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Rotary Kiln Maintenance

Seminar

Kiln Bearings

Kiln Bearings
FLS Bearing Type RA - 1958
Design
FLS Bearing Type RB - 1974
Design
Fuller Bearing

FLS Kiln Support Type RA

FLS kilns have supports with self aligning bearings in


spherical sockets.

FLS Bearing Type RA


Felt Oil
Seal

Oil
Oil Tray
Scraper

Heat
Shield
Oil
Scoop
Thrust
Plate
Oil Level
Gage

Spherical Socket
with Water Jackets

Bronze
Bearing
Liner

FLS Bearing Type RA


Heat Shield

Stop Block

Inspection
Port

Water
Piping

Type RA Oil Seal and Scraper

Felt Seal
Rubber
Oil
Scraper

FLS Bearing Type RA

Inspection Ports
Oil Flow

Oil Flow

Thrust
Contact/Gap

The FLS type A bearing has three inspection ports for


monitoring lubrication and thrust direction.

Oil Tray
Tray
Slope
Adjusting
Screws
Scoops

Oil scoops dip into the sump and carry oil into the oil tray.
Holes in the tray allow oil to drip onto the shaft. The tray
slope is adjustable to permit downhill flow of oil.

FLS Kiln Support Type RB

Thrust Ring

The RB support is similar to the RA support, except there is


no thrust plate and the bearing takes the thrust load on a
thrust ring.

FLS Bearing Type RB


Oil
Scoops

Adjustable
Oil Tray

Oil Seal

End Cover
with
Inspection
Door

Thrust
Ring

Bronze
Bearing Liner
Bearing
Base

Spherical Socket with


Water Jacket

FLS Bearing Type RB


Heat
Shield
Inspection
Port
Oil Tray

Retainer
Clamp
Dowel
Pin

Temperature
Detector
Water
Piping

Type RB Oil seal


Grease
Fitting

The RB bearing has a split rubber oil seal which requires


monthly greasing.

FLS Bearing Type RB

Fuller Kiln Support

The Fuller support has rigid (nonspherical) bearings.

Fuller Bearing
Oil Tray

Inspection
Port

End Cover
Thrust
Washer
Oil Scoop
Oil Level
Indicator
Bronze
Bearing Liner

Bearing Liners

FLS Bearing Liner Details

Liner Clamps

Liners and sockets are clamped to prevent from rotating out


of the housing.

Liner Clearance

Liner side clearances should be checked with a feeler


gage at all four liner corners after installing a new liner.

Bearing Tolerances

Bearing Tolerances
Side
Clearance

Oil
Film

Insufficient side clearance will prevent oil from being drawn


into the bearing. Excessive side clearance will result in the
load being spread over too small an area, with a reduction of
the oil film thickness at the bottom of the shaft.

Checking Liner Contact

Before installation of a new liner, apply Prussian blue to the


shaft to check liner to shaft contact. The liner, installed in the
socket, is lowered onto the shaft and slid back and forth
longitudinally to pick up the dye at the liner contact points.

Checking Liner Contact

A well-fitting liner will pick up the blue only in the


center down its entire length.

Checking Liner Contact

This liner shows less than full contact along its length,
indicating a high spot in its center.

Checking Liner Contact

High spots are removed by scraping the bronze away


at the heavily blued areas.

Bearing Lubrication

Lubrication Film

Tiny surface asperities are kept from contacting


each other by a good oil film.

Hydrodynamic Lubrication

As one surface slides over another, a wave of oil


wedges them apart, creating an oil film.

Hydrodynamic Lubrication

When the shaft rotates, oil is drawn in between the


journal and bearing. The shaft lifts and a lubrication
film is established.

Elasto-hydrodynamic Effect

Under extreme forces, plastic deformation occurs


and surface area in the contact zone increases.
Lubricant viscosity multiplies under extreme
pressure. The result is a thin but stable oil film
capable of keeping surfaces separated.

Boundary Lubrication

When speed or oil viscosity is too low, or when loads


are excessive, surfaces may contact. Boundary
lubrication conditions are said to exist.

EP Additives

Extreme pressure and anti-wear additives in the oil


react to the high heat and pressures at the surfaces
to form a low-friction chemical film, thus preventing
surfaces from seizing.

Oil Film Thickness

L=

Oil film thickness increases with viscosity and speed and


decreases with load. A good film thickness is three times
the surface roughness.

Viscosity

Viscosity, or the resistance of a liquid to flow, is the most


important property of lubricating oil. Oil viscosity changes
drastically with temperature.

Viscosity

Oil viscosity is selected based on equipment operating


temperature range.

Viscosity Index

Viscosity index is a relative measurement of how viscosity


changes with change in temperature. Oil with a higher
viscosity index can maintain its viscosity over a wider
temperature range.

ISO Viscosity Grade


International Standards Organization
designation for oil viscosity grade.
Measured as Centistoke (cSt) at 40 C.
Becoming more common than SSU
(Saybolt Seconds Universal).
Multiply ISO VG by 5 to approximate
SSU at 100 F.

Viscosity
Equivalents

Kiln Bearing Lubricants


Gear oils with EP additives
Viscosity
ISO VG 460
ISO VG 680

ambient temperature
below 5 C
above 5 C

Synthetic oils are preferred over


mineral oils, due to their increased
viscosity index, lower pour point and
effectiveness at high temperatures.

Oil Level Indicator

Check oil level daily. Note that the level in the uphill
bearing indicator is different than in the downhill bearing.
Make sure that the oils scoops dip into the oil.

Inspection of Oil Flow

At start-up, especially after a long shutdown, oil is added


manually to ensure that there is lubrication before rotation
starts.

Bearing Lube Pump

Bearings can be equipped with lube pumps to


provide oil to the tray prior to kiln start-up.

Bearing Circulating Lube System

A circulating lube unit can filter and cool the bearing oil. This
one-pump unit serves one kiln support. It is equipped with four
flow switches, one for each bearing of the two-roller support.

Bearing Temperature RTD

Oil film temperature can be measured with an RTD


(resistance temperature detector), which slides over the
journal as the shaft turns. Temperatures above 80C
indicate a lubrication problem

Hot Bearings
Check cooling water supply.
Check that a bearing heat shield is in place.
Check oil cleanliness.
Check the oil viscosity. Switch to a higher viscosity
(ISO V.G. 1000) if oil temperature exceeds 80-90C.
Use synthetic oil instead of mineral oil.
Check thrust load and reduce by adjusting roller
skew accordingly.
Check liner smoothness. Replace if necessary.
Check shaft smoothness. Re-machine if necessary.
Check liner to shaft contact.

Lubrication Failure

Lubrication Failure

Severe Lubrication Failure

Catastrophic Lubrication Failure

Catastrophic Lubrication Failure

Catastrophic Lubrication Failure

Catastrophic Lubrication Failure

Catastrophic Lubrication Failure

Rigging

Rigging for Fuller Roller Assembly

Rigging for Fuller Bearing


Feed End
Stamp

Bearing End Cover Removal

Bearing inspection can be facilitated by the preparation


of two 24 rods on which to slide off the end cover.

Rigging for FLS Bearing Liner

FLS Kiln Support Type RA


Lifting Eyes for
Cover Only!

Warning! Do not use cover lifting eyes to lift FLS bearings.


They are designed only to lift the covers off the bearing
housing.