primary pressure
switch has closed, but the ground shutoff valve is stuck open.
Should this occur, the cause of the malfunction should be
identified and repaired before resuming flight operations.

Should the ground shutoff valve malfunction and open during


flight, the [BLD AIR GND] and [ACM O’PRESS] annunciators
will both be illuminated. In this condition, the PRESS SOURCE
selector switch should be set to “RH” to close the left flow
control shutoff valve, and the right THROTTLE lever should be
retarded below 80% N2 to reduce bleed air pressure.

Failure of the [ACM O’PRESS] annunciator to extinguish may


indicate that it was illuminated by the secondary pressure
switch because the primary pressure switch failed to close. In
this condition, the [ACM O’PRESS] annunciator will remain
illuminated until the pressure switch circuit is restored. During
flight this may be accomplished by first pulling the EMER
PRESS circuit breaker to prevent inadvertent activation of
emergency pressurization, pulling and resetting the NORM
PRESS circuit breaker, and then resetting the EMER PRESS
circuit breaker.

Note: If the [ACM O’PRESS] annunciator remains illuminated,


the PRESS SOURCE selector switch should remain in the “RH”
position, right engine N2 should remain below 80%, and the left
engine should be operated normally for the duration of the
flight. After landing, the cause of the malfunction should be
identified and repaired before resuming flight operations.

ACM Overheat Warning and Protection


To protect the ACM from overheating, an overheat sensor is
installed in the bleed air tube between the ACM compressor
outlet and secondary heat exchanger inlet.

During flight with the PRESS SOURCE selector switch in the


“NORMAL” position, when bleed air temperature exceeds
approximately 435°F, the overheat sensor functions to close
both environmental flow control/shutoff valves, open the emer-
gency pressurization valve, and illuminate the amber [EMERG
PRESS ON] annunciator. Power is supplied to the valves and
the annunciator through the EMER PRESS circuit breaker. In
this condition, bleed air flow through the ACM is interrupted
and unconditioned left engine bleed air is supplied directly to
the cabin through the emergency pressurization valve.

9-10 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY CITATION II CHAPTER 9 12/99


Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

If bleed air temperature falls below approximately 405°F within


12-seconds of [EMERG PRESS ON] annunciator illumination,
normal system operation will be automatically restored. If nor-
mal system operation is not automatically restored within this
period of time, an emergency pressurization lockout relay will
be energized through the EMER PRESS circuit breaker. With
this relay energized, both environmental flow control/shutoff
valves will remain closed, the emergency pressurization valve
will remain open, and the [EMERG PRESS ON] annunciator will
remain illuminated until the overheat circuit is reset. This may
be accomplished by rotating the PRESS SOURCE selector
switch to the “EMER” position to deenergize the emergency
lockout relay, waiting one minute, and then reselecting the
“NORMAL” position to restore normal operation.

Note: If the [EMERG PRESS ON] annunciator remains illumi-


nated, the PRESS SOURCE selector switch should be set to the
“EMER” position, the right engine should be operated normally,
and the left THROTTLE lever should be used to control cabin
temperature for the duration of the flight. After landing, the
cause of the malfunction should be identified and repaired
before resuming flight operations.

During ground operations, the overheat sensor functions as it


does in flight; however, the left main gear safety switch pre-
vents the emergency pressurization valve from opening when
the airplane is on the ground. During ground operations with
the PRESS SOURCE selector switch in the “GND” position, the
overheat sensor functions to close the ground shutoff valve and
extinguish the [BLD AIR GND] annunciator.

As in flight, system operation will be automatically restored if


bleed air temperature falls below approximately 405°F within
12-seconds of [EMERG PRESS ON] annunciator illumination. If
system operation is not automatically restored within this period
of time, the overheat circuit must be reset by rotating the
PRESS SOURCE selector switch to the “EMER” position, wait-
ing one minute, and then reselecting the previous position to
restore operation.

Note: If the [EMERG PRESS ON] annunciator remains illumi-


nated, the cause of the malfunction should be identified and
repaired before resuming flight operations.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-11


Note: Automatic activation of emergency pressurization may
occur under such conditions as low airspeed climbs at high
altitudes with a low cabin temperature selected. Should this
occur, increasing airspeed and selecting a higher cabin tem-
perature after restoring normal operation should prevent reacti-
vation of emergency pressurization.

The conditioned and dehumidified air is routed to the distribu-


tion system described later in this chapter.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Pressurization Air Source and Selection


(550-0484, 0483, 0481 and earlier)

Bleed air used for cabin pressurization and ventilation is ex-


tracted from the compressor section of each engine through
ports located at 4 and 8 o’clock positions on the gas generator
case. From these ports, bleed air is primarily routed through
independent supply tubes to a precooler installed within each
engine nacelle. The precoolers reduce the temperature of
engine bleed air supplied to various airplane systems, includ-
ing the ACM located within the aft fuselage. An environmental
flow control/shutoff valve in each of these tubes controls the
flow of bleed air from each source to the ACM and functions as
a check valve to prevent the backflow of bleed air to the oppo-
site source when either engine has failed or is operating at a
sufficiently lower RPM. A ground shutoff/pressure regulating
valve bypasses the right environmental flow control/shutoff
valve, permitting increased right engine bleed air flow through
the ACM to enhance cabin ventilation during ground operation.
During normal operation, all bleed air flows through the ACM
en route to the cabin. In an emergency, left engine bleed air
may be supplied directly to the cabin through an emergency
supply tube and pressurization valve.

The environmental flow control/shutoff valves each have a


nominal flow rate of approximately 6 pounds per minute (PPM)
and a maximum flow rate of approximately 9 PPM. Flow rate is
controlled by a primary solenoid and secondary solenoid
integral to each valve. Both solenoids are normally
deenergized; nominal flow rate occurs in this condition. Maxi-
mum flow rate occurs when the primary solenoid is
deenergized and the secondary solenoid is energized.
The ground shutoff/pressure regulating valve is motor-oper-
ated, electrically-actuated open and closed, has a nominal flow
rate of approximately 18 PPM, and incorporates an indepen-
dent pressure relief valve.

The emergency pressurization valve is normally-closed and


electrically-actuated open.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-13


Nacelle Precooler System
The nacelle precooler system functions to regulate the tem-
perature of the bleed air used by airplane systems to approxi-
mately 500°F. This is accomplished by routing bleed air from
the engine through a heat exchanger, where it is cooled by
bypass air. The primary components of the nacelle precooler
system are heat exchangers, temperature sensor valves, tem-
perature control valves, and tubular plumbing.

The temperature sensor valves monitor engine bleed air tem-


perature and send pneumatic signals to open and close the
bleed air temperature control valves. When a temperature
sensor valve senses that bleed air temperature is more than
approximately 500°F, it sends a signal to open the associated
temperature control valve and allow more bypass air to pass
over the heat exchanger, lowering the temperature of bleed air
supplied to distribution tubes within the aft fuselage. Con-
versely, when bleed air temperature is less than 500°F, the
signal from the temperature sensor valve allows the tempera-
ture control valve to close, raising the temperature of the bleed
air supplied to the environmental and other airplane systems.

Overheat switches are located in the bleed air tubes between


the nacelle precoolers and the environmental flow control/
shutoff valves. The switches will operate at a temperature of
approximately 540°F and cause the amber [L PRECOOL FAIL]
or [R PRECOOL FAIL] annunciator to illuminate, indicating
excessively hot bleed air from the respective precooler.

9-14 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY CITATION II CHAPTER 9 12/99


Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Source Selection
All four valves are controlled
primarily by the PRESS
SOURCE selector switch on
the environmental “tilt” panel.
The valves are also controlled
by various switches that sense
bleed air pressure and tem-
perature. The effects of rotat-
ing the selector switch to each
of its seven positions are
described below:

NORMAL Position
During normal operation with both engines operating and
the PRESS SOURCE selector switch set to “NORMAL,” both
environmental flow control/shutoff valves will be open,
permitting bleed air flow through the ACM and into the
cabin at a rate of approximately 12 PPM.

LH and RH Positions
When set to “LH” or “RH,” bleed air is correspondingly
supplied by the left engine or right engine only at a rate of
approximately 6 PPM. In this condition, the environmental
flow control/shutoff valve for the non-selected source is
energized closed by 28 VDC left main bus power through
the 5-amp NORM PRESS circuit breaker on the left CB
panel

BOTH HI Position
When set to “BOTH HI”, both environmental flow control/
shutoff valves remain open and both secondary solenoids
are energized open. In this condition, approximately 18
PPM of bleed air from both engines flows through the ACM
into the cabin and the amber [BLEED AIR GND/HI] annun-
ciator is illuminated through the NORM PRESS circuit
breaker.

OFF Position
When set to “OFF,” both environmental flow control/shutoff
valves are energized closed through the NORM PRESS
circuit breaker.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-15


GND Position
To enhance cabin ventilation during ground operation,
primarily when the right engine is operating only, the PRESS
SOURCE selector switch should be set to “GND.” In this
position, both environmental flow control/shutoff valves are
energized closed, the ground shutoff/pressure regulating
valve is energized open, and the amber [BLEED AIR GND/
HI] annunciator is illuminated through the NORM PRESS
circuit breaker. With the ground shutoff/pressure regulating
valve open, right engine bleed air flows through the ACM
and into the cabin at a rate of approximately 18 PPM.

Selection of this source is inhibited by the left main gear


safety switch when the airplane is in flight.

EMER Position
Should bleed air flow through the ACM be insufficient to
maintain selected cabin altitude, the PRESS SOURCE selec-
tor switch should be set to “EMER.” In this position, the
amber [EMER PRESS ON] annunciator is illuminated, both
environmental flow control/shutoff valves are energized
closed, and the emergency pressurization valve is ener-
gized open. 28 VDC right main bus power is supplied to the
valves and the annunciator through the 5-amp EMER
PRESS circuit breaker on the left CB panel. Selection of this
source is inhibited by the left main gear safety switch when
the airplane is on the ground.

With the emergency pressurization valve open, uncondi-


tioned left engine bleed air is supplied directly to the cabin
through the emergency supply tube. The emergency supply
tube terminates within a mixing tube below the aft passen-
ger cabin floor where it forms an ejector nozzle. The ejector
nozzle produces a suction force that opens a check valve
through which cabin air is drawn into the mixing tube. The
cabin air mixes with and reduces the temperature of the
bleed air prior to entering the distribution system. Additional
bleed air temperature reduction is provided by the emer-
gency supply tube itself, which features a “beaded” or
“spiral” exterior that increases surface area to maximize
heat transfer. A check valve installed in the aft pressure
bulkhead prevents cabin pressure backflow through the
emergency supply tube during normal pressurized opera-
tion.

9-16 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY CITATION II CHAPTER 9 12/99


Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Note: When emergency pressurization is selected, the ACM


and temperature control system are disabled. Limited control of
cabin temperature may be accomplished using the left
THROTTLE lever to regulate bleed air flow; however, excessive
engine power reduction can cause an increase in cabin alti-
tude.

Note: Emergency pressurization is automatically activated


when the temperature of bleed air flow through the ACM ex-
ceeds approximately 435°F. Refer to the ACM Overheat Warn-
ing and Protection section of this chapter for a complete de-
scription of ACM overheat protection.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-17


Air Cycle Machine and Temperature Control System
(550-0484, 0483, 0481 and earlier)

Bleed air is cooled, mixed with uncooled bleed air, and dehu-
midified to provide conditioned air with the desired temperature
to the air distribution subsystem. Major components of the
system include an air cycle machine (ACM) containing primary
and secondary heat exchangers and a cooling turbine, a water
separator, a bypass modulating valve, a water ejector nozzle, a
bleed air ejector solenoid valve, a bleed air ejector, and neces-
sary ducting.

Air Cycle Machine


From the environmental control/shutoff valves or the ground
shutoff/pressure regulating valve, bleed air is supplied to the
ACM and directed to the bypass modulating valve and bleed
air ejector nozzle supply tube. Within the ACM, the bleed air
passes through the primary heat exchanger and is cooled by
heat transfer. After passing through the primary heat ex-
changer, the bleed air is supplied to the cooling turbine. The
cooling turbine essentially consists of an impeller-type com-
pressor and a turbine, mounted on the same shaft. The shaft
rotates at approximately 80,000 RPM and uses airfoil-type
bearings that require no lubrication.

© PCW

9-18 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY CITATION II CHAPTER 9 12/99


Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

In the cooling turbine, bleed air first enters the compressor,


where its pressure and temperature are increased. The air is
then directed to the secondary heat exchanger, where it is
cooled again by heat transfer. Water, drawn by the water ejec-
tor nozzle from the water separator, is sprayed over the sec-
ondary heat exchanger to provide additional cooling. A small
amount of high velocity air from the secondary heat exchanger
outlet line is used to create the suction required to draw the
water from the water separator.

From the secondary heat exchanger, the compressed air is


directed to the turbine, where its temperature and pressure are
rapidly reduced by expansion. From the turbine, this super-
cooled air is passed through a mixing tube where it is mixed
with hot bleed air supplied through the bypass modulating
valve. The pneumatically controlled and operated bypass
modulating valve is located in a bypass duct connected be-
tween the primary heat exchanger inlet and the mixing tube at
the outlet side of the cooling turbine. The valve functions to
control the temperature of the conditioned air by opening and
closing to modulate the flow of hot bleed air to the mixing tube.

From the mixing tube, the conditioned air passes through a


water separator, which collects moisture from the passing air
and forms large droplets that are removed by centrifugal force.
This removed moisture is drawn away by the water ejector
nozzle previously described. An integral spring-loaded relief
valve allows air to bypass the unit should the water separator
become obstructed by ice or foreign material.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-19


Pressurization Air Source Schematic (550-0484, 0483, 0481 and earlier)
© PCW
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A duct routes cooling air to the


ACM primary and secondary
heat exchangers from a
NACA-type scoop on the
dorsal fairing (dorsal scoop).
After passing over the heat
exchangers, the air is ex-
hausted through an overboard
vent on the lower surface of
the aft fuselage. In flight,
sufficient air is available due to
ram effect. During ground
▲ DORSAL SCOOP
operations, ram effect is not
available to move air over the heat exchangers. To compen-
sate, a bleed air ejector nozzle is installed within the heat
exchanger exhaust duct. Bleed air is admitted to the bleed air
ejector nozzle by the solenoid valve installed in the ejector
nozzle supply tube.

The ejector nozzle directs bleed air toward the ambient air
exhaust outlet. Bleed air flow exiting through the exhaust outlet
creates a suction that draws ambient air through the heat
exchangers. Bleed air and conditioned air are then exhausted
overboard through an exhaust outlet below the right engine
pylon.

The shutoff valve is enabled by the left main gear safety switch
when the airplane is on the ground, and is disabled by the
safety switch in flight. To maximize engine power during take-
off, throttle position switches, brake switches, and a differential
pressure switch act together to close the ejector nozzle shutoff
valve and thereby disable the ACM bleed air ejector nozzle
during takeoff roll. The amber [ACM EJECTOR ON] annunciator
illuminates when the ejector nozzle shutoff valve is open.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-21


ACM Overpressure Protection
The ACM is protected from overpressurization by a relief valve
incorporated into the ground shutoff/pressure regulating valve.
The relief valve, which functions independently of the ground
shutoff/pressure regulating valve, opens at approximately 50
PSIG, releasing excess pressure overboard through a pneu-
matic tube. The valve reseats at approximately 40 PSIG.

ACM Overheat Warning and Protection


To protect the ACM from overheating, an overheat sensor is
installed in the bleed air duct between the ACM compressor
outlet and secondary heat exchanger inlet.

During flight with the PRESS SOURCE selector switch in the


“NORMAL” position, when bleed air temperature exceeds
approximately 435°F, the overheat sensor functions to close
both environmental flow control/shutoff valves, open the emer-
gency pressurization valve, and illuminate the amber [EMER
PRESS ON] annunciator. Power is supplied to the valves and
the annunciator through the EMER PRESS circuit breaker. In
this condition, bleed air flow through the ACM is interrupted
and unconditioned left engine bleed air is supplied directly to
the cabin through the emergency pressurization valve.

If bleed air temperature falls below approximately 405°F within


12-seconds of [EMER PRESS ON] annunciator illumination,
normal system operation will be automatically restored. If nor-
mal system operation is not automatically restored within this
period of time, an emergency pressurization lockout relay will
be energized through the EMER PRESS circuit breaker. With
this relay energized, both environmental flow control/shutoff
valves will remain closed, the emergency pressurization valve
will remain open, and the [EMER PRESS ON] annunciator will
remain illuminated until the overheat circuit is reset. This may
be accomplished by rotating the PRESS SOURCE selector
switch to the “EMER” position to deenergize the emergency
lockout relay, and then reselecting the “NORMAL” position to
restore normal operation.

Note: If the [EMER PRESS ON] annunciator remains illumi-


nated, the PRESS SOURCE selector switch should be set to the
“EMER” position, the right engine should be operated normally,
and the left THROTTLE lever should be used to control cabin
temperature for the duration of the flight. After landing, the
cause of the malfunction should be identified and repaired
before resuming flight operations.

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During ground operations, the overheat sensor functions as it


does in flight; however, the left main gear safety switch pre-
vents the emergency pressurization valve from opening when
the airplane is on the ground. During ground operations with
the PRESS SOURCE selector switch in the “GND” position, the
overheat sensor functions to close the ground shutoff/pressure
regulating valve.

As in flight, system operation will be automatically restored if


bleed air temperature falls below approximately 405°F within
12-seconds of [EMER PRESS ON] annunciator illumination. If
system operation is not automatically restored within this period
of time, the overheat circuit must be reset by rotating the
PRESS SOURCE selector switch to the "OFF" or “EMER” posi-
tion and then reselecting the previous position to restore opera-
tion.

Note: If the [EMER PRESS ON] annunciator remains illumi-


nated, the cause of the malfunction should be identified and
repaired before resuming flight operations.

Note: Automatic activation of emergency pressurization may


occur under such conditions as low airspeed climbs at high
altitudes with a low cabin temperature selected. Should this
occur, increasing airspeed and selecting a higher cabin tem-
perature after restoring normal operation should prevent reacti-
vation of emergency pressurization.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-23


Temperature Control System

Temperature control
is primarily achieved 1 2
by varying the
amount of hot bleed
air that the bypass
modulating valve
mixes with cold air
from the air cycle 3
machine. Cabin
temperature may be 1. Manual Temperature Control Knob
set manually or 2. Automatic Temperature Control Knob
controlled automati- 3. Selector Switch
cally. In either mode, pneumatic pressure is used to open the
normally closed bypass modulating valve and allow hot bleed
air to mix with cold air from the ACM. Major components of the
temperature control system are a selector switch, the bypass
modulating valve, a solenoid shutoff valve, an automatic tem-
perature control pressure regulator, automatic temperature
control knob and manual temperature control knob, cabin
temperature, supply temperature, and low limit sensors, and an
air duct temperature switch.

Automatic Mode
Automatic temperature control mode selection is accomplished
by positioning the selector switch on the environmental panel to
“AUTOMATIC.” When automatic mode is selected, the solenoid
shutoff valve energizes, supplying 15 PSI from the automatic
control pressure regulator, located on the right side of the aft
fuselage, to the automatic cabin temperature selector, the low
limit sensor, and the cabin temperature sensor. These sensors,
the supply duct temperature sensor, and the temperature
selector interact to develop a control pressure that causes the
bypass modulating valve to open when sensed cabin tempera-
ture is too low or too close when sensed cabin temperature is
too high. When duct temperature is less than approximately
35°F, the low limit sensor causes the bypass valve to open,
raising duct temperature regardless of cabin temperature or
selected temperature.

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Note: The automatic temperature control operates on bleed air


from the right engine only; the manual system operates on
bleed air from both engines. Therefore, the automatic tempera-
ture control system cannot be used unless the right engine is
operating.

Manual Mode
When the cabin temperature selector switch is positioned to
“MANUAL,” the temperature solenoid shutoff valve is
deenergized, routing 23 PSI manual control pneumatic pres-
sure to the bypass modulating valve and manual temperature
selector. The manual temperature control knob operates an
internal spring-loaded poppet, which determines the amount of
control pressure that is allowed to bypass the poppet and vent
overboard through the forward pressure bulkhead. This action
varies the control pressure applied to the bypass modulating
valve, thereby increasing or decreasing cabin temperature as
with the automatic system. Therefore, in manual control mode,
compensations for changes in cabin temperature must be
achieved by rotating the manual temperature control knob. The
manual mode is available as a backup should the automatic
system fail.

Note: When in manual mode, the low-limit sensor is inoperative


and ice formation in the water separator/ducting is possible. Ice
formation is more likely if the outside relative humidity exceeds
40%. When operating in manual mode, the ACM system should
be carefully monitored to detect overheating.

Note: The design of the temperature control system is such that


insufficient bleed air pressure will cause the temperature con-
trol system to operate fully cold.

Conditioned Air Temperature Warning and Protection


Warning of excessive temperature of conditioned air is pro-
vided by an amber [AIR DUCT O’HEAT] annunciator that illumi-
nates to alert the flight crew of a conditioned air overheat. An
air duct overheat switch, installed in the air supply duct down-
stream from the water separator outlet, closes at approximately
315°F and causes the annunciator to illuminate.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-25


Temperature Control System Schematic (550-0484, 0483, 0481 and earlier)
© PCW
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Air Distribution System

The air distribution system directs and controls the flow of


pressurization and ambient (fresh) air to the pressurized part of
the fuselage. Ambient air is used to augment cabin airflow
during ground operations. Major components of the air distribu-
tion system include distribution control devices, blowers, distri-
bution ducting, and air outlets.

Distribution Control
Pressurization and ambient air are introduced into the cabin
through flapper-type check valves that function to prevent loss
of cabin pressurization through the fresh air duct or during
operation of the emergency pressurization system. After pass-
ing through the check valves, air enters a ventilation junction
box, located below the aft passenger cabin floor at the aft
pressure bulkhead.

The ventilation junction box functions to control the source of


air directed to the overhead duct according to the temperature
of the conditioned pressurization air entering the cabin. The
ventilation junction box contains a swing-type door,
thermoswitch, temperature motor, two limit switches, and the
overhead blower. Operation of the overhead blower is de-
scribed later in this chapter.

When pressurization air temperature exceeds approximately


100°F, the thermoswitch closes an electrical circuit, causing
the temperature motor to close the swing-type door. With the
door closed, pressurization air is prevented from entering the
overhead duct and recirculated cabin air is admitted. When
pressurization air temperature falls below 100°F, the
thermoswitch deenergizes and causes the temperature motor
to run in the opposite direction, opening the door, and thereby
readmitting pressurization air into the overhead ducts. Door
travel is controlled by limit switches that turn off the tempera-
ture motor when the door is fully open or fully closed. The motor
receives 28 VDC power from the left (550-482, 550-485 and
after) or right (550-484, 550-483, 550-0481 and earlier) main
bus through the 5-amp TEMP circuit breaker.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-27


A flexible air duct, connected to the ventilation junction box
blower inlet, draws air from the aft baggage compartment to be
circulated through the overhead duct network. This arrange-
ment allows the aft divider door to be kept closed, yet still
provides a means for the crew and passengers to smell smoke
originating in the aft baggage compartment earlier than would
otherwise be the case.

From the ventilation junction box, conditioned air is passed


through the emergency pressurization mixing tube. During
emergency pressurization, hot engine bleed air used to pres-
surize the cabin is released into the mixing tube ejector nozzle.
The ejector nozzle produces a suction force that opens a
check valve through which cabin air is drawn into the mixing
tube. The cabin air mixes with and reduces the temperature of
the bleed air prior to entering the distribution system.

From the mixing


tube, cabin air
enters a flow divider.
The flow divider,
located below the
cabin floor, contains
a divider vane and
motor, and functions
to apportion air
between the flight
compartment and
the passenger
cabin. Proportions of
conditioned air
delivered to the
cockpit and cabin ▲ CKPIT/CABIN CONTROL
are controlled using
CKPT/CABIN control, located on the environmental panel.
Rotating this switch energizes the motor to move the flow di-
vider vane. Clockwise rotation increases cabin airflow;
counterclockwise rotation increases cockpit airflow.

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Blowers
Two impeller-type blowers are
used to enhance cabin air
circulation. Both blowers 1 2
receive 28 VDC power from
the left main bus through the
20-amp CABIN FAN circuit
breaker.

The overhead blower is an


integral part of the ventilation
junction box and functions to
force pressurization air, recir- 1. Overhead Blower Switch
culated air, or ambient air 2. Defog Blower Switch
through the overhead duct.
The overhead blower is controlled by the three-position (HI/
OFF/LOW) FAN OVHD switch on the copilot’s lower instrument
panel.

The defog blower is located in the underfloor ducting down-


stream from the flow divider and functions primarily to increase
the flow of conditioned air to the forward part of the cabin. The
defog blower is controlled by the three position (HI/OFF/LOW)
FAN DEFOG switch on the copilot’s lower instrument panel.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-29


Distribution Ducting and Air Outlets
Within the cabin interior, distribution ducting is located in the
overhead and at floor and armrest level. Additional distribution
ducting is located under the cabin floorboards.

Conditioned pressurization air


below 100°F, recirculated air,
or ambient air is taken from
the distribution junction box
and circulated through the
overhead duct to adjustable
outlets in the passenger cabin
and flight compartment. Pas-
senger air outlets are located
over each seat position and
are fully adjustable from no
flow to maximum flow. Air from
▲ PASSENGER AIR OUTLET
the aft baggage compartment
is also supplied to the overhead duct to maximize the crew’s
ability to detect smoke in the baggage compartment. Because
of this method of smoke detection, air outlets in the flight com-
partment are configured so they can not be fully shut off. Air-
planes with optional vapor cycle air conditioning systems use
the overhead duct to circulate air conditioned air; these air-
planes are equipped with overhead outlets that have higher
flow rates.

Air from the upper branch of the flow divider is routed to a main
and auxiliary plenum. The main plenum supplies air to the
footwarmer and armrest manifolds on the left side of the pas-
senger cabin. The auxiliary plenum supplies the corresponding
right side components. Passenger footwarmer manifolds are
located along the outboard cabin walls at floor level. The
footwarmer manifolds are assembled in segments, each seg-
ment including several outlet holes. The armrest manifolds are
located along the outboard cabin walls at passenger seat
armrest level. Air outlet holes are located beneath the armrest
cover assemblies. The armrest and footwarmer manifolds are
connected together by ducting at several points.

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Air from the lower branch of the flow divider is drawn through
the defog fan and routed through underfloor ducting to the
forward part of the pressurized cabin. In the flight compart-
ment, conditioned air is routed to cockpit footwarmer manifolds,
located on both sides of the cockpit, to the windshield and side
window defog vents, and to optional supplementary ducts. In
all airplanes, the underfloor ducting supplies air to the
footwarmer and armrest warmer associated with the passenger
seat immediately forward of the main entrance door. On air-
planes 550-0482 and 550-0485 and after, the underfloor duct-
ing also supplies air to warm the cabin door seal. On these
airplanes and in airplanes 550-0010 through 550-0049 not
incorporating SB550-21-1, the underfloor ducting is also con-
nected to the left footwarmer/armrest manifold by a duct lo-
cated aft of the main entrance door and to the right footwarmer/
armrest manifold by another duct located immediately aft of the
flight compartment divider.

Cabin Pressurization Control System

The pressurization control system provides for passenger


comfort by allowing the selection of a desired cabin altitude
and rate-of-change during ascent or descent. The cabin is
pressurized using engine bleed air as previously described.
Cabin pressurization is regulated using outflow valves that
open to allow pressurized air to exit the cabin, raising cabin
altitude; and close to retain pressurized air in the cabin, lower-
ing cabin altitude. Major components of the system include two
cabin outflow valves, a pneumatic relay, two cabin altitude limit
valves, a depressurization (dump) toggle valve, a pressuriza-
tion source selection system, cabin altitude controls and indica-
tors, and associated circuitry and plumbing.

Cabin Outflow Valves


Two cabin outflow valves, both mounted on the aft pressure
bulkhead below the passenger cabin floor, vent pressurization
air overboard to maintain the selected cabin altitude or pres-
sure differential in reference to the ambient air pressure. The
maximum pressure differential of 8.8 PSI is primarily deter-
mined by the structural limitations of the airplane’s pressurized
center section. The system is designed to maintain a cabin
altitude of 8,000 feet at airplane altitudes of up to 43,000 feet.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-31


Both cabin outflow valves function primarily to regulate the
outflow of pressurization air from the cabin based on pneumatic
signals received from the controller through the pneumatic
relay. These signals establish a reference pressure that is
applied to one side of an internal poppet valve. The other side
of the poppet valve is exposed to actual cabin pressure. The
poppet valve is spring-loaded closed and suspended by a
flexible diaphragm between these two pressures such that the
outflow of pressurization air increases when cabin pressure
exceeds reference pressure, and decreases when reference
pressure exceeds cabin pressure. In this way, the outflow valve
modulates to maintain the selected cabin altitude or to effect a
desired change in cabin altitude at a selected rate.

Positive pressure relief and negative pressure relief functions


are also provided by the outflow valves. Both functions override
the controller and the pneumatic relay.

Positive pressure relief is provided by a Schrader-type valve


suspended by a flexible diaphragm between the reference
pressure control chamber and an ambient pressure chamber
that is vented to the atmosphere. The valve is spring-loaded
closed and factory preset to open when the differential be-
tween reference pressure and ambient pressure exceeds the
nominal differential of approximately 8.6 PSID. Should this
occur, the release of control pressure to the atmosphere
through the open valve would allow the poppet valve to modu-
late toward open, increasing pressurization air outflow. In this
condition, cabin pressure is maintained at the nominal differen-
tial and cabin rate-of-change follows that of the airplane.

Protection against exceeding the airplane’s negative pressure


structural limits is provided by a flexible diaphragm exposed to
cabin pressure on one side and ambient pressure on the other.
Should ambient pressure exceed cabin pressure, as in during
rapid descent, this diaphragm would raise and lift the poppet
valve open allowing ambient pressure to enter the cabin until
both pressures become approximately equal.

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Cabin Pressurization Control System Schematic
© PCW
ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-33
Cabin Pressurization
Controller
The cabin pressurization
controller, located on the
environmental panel, incorpo-
rates two knobs: one for
selecting cabin altitude and
the other for selecting cabin
rate-of-change. The cabin
altitude selector features an
outer CABIN scale and an
inner ACFT scale, both cali-
brated in feet X 1000 and visible through a window at the top
center of the selector face. Both scales rotate simultaneously
as the selector is rotated. The selected altitude is indicated by
the alignment of each scale with the twelve o’clock position
relative to the selector. The CABIN scale indicates the cabin
altitude the controller is set to maintain. The ACFT scale indi-
cates the maximum altitude to which the airplane may ascend
without causing the selected cabin altitude to be exceeded.
The cabin rate selector is marked with an arrow for position
reference only.

Cabin Pressurization Controller


The pressurization controller establishes desired cabin altitude
and rate of climb by modulating reference air pressure to the
pneumatic relay. The controller body is divided into three
chambers: cabin pressure, rate pressure, and reference pres-
sure. Cabin air enters the cabin pressure chamber through a
filtered orifice. The cabin pressure chamber houses an abso-
lute bellows. Rotating the cabin altitude selector mechanically
compresses or extends this bellows to a position that sets the
controller to maintain the selected cabin altitude.

The rate pressure chamber houses a rate spring secured to the


absolute bellows on one side and a rate diaphragm on the
other. The rate diaphragm separates the rate chamber from the
reference chamber. Airflow passage between these two cham-
bers is regulated by a needle valve that sets the controller to
provide the desired cabin rate-of-change according to the
position of the CABIN RATE selector.

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Clockwise rotation of the CABIN RATE selector decreases


airflow through the needle valve and increases cabin rate-of-
change; counterclockwise rotation increases airflow through
the needle valve and decreases cabin rate-of-change. In the
twelve o’clock position, indicated cabin rate-of-change should
be approximately 500 FPM.

The rate chamber is ported to a small tank, installed below the


airplane floor, which supplies auxiliary volume to the rate cham-
ber to provide greater accuracy in cabin rate-of-change con-
trol. Should rate pressure exceed cabin pressure, a check
valve will permit airflow from the rate chamber to the cabin
pressure chamber.

The reference pressure chamber houses a metering valve and


follower spring linked to the rate diaphragm. The chamber is
ported to cabin pressure, the airplane suction supply, and the
cabin outflow valve. Cabin pressure enters the reference cham-
ber through a filtered orifice. The metering valve regulates the
flow of cabin pressure to airplane suction to produce the refer-
ence pressure, which is then applied to the pneumatic relay.
When the metering valve is modulating towards closed, the flow
of cabin pressure to airplane suction is reduced and reference
pressure is increased. Conversely, when the metering valve is
modulating towards open, the flow of cabin pressure to air-
plane suction is increased and reference pressure is reduced.

With a desired cabin altitude and rate-of-change selected,


changes in cabin pressure cause the absolute bellows to
expand or contract. As it does, the metering valve is reposi-
tioned to maintain the correct reference pressure. Airflow be-
tween the rate chamber and the reference chamber produces
a pressure differential across the rate diaphragm, which further
repositions the metering valve to provide the correct cabin rate-
of-change.

Increasing cabin altitude generates an increasing pressure


differential between the cabin and reference pressure cham-
bers, causing the rate diaphragm to move, which routes refer-
ence air to the pneumatic relay.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-35


Before takeoff, the cabin altitude selector should be set to 500
feet above the planned cruise altitude on the inner ACFT scale
or 500 feet above the destination field pressure altitude on the
outer CABIN scale, whichever is greater. The CABIN RATE
selector should be positioned to provide a rate-of-change
which will result in the cabin reaching the altitude indicated on
the CABIN scale as the airplane reaches the corresponding
altitude indicated on the ACFT scale. During the takeoff roll,
when the airplane is on the ground and the left main gear
safety switch is closed, throttle advancement beyond approxi-
mately 85% N2 closes a solenoid valve that traps cabin air
pressure within the auxiliary volume tank for reference by the
cabin pressurization controller, closes a solenoid valve that
removes suction to the outflow valves, and closes another
solenoid valve that allows the cabin to prepressurize to 60 feet
below field altitude at a fixed 500 FPM rate of change. After
liftoff, the safety switch functions to open this valve, thereby
restoring cabin rate of change control. As the airplane climbs,
the absolute bellows expands and contracts as minute
changes in cabin pressure are sensed. Expansion and contrac-
tion of the bellows is resisted by the pressure differential across
the rate diaphragm such that the sum of these forces reposi-
tions the metering valve to apply the correct reference pressure
to the pneumatic relay.

During climb, increasing reference pressure causes the outflow


valves to be modulated toward the closed position such that
the selected cabin rate-of-change is maintained to the selected
altitude. As the airplane reaches the planned cruise altitude at
the selected rate and levels off, the pressure differential across
the rate diaphragm equalizes and the flow of cabin pressure to
airplane suction becomes steady. In this condition, reference
pressure becomes essentially constant and cabin altitude
stabilizes.

If required to ascend beyond the altitude indicated on the


ACFT scale, the controller should be reset to a higher altitude
to maximize passenger comfort and to prevent unscheduled
differential pressure control by the outflow valve. If required to
descend below the altitude indicated on the ACFT scale, reset-
ting the controller is normally not required unless the descent
will result in airplane altitude being less than the selected cabin
altitude. In this case, the controller should be reset to a lower
cabin altitude to maximize passenger comfort and to prevent
unpressurized operation.

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Before descent to landing, the cabin altitude selector should be


set to 500 feet above the destination field pressure altitude on
the inner ACFT scale and the CABIN RATE selector should be
positioned to provide a rate-of-change that will allow the cabin
to reach the altitude selected on the CABIN scale as the air-
plane reaches the corresponding altitude indicated on the
ACFT scale. During descent, decreasing reference pressure
causes the outflow valve to modulate toward open such that
the cabin depressurizes at the selected cabin rate-of-change
until the airplane reaches the altitude indicated on the CABIN
scale. Below this altitude, the outflow valve will be fully open,
the cabin will be unpressurized, and cabin rate-of-change will
follow airplane rate-of-change until touch-down.

Note: The desired cabin altitude should be set as early as


practical to provide the lowest cabin rate-of-change. Rate-of-
change should be adjusted as necessary during ascent or
descent so that the cabin reaches the altitude indicated on the
CABIN scale at approximately the same time that the airplane
reaches the altitude indicated on the ACFT scale.

Note: To calculate the approximate field pressure altitude, add


100 feet to the field elevation for each 0.10 inHg that the field
altimeter setting is over 29.92 inHg. Subtract 100 feet from the
field elevation for each 0.10 inHg that the field altimeter setting
is below 29.92 inHg.

Pneumatic Relay
The pneumatic relay is the primary control device for the out-
flow valves. The pneumatic relay amplifies reference pressure
from the cabin pressurization controller by mixing it with suction
air flow generated by an ejector-type pump installed in the left
engine environmental supply tube. The pneumatic relay con-
tains four chambers separated by two spring-loaded dia-
phragms. The upper diaphragm is exposed on the upper side
to rate pressure and on the lower side to reference pressure.
The lower diaphragm is exposed on the upper side to refer-
ence pressure and on the lower side to cabin pressure. Both
diaphragms are connected to a metering valve that controls
suction air flow to create the amplified reference pressure
which is then used to modulate (control) the outflow valves.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-37


Cabin Altitude Limit Valves
Two cabin altitude limit valves, mounted on the aft pressure
bulkhead to the right of the outflow valves, serve as backups to
the pressurization controller. Each altitude limit valve contains
an evacuated bellows within a chamber that is open to cabin
pressure through an inlet port, and a spring-loaded poppet
valve within a chamber that is connected to the cabin outflow
valve reference line. The poppet valve is normally held closed
by pressure from a valve spring. If a malfunction causes out-
flow valve control suction to exceed normal limits, thereby
opening the outflow valves excessively, the reduction in cabin
pressure allows the altitude limit valve bellows to expand,
unseating the poppet valve. With the poppet valve open, cabin
pressure enters the outflow valve reference line, increasing
outflow valve reference pressure, thereby modulating the out-
flow valves toward the closed position. The cabin altitude limit
valves function to prevent cabin altitude from exceeding ap-
proximately 13,000 feet.

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Pressurization System Indication


Pressurization system operation status is indicated on the cabin
altitude and differential pressure indicator, the cabin rate-of-
change indicator, and by the cabin altitude warning
annunciator.

2 3

1. Cabin Altitude Scale


2. Differential Pressure Scale
3. Cabin Rate of Change Indicator
Cabin Altitude and Differential Pressure Indicator
The cabin altitude and differential pressure indicator, located
on the environmental panel, is a combination gage having an
outer CABIN ALT scale denoting cabin altitude from 0 to
45,000 feet in feet X 1000, and an inner DIFF PRESS scale
denoting 0 to 9 PSI differential pressure between the cabin and
the atmosphere. The DIFF PRESS scale features a green arc
between 0 and 8.7 PSI, denoting the differential pressure range
within the normal operating limitations of the system. A red line
at 8.8 PSI denotes system overpressure.

Cabin Rate-of-Change Indicator


The cabin rate-of-change indicator denotes the rate of cabin
pressure change from 0 to 6,000 feet per minute in FT/MIN X
1000.

Cabin Altitude Warning Annunciator


A red [CAB ALT 10000 FEET] annunciator, activated by a
barometric pressure switch, illuminates to indicate that the
cabin altitude has exceeded 10,000 feet and the use of
supplemental oxygen is required.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-39


Emergency Dump
The cabin can be
rapidly depressur-
ized by using the
emergency dump
(depressurization
toggle) valve. The
guarded operating
lever for this valve is
labeled EMER
DUMP and is lo-
cated on the envi-
ronmental panel.
Activation of the
emergency dump
valve applies suc-
▲ EMERGENCY DUMP VALVE
tion that opens the
pressurization outflow valves, thereby releasing cabin pressure
and allowing cabin altitude to equalize with airplane altitude.

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Ambient Air Sources

For the purposes of this chapter, ambient air is used for cabin
and flight compartment ventilation during ground operation, to
provide a positive pressure differential in the aft fuselage while
in flight, and to act as the heat exchange medium for air-to-air
heat exchangers. Other uses are discussed elsewhere in this
manual.

On airplanes 550-0484, 0483, 0482 and earlier and on air-


planes 550-0627 and after, ambient ventilation air for the cabin
is routed from the NACA-type scoop on the dorsal fairing to the
cabin fresh air check valve through ducting. On airplanes 550-
0482,
0485 through 0626, ambient ventilation air is taken from the
tailcone. On some of these airplanes the cabin fresh air check
valve, attached to the aft pressure bulkhead, is mounted at the
end of a duct. On other airplanes no duct is used.

An optional flood cooling


system is available on air-
planes 550-0356 and after.
This system is primarily used
on the ground, but may also
be used at flight altitudes
below 10,000 feet. The system
functions to supply a mixture
of ambient air and conditioned
air directly to the passenger
cabin, bypassing the normal
▲ FLOOD COOLING SWITCH
air distribution system. Flood
cooling is activated by a two-position FLOOD COOLING switch
on the tilt panel. Positioning the switch to “ON” activates the
system by operating an electric actuator in a flow divider and
an electric motor/fan. The divider diverts the flow of conditioned
air to the axial fan, where it is mixed with ambient air before
entering the cabin through a grille at the top of the rear pres-
sure bulkhead. The fan and actuator receive 28 VDC from the
right main bus through the 20-amp FLOOD COOLING circuit
breaker located in the aft fuselage electrical power junction “J”
box.

In flight, the aft fuselage (tailcone) is pressurized (relative to


outside pressure) to prevent ingestion of external fluids. This is
accomplished using ram effect air taken in to the aft fuselage
through the dorsal scoop.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-41


On the ground, the tailcone pressurization system is disabled
to prevent pressure transients in the environmental system
during the takeoff roll. On airplanes 550-0593 and after (and
earlier airplanes incorporating SB550-21-23), the tailcone
pressurization system incorporates a valve in the inlet duct from
the dorsal scoop that, during ground operation, is energized
closed to prevent air from entering the aft fuselage. On air-
planes 550-0592 and earlier, a valve in the aft fuselage skin is
energized open to allow air to vent overboard until the airplane
is airborne. Both types of valve are actuated by thermal expan-
sion of an enclosed fluid, so operating time for the valve will
vary according to initial conditions. A 60-second time delay
before valve actuation is incorporated on airplanes 550-0550
and after. The pressurization valve receives power from the left
main bus through a 5-amp circuit breaker located in the “J”
box. The circuit breaker is labeled TAIL PRESSURIZATION or
TAIL BUMP PRESS, depending on service bulletin incorpora-
tion.

On airplanes 550-0482, 0485 and after, ambient air from the aft
fuselage is drawn by an ACM-driven fan that directs it through
ducting, where the air absorbs heat from both ACM heat ex-
changers and the precooler before it is dumped overboard
through an outlet located on the lower side of the aft fuselage
below the engine pylon. On airplanes 550-0484, 0483, 0481
and earlier, ambient air to cool the ACM heat exchangers is
routed through ducting from the dorsal scoop to the ACM.

Moisture drains are located at the bottom of the ambient air


inlet duct and on the bottom of the aft pressure bulkhead check
valve duct attach connection. These moisture drains direct
accumulated water into the lower aft fuselage area, where it
exits through skin drain holes.

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Vapor Cycle Air Conditioning System

The optional vapor cycle air conditioning system is electrically-


controlled, thermostatically-regulated, and uses Freon (R-12)
as a refrigerant. This system consists of one cockpit evapora-
tor, two cabin evaporators, and either a nose baggage com-
partment or aft fuselage mounted condenser/compressor with
associated controls, wiring, and plumbing.

The optional vapor cycle air conditioning system provides


effective cockpit and cabin cooling. It is used primarily during
ground operations, but may also be operated at flight altitudes
up to 18,000 feet. The vapor cycle air conditioning system can
be used alone or in conjunction with the ACM.

Refrigerant Circulation System


The refrigerant circulation system functions to activate and
control the vapor cycle that reduces the temperature of cabin
air. Major components of the system include a compressor,
condenser, condenser blower, receiver-dryer, and three evapo-
rator modules. A compressor/condenser unit is located in either
the nose baggage compartment or aft fuselage. The receiver-
drier unit is installed within the compressor/condenser unit. One
evaporator unit is located within the cockpit and two additional
evaporator units are located within the cabin.

The Freon (R-12) refrigerant used in this system is normally in a


gaseous state at standard atmospheric temperatures and
pressures. Within specific ranges of temperature and pressure,
however, the state of Freon may be transformed between liquid
and gas. This characteristic of Freon is critical to understanding
the vapor cycle, because in the transformation from gas to
liquid (condensation), heat is emitted; and in the transformation
from liquid to gas (evaporation), heat is absorbed.

Compressor
The compressor functions to provide the pressure and suction
that circulates Freon through the condenser, the receiver-dryer,
and the evaporator modules during air conditioning system
operation. The compressor is belt-driven by means of a pulley
attached to an electric motor. The same motor also drives an
axial fan that provides airflow through the condenser. This
airflow provides a cooling effect that condenses the hot gas-
eous Freon from the compressor into a liquid.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-43


When air conditioning is not required, the compressor is idle.
When air conditioning is required, the compressor initiates the
vapor cycle by drawing low-pressure, low-temperature Freon
gas through a suction tube and delivering high-pressure, high-
temperature Freon gas to the condenser.

Condenser
The condenser is mounted in proximity to the compressor and
functions to transform the high-pressure, high-temperature
Freon gas into a high-pressure, low-temperature liquid. Con-
densation occurs as heat energy in the Freon gas passing
through the condenser coils is transferred to cooling fins which
are exposed to lower temperature airflow provided by a com-
pressor-driven axial fan. The cooled, high-pressure, liquid
Freon is then routed to the receiver-dryer.

Receiver-Dryer
The receiver-dryer, installed in the high-pressure tube between
the condensers and the evaporator modules, functions to
remove moisture from the liquid Freon when the air conditioning
system is operating. Moisture removal is critical not only in the
prevention of corrosion damage, but in the prevention of refrig-
erant circulation blockage caused by thermal expansion valve
freeze-up. Normal operation of the air conditioning system for
several minutes followed by the loss of cooling airflow may
indicate that freeze-up has occurred.

Evaporator Modules
One evaporator module is installed within the cockpit, and is
accessed by removing floor panels located behind the pilot’s
seat. Two additional evaporator modules are installed within the
aft baggage compartment in proximity to the aft pressure
bulkhead. Each module contains a thermal expansion valve,
evaporator coil, drain tube, and evaporator blower. The evapo-
rator modules transform high-pressure liquid Freon into a low-
pressure, low-temperature gas, completing the vapor cycle that
reduces the temperature of the cabin air.

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High-pressure liquid Freon enters each evaporator module


through its respective thermal expansion valve that reduces
pressure. Each expansion valve incorporates a variable orifice
that is regulated automatically through a temperature-sensing
bulb attached to the Freon suction tube near the evaporator
outlet. When the temperature of the Freon gas leaving the
evaporator is too high, the orifice constricts to provide in-
creased cooling. When this temperature becomes too low, the
orifice opens to reduce cooling.

From the low-pressure side of the expansion valve, reduced


pressure liquid Freon is routed through the evaporator coil
where it is transformed into a gas. In the transformation from
liquid to gas, heat is absorbed from the cabin air as it is drawn
through each evaporator coil by its respective blower. The
refrigerated cabin air is then forced by the evaporator blowers
into the conditioned air distribution tubing. Cooled air from the
forward (cockpit) evaporator is introduced into the cabin
through armrest-level vents in the flight compartment. Air that
has been cooled by passing over the aft evaporators is intro-
duced into the passenger cabin and flight compartment
through the overhead duct.

As heat is absorbed from the cabin air, moisture accumulates


on the evaporator coil and collects in the lower portion of each
evaporator module. Drain tubes carry this moisture to forward
and aft heated drain assemblies located below the cabin floor,
which automatically control drainage of moisture from the
airplane. The condensate drain valves within these assemblies
incorporate a two-stage orifice that provides maximum drain-
age during ground operation, and reduced drainage during
pressurized flight to minimize loss of cabin pressure.

Vapor Cycle Air Conditioning System Protection


Vapor cycle air conditioner compressor protection is provided
by low-pressure, high-pressure, and suction switches and a
150-amp current limiter.

The low and high-pressure switches are mounted on fittings


installed on the compressor housing, or on a fitting assembly
that is installed in proximity to the compressor.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-45


Compressor power is routed through an anti-cycle relay. If
compressor pressure exceeds 350 PSI, the high-pressure
switch opens, thereby removing power from the anti-cycle
relay. The anti-cycle relay then interrupts current to the recy-
cling timer, thereby shutting down the compressor.

A suction switch is installed into a fitting on the compressor


housing. If compressor suction drops below 9.5 PSI, the suc-
tion switch opens, thereby removing power from the anti-cycle
relay. The anti-cycle relay then interrupts current to the recy-
cling timer, thereby shutting down the compressor.

On airplanes 550-0505 and earlier incorporating SB550-21-16,


the low-pressure switch is disabled.

On airplanes 550-0505 and earlier not incorporating


SB550-21-16, if compressor pressure drops below 32 PSI, the
low-pressure switch opens, thereby removing power from the
anti-cycle relay. The anti-cycle relay then interrupts current to
the recycling timer, thereby shutting down the compressor.

Vapor Cycle Air Conditioning System Controls and Indicators


Airplanes equipped with vapor cycle air conditioning have a
FREON AIR CONDITIONER control panel mounted on the
copilot’s instrument panel. This air conditioning control panel
includes a rotary switch with four positions, labeled OFF,
FAN FWD, FAN ALL, and COMP and a FAN SPEED toggle
switch with HI and LO positions. The FAN FWD position ener-
gizes only the flight compartment blower, the FAN ALL position
energizes the all the blowers, and the COMP position energizes
the compressor and all the blowers. The selected blowers will
run at the speed selected by the FAN SPEED toggle switch.

Vapor Cycle Air Conditioning System Protection


The compressor motor will automatically shut down should
motor current exceed 350 amps, condenser Freon discharge
pressure exceed 350 PSIG, or Freon condenser suction pres-
sure fall below 10 PSIG.

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Emergency Oxygen System

The oxygen system is designed to provide emergency breath-


ing oxygen for the crew and passengers in the event of a
pressurization system emergency occurring at flight altitudes
above 10,000 feet, or if the cabin fills with smoke. The standard
oxygen system includes a 22 cu-ft oxygen bottle that will pro-
vide emergency oxygen for crew and six passengers for up to
15 minutes; an optional system incorporates a 64 cu-ft bottle
that will provide emergency oxygen for crew and six passen-
gers for up to 50 minutes.

Emergency oxygen system operation is initiated by an altitude


pressure switch installed in the pressurized cabin area. At a
cabin altitude of 12,900 to 14,000 feet, the altitude pressure
switch energizes a solenoid valve that allows oxygen to flow to
the oxygen distribution system. Oxygen pressure of approxi-
mately 70 PSI automatically opens passenger oxygen mask
storage compartment doors, thereby dropping the masks.

Both oxygen systems provide distribution plumbing for the


flight compartment and passenger cabin, individual outlets for
each airplane occupant (location depending on seating con-
figuration), an oxygen bottle, regulator, filler valve, pressure
gage, and control switch. In all installations, the system regula-
tor is assembled directly to the oxygen bottle and functions to
reduce bottle pressure to a lower, constant supply pressure.
The regulator incorporates a mechanically-operated supply
shutoff valve and ports for a supply tube, filler tube, pressure
gage tube, and overboard discharge indicator tube. The pres-
sure regulator outlet ports in the 64 cu-ft system are installed in
slightly different positions than the ports in the 22 cu-ft system.

On airplanes 550-0255 and after and earlier airplanes incorpo-


rating SB550-35-2, the standard or optional oxygen bottle is
installed on the aft fuselage compartment structure using
mounting brackets.

On airplanes 550-0254 and earlier not incorporating


SB550-35-2, the standard or optional oxygen bottle is installed
below the right nose baggage compartment floor using mount-
ing brackets.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-47


All oxygen bottles require a U.S. Department of Transportation
(D.O.T.) designation that identifies bottle specification and
service pressure. The D.O.T. designation also identifies the
bottle’s life limitation and hydrostatic testing requirements.

The 22 cu-ft bottle bears a DOT-3AA 1800 designation and


requires hydrostatic testing to 167% of its service pressure
every five years. There is no life limitation for this bottle unless
failure occurs during hydrostatic testing. The 22 cu-ft bottle is
charged to 1800 PSI under standard atmospheric conditions.
Two types of 64 cu-ft bottles are available. The lightweight
bottle bears a DOT-3HT 1850 designation; the fiber-wound
bottle bears a DOT-3FC1850 designation. Both types of bottle
require hydrostatic testing to 167% of service pressure every
three years. Life limitation is twenty-four years from date of
manufacture.

All oxygen bottles should be filled with breathing oxygen that


conforms to the requirements of MIL-0-27210, Type 1.

On airplanes and 550-0255 and after and earlier airplanes


incorporating SB550-35-2, the oxygen filler valve is located
inside the tailcone baggage compartment door. On airplanes
550-0254 and earlier not incorporating SB550-35-2, the oxygen
filler valve is accessible through the right nose baggage com-
partment door. The oxygen filler valve incorporates a filter and
a protective cap. A check valve, installed in-line between the
regulator and the filler valve, prevents the escape of bottle
pressure from the filler tube or its connections.

Oxygen Outlets
Oxygen outlets for the pilot and copilot are located on the
pilot’s and copilot’s side consoles in the flight compartment. Up
to eight oxygen outlets may be installed in the overhead pas-
senger cabin. Due to differences in seating configurations, the
location of the passenger cabin outlets will vary between air-
planes. Each outlet incorporates a spring-loaded valve that
prevents oxygen flow from the outlet unless a hose assembly is
connected.

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Warning: Permit no smoking when using oxygen. Materials that


will not normally flash in the atmosphere will readily burn or
explode in the presence of concentrated oxygen. Oil, grease,
soap, lipstick, lip balm, and other fatty materials constitute a
serious fire hazard when in contact with oxygen. Be sure hands
and clothing are oil free before handling oxygen equipment.

Crew Oxygen Masks


Two types of crew oxygen
masks are available in the
Citation II. The standard oxy-
gen mask is a diluter demand
type with integral oxygen
regulator and microphone.
Each oxygen regulator in-
cludes a lever that allows
selection of diluter demand
(NORMAL) or demand (100%
OXY) modes. The demand
mode should be selected to insure adequate supplemental
oxygen at altitudes above 20,000 feet. The standard mask
qualifies as quick donning when it is worn with the head strap
around the neck.

The optional crew oxygen mask is a quick-donning sweep-on


type with a regulator and microphone attachment. This mask is
a diluter demand type with pressurized flow (100% oxygen)
selectable by placing the regulator in the “EMER” (demand)
position. The EMER position should be selected to insure ad-
equate supplemental oxygen at cabin altitudes above 20,000
feet. To conserve oxygen, the regulator may be set to “NOR-
MAL” if cabin altitude is below 20,000 feet. To qualify as quick-
donning, the mask must be properly stowed in its retainer.

Either mask should be set to the 100% oxygen (“100% OXY” or


“EMER”) position when it is used for smoke protection.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-49


Oxygen mask microphones
are operated using a two-
position toggle switch on the
pilot’s and copilot’s side con-
soles. Setting this switch to
“MIC OXY MASK” energizes
the mask microphone; setting
the switch to “MIC HEAD SET”
energizes the headset micro-
phone. The selected micro-
phone may then be used for
transmission by depressing
the microphone button on the control wheel.

Passenger Oxygen Masks


Passengers are provided oro-
nasal type oxygen masks that
deform to seal around the
nose and mouth area. Each
mask consists of a face plate,
economizer bag, plastic sup-
ply tube, and a lanyard cord
with pintle pin attached. The
pintle pins are installed to
prevent oxygen loss from
unused masks. After oxygen
masks are deployed, the lanyard cord must be pulled to with-
draw the pintle pin and thereby initiate oxygen flow to each
mask. Passenger oxygen masks provide a constant flow rate of
4.5 liters per minute.

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Oxygen System Controls, Malfunction Warning,


and Indication

On airplanes 550-0501 and


after, the rotary, three-position
OXYGEN CONTROL VALVE
switch is located on the pilot’s
side console. When this switch
is set to the center “NORMAL”
position, oxygen automatically
flows to both the cockpit and
cabin. When the switch is
rotated counterclockwise to
the “CREW ONLY” position,
oxygen flow is limited to the
cockpit. The switch is rotated clockwise to the “MANUAL
DROP” position to manually deploy passenger oxygen masks if
the automatic mask deployment system should fail.

On airplanes 550-0500 and


earlier, two-position toggle
switches labeled OXYGEN
PRIORITY VALVE and PASS
OXY MASKS are located on
the pilot’s side console. When
the OXYGEN PRIORITY VALVE
switch is set to the upper
“NORMAL” position, oxygen
automatically flows to both the
cockpit and cabin. When the
switch is set to the “CREW
ONLY” position, oxygen flow is limited to the cockpit. The
PASS OXY MASKS switch is repositioned from
“NORMAL” to “MANUAL DROP” to manually deploy passenger
oxygen masks if the automatic mask deployment system
should fail.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-51


The oxygen pressure gage is
located on the right instrument
panel. The gage provides
visual indication of bottle
pressure and is marked with a
yellow arc from 0 to 400 PSI, a
green arc from 1600 to 1800
PSI, and red line at 2000 PSI.
When fully charged and stabi-
lized at approximately 70°F,
indicated pressure should be
1800 PSI for the 22 cu-ft bottle
and 1850 PSI for the 64 cu-ft bottle; however, indicated pres-
sure will vary with ambient temperature. Either bottle will require
recharging if indicated pressure falls below 300 PSI.

Evidence of oxygen bottle


overpressure is provided by
an indicator disc (originally
green in color).

Should overpressure occur, a


high-pressure rupture fitting
within the regulator releases
bottle pressure through the
overboard discharge indicator
tube. When oxygen bottle
pressure exceeds 2850 ± 150
PSI (at 70°F/21°C), the disc is “blown out,” thereby providing
visual indication that oxygen was discharged overboard.

On airplanes with oxygen bottles located in the nose section,


the indicator disc is located on the lower right surface of the
nose. On airplanes with oxygen bottles located in the aft fuse-
lage, the indicator disc is located on the lower left surface of
the tailcone.

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Limitations

Refer to the applicable airplane manufacturer’s FAA approved


airplane flight manual or approved manual material, markings
and placards, or any combination thereof for all limitations.

Emergency Procedures

Refer to the applicable airplane manufacturer’s FAA approved


airplane flight manual or approved manual material (supple-
mentary checklist) as revised, for procedural information.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 9-53


Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Chapter 10
Ice Protection Systems

Table of Contents

Overview ............................................. 10-1

Anti-Ice Systems ................................. 10-2

Pitot-Static Anti-Ice .............................. 10-2

Windshield Anti-Ice .............................. 10-4


Bleed Air Windshield Anti-Ice ........... 10-4
System Operation .......................... 10-8
Malfunction Warning
and Protection ............................... 10-9
Bleed Air Windshield
Rain Removal .............................. 10-10
Alcohol Windshield Anti-Ice ............ 10-11

Surface Deice System ....................... 10-13


System Operation ........................ 10-15
Ice Detection ............................... 10-18

Engine Ice Protection......................... 10-19


Inboard Wing Leading
Edge Anti-Ice ................................ 10-20
System Operation ........................ 10-22
Malfunction Indication................... 10-22

Limitations ........................................ 10-23

Emergency Procedures....................... 10-23


Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Overview

This chapter describes the ice protection equipment required


on the Cessna Citation II for flight in icing conditions.

Anti-ice systems are designed to prevent the formation of ice


and should be activated prior to entering icing conditions. For
this purpose, electrically-powered heating elements are in-
stalled in the pitot tubes, static ports, and angle-of-attack sensor
(if installed). Protection against windshield icing is accom-
plished primarily using engine bleed air, with alcohol used as a
backup anti-ice system for the pilot’s windshield. Engine ice
protection is accomplished by bleed air heating of induction air
inlet components and electrical heating of the inboard wing
leading edges forward of each engine.

Deice systems are designed to remove ice which has accumu-


lated. For this purpose, pneumatically-operated boots are
attached to the leading edges of the stabilizers and the out-
board leading edge of each wing.

The Cessna Citation II is approved for flight in icing conditions


as defined by the FAA only when the following ice protection
equipment is installed and checked operational before flight:

Anti-Ice
Heated Pitot Tubes
Heated Static Ports
Heated Windshield
Backup Windshield Alcohol System
Engine Ice Protection

Deice
Wing and Stabilizer Deice Boots

Note: Refer to the FAA-approved Master Minimum Equipment


List (MMEL) for conditions and limitations specific to the ice
protection equipment installed in your airplane.

ICE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 10-1


Anti-Ice Systems

For organizational purposes, this section is divided into pitot-


static anti-ice, windshield anti-ice, and engine anti-ice. All anti-
ice systems must be activated when operating in visible mois-
ture at indicated outside air temperatures (IOAT) between +4°C
(39°F) and -30°C (-22°F).

Pitot-Static Anti-Ice

▲ PITOT TUBE ▲ STATIC PORTS

The pitot tubes and static ports are protected against icing by
integral, electrically-powered heating elements which are
controlled by the PITOT & STATIC switch on the lower left instru-
ment panel. When this switch is in the upper (on) position, 28
VDC power is supplied to the heating elements of the pilot’s
pitot tube and static ports from the left main bus through the 7.5-
amp LH PITOT STATIC circuit breaker, and supplied to the
copilot’s pitot tube and static ports from the right main bus
through the 7.5-amp RH PITOT STATIC circuit breaker.

Independent left (pilot’s) and right (copilot’s) current sensors


monitor the flow of current to their associated heating elements.
On airplanes 550-0550 and after, these current sensors control
the illumination of an amber, three lens [LH] [RH] [P/S HTR OFF]
annunciator. On airplanes 550-0028 and earlier, the current
sensors control the illumination of a single pitot heat off/fail light
on the left instrument panel; on airplanes 550-0029~0505, this
light is replaced by an amber, single lens [P/S HTR OFF] an-
nunciator.

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When the PITOT & STATIC


switch is in the upper “on”
position and all heating ele-
ments are functioning nor-
mally, the annunciator should
be extinguished. When this
switch is in the “on” position
and at least one heating ele-
ment is inoperative, the annun-
ciator should be illuminated.
When the switch is in the
“OFF” position or when no
▲ PITOT-STATIC HEAT SWITCH
power is being supplied to the
heating elements, the annunciator should also be illuminated.
On airplanes 550-0550 and after, the corresponding [LH]
(pilot’s) or [RH] (copilot’s) lens will illuminate in conjunction with
the [P/S HTR OFF] lens to indicate which heating elements are
malfunctioning.

To minimize battery drain and prevent overheating of the ele-


ments during ground operation, the PITOT & STATIC switch
should remain in the “OFF” position except for system testing.
To test the system prior to flight, the pitot tube covers should be
removed (if installed), the PITOT & STATIC switch should be
positioned to “on” for a period of 30-seconds and then returned
to “OFF.” If the system is functioning normally, the [P/S HTR
OFF] annunciator should not have illuminated when the PITOT
& STATIC switch was in the “on” position, the pitot tubes should
be hot, and the static ports should be warm.

To reduce the risk of severe burns when checking pitot tube


heat, physical contact with the tube should be minimized and
grasping the tube with any more than a light grip should be
avoided. Checking static port heat in high ambient tempera-
tures is best accomplished using the back of a finger to com-
pare the temperature of each static port to that of the surround-
ing fuselage skin. Refer to the appropriate Operating Manual or
Airplane Flight Manual for test procedures specific to the sys-
tem installed in your airplane.

Caution: To prevent overheating of the elements, ground opera-


tion of the pitot-static ice protection system is limited to 2 min-
utes.

ICE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 10-3


Windshield Anti-Ice

2
3

1. Rain Removal Augmenter Door


2. Alcohol Spray Tubes
3. Bleed Air Discharge Nozzle Shroud

Protection against windshield icing is accomplished primarily


using engine bleed air, with alcohol used as a backup anti-ice
system for the pilot’s windshield. In addition to ice protection,
the bleed air windshield anti-ice system provides rain removal
and external defogging capabilities.

Bleed Air Windshield Anti-Ice


The bleed air windshield anti-ice system directs engine bleed
air against the windshield to prevent the formation of ice. Major
components of the system include a bleed air control valve,
heat exchanger, automatic temperature controls, temperature
and pressure sensors, manual flow controls, and bleed air
discharge nozzles.

Bleed air used by the system is tapped from the supply tubes
between the compressor section of each engine and the envi-
ronmental flow control/shutoff valves within the aft fuselage. On
airplanes 550-0484, 0483, 0481 and earlier, the bleed air is
routed through a precooler within each engine nacelle prior to
entering the aft fuselage. On airplanes 550-0482, 0485 and
after, availability of bleed air to the system is continuous when
either or both engines are operating and is not influenced by
the position of the PRESS SOURCE selector. On airplanes 550-
0484, 0483, 0481 and earlier, however, setting the PRESS
SOURCE selector to “LH” or “RH” correspondingly results in
bleed air being made available to the system from the left
engine or right engine only.

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The bleed air tapped from each source is routed through inde-
pendent supply tubes to a common cross fitting within the aft
fuselage. A check valve in each of these tubes prevents the
backflow of bleed air to either engine when the opposite engine
has failed or is operating at a sufficiently lower RPM. From the
cross fitting, bleed air is routed through the bleed air control
valve to the heat exchanger, each also located within the aft
fuselage.

4
3

2
1

1. Heat Exchanger 3. Cross Fitting


2. Bleed Air Control Valve 4. Exit Duct

The bleed air control valve is normally-open, electrically-actu-


ated closed, and controlled primarily by the W/S BLEED switch
on the lower left instrument panel. When this valve is open,
bleed air is routed through the heat exchanger to the rest of the
system.

ICE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 10-5


The heat exchanger is an air-to-air type unit which functions to
reduce bleed air temperature to that required for system opera-
tion. The heat exchanger is installed within an air duct through
which cooling airflow passes and conducts heat from the bleed
air. On airplanes 550-0482, 0485 and after, airflow enters this
duct through a screened inlet on the right side of the tailcone,
and exits through a NACA-
type exhaust scoop on the left
side of the tailcone below the
engine pylon. On airplanes
550-0484, 0483, and 0481 and
earlier, airflow enters this duct
through flush-mounted, NACA-
type intake scoops on the
dorsal fairing, and exits
through a NACA-type exhaust
scoop on the left side of the
tailcone below the engine
pylon. ▲ AIRFLOW OVERBOARD EXHAUST SCOOP

The automatic temperature controller maintains the required


bleed air temperature by modulating the position of an electri-
cally-actuated air control valve, located in the heat exchanger
exit duct, which regulates ambient airflow through the heat
exchanger. Input signals are provided to the controller by the
W/S BLEED switch and by temperature sensors located in the
bleed air supply tubing: one downstream of the heat ex-
changer, another upstream of the nozzles.

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From the heat exchanger,


bleed air is routed through a
pair of mechanically-actuated
control valves which regulate
bleed air flow to the discharge
nozzles. Each valve is located
within the nose section and
manually positioned by its
associated LH or RH WIND-
SHIELD BLEED AIR control on
the copilot’s lower instrument
panel. Each discharge nozzle
▲ DISCHARGE NOZZLE VALVE
is enclosed in an aerodynamic
shroud and comprised of a manifold which supplies an array of
outlet tubes that direct bleed air against the windshield. Each
shroud is fitted with a hinged augmenter door for rain removal.
Both augmenter doors are mechanically-operated by a single
PULL RAIN control, located below the copilot’s instrument
panel. The left (pilot’s) shroud also houses the alcohol dispersal
nozzle.

Rotating the WINDSHIELD


BLEED AIR controls clockwise 1
progressively increases bleed
air flow to the discharge
nozzles; counterclockwise
rotation progressively de-
creases bleed air flow to the
discharge nozzles. When
2
windshield rain removal is
required, the WINDSHIELD
BLEED AIR controls should be
rotated fully-clockwise to
“MAX.” When windshield ice 1. Windshield Bleed
protection or rain removal is Air Controls
not required, the WINDSHIELD 2. Pull Rain Control Knob
BLEED AIR controls should be
rotated fully-counterclockwise
to “OFF.”

ICE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 10-7


System Operation
The system is activated by the
three-position (HI/OFF/LOW)
W/S BLEED switch on the
lower left instrument panel.
When this switch is set to “HI”
or “LOW,” the bleed air control
valve is deenergized open
and 28 VDC power is sup-
plied from the left main bus
(550-0550 and after) or right
main bus (550-0505 and
▲ W/S BLEED SWITCH
earlier) to the automatic tem-
perature controller through the 5-amp W/S BLEED TEMP circuit
breaker. When “HI” is selected, the temperature controller
modulates the position of the air control valve to maintain bleed
air temperature at approximately 138°C. When “LOW” is se-
lected, the temperature controller modulates the position of the
air control valve to maintain bleed air temperature at approxi-
mately 127°C. When set to “OFF,” the temperature controller is
deactivated and the bleed air control valve is energized closed.
On airplanes 550-0550 and after, 28 VDC left main bus power is
supplied to the bleed air control valve through the 5-amp W/S
BLEED circuit breaker. On airplanes 550-0505 and earlier, 28
VDC right main bus power is supplied to the bleed air control
valve through the 5-amp WINDSHIELD BLEED AIR circuit
breaker.

Before activating the system, the WINDSHIELD BLEED AIR


controls should be rotated clockwise and the PULL RAIN con-
trol, located below the copilot’s instrument panel, should be
pushed fully-in. When windshield ice protection is required, the
W/S BLEED switch should be set to “HI” when IOAT is below
-18°C, or “LOW” when IOAT is above -18°C. Normal system
operation is indicated by an increase in air noise as bleed air is
discharged from the nozzles.

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Bleed Air Windshield Anti-Ice Schematic

© PCW

Malfunction Warning and Protection


Malfunction warning and protection is provided by a pressure
switch and overheat sensor, located in the bleed air supply
tubing downstream of the heat exchanger, and an amber [W/S
AIR O’HEAT] light located on the annunciator panel. The pres-
sure switch functions to illuminate the [W/S AIR O’HEAT] annun-
ciator when the W/S BLEED switch is set to “OFF” and bleed air
pressure is at least 5 PSI, indicating failure of the bleed air
control valve to energize closed. The overheat sensor functions
to illuminate the [W/S AIR O’HEAT] annunciator and energize
the bleed air control valve closed when bleed air temperature
exceeds 146°C, indicating failure of the automatic temperature
controls to regulate ambient airflow through the heat exchanger.
Should this condition occur, normal system operation should be
restored automatically when bleed air temperature no longer
exceeds 146°C.

Note: If normal system operation is not restored automatically


within 60-seconds of [W/S AIR O’HEAT] annunciator illumina-
tion, bleed air flow to the windshield should be reduced to the
minimum necessary to maintain sufficient visibility. This can be
accomplished by setting the W/S BLEED switch to “LOW” or
“OFF” and/or rotating the WINDSHIELD BLEED AIR controls to
“OFF.”

ICE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 10-9


Operation of the overheat
sensor and [W/S AIR O’HEAT]
annunciator may be verified
by rotating the TEST selector,
located on the lower left instru-
ment panel, to the “W/S TEMP”
position and setting either W/S
BLEED switch to “HI” or
“LOW,” In this condition, the
[W/S AIR O’HEAT] annunciator
should illuminate if the sensor
is functional. When illuminated
▲ TEST SELECTOR SWITCH
by the overheat sensor during
system operation or testing, the [W/S AIR O’HEAT] annunciator
receives 28 VDC power from the left main bus through the 5-
amp W/S BLEED circuit breaker (550-0550 and after), or from
the right main bus through the 5-amp WINDSHIELD BLEED AIR
circuit breaker (550-0505 and earlier). When illuminated by the
pressure switch, the [W/S AIR O’HEAT] annunciator receives 28
VDC power from the left main bus (550-0550 and after) or right
main bus (550-0505 and earlier) through the 5-amp W/S BLEED
TEMP circuit breaker.

Bleed Air Windshield


Rain Removal
Rain removal is provided by
the windshield anti-ice system
and the augmenter doors on
each discharge nozzle
shroud. When bleed air flow
from discharge nozzles is
insufficient to clear the wind-
shield of heavy rain, the aug-
menter doors can be opened
to provide increased airflow
over the windshield. Both augmenter doors are mechanically-
operated by a single PULL RAIN control, located below the
copilot’s instrument panel. When windshield rain removal is
required, the WINDSHIELD BLEED AIR controls should be
rotated fully-clockwise to “MAX,” the PULL RAIN control should
be pulled fully-out, and the W/S BLEED switch should be set to
“LOW.”

Note: Difficulty may be encountered opening the augmenter


doors at airspeeds above 175 KIAS, or when the W/S BLEED
switch is set to “LOW” prior to operating the PULL RAIN control.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Alcohol Windshield Anti-Ice


The alcohol windshield anti-ice system provides a backup to
the bleed air windshield anti-ice system for the pilot’s wind-
shield only. Major components of the system include an alcohol
reservoir, an electrically-operated pump, and a six-tube dis-
persal nozzle.

3
2

1. Fluid Level Sight Gage


2. Alcohol Reservoir
3. Augmenter Door Linkage

The alcohol reservoir is located behind the aft divider within the
right nose baggage compartment. A sight gage on the upper
reservoir permits fluid level inspection. The sight gage is visible
through an inspection window positioned on an access panel.
The access panel is hinged to facilitate servicing and is acces-
sible through the right baggage door. If fluid is not visible in the
sight gage, the reservoir should be replenished. Reservoir
capacity is 0.5 U.S. gallons TT-I-735 isopropyl alcohol only.

ICE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 10-11


The electrically-operated pump, also located behind the aft
divider within the right nose baggage compartment, delivers
alcohol under positive pressure to the dispersal nozzle. The
pump incorporates an integral fluid filter through which alcohol
passes before delivery to the dispersal nozzle. To prevent
audio interference during system operation, a radio noise filter
is installed in the electrical circuit to the pump. The dispersal
nozzle, enclosed within the left (pilot’s) shroud, incorporates six
spray tubes which distribute alcohol over the pilot’s windshield.

The system is activated by the


two-position (ON/OFF) W/S
ALCOHOL ANTI-ICE switch on
the lower left instrument panel.
When this switch is positioned
to “ON,” 28 VDC power is
supplied to the pump from the
right main bus (550-0550 and
after) or left main bus (550-
0505 and earlier) through the
5-amp W/S ALCOHOL circuit
breaker. With the pump ener-
▲ W/S ALCOHOL ANTI-ICE SWITCH
gized, alcohol is drawn from
the reservoir and delivered to the dispersal nozzle. With the
alcohol reservoir serviced to capacity, maximum continuous
operation endurance is approximately 10 minutes.

Note: If failure of the bleed air windshield anti-ice system ne-


cessitates activation of the alcohol windshield anti-ice system,
icing conditions should be exited as soon as practicable.

During preflight inspection, the alcohol spray tubes should be


checked for general condition and cleanliness, and the reser-
voir level should be checked full. Operation of the system can
be tested before flight by positioning the W/S ALCOHOL ANTI-
ICE switch to “ON” until alcohol is observed flowing from all six
spray tubes.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Surface Deice System

The surface deice system functions to remove ice accumula-


tions from the leading edges of the stabilizers and outboard
leading edge of each wing. The electrically-controlled, pneu-
matically-operated system consists of inflatable rubber deice
boots, a pneumatic pressure regulator, three control valves, a
timer module, two pressure switches, and associated controls,
plumbing and circuitry.

1. Outboard Leading
Edge Boot 2
2. Vertical
Stabilizer Boot
3. Horizontal
Stabilizer Boot

ICE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 10-13


The deice boots are essentially fabric-reinforced rubber sheets
containing built-in, spanwise inflation tubes. Each boot is
bonded by adhesive to the leading edge of the surface being
protected and features a conductive coating which discharges
static electricity. The boots are normally held deflated against
their respective leading edge surfaces by suction. When in-
flated by air pressure, the change in boot contour breaks up ice
accumulations to facilitate removal by normal in-flight air forces.

Air pressure for boot inflation and suction for boot deflation is
provided by engine bleed air supplied from the same cross
fitting that supplies the windshield anti-ice system. From this
cross fitting, bleed air is routed through the pneumatic pressure
regulator which functions to reduce bleed air pressure to ap-
proximately 23 PSIG. From the regulator, bleed air is routed
through a cross fitting where its flow is divided into three paths
which independently supply the stabilizer, left wing, and right
wing control valves, also located within the aft fuselage. Bleed
air is continuously supplied to the control valves whenever
either or both engines are operating. Refer to the Bleed Air
Windshield Anti-Ice section of this chapter for a description of
the bleed air source.

The three electrically-actuated


control valves function to
control the application of
suction (when deenergized
closed) or pressure (when
energized open) to their asso-
ciated boots as determined
primarily by the timer module.
When deenergized closed,
each control valve functions
as an ejector, producing
approximately 5.5 inHg of
▲ DEICE BOOT OVERBOARD VENT TUBES
suction by directing bleed air
through an overboard vent tube. When energized open, the
overboard vent tube is blocked and bleed air inflation pressure
is directed to the boots. The timer module, located within the
flight compartment left side console, functions to energize and
deenergize the control valves sequentially. The pressure
switches, one located in the stabilizer boot supply line, the
other located in the right wing boot supply line, function to
illuminate the white [SURFACE DEICE] (550-0550 and after) or
[SURF DEICE] (550-0505 and earlier) annunciator when infla-
tion pressure is at least 20 PSI.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

System Operation
The system is activated by the
three-position SURFACE DE-
ICE switch on the lower left
instrument panel. When this
switch is momentarily actuated
to the upper (on) position, 28
VDC power is supplied from
the right main bus (550-0550
and after) or left main bus
(550-0505 and earlier) to the
timer module through the 5-
▲ SURFACE DE-ICE SWITCH
amp SURFACE DE-ICE circuit
breaker, thereby initiating a two-sequence deice cycle.

During the first sequence, the timer energizes the stabilizer


control valve open directing inflation pressure to the stabilizer
boots for approximately six seconds. Full inflation and annun-
ciator illumination normally occur within approximately two
seconds. During the second sequence, the timer deenergizes
the stabilizer control valve closed and energizes the left and
right wing control valves open directing inflation pressure to the
wing boots for approximately six seconds. The annunciator will
extinguish momentarily between sequences and illuminate
when the wing boots are fully-inflated. Full deflation of the
stabilizer boots normally occurs within approximately twelve
seconds following completion of the first sequence. Full defla-
tion of the wing boots normally occurs within approximately
twelve seconds following completion of the second sequence.
Upon completion of the cycle, the timer module and control
valves are deenergized, the annunciator is extinguished and
suction is applied to all of the boots.

Each momentary actuation of the SURFACE DE-ICE switch to


“on” results in one complete cycle. Though the inflation se-
quences last approximately twelve seconds combined, the
additional time required for the deflation of all boots results in
one complete cycle actually lasting approximately twenty-four
seconds. System activation may be repeated as necessary
allowing twenty-four seconds between cycles.

Note: If the boots fail to deflate or if cycle termination is desired,


momentary actuation of the SURFACE DE-ICE switch to the
lower “RESET” position overrides the timer module and immedi-
ately deenergizes all three control valves closed.

ICE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 10-15


Surface Deice System Schematic (boots deflated)

© PCW

The system should be activated when ice accumulations of at


least 1/4” to 1/2” are observed on the leading edge of either
outboard wing. Activation of the system with accumulations of
less than 1/4” may result in ice bridging on the wing. Accumula-
tions of greater than 1/2” may exceed the system’s ice removal
capabilities. Operation and/or testing of the system at indicated
outside air temperatures (IOAT) below -40°C (-40°F) may result
in boot cracking or failure of the boots to fully-deflate.

During preflight inspection, the deice boots should be checked


for general condition and cleanliness. Operation of the system
can be tested before flight by momentarily actuating the SUR-
FACE DE-ICE switch to the upper “on” position and visually
confirming normal inflation and deflation of the wing boots as
well as illumination of the annunciator.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Surface Deice System Schematic (first cycle: empennage boot inflation)

© PCW

Surface Deice System Schematic (second cycle: wing boot inflation)

© PCW

ICE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 10-17


Ice Detection
A wing ice inspection light is
installed on the left side of the
fuselage, forward of the wing.
The light illuminates the upper
surface and leading edge of
the wing so that these surfaces
can be checked for ice accu-
mulation during night opera-
tions. The light is controlled by
the WING INSP switch on the
lower left instrument panel.
▲ WING ICE INSPECTION LIGHT
When this switch is positioned
to “ON,” 28 VDC power is supplied to the light from the right
main bus (550-0550 and after) or left main bus (550-0505 and
earlier) through the 5-amp WING INSP circuit breaker.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Engine Ice Protection

Engine ice protection is accomplished by bleed air heating of


induction air inlet components and electrical heating of the
inboard wing leading edges forward of each engine.

1 2

1. T2 Probe Supply Line


2. Inlet Lip Bleed Air Valve 3
3. Inlet Stator Vane
Supply Line

Each engine’s bleed air anti-


ice system operates indepen-
dently of the other and uses
compressor discharge air (P3)
to heat the inlet nose cone,
core inlet guide vanes (sta-
tors), T2 probe, and inlet lip.
During engine operation, bleed air is supplied continuously to
the inlet nose cone through the hollow interior of the N1 shaft,
and to the T2 probe through an external line. Inlet lip bleed air is
tapped from the primary bleed air supply tubes. These supply
tubes extract bleed air from the compressor through ports
located at 4 and 8 o’clock positions on the gas generator case.
Core inlet stator bleed air is ported directly from the compressor
through a dedicated external line.

ICE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 10-19


Availability of bleed air to the inlet lip and core inlet stators is
through independent pressure regulating/shutoff valves which
are electrically-actuated closed, and controlled primarily by the
LH and RH ENGINE anti-ice switches on the lower left instru-
ment panel. Although these valves are electrically considered
normally-open, they are pneumatically considered normally-
closed and require at least 8 PSI bleed air pressure to open.
Additionally, each inlet lip valve requires that its corresponding
THROTTLE lever be positioned above 60% N2 to open. The
stator valve incorporates a position switch and the inlet lip
incorporates a temperature switch, each associated primarily
with system malfunction indication.

Inboard Wing
Leading Edge Anti-Ice
The inboard wing leading
edge anti-ice system operates
in conjunction with the engine
bleed air anti-ice system and
uses electrically-heated pan-
els to prevent the formation of
ice on the upper wing surface
forward of the engines. Each
removable panel features a
highly-polished exterior that
▲ INBOARD WING ANTI-ICE PANEL
forms a 61” section of its
associated inboard wing leading edge. Five independent,
spanwise heating elements, a high temperature switch, low
temperature switch, and a temperature sensor are bonded to
the interior of each panel. A Kevlar insulation shield provides a
thermal barrier between the heated panel and the wing
structure.

An independent temperature control circuit is provided for each


panel to maintain operating temperatures between 54°C and
78°C nominal. Each circuit includes a temperature controller,
control relay, and power relay which function to regulate the
flow of current to the heating elements. With the system acti-
vated, current flow to the heating elements will occur only when
the control relay and power relay are energized closed.

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

The temperature sensor in each panel is positioned where the


highest operating temperatures exist. The temperature control-
ler cycles the system on and off according to input signals
supplied by the temperature sensor. To accomplish this, the
temperature controller energizes and deenergizes the control
relay as a function of sensed temperature. When approximately
54°C is sensed, the control relay is energized closed, thereby
supplying current to the heating elements. When approximately
78°C is sensed, the control relay is deenergized open, thereby
interrupting current flow to the heating elements.

The low temperature switch in each panel is also positioned


where the highest operating temperatures exist, while the high
temperature switch is positioned where lower operating tem-
peratures exist. In the event of temperature controller failure, the
high temperature switch energizes and deenergizes the power
relay as a function of sensed temperature. When approximately
74°C is sensed, the power relay is deenergized open, thereby
interrupting current flow to the heating elements. When approxi-
mately 68°C is sensed, the power relay is energized closed,
thereby supplying current to the heating
elements.

Note: Although the control relay and power relay appear to


have overlapping temperature activation ranges, the location of
the temperature sensor and high temperature switch ensures
that neither senses the same temperature simultaneously.

28 VDC power is supplied to each panel by its associated left


or right main bus through a 175 amp current limiter. Each
heating element is provided with a circuit breaker and current
sensor. The five current sensors for each panel are wired in
series and independently monitor the flow of current to their
associated heating elements. The current sensors and the low
temperature switch are associated primarily with system mal-
function indication.

ICE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 10-21


System Operation
The engine bleed air and
inboard leading edge anti-ice
systems are simultaneously
activated by the LH and RH
ENGINE anti-ice switches on
the lower left instrument panel.
When these switches are in
the upper (on) position, 28
VDC power is supplied to the
inboard wing leading edge
heating elements and the
▲ ENGINE ANTI-ICE SWITCHES
ignition system. After a five
second time delay, the pressure regulating shutoff valves for
each inlet lip and core inlet stator will be deenergized open if
the THROTTLE levers are positioned above 60% N2 and at
least 8 PSI bleed air pressure is available. If the system is
functioning normally, each heated leading edge panel will
draw approximately 150 amps and the consumption of bleed
air for inlet lip and core inlet stator heating will increase indi-
cated ITT and decrease engine RPM.

Malfunction Indication
Indication of engine ice protection system malfunction is pro-
vided by the amber [LH] and [RH] [ENG ANTI-ICE] annuncia-
tors (550-0550 and after) or [L ENG ICE FAIL] and [R ENG ICE
FAIL] annunciators (550-0505 and earlier). Illumination of the
corresponding annunciator(s) will occur under the following
conditions when the LH and RH ENGINE anti-ice switches are
in the upper (on) position:

1. by current sensor when at least one heating element


is inoperative
2. by low temperature switch when leading edge temperature
is below approximately 16°C
3. by high temperature switch when leading edge temperature
is above approximately 74°C
4. by temperature controller when temperature
sensor malfunctions
5. by position switch when core inlet stator valve fails to open
6. by temperature switch when inlet lip temperature is
below 104°C

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Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Engine Ice Protection Schematic

© PCW

Note: Illumination of these annunciators during the five seconds


following system activation is normal before the pressure regu-
lating shutoff valves for each inlet lip and core inlet stator open.

Limitations

Refer to the applicable airplane manufacturer’s FAA approved


flight manual or approved manual material, markings and
placards, or any combination thereof for all limitations.

Emergency Procedures

Refer to the applicable airplane manufacturer’s FAA approved


flight manual or approved manual material (supplementary
checklist) as revised, for procedural information.

ICE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 10-23


Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Chapter 11
Limitations

Table of Contents

Overview ............................................. 11-1


Airspeed Limitations ............................ 11-2
Operating Limitations ........................... 11-3
Weight Limitations.......................... 11-3
Center of Gravity Limits .................. 11-3
Takeoff and Landing Limitations ...... 11-4
Flight Load Factor Limitations ......... 11-4
Enroute Limitations ........................ 11-5
Approved Operations ...................... 11-5
Engine Operating Limitations ................ 11-6
Engine Fan .................................... 11-6

Battery and Starter


Cycle Limitations ................................. 11-7
Battery Limitation ........................... 11-7
Prolonged Ground Operations .......... 11-7

Oil Limitations .................................... 11-8


Approved Oils ................................ 11-8

Fuel Limitations .................................. 11-9


Approved Fuels .............................. 11-9
Fuel Temperature and
Density Limitations ....................... 11-10
Maximum Fuel Imbalance ............. 11-10
Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Limitations, continued

Table of Contents

Hydraulic Fluid Limitations ................. 11-10


Flight Crew Limitations ...................... 11-11
Cabin Limitations .............................. 11-11
Pressurization Differential .................. 11-11
Pressurization Source Selector ........... 11-11
Icing Limitations ................................ 11-12
Thrust Reversing Limitations .............. 11-13
Oxygen System ................................. 11-13
Autopilot ........................................... 11-14
HF/ADF System ................................ 11-14

Baggage Limitations .......................... 11-14


Baggage Compartment
Weight Limitations........................ 11-14
Baggage Compartment
Volume Limitations ....................... 11-14
Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Overview

This chapter provides a comprehensive listing of operational


limitations for the safe operation of the Citation II airplane, its
engines, systems, and equipment.

Note: The limitations given in this section are for training pur-
poses only. Consult your Pilot’s Operating Handbook for limita-
tions specific to the year, model and serial number of your
airplane.

LIMITATIONS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 11-1


Airspeed Limitations

Airspeed 550-0627 and After 550-0626 and Earlier 550-0626 and Earlier
(not incorporating SB550-32-14) (incorporating SB550-32-14)

Maximum Operating Speed


MMO (Mach)
Above 28,000 Feet N/A 0.705 Mach 0.705 Mach
Above 30,500 Feet 0.705 Mach N/A N/A

Maximum Operating Speed


VMO (Knots)
14,000~28,000 Feet N/A 277 KIAS 277 KIAS
Below 30,500 Feet 262 KIAS N/A N/A
14,000~30,500 Feet N/A 262 KIAS 262 KIAS
(11,000 LB ZFW)
Below 14,000 Feet N/A 262 KIAS 262 KIAS

Maneuvering Speed
VA Per Sec II of FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual

Maximum Flap
Extended Speed
VFE (Knots)
15° Flaps 202 KIAS 202 KIAS 202 KIAS
40° Flaps 176 KIAS 176 KIAS 176 KIAS

Maximum Landing Gear


Operating Speed
VLO (Knots)
Extend 250 KIAS 176 KIAS 250 KIAS
Retract 200 KIAS 176 KIAS 200 KIAS

Maximum Landing Gear


Extended Speed
VLE (Knots) 262 KIAS 176 KIAS 277 KIAS

Maximum Speed Brake


Operating Speed
VSB (Knots) No Limit No Limit No Limit

Minimum Controllable
Airspeed
VMCA (Knots) 77 KIAS 77 KIAS 77 KIAS

Minimum Controllable
Ground Speed
VMCG (Knots) 62 KIAS 62 KIAS 62 KIAS

Maximum Tire
Ground Speed 165 KIAS 165 KIAS 165 KIAS

Autopilot Operation
Above 14,000 Feet N/A 277 KIAS/0.705 Mach 277 KIAS/0.705 Mach
Below 14,000 Feet N/A 262 KIAS 262 KIAS
Above 30,500 Feet 262 KIAS/0.705 Mach N/A N/A
Below 30,500 Feet 262 KIAS/0.705 Mach N/A N/A

11-2 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY CITATION II CHAPTER 11 12/99


R-6/9/00
Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Operating Limitations

Weight Limitations

550-0550 ~ 550-0626:
Maximum Ramp Weight ................... 13,500 LBS
Maximum Takeoff Weight ................. 13,300 LBS
Maximum Landing Weight ................ 12,700 LBS
Maximum Zero Fuel Weight .............. 11,000 LBS
(550-0505 and earlier: 9500 LBS – standard,
11,000 LBS optional)

550-0627 and after:


Maximum Ramp Weight ................... 14,300 LBS
Maximum Takeoff Weight ................. 14,100 LBS
Maximum Landing Weight ................ 13,500 LBS
Maximum Zero Fuel Weight .............. 11,000 LBS

Note: Maximum takeoff and landing weights may be addition-


ally restricted due to altitude, temperature and field length.

Center of Gravity Limits

550-0626 and earlier:


Forward Limit:
8540 LBS or less ............................... 276.10 inches
aft of reference datum.
13,300 LBS or less ............................ 279.80 inches
aft of reference datum.
12,500 LBS or less ............................ 279.20 inches
aft of reference datum.
Aft Limit: ............................................ 285.8 inches
aft of reference datum.
550-0627 and after:
Forward Limit:
8540 LBS or less ............................... 276.10 inches
aft of reference datum.
14,100 LBS or less ............................ 280.40 inches
aft of reference datum.
Aft Limit:
14,100 LBS or less ............................ 285.80 inches
aft of reference datum.

Note: It is the responsibility of the pilot to ensure that the air-


plane is loaded properly. Refer to Weight and Balance Data
Sheet for proper loading instructions.

LIMITATIONS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 11-3


R-6/9/00
Takeoff and Landing Limitations

Maximum Altitude................................... 14,000 Feet


Max Tailwind Component (<0626) ......... 10 Knots
Crosswind Component (>0627) ............. 23 Knots
Maximum Runway
Water/Slush Accumulation ..................... 0.4 Inches
Maximum Ambient
Temperature ........................................... ISA + 39°C (130°F)
Minimum Ambient
Temperature ........................................... -54°C (-65°F)

Note: Autopilot and yaw damper must be OFF for takeoff and
landing. Vertical navigation system must be OFF below 500 feet
AGL.

Flight Load Factor Limitations

550-0626 and earlier at 13,300 LBS maximum takeoff weight


Flaps Up ........................................... + 3.8G, -1.52G
Flaps Down ....................................... + 2.0G, 0.0G
Landing ............................................. + 3.5G

550-0627 and after at 14,100 LBS maximum takeoff weight


Flaps Up ........................................... + 3.8G, -1.52G
Flaps Down ....................................... + 2.0G, 0.0G
Landing ............................................. + 3.38G at 13,500 LB
landing weight

Note: These accelerations limit the angle-of-bank in turns and


severity of pullup maneuvers.

Note: This airplane is certificated in the normal category. The


normal category is applicable to aircraft intended for non-aero-
batic operations. Aerobatic maneuvers and spins are prohib-
ited. No intentional stalls are permitted above 25,000 feet or at
any altitude with engine speeds between 61.0% and 65% N1.

11-4 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY CITATION II CHAPTER 11 12/99


R-6/9/00
Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Enroute Limitations

550-0626 and earlier


not incorporating SB55-54-4:
Maximum Operating Altitude ............ 43,000 Feet
Temperature Limits ........................... ISA +39°C*
Generator Load
Up to 25,000 Feet .......................... 400 Amps
Above 25,000 Feet ........................ 250 Amps

incorporating SB55-54-4:
Maximum Operating Altitude ............ 43,000 Feet
Temperature Limits ........................... ISA +39°C*
Generator Load
Up to 35,000 Feet .......................... 400 Amps
Above 35,000 Feet ........................ 325 Amps

550-0627 and after:


Maximum Operating Altitude ............ 43,000 Feet
Temperature Limits ........................... ISA +39°C*
Generator Load
Up to 35,000 Feet .......................... 400 Amps
Above 35,000 Feet ........................ 325 Amps

*Note: Maximum enroute operating temperature limit is ISA


+39°C ambient temperature adjusted for ram rise or indicated
outside air temperature (IOAT), whichever is less.

Approved Operations

The Citation II is approved for the following types of operation


when the required equipment is installed and operational as
defined within the Federal Aviation Regulations:

1. VFR day
2. VFR night
3. IFR day including Category I and Category II approaches
4. IFR night including Category I and Category II
approaches
5. Flight into known icing conditions

LIMITATIONS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 11-5


R-6/9/00
Engine Operating Limitations

Number of Engines ........................... 2


Engine Manufacturer ........................ Pratt & Whitney Canada, Inc.
Engine Model .................................... JT15D-4
Engine Type ...................................... Medium-bypass, axial-flow turbofan
Engine Bypass Ratio ......................... 2.7 to 1
Engine Thrust Rating ........................ 2500 LBS each

100%=32,760 100%=15,904

N2 N1

Thrust Time Limit Maximum Oil Pressure Oil Temp.


Setting Minutes ITT C RPM % RPM % PSIG (2) C

Takeoff 5 700 (4) 31,450 96 16,540 104 (6) 70 - 85 (5) 10 - 121

Maximum
Continuous 680 31,450 96 16,540 104 (6) 70 - 85 0 - 121
Continuous

Maximum
Continuous 670 31,450 96 16,540 104 (6) 70 - 85 0 - 121
Cruise

16,000 49.0 35
Idle Continuous 580 --- --- -40 - 121
(min) (3) (min)

-40
Starting (6) --- (1) --- --- --- --- ---
(min)

Transient
(<0626) --- 700 (4) 31,450 96 16,540 104 (5) 0 - 121
Acceleration --- 700 31,450 96 16,540 104 --- 0 - 121
(>0627)

1. Maximum ITT limited to 2-seconds during engine start.


2. Normal oil pressure is 70 to 85 PSIG at engine speeds above 60% N2. Oil pressures under 70
PSIG are undesirable, and are allowed only under emergency conditions in order to complete a
flight. Oil pressures below 35 PSIG are unsafe and require engine shut down, or landing as soon as
possible using minimum power required to sustain flight.
3. Idle turbine RPM is 49, ±0.5% with ignition on. A minimum decrease of 0.5% will be noted with
ignition off.
4. ITT indications in excess of 700°C during takeoff or in excess of 680°C for more than 5 minutes
require reference to the Engine Maintenance Manual.
5. The maximum transient oil pressure can be 95 PSIG for 90-seconds.
6. Refer to the appropriate thrust setting charts for percent fan RPM (N1) setting.

Engine Fan

To ensure accurate fan speed thrust indication, the fan must be


inspected for damage prior to each flight.

11-6 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY CITATION II CHAPTER 11 12/99


R-6/9/00
Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Battery and Starter Cycle Limitations

Whether powered by battery, external power unit, or cross start


with generator assist, starter operation is limited to three engine
start attempts per 30-minute period, with a minimum 30-second
rest period between cycles.

Battery cycling is limited to three engine start attempts per


hour.

Battery Limitation

1. If battery limitation is exceeded, a deep cycle, including a


capacity check, must be accomplished to detect possible
cell damage. Refer to Chapter 24 of the Maintenance
Manual for procedure.
2. Three generator assisted cross starts are equal to one bat-
tery start.
3. If an external power unit is used for start, no battery cycle is
counted.
4. Use of an external power source with voltage in excess of
28 VDC or current in excess of 1000 amps, may damage
the starter.

Note: Starting ITT exceeding 500°C should be investigated in


accordance with Maintenance Manual.

Note: If the BATT O’HEAT (BATT O’TEMP, 550-0627 and after)


annunciator illuminates during ground operation, do not take off
until after the proper maintenance procedures have been ac-
complished.

Prolonged Ground Operations

Continuous engine ground static operation up to and including


five minutes at takeoff thrust is limited to ambient temperatures
not to exceed ISA + 39°C. Continuous ground operation of the
starter-generator above 325 amps is prohibited. Limit ground
operation of pitot/static heat to two minutes to preclude dam-
age to the pitot/static heater. Operation in the GND bleed mode
at power settings greater than 70% N2 for the right engine is
prohibited.

LIMITATIONS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 11-7


Oil Limitations

Approved Oils

Mobile Jet Oil II or 254, Exxon Turbo Oil 2380, Aeroshell Tur-
bine 560 or 500, Castrol 5000, and Royco Turbine Oil 560 or
500. In addition, The engine should be serviced with approved
synthetic oils listed in the most current revision of P&WC SB
7001.

Caution: When changing from an existing lubricant formulation


to a “third generation” lubricant formulation (Aero Shell/Royco
Turbine Oil 560 or Mobile Jet 254) the engine manufacturer
strongly recommends that such a change should only be made
when an engine is new or freshly overhauled. For additional
information on use of third generation oils, refer to the engine
manufacturers pertinent oil service bulletins.

Note: Do not mix types or brands of oil.

Should it be necessary to replenish oil consumption loss when


oil of the same brand (as contents in tank) is unavailable, then
the following requirements apply:

1. The total quantity of added oil does not exceed two US


quarts in any 400-hour period.
2. If it is required to add more than two US quarts of dissimilar
oil brands, drain and flush complete oil system and refill with
an approved oil in accordance with Engine Maintenance
Manual instructions.

Should oils of non-approved brands or of different viscosities


become intermixed, drain and flush complete oil system and
refill with an approved oil in accordance with Engine Mainte-
nance Manual instructions.

Note: Minimum starting oil temperature is -40°C.

11-8 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY CITATION II CHAPTER 11 12/99


Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Fuel Limitations

Approved Fuels

The following approved fuels comply with the latest revision of


Pratt & Whitney Canada Specification 204 and Pratt & Whitney
Canada Service Bulletin 7144R14.

Approved fuels are JET A, JET A-1, JET B, JP-4, JP-5, or JP-8,
all with 0.15% PFA55MB anti-icing additive in solution. When
preblended fuel is not available, anti-icing additives conforming
to MIL-I-27686E (Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether (EGME)) or
MIL-I-85470 (Diethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether (DIEGME))
specifications such as “Prist” may be introduced directly into
the nozzle fuel stream during servicing. Concentrations of less
than 0.06% (20 fluid ounces of additive per 260 gallons of fuel
or more) may be insufficient to prevent fuel system icing or
microbiological contamination. Conversely, concentrations of
more than 0.15% (20 fluid ounces of additive per 104 gallons of
fuel or less) could cause damage to internal components of the
fuel system or erroneous fuel quantity indications.

Caution: EGME and DIEGME are aggressive chemicals and


should not exceed 0.15% of fuel volume. Improperly handled,
these materials will damage the epoxy primer and sealants
used in the fuel tanks, O-ring seals, and any part of the
airplane’s exterior finish with which it comes in contact.

Warning: Anti-icing additives containing EGME or DIEGME are


harmful if inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through the skin,
and will cause eye irritation. Refer to all instructions and warn-
ings regarding toxicity and flammability before using these
materials.

All grades of aviation gasoline (AVGAS) conforming to MIL-G-


5572 specifications are approved for use under emergency
circumstances only. If used during flight, boost pumps should
be activated and airplane altitude should not exceed 18,000
feet. Use of AVGAS is limited to no more than 3500 US gallons
or 50 hours of engine operation during any period between
engine overhaul. For record keeping purposes, 1 hour of en-
gine operation may be considered equivalent to 70 US gallons.

LIMITATIONS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 11-9


Fuel Temperature and Density Limitations

Approved Fuel Types


Jet A, A-1,
A-2, Jet B, Aviation
JP-5, -8 JP-4 Gasoline
Minimum Fuel
Temperature
(Takeoff) -40°C -54°C -54°C
(Starting) -40°C -54°C -54°C
Maximum
Fuel Temperature +50°C +50°C +32°C
Maximum Altitude 43,000’ 43,000’ 18,000’
Fuel Control Density
(Adjustment for
Optimum Engine
Acceleration) 0.81 0.79 0.73

Maximum Fuel Imbalance

Maintaining fuel load symmetry during servicing is unneces-


sary; however, the maximum permissible asymmetry is 200
LBS during normal flight operations and 600 LBS in an
emergency.

Hydraulic Fluid Limitations

The only approved hydraulic fluids are Skydrol 500A, B, B-4, C,


or LD-4 or Hyjet W, Hyjet III, IV, or IVA.

11-10 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY CITATION II CHAPTER 11 12/99


Cessna Citation II Technical Manual

Flight Crew Limitations

Minimum flight crew required for Category I operations is one


pilot who holds a C-500 type rating and who satisfies require-
ments of FAR 61.58 for two-pilot operation, and one copilot who
holds a multi-engine rating and satisfies requirements of FAR
61.55. Category II operation requires a pilot and copilot who
both satisfy requirements of FAR 61.3.

Cabin Limitations

For takeoff and landing, all seats must be upright and outboard.
The seat adjacent to the emergency exit must be fully tracked
toward the rear of the airplane to ensure unobstructed access
to the emergency exit.

To meet smoke detection criteria, the cabin (OVHD) fan must


be operating any time the aft cabin privacy curtain is closed. If
the fan is inoperable, the curtain must remain open unless the
toilet is in use.

Pressurization Differential

Normal (both valves) .............................. 0.0 to 8.8 PSI ±0.1 PSI

Pressurization Source Selector

On airplanes 550-0481 and earlier, 0483 and 0484, operation in


BOTH HI mode is not approved for takeoff, landing or at high
power settings.

LIMITATIONS 12/99 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY 11-11


Icing Limitations

All anti-ice systems must be activated when operating in visible


moisture at indicated outside air temperatures (IOAT) between
+4°C (39°F) and -30°C (-22°F). The surface deice system
should be activated when ice accumulations of at 1/4” to 1/2”
are observed on the leading