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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

Table of Contents

1. GUIDED TOUR

3

1.1

Create a Case

3

1.1.1 CASE

7

1.1.2 FILES

7

1.1.3 Time INTEGRATION

9

1.1.4 Global Simulation OPTIONS

10

1.1.5 Pipe Walls and Materials

10

1.1.6 Pipeline Network

13

1.1.7 Heat Transfer

17

1.1.8 Inlet Flowrate

18

1.2

EXTRACTING SIMULATION RESULTS

19

1.2.1 Time Intervals for Simulation Results

19

1.2.2 Output variables

20

1.3

Run the Simulations and View Results

26

1.3.1 Verify the case and run simulation

26

1.3.2 Select units

28

1.3.3 Profile plots in OLGA

Viewing

29

1.3.4 Trend plots in OLGA

Viewing

34

1.4

Effect

of

flowrate change

35

2. EXERCISE

1:

OIL PRODUCTION AND SLUGGING

38

2.1 The

story

38

2.2 The data

38

2.3 The task

39

2.4 Preliminary Pipeline Sizing

39

2.4.1 Preparing the simulation cases

40

2.4.2 Pipeline Diameter: A Parametric Study

Minimum

55

2.4.3 Insulation Thickness: A Parametric Study

Minimum

61

2.5 Terrain Slugging Normal Operation

63

2.5.1 Preparing the simulation cases for Terrain Slugging

64

2.5.2 Simulation runs for various flowrates

69

2.5.3 Interactive simulations in OLGA interface (OPTIONAL)69

2.6 Terrain Slugging Mitigation Alternatives

72

2.6.1 Choking

Topsides

72

2.6.2 Gas Lift

 

75

2.7 Production Ramp-up

76

2.8 Hydrodynamic slugging

78

2.8.1 Slugtracking

78

2.8.2 Liquid Surge Volume

80

2.8.3 Slug Length

 

83

2.8.4 Visualisation of Slugging in 3D

84

3. EXERCISE 2: PVTSIM FLUID PROPERTIES

85

3.1 Gas Condensate Fluid Property File

86

3.2 Harthun Fluid Property File

90

3.3 Mixing condensate and water

91

4. EXERCISE 3: PIPELINE

SHUT-IN AND START-UP

93

4.1

Add the wellbore to the existing model

93

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

4.1.1 Define formation for the wellbore

94

4.1.2 Add a flowline to represent the wellbore

94

4.1.3 Heat transfer

 

96

4.1.4 Define the WELL keyword

97

4.1.5 Final OLGA model preparations

99

4.2 Shutdown Simulations

 

99

4.2.1 Valve Scheduling

99

4.2.2 Hydratecheck

101

4.2.3 Insulation requirements for hydrate prevention

103

4.3 Start-up Simulations

 

104

4.4 Depressurisation Simulations (OPTIONAL)

105

5. EXERCISE 4: GAS CONDENSATE PIPELINE

109

5.1 Prepare

the base case

109

5.2 Geometry Modification

 

110

5.3 Steady State Simulations

115

5.4 Pigging Simulations

116

5.4.1 Defining PIG in

OLGA

116

5.4.2 Fluid SOURCE scheduling

117

5.4.3 Simulation time and output

118

5.4.4 Run OLGA simulation and view results

118

5.5 Turndown Ramp-up (Optional)

120

6. EXERCISE 5: THREE PHASE FLOW WATER MODULE

121

7. EXERCISE 6: YOU GET A FAX RESULTS WITHIN 2 HOURS

123

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

1. GUIDED TOUR

This exercise will guide you through the actions required to create and run a simple two-phase flow transient pipe simulation using OLGA in a step-by-step manner. We shall start from a basic case since hardly anyone needs to build a case from scratch.

Double

click

on

anyone needs to build a case from scratch. Double click on on the desktop to initiate

on

the

desktop

to

initiate

the

Graphical

User

Interface

(GUI).

the desktop to initiate the Graphical User Interface (GUI). 1.1 Create a Case With OLGA you

1.1 Create a Case

With OLGA you may work with a single simulation case in the GUI or you may gather several cases under a common Project.

In this course, you will work in the predefined folder on the desktop where you just stored the files from the USB stick.

Click Browse to locate and select:

DesktopFA Exercises OLGA 7.2 Guided Tour

select: Desktop  FA Exercises OLGA 7.2  Guided Tour Select the Basic Case (first on

Select the Basic Case (first on the carousel) and then click Create:

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

This will create a complete case labelled Basic.opi, located in the folder C:\Users\User1\Desktop\FA Exercises OLGA 7.2\Guided Tour

C:\Users\User1\Desktop\FA Exercises OLGA 7.2\Guided Tour You will now also see the case label “Basic” on the

You will now also see the case label “Basic” on the top bar of the main GUI window.

label “Basic” on the top bar of the main GUI window. By default OLGA makes a

By default OLGA makes a case container (a Project) with the same label as the case.

A Project file has the extension .opp i.e. the project file name is Basic.opp in this case. By opening

a project file, all other associated case files will also open. However, if a project file should be

deleted, the case files are maintained.

file should be deleted, the case files are maintained. When working in the OLGA GUI, ensure

When working in the OLGA GUI, ensure to save your case regularly.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises By clicking on the Case label (Basic), you should see

By clicking on the Case label (Basic), you should see the case main window and you may expand/collapse the case by clicking the (+)/(-) squares.

expand/collapse the case by clicking the (+)/(-) squares. The main OLGA window (also known as the

The main OLGA window (also known as the Canvas) contains the graphic view of OLGA 7 model. The window pane to the left is called “Model View” described by a number of KEYWORDs. Each element (keyword) in the Model View has a Properties window (normally to the right).

Essentially, the main structure of the model is made in the Model View, while the detailled modelling takes place in the Properties windows.

structure of the model is made in the Model View , while the detailled modelling takes
structure of the model is made in the Model View , while the detailled modelling takes

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structure of the model is made in the Model View , while the detailled modelling takes

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

You can learn more about each keyword by selecting it (click on it) and pressing F1. A user manual Help Window will appear.

For example, if you click on the keyword INTEGRATION and F1, the User Manual should open on the relevant page:

and F1, the User Manual should open on the relevant page: You may want to take

You may want to take a closer look at the case and the concept of Project.

Select the main window by clicking:

File Help OLGA Help

the main window by clicking: File  Help  OLGA Help Click on “Contents”  “Graphical

Click on “Contents” “Graphical User Interface (GUI)” ”Introduction to projects and cases”.

Help Click on “Contents”  “Graphical User Interface (GUI)”  ”Introduction to projects and cases”. 6

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

CHANGE THE CASE NAME

In order to re-label the Basic case to “Oil Case.opi”, right-click on the case label and select Save Case Asto give the new file name:

and select “ Save Case As ” to give the new file name: The following steps

The following steps will guide you through the process to modify the various model elements and make a simple OLGA model.

1.1.1 CASE

Expand Case Definition and Select CASE in the Model View window. Now, complete the case information in the Properties window on the right hand side of the screen.

Properties window on the right hand side of the screen. 1.1.2 FILES We shall now change

1.1.2 FILES

We shall now change the fluid table file:

Select FILES in the Model View window.

hand side of the screen. 1.1.2 FILES We shall now change the fluid table file: Select

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hand side of the screen. 1.1.2 FILES We shall now change the fluid table file: Select
hand side of the screen. 1.1.2 FILES We shall now change the fluid table file: Select

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

. Browse for the file {tour-oil.tab} in

the Tour directory (FA Exercises OLGA 7.2\Guided Tour) and click “Open”. Select ./3phase.tab and

click Remove to delete it from the list. Note that a fluid file may reside in any folder.

Select the PVTFILE box in the Properties window and click on

the PVTFILE box in the Properties window and click on The error indicator at the bottom
the PVTFILE box in the Properties window and click on The error indicator at the bottom

The error indicator at the bottom right of the main page should now turn RED, indicating the simulation is not ready to run.

now turn RED, indicating the simulation is not ready to run. Each fluid file has one

Each fluid file has one or more distinct fluid label(s), which define what fluids are present in the table file (more on this later). When defining fluids in OLGA system, these fluid labels are referred to, in order to indicate which fluid is present in the respective system component(s). You have just changed the fluid file; therefore, the fluid label that OLGA refers to needs changing. The fluid labels are specified for all nodes and branches (FLOWPATH) of the Geometry. In this case, we shall work with one fluid label only, namely Label “1”. Note that the initial case we started from used “Fluid 1”. 1 Select BRANCH in the Model View to be able to switch FLUID to “1” in the Properties window:

to switch FLUID to “1” in the Properties window: Fluid tables in this course are made
to switch FLUID to “1” in the Properties window: Fluid tables in this course are made

Fluid tables in this course are made using a 3 rd party software called PVTsim. In this program, you may specify fluid labels – or leave it to the program to label the fluids. In that case, the first fluid in the table is given the label “1”, the next label “2” and so on.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

We need to do the same for the 2 nodes (i.e. change fluid). The procedure is as follows:

Click on the INLET node in the Model View

is as follows: Click on the INLET node in the Model View In Properties Window, scroll
is as follows: Click on the INLET node in the Model View In Properties Window, scroll

In Properties Window, scroll down to find Pressure Conditions and expand to locate the FLUID keyword and select the proper label (“1”).

the FLUID keyword and select the proper label (“1”). Do the same with OUTLET node. 1.1.3
the FLUID keyword and select the proper label (“1”). Do the same with OUTLET node. 1.1.3

Do the same with OUTLET node.

1.1.3 Time INTEGRATION

Select INTEGRATION in the Model View window and enter the data below in the Properties Window for the INTEGRATION keyword.

STARTTIME

= 0 s

ENDTIME

= 5 h

DTSTART

= 0.01 s

MINDT

= 0.01 s

MAXDT

= 20 s

The correct time-unit should ideally be selected before the data is entered. The value will be automatically converted when the unit is changed.

Note that you can override the time unit conversion by holding down the <Shift> key while changing the unit.

Also note that the initial time step (DTSTART) cannot be outside the maximum and minimum time steps specified (MAXDT and MINDT).

Refer to the descriptions at the bottom of the Properties Window for more information on each item (key).

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and MINDT ). Refer to the descriptions at the bottom of the Properties Window for more
and MINDT ). Refer to the descriptions at the bottom of the Properties Window for more

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

1.1.4 Global Simulation OPTIONS

Select OPTIONS: we use the default values for the current case.

OPTIONS: we use the default values for the current case. OPTIONS define the global calculation options

OPTIONS define the global calculation options used in the simulation; for example, the methods used to calculate the fluid temperature (temperature profiles). You may also select to use the standard OLGA flow model or the OLGA HD model (developed by SPT Group, sponsored by a number of oil companies in the Horizon project.)

In this course you will modify the TEMPERATURE option, but for the Guided Tour we leave them at default.

1.1.5 Pipe Walls and Materials

Wall Materials

at default. 1.1.5 Pipe Walls and Materials Wall Materials The materials surrounding the fluid in the

The materials surrounding the fluid in the pipe such as pipe wall, insulation, concrete, soil, etc must be specified for heat transfer calculations. That is to calculate the heat transfer coefficient and the accumulated heat during a cool-down or shut-in scenario.

Walls and Wall Materials are pre-specified in the Basic model. Therefore, as a first step, right click on WALL_2 to delete it as shown below.

are pre-specified in the Basic model. Therefore, as a first step, right click on WALL_2 to
are pre-specified in the Basic model. Therefore, as a first step, right click on WALL_2 to

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

Take a look at the properties of the two materials in the Library MATER-1 and MATER-2. Which material would dominate the heat exchange to the surroundings and which would dominate the rate of cool-down during a shut-in?

To make the model easier to read, change the labels of the predefined materials:

Change MATER-1 to “Steel” and MATER-2 to “Concrete”. The instructions for this are given below:

In Model View, navigate to Library MATERIAL and in Properties window, change the LABEL as shown.

and in Properties window, change the LABEL as shown. Note that you can also import materials
and in Properties window, change the LABEL as shown. Note that you can also import materials

Note that you can also import materials from a predefined list in the Library. Simply right-click on Library in the Model View window as below and select “Import from user’s library”.

as below and select “Import from user’s library”. Moreover you may add new “customised” materials with
as below and select “Import from user’s library”. Moreover you may add new “customised” materials with

Moreover you may add new “customised” materials with relevant properties to the user’s library:

Right-click on a MATERIAL and select “Add to user’s library”. These materials will then be available when you use OLGA again (as the same user).

“Add to user’s library” . These materials will then be available when you use OLGA again

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

Walls

As you have now changed the MATERIAL labels in the model, we need to update these in the Wall definitions.

Select WALL-1 in Model View and click on the selection icon shown in the red box on the right hand side. A new window pops up:

in the red box on the right hand side. A new window pops up: In the
in the red box on the right hand side. A new window pops up: In the

In the Select MATERIAL data for [WALL] window, select all the material labels under Items selected on the right side of the window. Then, click the left arrow button (<) to move them to Items available for selection: on the left side of the window (note: sometimes the materials get removed from the window if they no longer exist in the OLGA case)

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

Then, highlight Steel under the “Items available for selection” pane and click on the right arrow (>) to substitute MATER-1. Do the same procedure for Concrete by clicking on (>) to substitute MATER-2. Note that you have to create two instances of Concrete to fully replace MATER-2.

The two layers of Concrete coating are specified in order to avoid too big jumps in the wall thickness discretisation, to improve the accuracy of the numerical solution.

Click on the Property Page icon in the WALL-1 Properties Window to open up the window below. Check that your model data are OK.

open up the window below. Check that your model data are OK. 1.1.6 Pipeline Network The

1.1.6 Pipeline Network

Check that your model data are OK. 1.1.6 Pipeline Network The next step is to model

The next step is to model the pipeline profile in more details. We shall build a simple pipeline, which is 1200m long (along the pipe) with a total elevation of 1.5 m.

In the Model View window under Flow Component, navigate to FLOWPATH Piping and choose

PIPE-1.

navigate to FLOWPATH  Piping and choose PIPE-1. Right click on PIPE-1, select Copy and then,

Right click on PIPE-1, select Copy and then, Paste twice to create two new Pipes.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises In the PIPE-1 Properties window, change: ELEVATION = 0 m
FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises In the PIPE-1 Properties window, change: ELEVATION = 0 m

In the PIPE-1 Properties window, change:

ELEVATION

= 0 m

ROUGHNESS

= 2.8e-005 m

change: ELEVATION = 0 m ROUGHNESS = 2.8e-005 m Change elevations of PIPE-2 to 1.5 m

Change elevations of PIPE-2 to 1.5 m and PIPE-3 to 0m following the same procedure as above (remember to change ROUGHNESS to 2.8e-005m for these pipes)

In the main window (also known as Canvas), double-click on the PIPELINE.

window (also known as Canvas), double-click on the PIPELINE. The GEOMETRY editor will appear, showing the

The GEOMETRY editor will appear, showing the actual pipe profile. The green squares indicate the numerical pipe sections (boundaries).

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises To view the main properties of the pipeline and its

To view the main properties of the pipeline and its geometry, click the second tab in the Geometry Editor window (Oil Case: GEOM-1 tab).

tab in the Geometry Editor window (Oil Case: GEOM-1 tab). From the Geometry editor main menu,

From the Geometry editor main menu, select File Exit. Make sure to click confirmation windows.

NO

in both

In the Model View window under Flow Component, choose NODE : INLET, which is of TYPE CLOSED. Note that there is no mass or energy transfer across a CLOSED node.

In the NODE:OUTLET Properties window, complete these steps:

a. Verify that the node TYPE is PRESSURE.

b. Expand Pressure Conditions and verify the information entered for those options.

Observe that you always must specify a temperature for this type of node. This is needed in the event that fluid flows from the (pressure) node into the pipeline.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises These three buttons at the top of the Properties window,

These three buttons at the top of the Properties window, from left to right respectively, let you sort the input alphabetically, in its original format, or according to the information entered (State).

format, or according to the information entered (State). Change the unit of PRESSURE to bara by

Change the unit of PRESSURE to bara by clicking the unit field and selecting from the unit list:

entered (State). Change the unit of PRESSURE to bara by clicking the unit field and selecting

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

1.1.7 Heat Transfer

In this exercise, you will give input parameters for calculating the heat transfer from pipe wall to the surrounding area (ambient).

In the Model View window under Flow Component, navigate to:

FLOWPATH:PIPELINE

HEATTRANS-1

Boundary

and

Initial

Conditions

and

choose

HEATTRANSFER

:

Boundary and Initial Conditions and choose HEATTRANSFER : In the HEATTRANSFER Properties window, enter these values

In the HEATTRANSFER Properties window, enter these values for the ambient temperature options.

TAMBIENT = 50 F HAMBIENT = 8 W/m²/C 2

options. TAMBIENT = 50 F HAMBIENT = 8 W/m²/C 2 2 HAMBIENT is the heat transfer

2 HAMBIENT is the heat transfer coefficient for the external film, i.e. from the outside wall layer to the

ambient temperature, TAMBIENT.

The external film coefficient can also be calculated by specifying the external

fluid, (e.g. air or water), and fluid velocity under the Calculated heat transfer coefficient.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

1.1.8 Inlet Flowrate

The flowrate in this case is a constant mass flow, specified as a SOURCE. To view the Properties Window for SOURCE-1, double click on SOURCE-1 in the main canvas.

for SOURCE-1, double click on SOURCE-1 in the main canvas. In the SOURCE:SOURCE-1 Properties window, make

In the SOURCE:SOURCE-1 Properties window, make the following changes:

MASSFLOW

TEMPERATURE

= 4 kg/s = 60° C.

following changes: MASSFLOW TEMPERATURE = 4 kg/s = 60° C. Observe that GASFRACTION = -1. This

Observe that GASFRACTION = -1. This means the fluid is injected at the equilibrium gas mass fraction at the pressure and temperature conditions of the section 3 .

3 Note that the pressure does not have to be specified. In the event that the pressure is specified, OLGA will perform an adiabatic flash of the fluids from the specified pressure and temperature to the pressure in the first pipe section to establish the actual temperature.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

1.2 EXTRACTING SIMULATION RESULTS

The model is ready to run, but we would like to modify the set of output variables of interest.

Since OLGA is a transient program, it calculates all output variables at each integration time-step for each pipe section. Normally, you do not need all these data for your evaluations and reporting. Therefore, you must specify which variables you want to see and how often you need to record them. Moreover, you must think about the presentation format that you want to apply.

The temporal parameters for result production are specified under the global "Output" specification (at the bottom of the model view).

1.2.1 Time Intervals for Simulation Results 4

In this part of the exercise, you will learn how to define time intervals for data recording in various forms of OLGA results.

OUTPUT file

OLGA produces an output text file (*.out) that contains various information and simulation results.

In the Model View window, expand Output level and choose the OUTPUT key. In the Properties window, enter 5 hours for DTOUT. This variable defines how often data are written to the output text file. In this exercise, all variables specified under OUTPUTDATA (defined later) will be saved every 5 hours of simulation time to the output file.

saved every 5 hours of simulation time to the output file. PROFILE In the Model View,

PROFILE

every 5 hours of simulation time to the output file. PROFILE In the Model View, under

In the Model View, under the Output level, select PROFILE and specify the time interval (DTPLOT) to be 10 minutes in the Properties window.

This key defines how often profile variables (specified under PROFILEDATA later on) are written to the profile file (*.ppl). Results are printed at each time interval to the profile file, which is used by the

4 We shall use only the most common output formats in this exercise.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

OLGA plotting package to produce profile plots. This means that each profile variable is plotted against Pipeline Length along the FLOWPATH at all defined time intervals.

Length along the FLOWPATH at all defined time intervals. TREND In the Model View, under the

TREND

along the FLOWPATH at all defined time intervals. TREND In the Model View, under the Output

In the Model View, under the Output level, select TREND and specify the time interval (DTPLOT) to be 10 seconds in the Properties window.

This key defines how often trend variables (specified under TRENDDATA later on) are written to the trend file (*.tpl). This file can be read by the OLGA plotting package to produce trend plots. In other words, each variable is defined at specific positions along the FLOWPATH and you plot the variation of the variable against time at those positions.

variation of the variable against time at those positions. 1.2.2 Output variables You must define the

1.2.2 Output variables

against time at those positions. 1.2.2 Output variables You must define the output variables in order

You must define the output variables in order to extract useful information from your simulation runs. Since you created a case from a predefined and complete case template, you need to make some modifications.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

Note that OLGA calculates several hundred output variables. If you want to add variables to a model you have already run, you will need to re-run the simulation to see the results with the new variables. Try to consider what you really need before adding too many variables.

Profile Plots

In the Model View window under Flow Component, navigate to:

FLOWPATH:PIPELINE Output PROFILEDATA.

to: FLOWPATH:PIPELINE  Output  PROFILEDATA . In the Properties window, click the ellipses button for
to: FLOWPATH:PIPELINE  Output  PROFILEDATA . In the Properties window, click the ellipses button for
to: FLOWPATH:PIPELINE  Output  PROFILEDATA . In the Properties window, click the ellipses button for

In the Properties window, click the ellipses button for the VARIABLE field. This will open up Select output variables window.

field. This will open up Select output variables window. This window displays and lists all of

This window displays and lists all of the variables that are specified currently as well as those that are available for selection. The variables are listed alphabetically by their label. Select the checkbox at the top of the window to display the variables already specified to the top of the list.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises Uncheck the Q2 variable (Overall heat transfer coefficient ) from

Uncheck the Q2 variable (Overall heat transfer coefficient ) from the selection list.

You also can list the variables by group or subgroup by clicking on the Group or Sub Group column heading in the Select output variables window.

Alternatively, you can search for variables of interest by typing in the <Search> field in the Select output variables window. The Search feature covers all variables’ Name, Group, Sub Group and description.

Following one of the above methods, locate and select (check) the additional Boundary variables:

UG (Gas Velocity)

UL (Liquid Velocity)

USG (Superficial Gas Velocity)

USL (Superficial Total Liquid Film Velocity)

 UL (Liquid Velocity)  USG (Superficial Gas Velocity)  USL (Superficial Total Liquid Film Velocity)

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

Click OK and the Properties window should now show all the profile output variables specified:

should now show all the profile output variables specified: Note that it is always possible to

Note that it is always possible to enter several output statements (i.e. PROFILEDATA, OUTPUTDATA, TRENDDATA or SERVERDATA) for each Flowpath. To add a new output statement. To add a new output statement, follow the steps below:

In the Model View, right-click on Output under the FLOWPATH and add either PROFILEDATA, OUTPUTDATA, TRENDDATA or SERVERDATA. A new variable of the type that you selected will be displayed in the Model View with a number appended to the variable name, for example

TRENDDATA[2].

appended to the variable name, for example TRENDDATA[2]. Note that one can also define PROFILEDATA in

Note that one can also define PROFILEDATA in the Output level directly under the OLGA case name, known as Case Level output statement, for it to apply to the entire case. Therefore, all the variables added to the PROFILE statements are recorded for all the existing branches.

Trend Plots

By following these steps, you will instruct OLGA to record the trend data for various points along the pipeline, such as inlet and outlet.

Under the Flowpath Output, delete the SERVERDATA specifications 5 .

Output, delete the SERVERDATA specifications 5 . 5 These are used for interactive plotting while running

5 These are used for interactive plotting while running a case. We will come back to this later.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

Select the TRENDDATA statement under the FLOWPATH.

Select the TRENDDATA statement under the FLOWPATH . In the TRENDDATA Properties window, complete these steps:

In the TRENDDATA Properties window, complete these steps:

a. Remove the default values in the VARIABLE field, except PT. You can do this by simply

highlighting and deleting them from the list. Moreover, the short codes for each variable can be typed in

directly in the VARIABLE field.

variable can be typed in directly in the VARIABLE field. b. In the PIPE field, ensure

b. In the PIPE field, ensure PIPE-1 is selected as below. Also make sure in the SECTION field,

SECTION 1 is selected.

make sure in the SECTION field, SECTION 1 is selected. Add two new TRENDDATA specifications for

Add two new TRENDDATA specifications for the pipeline outlet by following these steps:

In the Model View, navigate to FLOWPATH Output, right-click and add a new TRENDDATA. Repeat this step to add a second TRENDDATA parameter.

Repeat this step to add a second TRENDDATA parameter. In the first newly added TRENDDATA ,

In the first newly added TRENDDATA, specify temperature (TM) at the outlet of the pipeline. To enable this, you need to have the following entries in the Properties window:

VARIABLE

= TM

PIPE

= PIPE-3

SECTION

= 10

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

In order to add/change the PIPE entry, click the ellipses button in PIPE field in the Properties window. In the Select Pipe window, under Items available for selection, choose PIPE-3 and click the right arrow button to move it under Items selected. To close the window, click ok to confirm the pipe selection.

To close the window, click ok to confirm the pipe selection. The Properties window should now

The Properties window should now look like this:

selection. The Properties window should now look like this: Following the same procedure, the trends for

Following the same procedure, the trends for Total Mass flowrate (GT), Total Gas Volume flowrate (QG) and Total Liquid Volume flowrate (QLT) at the pipeline outlet can be specified.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

Specify the following in the last TRENDDATA field:

VARIABLE

= GT, QG, QLT

PIPE

= PIPE-3

SECTION

= 11

You may have noticed the difference in SECTION numbers in the two TRENDDATA for pipeline outlet. As you know, PIPE-3 has 10 sections and 11 section-boundaries. For temperature (TM) which is a volume variable, you have to choose the last section. For boundary variables such as mass or volume flow rates (in this case GT, QG and QLT), you need to specify the last section- boundary in the pipe.

Note

TRENDDATA.

that

it

is

advisable

to

define

volume

variables

and

boundary

variables

in

separate

As the final step, it is recommended to monitor the liquid volume fraction in the branch/FLOWPATH variable LIQCFR.

In the Model View, navigate to Output TRENDDATA[1] and add LIQCFR in the Properties window to the existing list of variables.

in the Properties window to the existing list of variables. Note that this TRENDDATA is located
in the Properties window to the existing list of variables. Note that this TRENDDATA is located

Note that this TRENDDATA is located in the Output level directly under the OLGA case name, known as Case Level output statement as it applies to the entire case. Therefore, all the variables added to any of the output statements (e.g. PROFILEDATA, TRENDDATA) are recorded for the entire case. In this case, LIQCFR is plotted for all the existing branches.

The Case Level output statements are different from the previous output statements under the FLOWPATH, where trends and profiles were recorded for that specific FLOWPATH only. Hence, any output statements added under FLOWPATH are known as Branch Level.

When specifying a Case Level TRENDDATA, only variables that do not belong to a specific position (i.e. do not need a defined PIPE and SECTION) in a FLOWPATH can be specified. For example, as LIQCFR applies to the entire branch, it can be added to the Case Level TRENDDATA.

1.3 Run the Simulations and View Results

1.3.1 Verify the case and run simulation

Confirm that the simulation is ready to be run by taking one of these actions:

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

Click on Verify icon in the toolbar of the OLGA main window.

Click F7

icon in the toolbar of the OLGA main window.  Click F7 If the model is

If the model is verified successfully, the message “Verification succeeded” displays in the Output window and the green bar at the bottom of the screen turns green displaying “Ready to Simulate” as below. Note that Output window is located at the bottom of the screen as shown.

window is located at the bottom of the screen as shown. If there are any errors,

If there are any errors, you can go directly to the error by clicking on the arrow icon error message in the Output window.

on the arrow icon error message in the Output window. next to the Once you have

next to the

Once you have checked the model, click on the Run simulation icon in the toolbar or press F5 to run the simulation in interactive mode (more on this feature later).

in interactive mode (more on this feature later). Successful completion of the simulation will be indicated

Successful completion of the simulation will be indicated by the following message in the Output window:

NORMAL STOP IN EXECUTION

completion of the simulation will be indicated by the following message in the Output window: NORMAL

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

Alternatively, it is also possible to run the simulation in batch mode, whereby a DOS window pops up with information on the simulation status and progress.

up with information on the simulation status and progress. CONGRATULATIONS, you have now built your first
up with information on the simulation status and progress. CONGRATULATIONS, you have now built your first

CONGRATULATIONS, you have now built your first OLGA simulation case.

1.3.2 Select units

If you have not selected your preferred unit system, you can do so before looking at the results of the simulation.

From the OLGA main menu, select File Options

In the Application options window, navigate to Default Units tab.

You may select from pre-defined unit systems or make your own unit set(s) which you can save for re-use. For these exercises, either of the Metric or the OilField system should be relevant.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises 1.3.3 Viewing Profile plots in OLGA A profile plot gives
FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises 1.3.3 Viewing Profile plots in OLGA A profile plot gives

1.3.3 Viewing Profile plots in OLGA

A profile plot gives the values of a variable along the entire length of a particular flowpath at specific points in time. In this exercise, we have recorded the data for default profile variables. These variables have been put in the model in the branch level PROFILEDATA as seen below:

default profile variables. These variables have been put in the model in the branch level PROFILEDATA
default profile variables. These variables have been put in the model in the branch level PROFILEDATA

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

The simulation profile plots may be viewed by selecting the Profile Plot icon in the toolbar:

be viewed by selecting the Profile Plot icon in the toolbar: The Select variables window displays,

The Select variables window displays, allowing you to choose the variables that you wish to plot:

allowing you to choose the variables that you wish to plot: In the Select variables window,

In the Select variables window, select the following variables:

Geometry (pipeline profile)

HOL (liquid hold-up, defined as liquid volume fraction in the pipeline)

PT (pressure)

TM (temperature)

The units for plots may also be changed in this window by selecting the unit and choosing from the drop down menu as below:

30

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises Note that there are a number of filters available to

Note that there are a number of filters available to screen out the cases, variables or branches to ease the variable selection process. For example, you can choose which variables to view in the main window by selecting/de-selecting the variables in the Green box below. In the Blue box, you can choose to view variables belonging to a specific branch in your case.

You have the option of adding other profile files (*.ppl files) by choosing Add files in the red box above.

(*.ppl files) by choosing Add files in the red box above. Once you have chosen the

Once you have chosen the variables above, click OK in Select variables window to view the results as below:

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises View changes to the profile variables over time by selecting

View changes to the profile variables over time by selecting the black arrow (Play button) in the replay toolbar at the bottom of the plot. Replay speed can also be varied by specifying it in terms of frames per second (fps) in the reply toolbar. Note that real speed will depend somewhat on computer capacity and size of the actual graph. You may also use the slide to view changes with time.

graph. You may also use the slide to view changes with time. To view the exact

To view the exact values of the plot variables, take one of these actions:

Right-click on the graph and select View Track Values.

Click the Track Values button

select View  Track Values .  Click the Track Values button from the toolbar at

from the toolbar at the top of the Profile window.

select View  Track Values .  Click the Track Values button from the toolbar at

32

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

A window opens and displays the values for each variable in the graph, depending on the position of the mouse pointer. Move the mouse pointer along the pipeline length to observe the change in the value tracker. By left-clicking on a particular point, the variable values for that specific pipeline length will appear on a separate window on the left hand side of the profile (See below).

To disable the value tracker and remove it from the graph, simply right-click on the graph.

remove it from the graph, simply right-click on the graph. The values can be copied/pasted into

The values can be copied/pasted into an open Excel-worksheet in the following two methods:

To copy all profile data from the graph, Right-click on any part of the Profile window and select:

Edit Copy Copy Data

profile data from the graph, Right-click on any part of the Profile window and select: Edit

33

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

To copy specific tracked values in the chosen value box, right-click on the value box and select Copy all data as below

on the value box and select Copy all data as below Individual graphs can be turned

Individual graphs can be turned on and off by selecting (or deselecting) the tick in the legend. There are also several features which may be accessed by right clicking in the OLGA Graph.

1.3.4 Viewing Trend plots in OLGA

A trend plot gives the values of a variable as a function of time. This value could be recorded at a specific location, could apply to the entire branch or be related to the entire simulation case (such as VOLGBL, HT which will be covered later on.) The simulation trend plots may be viewed by selecting the Trend Plot icon in the toolbar:

be viewed by selecting the Trend Plot icon in the toolbar: The Select variables window will

The Select variables window will appear, similar to when plotting Profile graphs. Select the following variables both at the outlet of the pipe.

Temperature (TM) at the outlet of the pipe

Total liquid volumetric flowrate (QLT) at the outlet of the pipe.

Change the temperature unit to °C by following the procedures in the previous section.

The resulting graph is presented below. Note that although the Total Liquid flowrate coming out of the pipeline has reached a stable condition, the temperature seems to be changing slightly, which is due to the highly detailed scale of the Temperature axis.

As with the Profile Plot, there are a number of additional graphing features that you can access through the pop-up menus when you right-click on the graph.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises 1.4 Effect of flowrate change In this exercise, you investigate

1.4 Effect of flowrate change

In this exercise, you investigate the effect of changing the flowrate. You will reduce the mass flowrate entering the flowpath from 4 kg/s to 0.25 kg/s and compare the results. To do this, you will create a new case based on the original case.

To make a new case, based on an existing case select the Oil Case that you created previously in the Model View window. Right-click and select Duplicate Case.

case select the Oil Case that you created previously in the Model View window. Right-click and

35

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

In the Duplicate case window, you can enter Turndown Case.opi as the case name and click Save. The new case will display in the Model View window.

Save. The new case will display in the Model View window. To change the mass rate

To change the mass rate for Turndown Case, double click on SOURCE in the main canvas, change the MASSFLOW to 0.25 kg/s in the Properties window and run the case.

Plot the total liquid volume flowrate at the outlet of the flowline for both cases to compare the results. Add the *.tpl file for the first case (Oil Case.tpl) in the selection window.

for both cases to compare the results. Add the *.tpl file for the first case (Oil

36

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises Now try repeating this last exercise, changing the fluid file

Now try repeating this last exercise, changing the fluid file to the file tour-gas.tab with the mass flowrate at 4 kg/s to see the effect.

You are encouraged to look into some of the additional options available that allow the layout to be customised by changing the default units, the screen appearance, auto-save and so on. These options are accessed via:

FILE Options

Additional functionality in the GUI includes the ability to write an input report which summarises the model. This is accessed from Toolbar icon highlighted below:

ability to write an input report which summarises the model. This is accessed from Toolbar icon

.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

2.

EXERCISE 1: OIL PRODUCTION AND SLUGGING

2.1

The story

The Harthun field has recently been discovered, located south of the existing Wigoth Alfa platform.

It is proposed to develop Harthun via a single subsea wellhead and pipeline to the Wigoth Alfa

platform to assess the full field potential during an extended test phase, prior to full field

development. There is an existing riser on Wigoth Alfa which was pre-installed during the construction phase of the platform to accommodate future sub-sea field developments.

Wigoth Alpha 300 m 255 m Harthun 4.3 km
Wigoth Alpha
300 m
255 m
Harthun
4.3 km

Recent topsides modifications on Wigoth Alfa involving the installation of multiphase well test meters has allowed the existing Test Separator to be used as a dedicated Harthun production separator. The Test Separator operating pressure is to be maintained constant to allow the gas from Harthun to be fed to the export compression system.

2.2 The data

The Harthun wellhead is located on the seabed in a water depth of 255 m and is 4.3 km away from

the Wigoth Alfa riser base. The Wigoth Alfa platform stands in 270 m of water with the production deck located 30 m above sea level. The riser at Wigoth Alfa is fully vertical and is 300 m long with a 4 inch diameter. The riser has an internal diameter of 0.1 m with a steel wall thickness of 7.5 mm and no insulation. There is a 100 m horizontal top-side pipe with the same properties as the riser.

A common pipe roughness is assumed to be 0.028 mm.

The Test Separator pressure is constant at 50 bara.

It can be assumed that the minimum required arrival temperature at Wigoth Alfa is 27°C (to avoid

wax formation). The maximum allowable pipeline inlet pressure is 80 bara at a flowrate of 15 kg/s.

The flowing wellhead temperature is assumed to be constant at 62°C.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

The properties of pipe steel and insulation are the following:

     

Thermal

Material

Density

[kg/m³]

Specific Heat

[J/kg/K]

Conductivity

[W/m/K]

Steel

7850

500

50

Insulation

1000

1500

0.135

The minimum ambient temperature can be assumed to be 6°C. The ambient heat transfer coefficient, (from the outside of the pipe structure to the surroundings), is 6.5 W/m²/C for the entire pipeline-riser system - in the absence of any other data.

In the absence of any fluid compositions, the fluid file (Wigoth.tab) generated for Wigoth shall be used (the fluid from Harthun is thought to be very similar to the Wigoth well stream fluid).

2.3 The task

You are required to perform a study into the technical viability of producing Harthun over Wigoth Alfa, taking account of the following:

Pipeline size (inner diameter) and insulation required

Production instabilities during well testing as well as full production

In

mitigation

case

of

instabilities,

you

will

evaluate

various

maximum liquid surge volumes into the separator

alternatives

and

estimate

Note that in Exercise 3, you will extend the model you make here and study:

Insulation requirements during a shut-down/cool-down

Establish any limitations due to the existing topsides facilities during both normal and transient operations

2.4 Preliminary Pipeline Sizing

The first task is to establish the pipeline size and insulation level required to achieve the desired production and turndown rates. This can be done by performing a series of steady state simulations. However, there is very little information currently available for the system; for example, there is no given seabed profile. Consequently, you will need to assume a rough pipeline profile.

As part of this exercise, you will perform steady state simulations for two flowrates, specifically 5 kg/s and 15 kg/s. The lower flowrate dictates the insulation level required due to the larger temperature drop along the pipeline. The highest flowrate determines the minimum pipeline diameter required in order to keep the wellhead pressure above certain limits. In other words, to optimise the cost associated with the new pipeline, you shall determine the minimum insulation required at minimum flowrate and the minimum allowable inner pipe diameter at maximum flowrate.

As per exercise description above, the arrival temperature (at the outlet of the topside pipe) must be above and as close as possible to 27 o C and the pressure at the pipeline inlet must be below and as close as possible to 80 bara.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

Note that pipe and insulation normally are produced in standard sizes/thicknesses. This means you only need to do the sensitivity analysis for certain increments in size/thickness.

2.4.1 Preparing the simulation cases

Create a new case called SteadyState.opi from the OLGA Basic Case template and save it in the following folder:

\FA Exercises OLGA 7.2\Exercise 1-Oil Production and Slugging

Please refrain from working in the Solutions folder.

Please refrain from working in the Solutions folder. The case and the project are updated with

The case and the project are updated with the name that you specified and a new tab is created in the main window. Note that the GUI will automatically create a Project with the same name.

Click the SteadyState tab to display the case details.

The new case is complete and can be run. Expand the case in the Model View window so that the entire model can be visualised. The template now needs to be edited to reflect the Harthun project.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

Updating the fluid in OLGA case:

You need to change the fluid file in the OLGA case to set up the Harthun project conditions. In the Model View, navigate to Case Definition FILES and update the PVTFILE in the Properties window to Wigoth.tab.

To change the fluid file, click on the ellipses button, in the PVTFILE field in the Properties window. A new window opens up which allows you to select a new fluid file. Note that Wigoth.tab is located in Exercise 1-Oil Production and Slugging folder.

located in Exercise 1-Oil Production and Slugging folder. Remember to remove the original 3phase.tab file from

Remember to remove the original 3phase.tab file from the fluid file list.

the original 3phase.tab file from the fluid file list. You will now have to change the

You will now have to change the fluid references in BRANCH and NODES as before. Below is a reminder on how to do this:

In the Model View window, navigate to:

Flow Component FLOWPATH : PIPELINE Piping BRANCH.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

Change the FLUID to 1 as shown below.

WITH OLGA 7 Exercises Change the FLUID to 1 as shown below. In the Model View

In the Model View, navigate to:

Flow Component NODE : OUTLET

Model View , navigate to: Flow Component  NODE : OUTLET Expand the Pressure conditions field

Expand the Pressure conditions field to change the FLUID to 1 as shown below.

conditions field to change the FLUID to 1 as shown below. Changing the simulation time: The

Changing the simulation time:

the FLUID to 1 as shown below. Changing the simulation time: The initial pipeline sizing will

The initial pipeline sizing will be done using OLGA as a conventional steady state simulator. Therefore, the simulation times needs to be modified to change the simulation mode from a dynamic run to a Steady State run. To do this, you would have to equalise the simulation start and end time as described below.

In Model View, navigate to Case Definition INTEGRATION. In the Properties window, change ENDTIME to 0, i.e. the same value as the STARTTIME. This means that only the steady state solver will be used. Remember to use the Verify button to establish where there are errors in the simulation model.

42

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises Options In this exercise, you will model a two phase

Options

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises Options In this exercise, you will model a two phase

In this exercise, you will model a two phase system. In other words, the mass transfer is taking place only between oil and gas. To do this, follow the instructions below:

In Model View, navigate to Case Definition OPTONS. Change FLASHMODEL to HYDROCARBON as shown.

 OPTONS. Change FLASHMODEL to HYDROCARBON as shown. Pipe materials It is good practise to modify

Pipe materials

Change FLASHMODEL to HYDROCARBON as shown. Pipe materials It is good practise to modify the default

It is good practise to modify the default labels to reflect the actual materials. This helps you and others, such as the quality assurance checkers and most importantly, your instructor, to understand your model.

For the Harthun field, the first wall material is steel, so change the label from the default MATER-1 to Steel. The second material is insulation, so change the label from the default MATER-2 to insulation. You can use the instructions given in the Guided Tour to change labels (Section 1.1.5).

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

Once the MATERIAL labels have been changed, ensure to change CAPACITY, CONDUCTIVITY and DENSITY to match the properties given in Exercise 2 description in Section 2.2. The final outcome should look like the following:

2.2. The final outcome should look like the following: Pipe walls As with the Guided Tour,

Pipe walls

The final outcome should look like the following: Pipe walls As with the Guided Tour, there

As with the Guided Tour, there are two pre-defined pipe wall structures, WALL-1 and WALL-2. Re- label WALL-1 to W-Pipeline for the pipeline and WALL-2 to W-Riser for the riser/topside piping. This is to help you as the user and Quality Assurance person to better understand your model. The re- labelling process is similar to that of MATERIALs in the previous section.

To re-label the WALL, in the Model View window, navigate to Library WALL. In the Properties window, delete the default LABEL and enter the desired label (W-Pipeline or W-Riser).

LABEL and enter the desired label (W-Pipeline or W-Riser). You now need to update the MATERIAL
LABEL and enter the desired label (W-Pipeline or W-Riser). You now need to update the MATERIAL

You now need to update the MATERIAL field with Steel and Insulation, in the same way as Section 1.1.5. To do this, in the Properties window of W-Pipeline WALL, click on the Property button as highlighted below. In WALL window, update MATER-1 to Steel and MATER-2 to Insulation. Also in the same window, right-click on the empty cell next to the last MATER-2 and select Delete. The final WALL window should look like the following:

44

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises For W-Riser WALL , you need to remove the insulation
FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises For W-Riser WALL , you need to remove the insulation
FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises For W-Riser WALL , you need to remove the insulation

For W-Riser WALL, you need to remove the insulation layers as explained below:

In the Properties window of W-Riser, delete the following:

In THICKNESS field, highlight and delete 2:0.02

In MATERIAL field, highlight and delete both MATER-2 labels.

Update MATER-1 to Steel according to the procedure explained for W-Pipeline. The final Properties window should look like the following:

The final Properties window should look like the following: In summary, you have now defined two

In summary, you have now defined two WALLs for the OLGA system:

45

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

W-Pipeline consisting of 9mm Steel and 20mm Insulation layer

W-Riser consisting of 7.5mm Steel and no Insulation layer

Pipeline Geometry:

In this step, you will set up the overall pipeline profile/geometry, which will include a subsea pipeline and a riser to the receiving facilities.

In the Model View, navigate to Flow Component FLOWPATH : PIPELINE Piping and select the Geometry (GEOM-1) field shown below. In the Properties window, change LABEL to PRELIMINARY and adjust the YSTART (y coordinate of the start of the pipeline to -255 m, (corresponding to the water depth at Harthun assuming sea-level to be at Y = 0).

water depth at Harthun assuming sea-level to be at Y = 0). To make your model
water depth at Harthun assuming sea-level to be at Y = 0). To make your model

To make your model more consistent, change the LABEL of the INLET node to Harthun Wellhead. You can do this by navigating in the Model View window and expanding Flow Component NODE : INLET as shown below:

expanding Flow Component  NODE : INLET as shown below: In the same field in the
expanding Flow Component  NODE : INLET as shown below: In the same field in the

In the same field in the Model View, navigate to NODE : OUTLET and make the following changes in the Properties window:

46

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

Enter Wigoth Test Sep in the LABEL field.

Expand Pressure conditions and set these values:

PRESSURE

= 50 [bara]

GASFRACTION

= 1 (only gas will flow back into the pipeline)

TOTALWATERFRACTION

= 0 (because this is a two phase oil-gas system)

TEMPERATURE

= 27° [C] ((the minimum allowable arrival temperature)

FLUID

= 1

minimum allowable arrival temperature) FLUID = 1 The base OLGA case has a predefined pipeline profile.

The base OLGA case has a predefined pipeline profile. In order to change it, double-click on the PIPELINE flowline in the main canvas to open the Geometry Editor window.

In the Geometry SteadyState : PRELIMINARY window, drag and drop the highlighted tab to the centre of the window. Select New Horizontal Tab Group, in order to view both geometry tabs simultaneously.

47

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises Change the x and y coordinates of the predefined geometry
FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises Change the x and y coordinates of the predefined geometry

Change the x and y coordinates of the predefined geometry as shown in the window. Ensure to also fill in Diameter, Roughness and Wall for the 3 pipes accordingly.

48

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

Observe that PIPE-2 and PIPE-3 have a different diameter from PIPE-1. The short and horizontal top-side pipe has been added to the model prior to the separator node for numerical stability.

From the Geometry editor main menu, select File Exit. Make sure to click YES in the confirmation window to update the pipeline geometry.

You can now ensure that the FLUID identifier in FLOWPATH BRANCH is correct:

In the Model View window, expand Flow Component FLOWPATH : PIPELINE Piping and choose BRANCH. In the BRANCH Properties window, change the value of the FLUID field from Fluid1 to 1

Source

The inlet flowrate is already given in the base case template as SOURCE-1. Make the following changes to this source by double-clicking on SOURCE-1 on the main canvas. In the SOURCE:SOURCE-1 Properties window, make the following changes:

Properties window, make the following changes: LABEL = Harthun MASSFLOW = 4 kg/s TEMPERATURE

LABEL

= Harthun

MASSFLOW

= 4 kg/s

TEMPERATURE

= 62° C

TOTALWATERFRACTION

= 0

GASFRACTION

= -1

The SOURCE temperature and local pressure are taken into account when establishing the equilibrium gas mass fraction.

Note that GASFRACTION of -1 means that the fluid table will be used to establish the ratio of gas to hydrocarbon liquid present in the SOURCE. Because we intend to simulate two-phase flow (gas and hydrocarbon liquid), setting TOTALWATERFRACTION to 0 ensures that no water enters the pipe.

Heat transfer

The template case used has a pre-defined heat transfer specification, which does not need changing. By default, it already applies to all pipes in the branch with a T ambient of 6 C.

Simulation results to display

To visualise the results of the simulations, the following output specifications need to be given as a minimum.

49

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

As explained in sections 1.2.1 and 1.2.2 of Guided Tour, the output variables can be specified in OUTPUTDATA, TRENDDATA and PROFILEDATA. For example, the OUTPUTDATA keyword will export the data to the *.out file which allows you to view the data in a text editor. This file contains a copy of the textual input file and certain other useful information from the case.

The variables specified for the TRENDDATA keyword will export the data to the trend (*.tpl) file. For example, the liquid flowrate out of a pipeline should be specified in this field. This keyword is also useful for specific output parameters such as a source mass flow rate, or for global variables (such as the integration time step) and branch properties such as total liquid content in the entire branch.

PROFILEDATA will be used for specifying certain system variables along the entire pipeline with time, such as holdup or flow regimes.

As before, you will use the plotting functions in OLGA to view the variables specified under TRENDDATA and PROFILEDATA.

You can also animate the variables specified in the PLOT key (under Case-level OUTPUT in Model View window) by using the embedded OLGA Viewer program. This program is activated from the OLGA interface which will be covered later in more details.

Following the procedures in Sections 1.2.1 and 1.2.2 of Guided Tour, carry out the following tasks for OUTPUTDATA, TRENDDATA and PROFILEDATA:

OUTPUT file:

As there are currently no OUTPUTDATA statements under the flowpath, you need to add a new one as specified in Section 1.2.2:

In the Model View window, expand Flow Component and choose FLOWPATH : PIPELINE. Right-

click and select Add Output Outputdata.

Right- click and select Add  Output  Outputdata. A new OUTPUTDATA is created under FLOWPATH

A new OUTPUTDATA is created under FLOWPATH : PIPELINE in the Model View window. Select

OUTPUTDATA[1] in Model View and type the following symbols in the VARIABLE field, separating

each variable by comma like below:

HOL (Liquid hold-up)

PT (Pressure)

TM (Temperature)

ID (Flow Regime Indicator)

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises The flow regime indicator will output a code which corresponds

The flow regime indicator will output a code which corresponds to a certain flow regime. The codes are:

1 Stratified Wavy Flow

2 Annular Flow

3 Hydrodynamic Slug Flow

4 Dispersed Bubble Flow

As explained before, you can also search for these variables if you do not know the variable symbol. Simply click on the ellipses button highlighted above to open Select output variables window and type the description of the variable in the Search field to filter and then, check the variable of interest. For example to search for holdup, you can type “holdup” and check the box next to HOL below.

can type “holdup” and check the box next to HOL below. Note that you do not

Note that you do not need to specify position for OUTPUTDATA. This means that you get the variables specified printed for all calculation sections in your system.

Remember that some variables (HOL, PT and TM) are volume variables which are averaged properties for each pipe section (i.e. numerical section) and they are given at section midpoints, whilst ID is a boundary variable, calculated and plotted at each pipeline section boundary. Following the procedure in Section 1.2.1 of Guided tour, set the .out file frequency to every 1h.

Hint: In the Model View, under the case name, navigate to the case level Output OUTPUT and set DTOUT to 1h.

Hint: In the Model View , under the case name, navigate to the case level Output

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

You can now follow the same procedures as above for both Trend and Profile plots.

Trend data:

In the Model View window, navigate to the first pre-defined Branch level TRENDDATA (i.e. under FLOWPATH Output TRENDDATA[1]). In the Properties widow, make the necessary changes to specify flowline inlet pressure (PT) and inlet temperature (TM):

flowline inlet pressure (PT) and inlet temperature (TM): Similarly, navigate to the second Branch-level TRENDDATA

Similarly, navigate to the second Branch-level TRENDDATA (TRENDDATA[2]) and make the necessary changes in the Properties window to define the pressure and temperature for the outlet of the pipeline.

the pressure and temperature for the outlet of the pipeline. Hint: The pipeline outlet position must

Hint: The pipeline outlet position must be PIPE-3, SECTION 2. As explained before, the maximum allowable section number in the Properties window is 3 for PIPE-3, which is the maximum section boundary number. As both pressure and temperature are volume variables and we have 2 sections in PIPE-3, SECTION 2 is the maximum allowable for this TRENDDATA. Therefore, if you make a mistake and specify SECTION 3 for pressure and temperature in this case, your OLGA case will run, but no pressure/temperature trend data will be recorded for the pipeline outlet.

You will need to add a third TRENDDATA entry to record the total mass flowrate (GT), the volumetric gas flowrate (QG) and the volumetric flowrate of total liquid (QLT) out of the topside pipe. As these are all boundary variables, it is advisable to enter them in a separate TRENDDATA entry. To do this, in the Model View window right-click on FLOWPATH : PIPELINE as shown below

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

and add a new TRENDDATA entry on the Branch level. In the Properties window, modify the TRENDDATA entry to achieve the following:

modify the TRENDDATA entry to achieve the following: In the Model View window, directly under the
modify the TRENDDATA entry to achieve the following: In the Model View window, directly under the
modify the TRENDDATA entry to achieve the following: In the Model View window, directly under the

In the Model View window, directly under the OLGA case name, a case-level TRENDDATA has already been specified for LIQC (the total amount of liquid in the branch), HT (Global timestep used by OLGA for calculations) and VOLGBL (Global maximum volume error). Also add GASC (the total gas volume in a branch), which is a "BRANCH" variable and thus, you do not need to specify any position.

Observe that when any output variable is specified at Case level, it applies to all flowpaths in the network. In this case, this is equivalent to specifying the TRENDDATA on the branch-level since we have only one branch in the entire model.

Finally, specify all the trend variables to be recorded every 10 seconds.

Hint: In the Model View window, expand Output under the OLGA case name, select TREND and change DTPLOT in the Properties window from 15 to 10 s.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises Note that if you wish to edit all your trend

Note that if you wish to edit all your trend specifications for a specific flowpath (without navigating back and forth between different TRENDDATA entries), you can follow the procedure below:

In the Model View window, open a library function by right-clicking on a branch-level TRENDDATA entry and selecting Local Instances:

TRENDDATA entry and selecting Local Instances: This opens a new window containing a table with all

This opens a new window containing a table with all your TRENDDATA entries for that flowpath. This provides a great overview of all your trend variables and allows you to make changes more easily.

trend variables and allows you to make changes more easily. Moreover, you can customise the table

Moreover, you can customise the table by choosing which columns to become visible, and which to be hidden. Simply right-click on a column header, select Columns and check/uncheck any of the desired columns to add/remove from the table.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises Note that the Local/Global Instances feature is a general library

Note that the Local/Global Instances feature is a general library function available for most of the OLGA model components.

Profile data:

Similar to trend variables, in the Model View window, navigate to the existing branch level PROFILEDATA entry and modify the VARIABLE field to record the following profile variables:

Liquid hold-up (HOL)

Pressure (PT)

Temperature (TM)

Flow Regime Indicator (ID)

Hint: Simply delete all the rest of the variables in the VARIABLE field so you are left with the above four profile variables.

field so you are left with the above four profile variables. Finally, specify all the profile
field so you are left with the above four profile variables. Finally, specify all the profile

Finally, specify all the profile variables to be recorded every 5 minutes.

Hint: In the Model View window, expand Output under the OLGA case name, select PROFILE and change DTPLOT in the Properties window to 5 minutes.

2.4.2 Minimum Pipeline Diameter: A Parametric Study

Now your OLGA case should be ready for simulation runs. Following the procedures outlined in Section 1.3.1 of Guided Tour, verify that the model is runnable. If there are any errors, rectify them and save your case.

55

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

Hint: To verify the model, click on the following button on the main toolbar:

model, click on the following button on the main toolbar: Once the model is verified, run

Once the model is verified, run the simulation to test if your OLGA case runs to the end of the simulation without any errors. Refer to Section 1.3.1 if you need a reminder of the procedures.

In this exercise, you will establish the correct pipeline diameter to keep the inlet pipeline pressure just below 80 bara (note that you will keep the riser and top-side diameter during this exercise as it is). To do this, you will have to set up and run a number of simulation cases where you vary the pipeline diameter to determine the minimum pipeline size resulting in an inlet pressure lower than 80 bara. You will then update the model using the correct pipeline diameter.

The pressure drop along the pipeline is expected to be the highest at high flowrates (maximum 15 kg/s in this case). Therefore, this exercise is done for 15 kg/s flowrate to ensure the pipeline design is suitable for all flowrates throughout the field life.

To change the flowrate to 15 kg/s, click on the Harthun source in the main OLGA window to select the SOURCE system component. In the Properties window, change MASSFLOW field to 15 kg/s.

the Properties window, change MASSFLOW field to 15 kg/s. For the purpose of this exercise, you
the Properties window, change MASSFLOW field to 15 kg/s. For the purpose of this exercise, you

For the purpose of this exercise, you only need steady state results. Therefore, remember to set ENDTIME = 0 in INTEGRATION.

Hint: As explained in Section 1.1.3 of the Guided Tour, you can set the simulation end time in the Model View window by navigating to Case Definition INTEGRATION and changing ENDTIME in the Properties window.

Once you have made these changes, right-click on the case label and select Save Case As to save it with a new label: SteadyState 15kg-s.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises The quickest way to do such a sensitivity analysis is

The quickest way to do such a sensitivity analysis is to use the Parametric Studies tool to establish the inner diameter. You will create and run steady state simulations for the flowrate of 15 kg/s over a range of pipeline internal diameters 8, 10, 12 and 14 cm by following the steps below:

The parametric study option is accessed from the Tools menu in the main window Toolbar as shown.

from the Tools menu in the main window Toolbar as shown. Click on the Tools symbol

Click on the Tools symbol and select Parametric Studies in the drop-down menu:

and select Parametric Studies in the drop-down menu: A new tab will open in the main

A new tab will open in the main OLGA window called Parametric Study. In the new tab in the Study field, click on the Add button to add a new parametric study to your case. This button is highlighted below.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises Ensure that #Parameters to be studied is 1, since the
FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises Ensure that #Parameters to be studied is 1, since the
FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises Ensure that #Parameters to be studied is 1, since the

Ensure that #Parameters to be studied is 1, since the parameter to be studied is the pipeline diameter (of PIPE-1) at the high flowrate 15 kg/s.

Right click on Case and select Insert Case. Repeat the procedure until you have 4 cases listed (one case for each diameter).

on Case and select Insert Case . Repeat the procedure until you have 4 cases listed

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

Click on the Decoration field to select the following from the drop-down menu. Note that this option will modify the way the Parametric Study cases are labelled. This specific Decoration will ensure the value of the parameter you are changing is included in the label of the case. This is particularly helpful when you are plotting the same trend or profile variable for a number of different cases in the same graph, as you will find out later on.

cases in the same graph, as you will find out later on. Right click on the

Right click on the middle column header and choose ‘Select Parameter’, which opens up a new window.

choose ‘Select Parameter’, which opens up a new window. In the Select Parameter window, click on

In the Select Parameter window, click on the top drop down menu and select FLOWPATH :

PIPELINE as the primary system parameter.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises In the bottom left window pane, select PIPE-1 and click

In the bottom left window pane, select PIPE-1 and click on [ > ] button to move to the right pane. Once PIPE-1 appears in the right window pane, right click on the column heading to its right and select DIAMETER. Click OK at the bottom of Select Parameter window to conclude the parameter selection process.

window to conclude the parameter selection process. Once PIPE-1 diameter has been selected, fill in the

Once PIPE-1 diameter has been selected, fill in the diameter values for each case as below. You can also change the unit for the diameter by right-clicking on the unit column and selecting the desired unit.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises The parametric study may now be run by clicking on

The parametric study may now be run by clicking on either Run or Run Batch in the Simulate field of Parametric Study tab. Run Batch feature is usually the quicker simulation run; however, you do not specifically see the simulation progress or failure of any of your cases (unlike the standard OLGA runs in Batch mode). Therefore, the advantage with Run option is the OLGA interface that would show you the progress of the simulation in the Parametric Study tab. Specifically, the Case label will turn green/blue upon successful completion and it will glow red if failed to reach completion. To see the difference and clarify, try out both methods of simulation runs.

Note that only the cases with a checked box next to them would be included in the Parametric Study run.

To view the results for Parametric Studies, you should use a slightly different method. In the Parametric Study tab, click on Trend and Profile buttons in the Plot field shown below. To view the inlet pressure for this exercise, you can plot pressure as either a trend or profile plot. Although this is a steady state case (ENDTIME = 0), in OLGA you may plot a trend even if you have only one point at time = 0. In this case the time scale is artificially from 0 to 1.

0. In this case the time scale is artificially from 0 to 1. Using this method

Using this method of plotting, compare the inlet pressure for all the diameters above and determine the required design diameter for the pipeline. Once you have determined the correct pipeline diameter, update the base OLGA model (in this case, SteadyState 15kg-s) if required and save the case.

2.4.3 Minimum Insulation Thickness: A Parametric Study

For this exercise, you will use the base model for the previous exercise as the template:

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

In the Model View window, select the case label SteadyState 15kg-s, right-click and select duplicate the case. Call this new case SteadyState 5kg-s as you will use this flowrate for the exercise (for reasons below).

will use this flowrate for the exercise (for reasons below). In order to ensure the arrival

In order to ensure the arrival temperature at the facilities stays above 27 o C, you need to ensure such temperatures are maintained throughout the entire field life. Fluid temperature is expected to be at its lowest at the minimum flowrate (in this case 5 kg/s). Hence, change the SOURCE flowrate to 5 kg/s (minimum rate) to establish the minimum insulation needed to meet this design requirement.

Note that so far, it is assumed that the pressure and temperature targets are independent, from the pipeline design point of view.

The effect of changing the insulation levels may also be determined with a parametric study to achieve outlet temperature just above 27 C. Following the same procedure as the previous exercise (Section 2.4.2), make a new Parametric Study to determine the insulation thickness needed to obtain the correct arrival temperature at a flowrate of 5 kg/s.

Hint: The parameter to vary is the THICKNESS of the wall W-Pipeline, which is specified under the primary model feature Library. Note that the parameter THICKNESS holds all the wall layers (2 layers in this case, 1 x Steel and 1 x Insulation). The innermost layer is the 9mm steel-layer while the insulation layer is 20mm thick. Increase the insulation thickness in increments of 5 mm to include 40 mm.

insulation thickness in increments of 5 mm to include 40 mm. The final Parametric Study tab

The final Parametric Study tab should look like the following:

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises Check the results for outlet fluid temperatures to decide on

Check the results for outlet fluid temperatures to decide on the minimum insulation required to maintain the temperature just above 27 degrees. Once you have determined the thickness, update and save the base OLGA model with the correct insulation thickness, if applicable.

2.5 Terrain Slugging Normal Operation

The Project Pipeline Engineer has now provided a more detailed pipeline profile from Harthun to Wigoth Alfa. This profile is presented below.

 

Distance

Water Depth

# of

Positions

(X Coordinate)

(Y Coordinate)

(numerical)

[m]

[m]

Sections

 

0

-255

----

1000

-255

5

Wellhead

1400

-250

2

1800

-255

2

3400

-255

8

Riser Base

4300

-270

6

Riser Top

4300

30

6

Topsides outlet

4400

30

2

It is suspected that terrain slugging may cause serious problems to the process facilities on the platform due to the presence of a low point at the riser base (check Y-coordinate). The purpose of this exercise is to establish the possibility of severe slugging in the Harthun riser.

In this exercise, you will determine the extent of terrain slugging by varying the pipeline inlet flow rate (at the wellhead) by creating 3 different cases at flowrates of 5 kg/s, 10 kg/s and 15 kg/s to avoid overwriting the results.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

2.5.1 Preparing the simulation cases for Terrain Slugging

OLGA Project and Case

For organisational purposes, you should create a new project to keep all your slugging cases together in the OLGA interface:

To create a new project, in the main OLGA window navigate to File New Empty project Name the new project file Slugging.opp.

 Empty project Name the new project file Slugging.opp. Open the steady state case you used

Open the steady state case you used for the previous exercise with the correct insulation level and pipeline diameter. This case should now be SteadyState 5kg-s, which can be opened in File Open Case…

Duplicate and name the new case Slug 5.opi. It is recommended that the original case is removed from the new project to avoid inadvertent editing. To remove the old Steady State case, simply select the case label in Model View window, right-click and select Remove. In the pop-up window, select Remove again to only remove the steady state case from the OLGA project. Note that the OLGA case will not be deleted from your hard drive.

remove the steady state case from the OLGA project. Note that the OLGA case will not

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises Pipeline Geometry The new pipeline profile can be entered directly

Pipeline Geometry

The new pipeline profile can be entered directly in the Geometry editor.

You could follow the methods described in the previous exercises to do this. However, there is another straight forward process to do this:

In the main OLGA window, navigate to:

File Tools GeometryEditor

window, navigate to: File  Tools  GeometryEditor A new Geometry window opens up. Navigate to

A new Geometry window opens up. Navigate to File New to create a new Geometry file. Once again, navigate to File Save As… and save this file as GeoNew.geo for future use.

a new Geometry file. Once again, navigate to File  Save As… and save this file

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

After saving the new *.geo file, follow the instructions below to enter the new geometry according to the new data given:

You need to have 8 rows (X-Y coordinate entries) available in total. By default, there are

currently two rows available; hence, you have to insert 6 new pipes. To do this, right click on the pipe label PIPE-1 and select Insert After until you have 8 rows from start to end.

Insert After until you have 8 rows from start to end.  Enter the new X-Y

Enter the new X-Y values by starting from the beginning of Wellhead coordinates, all the way to the end.

Enter the correct diameter you determined from the previous exercise for the Pipeline and the original 0.1 m for the risertopside pipes.

Use a common roughness of 0.028 mm.

Enter the number of sections from the table given above.

Note that for PIPE-5 only, the sections need to transition from the pipeline section lengths (long sections) to the riser section length (short sections). In order to comply with the section length rule of thumb in OLGA, you will need to define, in exact order: 3 x 200m section, 1 x 150m section, 1 x 100m section and a final section of 50.125m. In order to customise the section lengths, double click on the relevant cell for Length of sections in the geometry table to open the following toolbox. Finally, enter the correct section lengths as described above and select OK to update the section lengths.

toolbox. Finally, enter the correct section lengths as described above and select OK to update the

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

The final Geometry window is shown below.

7 Exercises The final Geometry window is shown below . Note that the walls are not

Note that the walls are not available before the case Geometry has been updated in the OLGA case.

Keep the GeoNew.geo open and navigate to the OLGA Model View window. Right-click on FLOWPATH : PIPELINE and select Exchange Geometry GeoNew.geo

: PIPELINE and select Exchange Geometry  GeoNew.geo The geometry of the pipeline is now updated

The geometry of the pipeline is now updated and it is safe to close the geometry editor window.

Now you have to update the pipes with Walls. The easiest way to do this is via the Geometry Editor:

In the main OLGA window of Slug 5 tab, double-click on the PIPELINE to open the Geometry Slug 5 : GeoNew window. Navigate to the tab shown below and change the walls for each pipe accordingly.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises Trend data As the geometry has now changed, two of

Trend data

As the geometry has now changed, two of the TRENDDATA entries for the pipeline outlet need to be modified to reflect the correct POSITION in the FLOWPATH.

In the Model View window, in the branch-level output field select TRENDDATA[2] (outlet temperature and pressure) and TRENDDATA[3] (outlet flowrates) and exchange PIPE-3 with PIPE- 7 in the relevant specifications. An example is shown for outlet pressure and temperature trend entry below.

shown for outlet pressure and temperature trend entry below. Simulation time To be able to visualise

Simulation time

pressure and temperature trend entry below. Simulation time To be able to visualise the slugging behaviour,

To be able to visualise the slugging behaviour, set the simulation end time to 2h (i.e. a non-zero value).

Hint: In Model View window under Case Definition, select INTEGRATION and change the ENDTIME to 2 hours.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

2.5.2 Simulation runs for various flowrates

Once the Slug 5 case has been correctly modified as instructed above, duplicate it twice. Name the new files Slug 10.opi and Slug 15.opi and change the SOURCE flowrates to 10 kg/s and 15 kg/s accordingly.

Note that this study could also be performed using a parametric study. However, in this case, use duplicated separate cases as the results will be required for subsequent simulations later on.

Compare the various flow cases by checking the total liquid volume flow out of the flowline and the pressure at the inlet using trend plots. It is also recommended that the flow regime is checked along the length of the pipeline for each case (profile plot).

When you have opened one case with the Trend plot tool, you may add the trend-files for the other 2 cases to compare. The method for this was described in the Guided Tour Section 1.4.

2.5.3 Interactive simulations in OLGA interface (OPTIONAL)

You may also want to use the interactive plotting functionality to dynamically visualise changes in the system properties. In this exercise, you will dynamically monitor the outlet liquid flow (QLT) and inlet pressure (PT) while the case is running:

In the Model View window under the branch-level Output, there should be 3 SERVERDATA entries already defined in your case (from the original OLGA base case). Navigate to SERVERDATA[3] and add the pipeline outlet position to the SERVERDATA variables.

Hint: In the Properties window, expand the Position field and select PIPE-7 and SECTION 3.

expand the Position field and select PIPE-7 and SECTION 3. Note that both interactive trends and
expand the Position field and select PIPE-7 and SECTION 3. Note that both interactive trends and

Note that both interactive trends and profiles can be plotted using the SERVERDATA entries. If a specific position is specified (like the case above), OLGA automatically detects the variables as interactive trend variables. Otherwise, when the position field is left empty, it will be considered as an interactive profile variable. Exceptions to this rule are of course trend only variables such as total branch liquid content (LIQC), time step (HT) and so on.

In the main OLGA window, navigate to the toolbar and select the Multiple Plots button as highlighted. This sets up a new Plot tab in the main OLGA window.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises In the main OLGA window on the Plot tab, right-click

In the main OLGA window on the Plot tab, right-click anywhere on the empty space and select Edit/select Variable…

on the empty space and select Edit/select Variable… In the Select variables window, check Trend variables

In the Select variables window, check Trend variables and select the Total Liquid Volume Flow at the outlet (QLT below) and press ok to close the window:

Trend variables and select the Total Liquid Volume Flow at the outlet (QLT below) and press

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

You have now added the interactive plot for QLT at the pipeline outlet of Plot tab in the main OLGA window. The reason you do not see any plots yet is because this graph gets updated as the OLGA simulation runs in an interactive setting. In other words, this plot will go “Live” when you run an interactive simulation (shown earlier in Guided Tour Section 1.3.1).

It is possible to plot multiple interactive plots in the same tab. To do this, right-click on the main OLGA window in the Plot tab and select Add Plot.

main OLGA window in the Plot tab and select Add Plot . A set of green

A set of green arrows appear on the window. Click on the RIGHT Green Arrow to add the new plot

on the right hand side.

A set of green arrows appear on the window. Click on the RIGHT Green Arrow to
A set of green arrows appear on the window. Click on the RIGHT Green Arrow to
A set of green arrows appear on the window. Click on the RIGHT Green Arrow to

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

Following the same method as the above, add the trend for inlet pressure to the new interactive plot.

Hint: you should look for PT at PIPE-1, SECTION 1

From the main OLGA window in the toolbar, select Run Interactive simulation to view the results below:

select Run Interactive simulation to view the results below: 2.6 Terrain Slugging – Mitigation Alternatives A
select Run Interactive simulation to view the results below: 2.6 Terrain Slugging – Mitigation Alternatives A

2.6 Terrain Slugging Mitigation Alternatives

A number of mitigation options have been identified to prevent severe slugging in the riser. Two possible solutions are:

Choking the flow at the top of the platform

Injecting gas at the bottom of the riser

In this exercise, you will learn how to implement these mitigation strategies and assess the effectiveness of each option. You will use the Slug 5 case from previous exercises as the basis for this study.

2.6.1 Topsides Choking

In the Model View window, select the OLGA case label for Slug 5 and duplicate this case twice. Name the cases Topsides Choke.opi and Gas Lift.opi respectively. Remove the Slug 5.opi case from the project to avoid unintended editing.

Hint: the instructions for this have been provided in Section 2.5.1 of the previous exercise.

In the Model View window, select Topsides Choke label to select this case. At the bottom of the Model View window, select the Components tab as shown below. This will bring up a list of components to add to your model, such as Flow components, process equipment and so on.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises In the Components window, add a valve from the Process

In the Components window, add a valve from the Process Equipment field by dragging and dropping it onto the end of the pipeline on the canvas (the main OLGA window).

end of the pipeline on the canvas (the main OLGA window). In the Properties window of

In the Properties window of the newly added valve, enter the following properties:

LABEL

= Topsides Choke

PIPE

= PIPE-7

SECTIONBOUNDARY

= 2

DIAMETER

= 0.1m

OPENING

= 0.12 (i.e. 12% of full cross sectional area)

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

The final Properties window should look like the following:

final Properties window should look like the following: Using the procedure in Section 2.4.2, set up

Using the procedure in Section 2.4.2, set up a parametric study to assess various choke openings

that will mitigate the terrain slugging behaviour. Specifically, try the following and 0.02.

openings: 0.10, 0.04

Hint: The parameter to change in the Parametric Study is OPENING for Topsides Choke valve and can be found under FLOWPATH : PIPELINE in the Select Parameter window.

under FLOWPATH : PIPELINE in the Select Parameter window. Plot QLT out of the topside pipe

Plot QLT out of the topside pipe and PT at the inlet to assess the viability of every choke opening.

Question: What is the valve opening required to stabilize the flow at 5 kg/s and what is the down side of this option?

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

2.6.2 Gas Lift

Select the Gas Lift case you created in the previous section.

Navigate to the Components window (remember how you used it in the last section to add a valve). In the Components window, scroll down the list of components, and find Massflow source in the Boundary and Initial Conditions field.

source in the Boundary and Initial Conditions field. Drag and drop the Massflow source onto the

Drag and drop the Massflow source onto the pipeline and input the following data in the Properties window to inject gas at the riser base. In order to find the GASFRACTION entry, you may need to expand Phase Distribution field in the Properties window

LABEL

= Gas Lift

TIME

= 0

TEMPERATURE

= 32 o C

MASSFLOW

= 1.2 kg/s

PIPE

= PIPE-6

SECTION

= 1

GASFRACTION

= 1

Hint: Note that GASFRACTION 1 indicated a gas only source, and the position of Gas Lift is set to the Riser Base. The riser base could also be set at PIPE-5, SECTION 6.

In the Model View window, under case level Output, add a new TRENDDATA entry and add GTSOUR variable to write the trend of Source Mass rate for all SOURCEs in the entire system. Instructions on how to add case-level outputs is explained in Guided Tour, Section 1.2.2.

Using the Parametric Study method above, try gas lift rates of 0.2, 0.6 and 1.2 kg/s.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

Hint: The parameter to change in the Parametric Study is MASSFLOW for Gas Lift source and can be found under FLOWPATH : PIPELINE in the Select Parameter window.

under FLOWPATH : PIPELINE in the Select Parameter window. Plot QLT out of the topside pipe

Plot QLT out of the topside pipe and PT at the inlet to assess the viability of every gas lift rate. You may want to plot the source mass flow (GTSOUR) as well.

Question: What is your estimate of the minimum gas injection required to avoid the slugging problems at 5 kg/s (without choking)? What other issues may present problems with this option?

2.7 Production Ramp-up

In this exercise, you will set up a timeline to manipulate the mass flow of the source to simulate a Production Ramp-up scenario. To do this, you will utilise the concept of changing input variables over time. Generally, a number of OLGA input variables 6 can be varied linearly (with time) between two time-points. In this part, you will investigate the effect of increasing the inlet flow rate from 5 to 15 kg/s over 1 minute.

Duplicate the case Slug 15.opi that was created in the Terrain Slugging exercise (Section 2.5.2) and name it Ramp Up.

In the main OLGA window, select the Harthun SOURCE. In the Properties window, click on the Timeseties icon shown below ( )

window, click on the Timeseties icon shown below ( ) 11 e.g. parameters of Sources and
window, click on the Timeseties icon shown below ( ) 11 e.g. parameters of Sources and

11 e.g. parameters of Sources and Pressure Nodes, Valve opening.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

A new SOURCE window will appear which allows you to enter various input parameters as a function of time. This is a useful OLGA tool for defining timeseries for your OLGA case.

In the new window, enter the following data to generate the graph as shown.

 

Units

 
 

TIME

M

0

60

61

120

 

TOTALWATERFRACTION

--

0

0

0

0

TEMPERATURE

 

C

62

62

62

62

MASSFLOW

kg/s

5

5

15

15

Observe that

some

fixed

parameters

(e.g.

temperature

and

in

this

case,

(TOTALWATERFRACTION) must also be entered for each time-point. For constant values with time, this can be done by entering the value at the first and last time point. The tool will

automatically fill in the rest of the fields.

Note that default values (such as “-1” for GOR or GASFRACTION) are excluded from this rule, but some versions of OLGA 6 requires that also these must be filled in for all time-points.

that also these must be filled in for all time-points. Once these values have been entered,

Once these values have been entered, close the SOURCE window to update the timeseries. You have now set up a ramp-up simulation which runs at 5 kg/s for the first hour, ramps up the rate over 1 minute to 15 kg/s and stays at this rate until the end of simulation.

Hint: If your OLGA case is still not runnable and is giving you the error shown below, navigate to the Harthun Properties window and delete all the values for GASFRACTION in Phase Distribution field and GOR, WATERCUT and WGR in Standard Conditions field. This will ensure that all these values have been reset to the default “-1” values (appearing in the Italic font).

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises Add GTSOUR trend variable on Case level which implies that

Add GTSOUR trend variable on Case level which implies that total mass rate for all mass sources in the model will be plotted. Finally, run the case and inspect the trends of the outlet liquid flow rate and the inlet pressure as well as the source mass rate. Analyse the outcome of ramping up the flowrate on slug mitigation.

Note: If you define the SOURCE in mass flowrate, you shall only fill in the required data in the Phase distribution menu and not input any data in the Standard conditions menu. If you define the SOURCE in volume flowrate, you shall only fill in the required data in the Standard conditions menu and not input any data in the Phase distribution menu.

2.8 Hydrodynamic slugging

You have seen that the outlet liquid volume flowrate at 15 kg/s is stable. However, from the profile of the flow pattern indicator, we see that parts of the pipeline are in the hydrodynamic slug flow regime (ID = 3). To get an idea of the problem these slugs may represent, we need to use the

OLGA Slugtracking module to see the expected slug characteristics

7

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2.8.1

Slugtracking

Duplicate the Slug 15.opi case from the Terrain Slugging exercise (Section 2.5.2) and save it as Slugtracking 15.opi.

In the Model View window, select Slugtracking 15 case label, right click and add the SLUGTRACKING module as follows:

right click and add the SLUGTRACKING module as follows: 7 Normally one would run an initial

7 Normally one would run an initial case with standard OLGA (without slug tracking) to establish proper initial conditions and then run a Restart case with SLUGTRACKING turned on, starting the simulations from the results of the initial case at its last time point. The RESTART functionality will be dealt with in a later exercise and to separate the complications we shall do Slugtracking in a stand-alone case i.e. at a flow situation calculated by the OLGA steady state solver (i.e. at time =0)

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In the Model View window, navigate to FA-models SLUGTRACKING. Switch HYDRODYNAMIC to ON and activate the hydrodynamics slugging feature only. Use the default values for all other input in the Properties window.

values for all other input in the Properties window. When using the SLUGTRACKING module, it is
values for all other input in the Properties window. When using the SLUGTRACKING module, it is

When using the SLUGTRACKING module, it is important to specify the relevant output variables before you start the simulation.

In the Model View window under the branch-level output, add a new TRENDDATA entry at the branch-level output and add the variable ACCLIQ at PIPE-7, Section 3 (i.e. pipeline outlet). ACCLIQ is the accumulated total liquid volume flow across a pipe section boundary.

In the Model View window under the branch-level output, add another TRENDDATA entry and specify the SLUGTRACKING variable LSLEXP (slug length past a section boundary) at pipes PIPE-2, PIPE-4, PIPE-5, PIPE-6, and PIPE-7, all at Section(boundary) 2. Note that you can define several pipes in the PIPE field of one TRENDDATA entry as shown below. In such cases, however, ensure that the SECTION is applicable for all the given PIPEs.

that the SECTION is applicable for all the given PIPEs. In Model View window, navigate to

In Model View window, navigate to Case Definition INTEGRATION and specify the MAXDT (largest timestep allowed for OLGA calculations) to 2s.

In the Model View window, navigate to the case-level output TREND and set DTPLOT to 2 seconds (the trend plotting frequency). Furthermore, add a new case-level TRENDDATA entry and specify the variable NSLUG (total no. of slugs in the system). Note that NSLUG is a global variable applying to the entire system.

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Run the case for 2 hours and inspect the results. As before, plot QLT at the pipe outlet with and without Slugtracking and compare the two results.

2.8.2 Liquid Surge Volume

This is the liquid volume which would build up in an assumed outlet separator with an assumed and insufficient maximum liquid drain capacity.

With OLGA, this surge volume can be calculated in following two ways:

I) By using the Surge Calculator which can be accessed as follows:

Plot the trend for variable SURGELIQ in OLGA (Please note this variable is automatically plotted in OLGA once the TREND for ACCLIQ has been added under the branch-level Output.

for ACCLIQ has been added under the branch-level Output. Notice that the graph is calculated on

Notice that the graph is calculated on the outlet boundary and with a fixed liquid drain rate.

The above trend of SURGELIQ is based on the default surge parameters in OLGA. To be able to adjust these parameters and customise the surge liquid volume calculations, right click on the SURGELIQ graph and select Edit Surge Volumesas shown below. The Surge Volume calculator window appears as shown on the next page.

Edit  Surge Volumes … as shown below. The Surge Volume calculator window appears as shown

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises This window allows you to modify the surge analysis parameters,

This window allows you to modify the surge analysis parameters, in order to make the surge calculations more relevant to your case and design requirements. In the Maximum drainage rate field, you may either directly enter the maximum (assumed) liquid drain rate (green box above) or ask OLGA to use the average liquid flowrate at a specific position along the flowline as the maximum drain rate (in this case PIPE-7, Section 3). Once the desired drain rate is chosen, click on Apply. This will update the SURGELIQ trend plot and update the value for Max Surge Volume in the above window (red box above).

To see a description of the method, check Show Details (blue box) and use the upper right scroll bar.

This feature also enables you to carry out the calculation for a certain period of the simulation. This becomes useful when slugging is infrequent and only appears at certain time periods during a long simulation.

You could also bring up the Surge Volume Calculator by right-clicking on any profile or trend plots. However, it is highly recommended to use the SURGELIQ trend for this purpose since after applying the changes to maximum drain rate, the SURGELIQ trend plot automatically updates itself and allows the user to visualise the surge peaks.

For a max drain rate (Qmax) of 1500 m3/d you should get a SURGELIQ graph similar to the one below.

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises Observe that if the drain rate Qmax is set to

Observe that if the drain rate Qmax is set to 0, the SURGELIQ trend will follow the ACCLIQ trend.

II) Alternatively, you could do a semi-automatic calculation:

Plot the accumulated liquid volume at the pipeline outlet (ACCLIQ) as a trend plot and right click on the graph to select Edit Copy Copy Data. Open Excel and paste the data into an Excel spreadsheet.

Open Excel and paste the data into an Excel spreadsheet. In the Excel spreadsheet, perform the

In the Excel spreadsheet, perform the following calculation on the ACCLIQ time series and plot a graph of the resulting time-series of Vsurge.

Vsurge j+1 = MAX(0, Vsurge j + ACCLIQ j +1 - ACCLIQ j - Qdrain*( t j +1 - t j )), Vsurge 1 = 0

For Qdrain (the assumed separator liquid drain rate), one can use the average liquid flow rate or, if known, the maximum drain capacity of the inlet separator. The Vsurge calculated this way is quite sensitive to the precision of Qdrain. (Observe that you use a consistent unit for the drain rate.)

The two methods for surge volume calculations should give the same answer for a given maximum drain rate.

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2.8.3 Slug Length

You can also look at slug length past certain boundaries in the pipeline. For example, if you plot LSLEXP at the position PIPE-6.2 (i.e. riser base), you should see something similar to the figures below.

you should see something similar to the figures below. A value of zero for LSLEXP means

A value of zero for LSLEXP means no slug i.e. it is not a slug on the boundary.

To zoom-in on the graph and look closer at details, left-click and dragging out an area to the right as shown here (red arrow). To zoom out, again left-click and drag upwards to left (blue arrow).

an area to the right as shown here (red arrow). To zoom out, again left-click and

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2.8.4 Visualisation of Slugging in 3D

Flow visualisation in 3D is now possible in OLGA 7, where you can see the simultaneous flow of oil, gas and water and any potential instability associated with the multiphase flow. Therefore, you can also view the overall slugging behaviour in the pipeline and decide on where you would like to take a closer look at slugging characteristics such as slug length, duration and so on.

To open the 3D viewer, in the main OLGA window toolbar, click on the icon highlighted here. The viewer will provide data for all flow paths where profiles of liquid holdup have been plotted:

paths where profiles of liquid holdup have been plotted: Right click and select Show Animation The

Right click and select Show Animation

have been plotted: Right click and select Show Animation The animation gives interesting details on the

The animation gives interesting details on the slugging characteristics. The red rings represent slugs with various lengths and frequencies. You can clearly see both the terrain slugging due to the riser and the hydrodynamics slugging in the pipeline prior to the riser.

see both the terrain slugging due to the riser and the hydrodynamics slugging in the pipeline

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3. EXERCISE 2: PVTSIM FLUID PROPERTIES

For any OLGA simulation, it is necessary to specify a fluid property file which contains information about the amounts and properties of gas and oil (and water if applicable) for a given range of pressure and temperature. PVTsim, a product of the Danish company Calsep, is used to make such fluid files.

Click on the PVTsim icon on the desktop to start up the program.

on the PVTsim icon on the desktop to start up the program. In the main window,

In the main window, select File Create New Database.

Name this new database FA-Fluids and store the database in the PVTsim directory of the Exercises:

\\FA Exercises OLGA 7\ Exercise 2-PVTsim

of the Exercises: \\FA Exercises OLGA 7\ Exercise 2-PVTsim Alternatively, you may use the Fluid Management

Alternatively, you may use the Fluid Management window of the simulation explorer on the left side of the main PVTsim window to create a new database by double-clicking Create New database.

explorer on the left side of the main PVTsim window to create a new database by

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In the main window, select Fluid Enter New Fluid on the top bar:

window, select Fluid  Enter New Fluid on the top bar: The Enter New Fluid window

The Enter New Fluid window opens up as shown below:

bar: The Enter New Fluid window opens up as shown below: 3.1 Gas Condensate Fluid Property

3.1 Gas Condensate Fluid Property File

You shall now make an OLGA fluid property file for a gas condensate system which will be used later.

Fill-in the fluid text labels with the following information:

Well

= Condensate

Fluid

= Condensate

Sample = Condensate00

Text

= Gas Condensate

History

= PVTsim v 20.0 <date> <your initials>

Enter the composition for the fluid “Condensate00” given in the table below. Note that H 2 S is NOT to be included. Therefore, leave the field for H 2 S blank:

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Molecular

 

Component

Name

Mole %

Weight

[kg/kmol]

Density [g/cm³]

Nitrogen

0.1

----

----

Carbon Dioxide

1.64

----

----

H

2 S

 

----

----

Methane

87.39

----

----

Ethane

5.75

----

----

Propane

2.30

----

----

I-Butane

0.48

----

----

N-Butane

0.85

----

----

I-Pentane

0.26

----

----

N-Pentane

0.30

----

----

C6

0.28

----

----

C7

0.65

100.21

0.690

C8

1.1e-4

210.00

0.750

C9+

1.5e-4

300.00

0.800

Note that the “C9” component is a plus component. By default in PVTsim, if the fluid has a plus component, the last component is always considered to be the plus component. No other experimental data is given. The final window should look like the following:

to be the plus component. No other experimental data is given. The final window should look

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Check Save CHAR Fluid and then click OK in the fluid window. When you click OK, the fluid is being characterized (i.e. the heaviest component is broken down into a number of new pseudo components). The characterised fluid becomes the last fluid in the database and is to be used for the remainder of the exercise.

Using the current fluid, you can create a phase envelope for the chosen characterised fluid. Select

the Simulations window in the left window and double-click on the (

window in the left window and double-click on the ( ) icon. To perform a PT

) icon.

window in the left window and double-click on the ( ) icon. To perform a PT
window in the left window and double-click on the ( ) icon. To perform a PT

To perform a PT flash of the condensate at 15.6°C and 1.01 bara, click on the icon . The following results window will appear. Note that there is also a Save Phase button. This allows the individual gas and liquid phase compositions to be saved to the database as separate fluids. This is useful when recombining well-stream fluids to achieve a specific GOR.

Note that the results windows in PVTsim also has Excel type of functionality (with "hidden" cells). Therefore, you can calculate the GOR of the fluid in an empty cell directly inside the cells of PVTsim results window, using the excel formulae. For example:

=[Select Cell A]+[Select Cell B]

formulae. For example: =[Select Cell A]+[Select Cell B] Finally, you will generate an OLGA fluid property

Finally, you will generate an OLGA fluid property file (*.tab). Select the Interfaces window in the Simulations Explorer and double click on the OLGA icon under the Flow menu.

and double click on the OLGA icon under the Flow menu. A new window appears by

A new window appears by the name of PVT tables to OLGA. Select the Output File button and name the fluid table file condensate00.tab. Uncheck the Intelligrid and keep the 50 times 50 points (current maximum)

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FLOW ASSURANCE WITH OLGA 7 Exercises

Set the OLGA pressure and temperature range as the following:

Pressure:

= 1 to 120 bara

Temperature:

= -20 to 100 o C

Type GasCond in the Fluid Label field. Note that this will also be the fluid label used in the OLGA model to refer to the fluid in various system components such as BRANCH and NODE.

Note that it is possible to generate a single *.tab file containing a number of different fluids by entering the details of the other fluids under Fluid 2, Fluid 3, etc in the Fluid selection field of the window PVT tables to OLGA.

Fluid selection field of the window PVT tables to OLGA . Use the defaults for the

Use the defaults for the other input, click OK, accept the prompted message about properties at standard conditions and wait until the fluid table window appears. Close the window and click Cancel in the PVT tables to OLGA window.

and wait until the fluid table window appears. Close the window and click Cancel in the

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3.2 Harthun Fluid Property File

In this exercise, you will make an OLGA fluid properties file for the Harthun oil using PVTsim.

The composition for the fluid “Harthun” is given below:

   

Molecular

 

Component Name

Mole %

Weight

[kg/kmol]

Density

[g/cm³]

Nitrogen

0.03

   

Carbon Dioxide

1.23

   

H

2 S

     

Methane

39.29

   

Ethane

7.65

   

Propane

6.43

   

I-Butane

2.14

   

N-Butane

4.44

   

I-Pentane

1.99

   

N-Pentane

2.57

   
 

C6

4.35

   
 

C7

19.50

101.30

0.702

 

C8

3.62

213.00

0.755

C9+

6.76

302.00

0.820

No other experimental data is given. The last component C9+ is a plus component as with the previous exercise.

Using the procedure explained in the previous exercise for Gas Condensate fluid, complete the following activities for the Harthun fluid:

Input the Harthun composition as a New Plus Fluid.

In the Well field, enter Harthun and in the Fluid field enter Oil

Make a phase envelope using Phase Envelope option.

Make a PT flash at 15°C and 1 bara using the PT flash option.

Generate an OLGA fluid property file termed Harthun.tab. Use Harthunfor the fluid label.

The OLGA table range should be:

Pressure range

=

1 to 200 bara (mind the Max pressure)

Temperature range

=

-10 to 100C

Number of pressure points

=

50

Number of temperature points =

50

The OLGA fluid property file should contain data for two phases only. Everything else is as per the default settings in PVTsim.

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3.3 Mixing condensate and water

In the main PVTsim window, select Fluid Database from the PVTsim main menu. Duplicate the plus fluid Condensate. The duplicated fluid appears as the last composition and is identical to the original, see below.

composition and is identical to the original, see below. Select the duplicated composition and change the

Select the duplicated composition and change the Well label to Three phase.

To create a “wet” Gas Condensate fluid, you need to add 0.05 mole % of water to the total composition. Note that water is not listed as a composition entry. To add the water component, select Add Comps at the bottom of the