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Limitele funciilor elementare

f : R R, f ( x ) c

1) Funcia constant

Aplicaii
lim f ( x ) lim 12
x 2

, c R.

lim f ( x)
xa

c,

x2

lim f ( x) lim 12

a R

lim f ( x) lim 12
x

( a n 0, n {1,2}); f : R R,
2) Funcia polinomial

f ( x) a n x a n 1 x
n

lim (3 x 2 4 x 1)
x2

... a1 x a 0 a i R, i 0, n

n 1

lim f ( x ) f (a ), a R;
, dac (a n 0, n impar ) sau (a n 0, n par );
, nrest .

lim f ( x) lim x n a n
x

lim (3 x 2 4 x 1)

xa

lim (3 x 2 4 x 1)
x

, daca n 0;
, daca n 0.

lim f ( x) lim x n a n
x

f : R \ {x | Q ( x) 0} R,

lim

3) Funcia raional

f ( x)

x2

x 2 3x 1

x4

n 1

P( x) a n x a n 1 x ... a1 x a 0

Q( x) bm x m bm1 x m1 ... b1 x b0
n

x 2 3x 1
lim 3

x 2 x x 3

lim f ( x) f (a), a R, Q (a) 0;


xa

dac x = a i Q(a) = 0 se calculeaz limitele


laterale;

0, dac : n m;
a
lim f ( x ) n , dac : n m;
x
bm
an
( ) n m , dac : n m.

bm

x 2 3x 1
lim

x 5 x 2 2
x 2 3x 1

x 5 x 4
lim

4) Funcia radical

f ( x) a , a 0; lim x .
x lim
x a
x

f : [0, ) R, f ( x)

lim 2 x 1
x 3

;
3
x 3 a ; lim 3 x lim 3 x .
f : R R, f ( x) 3 x lim
x a
x
x

;
n

Teorem Fie irul (x ), cu

x n n , n 1, R.

lim 3x 1
x

0, dac . 0,

lim n 1, dac 0,
n
, dac 0.

lim

2x3 x 1

Atunci

f : R (0, ), f ( x ) b x , b 0, b 1.
5) Funcia exponenial

lim b x b a , a R; lim b x ; lim b x 0.


x a

x 3

Dac 0< b<1:


x

lim 3

lim f ( x) , a 0;
x 0
x 0

x2

x 2 x

lim

log b x b 0, b 1.
f(x) =

lim

0, daca (1,1),
1, daca 1,

lim a n
n
, daca 1,
nuexist , daca 1.

6. Funcia logaritmic f: (0,

2 x 3x

x 3 x 4 x

Teorem Fie irul (a ), cu baza a.

) R,

Dac 1 < b:

Atunci

x 5

2
lim
x 3 7

lim

lim b x b a , a R; lim b x 0; lim b x .


x a

lim 5
x

lim f ( x) f (a ), a (0, );

lim lg x

lim log 1 x

x 0
x 0

x 0
x 0

xa

Dac 0< b<1:

lim f ( x) .

lim log 1 x

lim f ( x) ;
x 0
x 0

Dac 1 < b:

lim f ( x) f (a), a (0, ); lim f ( x) .


x a

lim log 5 x
x 0
x 0

7. Limitele funciilor trigonometrice

lim sin x sin a

f : R [1,1], f ( x) sin x

xa

f : R [1,1], f ( x) cos x

lim cos x cos a


;

lim tgx

lim tgx

lim cos x

lim tgx

lim ctgx

lim ctgx

lim arctgx

xa

lim arccos x arccos a


xa

lim arccos x

lim arccos x
x

1
2

lim arctgx arctga


x a

aR

lim arctgx

lim arctgx

x 3

x 1

lim arcctgx

lim arcctgx lim arcctgx 0


x

1
lim 1
x
x

.
LIMITE REMARCABILE

1
lim 1
x
x

lim 1 t t e

1
lim 1

x
2x

lim 1 sin x x

t 0

x 0

lim

ln 1 x
a x 1
1 lim
ln a, a 0, a 1
x 0
x 0
x
x

x 0

lim

x 1

lim arcctgx

x 3

arcctgx arcctga
f : R (0, ), f ( x) arcctgx lim
xa
aR

2
2

lim arcsin x arcsin a


f :R , ,
2 2 f ( x) arctgx

2
2

x 1

f : [ 1,1] 0, , f ( x) arccos x

lim arcsin x

lim arcsin x


f : [ 1,1] , ,
2 2 f ( x) arcsin x

x 0
x0

lim ctgx lim ctgx


x 0
x 0

lim tgx

lim cos x
,

ctgx ctga
f : R \ {k | k Z } R, f ( x ) ctgx lim
xa

a R \ {k | k R}

x / 2
x / 2

x / 2
x / 2

f : R \ { 2k 1 | k Z } R,
tgx tga
f ( x) tgx lim
xa
2

lim arctgx

lim sin x

xa

a R \ { 2k 1 }
2

lim sin x

ln 1 5 x

e6x 1
lim

x 0
3x

lim

x 0

1 x r 1 r , r R * .

(1 4 x ) 2 1

x 0
x

lim

lim

x 0

sin x
tgx
arcsin x
arctgx
1 lim
1 lim
1 lim
1
x 0
x 0 x
x 0
x 0
x
x
x

lim

sin 4 x

tg3 x

x 0 2 x

lim

arcsin 5 x
arctg 3 x
lim

x 0
x 0
x
2x

lim

Operaii cu limite de funcii

lim f ( x) l1 lim g ( x ) l 2
f,g :E R aE
cR
xa
xa
Teorem Fie
,
i
, iar
,
. Atunci:
lim ( f g )( x) lim f ( x ) lim g ( x) l1 l 2
xa

xa

xa

1)

2)

; Caz exceptat:
lim cf ( x ) c lim f ( x) cl
x a
x a
1

xa

xa

3)

; Caz exceptat:
lim f ( x)
l1
f ( x) xa
lim
lim g ( x)
x a g ( x)
l2
x a

4)

; Cazuri exceptate:
lim | f ( x) | lim f ( x)
xa

5)

0
;
0

l1

x a

lim ( f g )( x) lim f ( x) lim g ( x) l1 l 2


xa

| = | |;

l
lim ( f ( x)) g ( x ) lim f ( x)
f ( x) 0 x E
l1 2
x a
xa
6) dac
,
i dac
are sens, atunci:

lim

x a

lim b g ( x ) b x a

xa

Cazuri particulare:

x a

;
0 0 ; 0 ;1

Cazuri exceptate:

lim g ( x )

f ( x) n lim f ( x) n l1

lim g ( x )
x a

b l2
, b > 0;

l1 2

Aplicaii:

lim (3x 5 ln x)
x 1

1)

; 2)

lim (sin x)(cos x)

5)

; 6)

lim
x

x 1

lim

x 2

3)

1 2 2 2 ... 2 x
x 1 3 3 2 ... 3 x

3x
2 x 1

lim
x

; 10)

x 2 1
4 x 2 x

x 1

x2 4
x2

lim

lim

x
3

9)

2x 2 6
x 5 x 2 x

lim

; 7)

3x
x 1 4 x
lim

4)

x
x 1 x

lim

; 8)

x
x 1 x 2