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A

CELTIC

SHORT

HISTORY

PHILOSOPHY.

OF

DEDICATION
:

To

Dear

Friend

MY

Sir

Samuel

R.

Keightley,
l.l.d.

SHORT

HISTORY

CELTIC

OF

PHILOSOPHY
BY

HERBERT

NOTES

MOORE

BY

PROF.

",

EOIN

"
"

"*

PIM

MAC

NEILL

N.

FOULIS

1920

W.

TEMPEST

DUNDALGAN

DUNDALK

T.
PRESS

EDINBURGH
AND

LONDON

SAME

THE

BY

Vampire

of

The

Man

The

Pessimist

AUTHOR,

Souls

Thirty

with

Unknown

(1917).

Immortals

Ulster

Reminiscenses

from

(1909).

(1917).

Unconquerable

Songs

Lives

(1914).

Poems

Selected

(1903).

an

Ulster

(shortly).

(1919).

Valley

(1920).

CONTENTS.

Introduction

i
.

Chapter

I.

The

Celtic

^The

Soul

Mind

"

II.
"

III.

The
"

IV

The
"

The

V.
"

VI.

VII.

VIII.

Notes

by

"

"

"

of

the

Doctrine

of

Theory

John

Scotus

John

Duns

Berkeley

Professor

of

19
World

31

Rest

41

Ideas

57

Erigena

75

Scotus

and

Eoin

Man

of

Soul

87
Hutcheson

93

MacNeill
.

426800

107

PRINTED

BY

WM.

TEMPEST,

DUNDALGAN

PRESS,

DUNDALK.

INTRODUCTION.

IT

desirable

seems

about

had

spent

and

during

in

how

explain

to

seven

form

revisions,
with

The

of

the

by

This

of

response

doctrine

When

is

one

is

friend

The

degree
one

does.

be

inanimate

the
be

may

ill,

set

or

friend
of

visited,

emotion,

feeUng

of

doctrine

consolation

experience
presence

comfort,

when

solation
con-

visit

of

the

It

unusual
in

produces
it

may.

any

does

basis.

"

times

not

was

ing
regard-

logical

other

may

his

but

theory

follows

as

at

even

not

may

forth

of

productive

many

received

was

main

upon

desired,

much

of

placing

"

the

Its

Press.

the

novelty

after

and

pubUshed,

which

Pain

work,

writing

in

of

This

philosophy

engaged

was

Problem

Pessimist.

kindness

somewhat

written.

of

study

offered

be

be

to

the

the

eventually

was

great

time

on

should

came

in

that

work

entitled

book

years

of

words

few

this

part

dialogue

was

that

not

the

It

His-a-ory

Short

And;

','"
J;

this

comfort

he

could

But
from

by

he not

sympathy, can

favourite

that

It is usual

and

describe

can

saying

receive

not

Philosophy

is visited

who

one

of

feeling

Celtic

of

he

received

to describe

so

'

the

his

sympathy

same

affectionate

it.

animal

'

He

could.
from

Or

contemplation of

the

of

the observation

Or from

gift?

Certainly.

beautiful

some

flowers?

Certainly.
from

Or

And
a

the

the world

be in

It

speak

asked

was

of

put

to

philosophy ;
to

me

which

and

the

world

it

They

must.

as

were

in

to

that

say

beautiful

is in beautiful

there

the

publicationof

undertake

that my

Howers,

things

souls

that

seems.

after

but

animal, flowers, and

sympathy

same

So it

call it for convenience,

reasonable, therefore,

be

Immediately
I

animal,

silent, as
'

we

friendlymood,

is the
are

within

emotion

an

to be.

seems

man,

would

'there

as

to man,

common

It

the

must

that

sympathy/

property

But

is

Yes.

It is.

himself ?

is

feelingof comfort

this

Then

of nature

observation

an

the

this task
Pessimist

proved my

The

Pessimist

construction

of

I declined.

It

was

exhibited

competence

certain
to

history
then

istics
character-

undertake

the

discovery of what was


suspected to have been done by
of philosophy.
various
Celtic peoples in the domain
I protested that the task was
beyond my powers ; but
an
eventually I agreed to make
attempt at a historyof

Introduction
Celtic

which

Philosophy
development among
remarkable
It
of

philosophical
originalminds of that

the alert and

race.

pleasing to discover, after


immense
quantity of material,

be said

behalf

on

hitherto

not

the

that

Celtic

of

Plato's

world

in

another

was

myself

Druids

as

without

as

the

to

present

forth

set

in

when
work

Eoin

that
he

did

first six
To

him
At

on

raised

he
me

the

it
no

had

great service

chapters,and
I am
deeply

the outset, and

the

Druids

which

two

of

notes

claims
been

chapters of

No

for

The

as

with

greater
Professor

than

writing

my

man,

discover

Indeed,

work.

my

coming,
forth-

been

gratifying to

objection to

1916.

in itself is encouraging.

first six

most

the

in

appeared

has

This

the

before

research

MacNeill.

was

out

discovery of
unquestionably were
knowledge of
any

which

the

but

the

to

encouragement

I submitted

and

effect

the

matter.

speak
recently admitted, can
ancient
Celtic
matters
authority on
;

seriousness
to

Times

MacNeill

had

which

challengedmy
articles,though they have

these

Professor

to

scholar

no

intimate

more

might

quarters of 1915 and

in the press.

freelydiscussed
But

articles

two

for the winter

Scottish Review

much

much

Plato, I placed this portion of my


learned

that

existed

doctrines, which
the

accumulation

produced original philosophy ;


particularsas to the working

satisfied

developed by

Up

the

science

with

evidence

systems

I had

When
two

had

of any

existence

of

attributed

Classical

Celts

of such

of the existence

been

Celts.

the

the

exhibit

would

was

an

to

notes

for

the

this Introduction.

indebted.

in addition
will be

to the classical comments

found

in

this

work,

the

History

Short

following

Celtic

of

these

about

statements

Philosophy

remarkable

ancient

Celtic

community

offered for the consideration

of the

reader.

learned

of the

men

generallysupposed

are

has

research

put

end

an

"

Diodorus

functions.

to

says:

"

be

may

The

Druids

been

priests; but recent


this misconception of their
They predictthe preferable

have

to

and

things through the sacrificesof the priests." And


the
be offered to
reader
the following passages may
evidence.

classical

valuable

as

They

here

are

lated
trans"

as

Druids

The
literallyas possible. Strabo
says :
and
form
the
magnitude
profess to know
"

and

of the earth

of the

the wishes

of the stars, and

and

world, the motions


of the

of the heavens

gods. They

teach

and daily for twenty


people secretly
Is it to be supposed that, during this
years at a time."
of twenty years, no system of philosophy
academic
course
was
taught ? MacNeill had said plainly enough in his

of the

noblest

the

Celtic Religion, which


into

looked

these

pubhshed

was

the

that

matters,

before

long

Druids

not

were

priests.

aorist

the
"

Zamolxis,

taught
the

Celts have

which

is rather

the

the

Pythagorean
"

GalHa
found.

There

is

have

He

than

this

phisers. Pokomy
origin,but were
the

island

the

Druids^
has

shown
over

their

endeavouring

was

the

meets

Ireland,

that
the

elsewhere
the

eye.
Druids

no

that

means

Celts

by
aborigines.

taken

have

"

method."

in

Gauls

philosophisantes." He uses
significant. Origen says :

and
Transalpina, Britain
Clement
Consequently
Gauls

from

among

more

"

Pythagoras, was said to have


the Celts to philosophiseon

oiketes of

Druids

The

says

the

; but

Druids

"

of Alexander*

Clement

insular

were

the

have

their

Celts

were

of

Outside

where

Druids

to

not

(Irishor

ever

pine
Transal-

philosoof Celtic

British)

Introduction

for their

account

In
"

There

of Usener

also Druid

are

souls

the

say

to the

Bishop

For

of Down

and

form

They

am

for

Connor

for his

Sheehan

hint

grateful

very

to

as

line

I believe

unexpectedly yielded what

I have

it would

be

I had

this would

have

Diviciacus

of

the

Aedui.

of

the

same

to

present my

His

brother
Caesar

state.

to

almost

the

every

possible reference ;
work
composed largely

in

first draft

the

of the

include

to

work

every

resulted

one

was

best

and

Indeed

footnotes.

carefullyconsideringin

been

first desired

at

information

of

source

and

"

the Gauls.

Professor

assistance

world."*

another

thank

time

some

pubUc.

of

this sentence

rich fruit.

be

but

have

we

and

which

of research

what

into

return

encouragement

philosophicalsystem.

philosophersof

also like to

I should

to

possession of

Comments

the

two

chief

this

history

(vergobreti)
being dictator

magistrates
aimed

Dumnorix
calls

of

Diviciacus

at
a

of

man

the

most

towards
Roman
the
friendly disposition towards
people, and
moderation.
Caesar
himself, of conspicuous honesty, justice and
D. appeared before
occasion
senate
On
the
Roman
one
as
an
made
of his people.
he
ambassador
this
visit
to
Rome,
During
writes
the acquaintance of Cicero, who
{De Divinatione, 1, 41, 90) :
divinationum
in
ratio
barbaris
ne
gentibus
quidem
Eaque
Gallia
in
druidae
sunt, e quibus ipse
neglecta est, siquidem et
Diviciacum
Haeduum,
hospitem tuum
laudatoremque [I quote
and
do
Holder
is addressed
here
not
know
who
by Cicero
will show], cognovi, qui et naturae
to the work
reference
rationem,
notam
Graeci
sibi
esse
appellant,
proiitebatur
(^vaiokoyia
quam
dicebat.
futura
et, partim auguriis partim conjectura, quae essent
"

Note
for

name

to

well
the

explain

fact

it is

his

here

that

science
"

casual

naturae

of

the

Romans

of the

time

Cicero

physiology,
by the

ratio

"

Greek

had

finding
term,

no

accepted

it necessary
of which
in

translation.

biographical particulars of D. given by Caesar


held
Cicero
in
how
show
us
high a position the Druids
of
education
also
that
and
men
Transalpina,
they were
culture
time
at that
produced.
equal to any that Rome
The

and
Gallia
and

Historv

Short

contains

some

of notes

which

My kindly
opposition to
reliance

such

that

immense

does

would

be

has

offered

which

I had

all the

desirable.

and

the

the

evidence

led

raised

of

lack

of

conclude

to

me

the

to

of

make

and

and

this cumbersome

inclusion

the

deductions

barrier

Nor

by scholars,

should

work

the

of

statements,

my
my

five lines of text

scheme

treatment

upon

that

beneath

admit

arrangement
matters

Philosophy

consistingof

pages

lines
forty-six

Celtic

of

public without
againstpossible

criticism.
I shall

ask

readers, therefore, to believe

my

is made

statement

for which

authority. The pubUc is


personal deductions.
my
deductions

these

I cannot

free to

no

produce the best


or
disagreewith

evidence

The

founded

are

agree

that

which

upon

another

is, however,

matter.

be hard

It would

in

few

words

to convey

the amount

journeying,observation, conversation,
If
this work
has involved.
correspondence which

of research,

arguments

are

accepted, however,

my

and
my

service

humble

peoples will not have been performed in


vain.
For it might be said that in the highestdegree
stands or falls by its originalwork in philosophy.
a race
their philosophers!
without
Think
of Greece
and Rome
over
If,as I believe, a claim to philosophicoriginality
be maintained
a period of probably 2500
by
years can
the

to

Celtic

the Celtic

increased

more

than

Unquestionably

thought
And

in

many

positionin world-dignitywill
one
can
readilyappreciate.

their

races,

the

writing are
of

my

largest remains
to be

found

arguments

of ancient

among

naturally

be

Celtic

the Irish MSS.


rest

upon

the

Introduction

of these

contents

kind, what

books.

the

reflect upon

must

entire

Celts
later

of Celtic

the

seen,

in

races.

of the Irish

the ancestors
be

done

has

people

assembly

perfectlyevident that
will
in Europe were,
as
and
more
gloriouswork

of this

matter

Celtic

it is

And

in

However,
of the

branch

one

of

fathers

history of philosophical

the

development.
which

In the work
in

this

I shall endeavour

follows

explain the Celtic


mind, alertness of intellect,and general predisposition
towards
I
philosophy. In Chapters 2, 3 and
4
shall trace the development of the
simpler doctrines
of philosophy. Chapters 5 and
6 must
represent the
manner

discoveries

Chapter

"

by

proceed

to

whose

will

the value

nature

of my

work

whole

be tested.,namely the

independent working out by


the Druids
of Plato's Doctrine
of Rest
and
Theory of
Ideas.
The final chapters will be merely expositionsof
admitted
philosophicalsystems ; and in the last of these
must

I shall

set

relied

upon

trace

the

Francis

call the
which

In
the
he
as

influence

The

attention

of my

the

; and

readers

esoteric

and

to

the

Kant

I shall
of

with

conclude
to

as

of

economics

will

work

MacNeill

Professor

philosophy
Berkeley ; and

culture

upon

this,I would
therein

remarks

teaching adopted

system

of

like to

thank

Druids.

conclusion, I should

the

Editor

of

long and competent article which


recentlypublished on the subject of my conclusions
Anglo-Celt for

set

forth

in the

Scottish

If this present work


I

the

how

inspirationof

the

exhibit

the

by

show

to

Hutcheson.

by

notes

out

hope

at

some

future

Review.

receives
date

to

sufficient
offer the

encouragement,
public

more

History

Short

and

evidence,

that

themselves

in

the

this book

trouble, and
to

up

Through
work

The

word

the

should

"

be

of

the

which

be

describes
a

In

while
the

read
the

"
"

the

Chapter

that

(Book 5,
statement

my

the

"

nominative

Celts
In

acted

the

same

is somewhat
indestructibility"

"

II.

"Anaximines"

in the next

should

Chapter

Fomorian,"

"

Professor

Lir"
"

in

be

the letter "r"

and

MacNeill

Ler"

Chapter
"

and

in

is used

Chapter VHI.
phrase "extinguishthe
existence";

I.

in

sentence

Notes

his

as

"c.

In

the

that

of

story of the migrations of the Milesians

myth,
genitive

"Dionysius"

with

this

that

remark

Etruscans.

the

word

learned
The

grow

revision

suggests the

claims

Chapter

crept into

should

necessary
un-

may

in

twice

agreement
he

though

case,

Anaximenes";

has

saved

Celtic sacking of Rome

of the

independently against
chapter the spellingof
"

be

final

occurs

This

"Livy's."

ol

department

literature

without

in substantial

unique.

who

will, therefore, kindly note

reader

Livy"

Livy's version
33-40) is

scholars

deals, may

proper

been

Celtic

off

printed

"proofs."

have

peoples.
misunderstanding a large portion of

was

of the

honour

the

which

notes
so

which

with

research

originalsources

my

introduction,

employ

to

care

may

elaborate

the

this

in

mentioned

Philosophy

containing all

comprehensive work
oi

Celtic

of

and

Chapter
"

V.

Dionysus"

in

place

should

be

VI.

exists

"

should

existence"
"there

be

should

being"

"

be

should

exist

"

; the

"distinguish
be

"their

being."
Co.
Antrim,
DUNMORRY,
gth December, 19 19.

of

HERBERT

MoORE

PiM.

I.

CHAPTER

CELTIC

THE

AS

Pater

Walter

work,
intellectual

are

absolute

no

The

But

surprise.
be

the

the

last

The
the

was

we

So

not

an

bestowed
are

this

nihil
there

into

them

upon
for

was

the

first

by

beyond

expression.

observed
of

As

mention

recognised

Their

and
of

at

others

by

witness.

Greeks;

the

first

will

inclined

characteristics.

race

choice

extensive

cause

may

investigation

of

certain

this

generally

region

uncongenial

philosophical

of

mate
legiti-

seems

philosophically

have

people

indebted

people

of

ation,
gener-

philosophy

beginnings

utility

coherent

characteristics

have

the

the

deny

of

Celtic

organic
Natura

of

history

carried

pursuit

surely

to

region

the

atmospherically

be

to

in

of

starts.

philosophical

of
; their

enough

that

world

the

With

beginnings."

pursuit

supposed

and

"

sudden

no

subjective

delightfully

with

as

makes

saltum

per

his

Platonism,

and

production,

nature

facit

in

says

Plato

MIND.

least

to

them
about

to

we

name

Hecataeus

as

500

Celts.
B.C.

History

Short

10

grants them

and

of Hercules,"

Aristotle

Danube.

Philosophy.

"

habitation

fixes their

Herodotus

Celtic

of

the upper

with

agrees

the

beyond

Pillars

reaches

Herodotus

of the

when

he

"

places thei) dwelling beyond Spain." We hear from


in his refreshingly
him
that they captured Rome
; and
associates

he

up-to-date way

had

Plato

mihtarism

northern

miUtarists
he

Whether
in

the

of

consumption
for

something

imported

barbaritywhen
in the
Their

attentions
deal

shall

in

with

it in

high

specimens
"

of vine

Pliny

the

and

much

Delphi

sacked

is

and

We
order.

own

because

They

of bronze
shows

their

know

work

Celts

of

Europe,

left

fondness

they
left

enriched

they cultivated
raising.

that

us

the

vine

their

for timber

enamel
and

to

particulars
long ago

coins, and

with

no

artists

were

us

try

we

buildings have

that

have

if

in

have

They

shght.

their

bestowed

But

the

of that

sacking

consideration, and

course.

of

history

writing ;

of their

them

to

they

is worth

due

disappeared, probabty

very

as

effects of alcohol

their

and

Rome,

Delphi,

upon

construction.

"

appeared mysterious.
for their partiality

Greece

centur3^ before

contribution

own

Greeks

of intoxication

attributes

he

worshipper

like the

The

excuse

invaded

upon

reconstruct

; but

the

monies
cere-

B.C.

attack

city, about

frenzy

admiration.

they

273

year

sacred

of malt

Certain

And

wine.

provides no

wine*

combative.

is doubtful.

early peoples,have

Plato, however,
for

"

pious

these

to

must,

and

in

with

fixed these

they possessed a god

imported

the

they regarded

people

the Laws

religiondemanded

their

of

as

drunken

as

Braciaca

of

person

already in

that

knew

them

had

of

their
are

varieties

History

Short

12

give place

to

were

would

Celtic

of

Philosophy

perfect order,

to

certain

almost

to

amount

such

mation
transforof their

proof

philosophicalcharacter.
philosopheramong

is

He

when

And

for

is fortunate

dimensions
lest

that

I shall deal

pThe
how

their

And

Nothing
the

takes

not

of
to

care

its bulk
In

exaggeration.

which

from

from
of

his

pen.

to

appear
Plato

him.

Pythagorean

from

but

Pythagoras

the

Pythagoras

begin

derived

he

to

Homer's

after

lived

; and

folklore

Pythagoras

remarks

who

that

their

writings

Subtle

authors

say

not

describe

as

flowed

the

of

word.

works

doctrines

left

is

and

name

which

romance

what

an

incredible

great myths with

myths

is such

closelyrelated
of

saved.

course.

had

Greeks

stream

in

in due

the

whose

exists

such

to

of gross

is contained

this Uterature

discover,

be

may
there

of

fear

accused

be

people
Ireland

in

would

one

should

one

that

tradition

and

unphilosophical,

speculativesoul by

that

us

literature

ancient

of

traces

be

to

investigate and

to

reputation of

the

existence

duty

possible,some

It

generaliser

becomes

it almost
if

"

infallible

is considered

mind

whose

race

across

foreign growth.

in the Cities of the Plain.

righteous man

come

we
"

the

by

as

rare

as

is

people

any

the

goreans
Pytha-

Pythagoras himself,

if

we

hke

figure of

luminous

at

from

sky

the

wonder

He

philosopher.

times
; he

by

such, stands

call them

may

described

as

was

and
the

; the

out

his

biographers,

before

than

unearthly power,
son

of

of

servant

possessed

Apollo

the

; his

Apollo

power

came

of

more

us

flesh
to

as

was

him

bi-location.

The

intimate

had

He

his

uttered

has

before

of

Pythagoras

the

and

measure

luminous

in communion

Hyperborean

as

in this instance

Faith

Caesar

For

Druids

assures

is neither
that

in

Apollo,the
nature,

Druids

the

among

of

philosophy ?

requisitenor

the

air

Druid.

with

miracle

an

in Cuchulain, the

entire absence

an

us

of the

great

so

suppose

in

of

child of

the
figure,

reproduced exactly in every detail


greatest figurein Celtic mythology.
we

doctrine

stature

is

can

and

names

Pythagoras is what
subtle myth.
Pythagoras

in any

friend of celestial messengers,

But

; waters

of

teaching his strange

has
as

divers

know

we

fine hero

Crotona

mystery,

inanimate

the

under

us

What

of any

at

13

Indeed, throughout the ages, Pythagoras

name.
come

know

with

converse

sundry places.
we

Mind

Celtic

necessary.

taught

the

"

mortalit
im-

"

and
They discuss," he says,
impart to the youth many
things respecting the stars
and their motions, respectingthe extent
of the Universe
and our
Earth
of things,respecting
; respectingthe nature
and majesty of the immortal
the power
gods." ^Strabo
that
mentions
they taught the
indestructability

soul.

"

material

of the

by

of the

one

down

universe
few

; and

pieces of

as

"

I shall prove

direct utterance

later on,

which

have

they held a doctrine closelyresembling


that taught by Berkeley. Like the admirers
of Pythagoras
But this point
they believed in metempsychosis.
in particularshall be dealt with by me
at considerable
and
conduct
learn
we
length. Of the Druid manner
from
Diodorus
Siculus that
they are not a talkative
in enigmas,
people,and are fond of expressing themselves
come

to us,

"

so

that

would

the

hearer

say."

has

to

divine

the

most

of what

they

History

Short

14
There

Celtic

of

therefore, active

were,

Philosophy

minds

Celts

the

among

philosophicalspeculation. But before we


of this speculation more
the nature
consider
closely,it
the
whom
is very desirable to study the people among
And
throughout
growth of philosophy is to be traced.
the reader
that
the subsequent investigation,I assure
he will find it to his advantage to retain in his memory

devoted

to

vivid

as

pictureas possibleof

Porcius
Celts

that

their characteristics.

pleasantlybrief

Cato

is

they

have

devotion

when

he

"

to

of the

says

militarem

rem

et

argute loqui."

already

have

besides

but

would

support

peninsula and
to

other

overrun

question of inclination,but

this time

; and

of Iron
well

the

as

to

measure,

The

and

the

Celts

break

is

had

this inclination

and

disregard

found
the

from

out

the

the

the

trace

the

value

north, armed

they assisted,
Celtic
Empire."

in

as

some

"

Celt is

is most

capable

greatest advantage

clearly a

repubUcan

not
early days, was
of necessity. About

Celtic mihtarism

in Ireland, where
the

Balkan

themselves,
up

were

century

the

But

rather

races

pressingdown

question of
with

there

Germanic

third

over

Minor.

in those

even

the

In

their

Cato, if he

people's property,

landlords

feelingsof
a

Porcius

quietlyunder

in Asia

of government

form

down

Rome

militaryactivityto

for argument.

settled

of

sacking

interesting people swept

this

B.C.

is much

incHned

and

alive

the

this there

which

credit

mentioned

of definite

fightinginstincts of the people.


lived in comparative security,save

to

the

interesting;
of

being

sidered
con-

investigator,

modification
The

Celt

from

undue

in the

in

Ireland

attention

The

Mind

Celtic

15

neighbouring prince of his own


invasion
He
suffered
from
race.
no
by the Romans
;
he shook
off the Danes,
who
happened to visit him,
with comparative ease.
of the spiritof a
He had none
the

on

part of

Norman

; the

For

peace.
the

Teutonic

him

horror

of

passed as

some

the

successful

regard

down

that

generation, so

had

war

disturbed

never

few

invasion

ation
gener-

nerved

to

extinction.

than

worse

as

from

be

might

been

never

the years

men

his
; and

terrors

had

conqueror

nightmare story

to

of

god

under

hfe

had

power

fightingquaUties of the Celt


of Scotland, Ireland, and
in particular,in the
Wales
too
field of battle are
obviously excellent to require
it might
final observation
as
a
proof in detail. And
deeds
be said that the Celt has always placed brave
On

the

in the

the

other

safe

devotion

of

his

sword

the

to

the

of his sagas.

custody
theme

main

"

hand,

sword

has

stories ; but

with

has

there

inclination

an

finest

The

to

ti-materialism,

an

before
settingof principle

the chances

is the

and

spectacle of

Maev

by Cuchulain, though
her.

choicest
him
her
mere
us

in

of her

without

force
with
any

She
of

in

his

And

arms.

forth

devotion

gentlemen

at

to
war,

immense

sent,
she

instead

chose

language.

of

might

In
a

by
to

that

so

to

have

honour

and

though

he

ford

to

the

one,
overcome

forward

doing

she

has

with

provided

finest hero

respect Maev,

conqueror.

at

There

put etiquette before

of the

one

the

value

by

one

simply by marching

contribution

comes

she

kept

panion
com-

or

of conflict.

army

was

knights, when

trouble

armies.

time

Cuchulain

Against

her

this

strange

gone

been

though

tales
feated,
de-

The

Celt is victorious

the

polite

may

many

usages

of

times

sbe

Short

i6

History

incapableof claiminga
almost

that

the

Cuchulain

in

purpose.

The

fact

ford

is of

Celt

Tain

the

of Cuchulain

cite the

can

to
*'

us

fail to

we

crush

and

and

the

may

which

of Ulster

oath

on

pour

about

earth

the field of battle.

Celtic abhorence
their

classic

chapter

sky

"

fall upon

swallow

us,

The

us,"

similar

brought

the

to

the strictness
infidehty,by which
honour
is emphasised. This
is the

of

example

which

About

400

"

wording

and

thus

We

themselves

later used

are

the

of

code

We

people

war.

overwhelm

centuries

ten

the

open

and

out

bound

may

is

there

evidences

of

is the

Here

the

at

most

other

are

my

rely upon

to

Celts

the

the

may

sea

than

of

for

opinion

Celt in time

of the

this covenant

keep
us,

men

of

there

; for

treaty \^dth Alexander.

If

by

In

saga

episodes

in my

but

the

enough

the

it is unnecessary
alone

oath

is

story of Cuchulain

anti-materialism

of the

of

value
;

force.

gains the spiritualvictory


gained the physical. The
Cuailgne

consequence

imagine. However,
case

Bo

historical

history in

more

brute

given approval to

has

the

no

Celt

tu have

happens

if his enemy

victoryfor

mere

the

case

every

Philosophy

Celtic

of

Celtic

mentioned

was

B.C.,

Empire

had

earlier

when

the

reached

in

loosely
huge

this
structed
con-

level

of

apparently entered into league with


with
the object of
the Celtic Ruler, Livy Ambicatus,
The
scheme
crushing the Etruscans.
provided for a
the

power,

simultaneous
Celts

from

South.
from
were

and

attack
the

The
the

Romans

North,

Celts

and

poured

north, and

Etruscan

upon

by
down

proved

the

apparently astonished by
when
the victory became

territory by

the

Romans

from

the

passes

of the

victors.
the

power

known

The

the
the

Alps

Romans

of the

Celts ;

them

they

to

The

adopted

The

Celtic
Rome

siege to Clusium
hands

from

ambassadors

very

; for

would

the

deprive

from

barbarian

spectacle of

curious

have, therefore, the

We

important place

an

in Etruscan

remain

to

such

standpoint

own

possession of that stronghold


of a safeguardagainstinterference

tribes.
the

safer

be

would

laid

Celts had

appreciatedthat

Rome

17

their

curious, though from

desirable, pohcy.
and

Mind

Celtic

who

had

scarcely
Celts, entering the

Rome

completed negotiationswith the


to prevent
ranks of the besieged Etruscans

fall
the down-

of Clusium.

Chief

Ambustus,
the

demand,

"

are

said to have

are

bound

abandoned

the

We

added

and

meet

the

annihilated
the

shouted

of this the

to the defenders

of Clusium

!"

and

promptly

the

of Rome

year

the

was

Celts

after their honour

390

Roman

the river AUia, within


for

by making

In consequence

Celtic armies, and

And

Livy

consider

to

the refusal

siege. On July i8th,


mihtary force of Rome

near

city.

remained

stingto

for Rome

entire available
to

of

sons

refused

Rome

militarytribunes.

the Fabii

Celts

Pontiff.

for the

Rome

ambassadors, the three

her

treachery of

from

satisfaction

demanded

Celts

The

to
B.C.

the

drawn

up
was

power
few

miles

possessed

had

have

been

of

what

satisfied.

thought. It reveals a
episode deserves some
people keenly sensitive,whose appreciationof honour
was
surelyout of keepingwith the rough usages of ancient
This

warfare.

This

accounted

for

the ethical
It is among

sensitiveness,it

by

sense

this

people that it is
of philosophyand

the

fact that

of the

seems

among

Celt is

to

me,

may

the world's

be
races

abnormally developed.
shrewd, and sensitive
quick-thinking,
the beginnings
business
to trace
my
its deliberate and dignified
formation.

History

Short

20

thinking had

Incrediblyhard
In

time

mere

place is

his

Philosophy

Celtic

of

done

been

behind

before

the
he

of

breakers

few

And

soil.

new

age

of the

Sophists!

could

with

satisfaction

So

might

one

done

have

remarked

I have

as

is to

that

suppose

work

in

arose

in

which

Republic, Phaednis
other things, great

the

Timaeus

the

cosmos

It

contains

it describes

soul.

human

the

to mention

himself

he

reahty he bequeathed to Aristotle.


the Gorgias, Phaedo,
What
are
but receptacles
containing, among
of
what
myths ? And
half-mythicalstudy of
fortunes and destiny of

Anaxi-

Anaximander,

mines, Pythagoras,Empedocles, Anaxagoras,


a

Plato.

suggest the infinite

the

Its

object,
importance

So here, at
making a right moral choice.
confronted
the beginning of our
are
we
investigation,
with
the fact that the greatest of Greek
philosophers
presentedhis philosophyat times in the form of myths !
to

of

man

For

the Celtic Druids

we

Plato, having chosen


of

theories

fact that

'*' The

opinion
the

his

Diodorus
of

immortal

This

says

and

more

no

exhibits

medium,

metempsychosis.

of the

that

claim

can

no

certain

consolingin

is

ancient

of the

of

men

pass

into other

view

Celts

:
"

them

Pythagoras prevailed among


souls

less.

bodies,

animation."
That
acquirea new
the Celtic Druids
taught such a doctrine of philosophy
who
is no
Celtic scholar
is beyond dispute. There
I have the opinion
denies this conclusion
me
; and behind
of Hyde, Sheehan, MacNeill, Meyer, Toland, Nutt, and
last,but by no means
least,that fine Scottish authority,
limited

time

and

in

Dr.

MacCulloch, besides

whom

I have

It is my
remains

not

business

of this

of

number

competent

men

named.
now

to

trace

doctrine, and

how

as

far
it

as

was

the
possible
expounded.

Soul

The
There

is

variation

metempsychosis
De

The

Danann.

and

of

the

the

21

dwelt

in

myth of the Tuatha


the vicinity
of Athens,

of necromancy

arts

and

Keating gives the episode which


variation
witchcraft

used

to

armies

to

they

of their

bodies

into

drive

to

and

demons,

if

that

not

admit

they

the

disappears.
is

clearlyto
"

ash)
up

drive

On

spear

bodies

the

in the

of

with

Celtic

proceed

the

dead
the

; when

the

were

corpses

through
to

were

against
quickened by
would

the

the

concluding

as

The

the
we

will

that

rising

we

it would

be

have

through

stake

remembered

be

vivid

be

that

ance
of assist-

pictureas possible
monition
necessity for this ada

we
present stage. Before
question of metempsychosis

the

at

consider

passage

direction

would

who

I said that

in the memory

laid

quicken-tree (mountain

person

It

original,the

however,
possible,
system of driving a

criminals.

be

forward

suggest

It is

Celts,

into worms,

it may

of

the

revive

converted

the

stake

characteristics.

to

of

to

of every

is evident

among

preceding chapter

to retain

used

they

that

so

reference

origin for

an

'

ambiguity

trunk

the

the

reallyrevived, the bodies


corruption." If emphasis

were

againstthem."

here

of

'

who

instantlybe

of instant

movement,

in motion

mountain-ash

if

that

would

the word

upon

of

of those

one

added,

they

but

into

demons

put them

stake

corpse of every
them

extraordinary

had

they

battle, that

them

infuse

the

previouslyslain in the field of


fought against them, the next
day they
council with their own
who
advised
priests,

whom

entered

"

ment.
enchant-

illustrates

their

By

perceived that they

Syrians,however,
of those

"

mentioned

I have

of

theory

common

in the

found

Damni

learned

there

be

to

Man

of

should

recollect

the

words

of

themselves
the

most

may

be

they

well

consider

to

it did
Mr.

of

not."

If the

Rolleston.

quite sufficient
was

doctrine

ignore Caesar, however,


dent

unhampered

"

says,

that

does

from

passes
Mr.

soul

desires to defend
And

such

inclination

(not

of

for

Celtic

of such

owing

to

that

was

invented
had

examined

have
A

"

"

"

with

such

far

represented anything

statement

of

Valerius

t*.. the

among

from

of

Maximus

"

"

value

people,
hypothesis

any

the

"
"

Pythagoras,

himself

proach
ap-

question

Rolleston

Mr.

"

writers

recognise the

antiquity."

Pythagoras

ism.
plagiar-

It is sufficient

recognition,

doctrine

it in ancient

how

"

writers

the

?"

esse

quoting

am

of

ourselves) to

spiritof

the

character.

ancient

many

it

that

required owing

metempsychosis

the

learned

represented

in

ancient

of

and

they

is

race

theory

'

special

defence
of

is

death

assume

againsta charge

part

"

the Celt

potestaliquidhoni
these

that

me

necessitycontemporary

Nazareth

the

on

the
"

principal

after

that

'

is of

pleading

correspjn-

The

another."

to

cannot

We

(the Druids') teaching

perish,and

body

Rolleston's

He

of their

not

one

censor

is

evident,

seems

"

general

all, that

at

if, as

in

part

dispute with

of

war
intelligent

an

the

by

point," Csesar
the

as

them

the better.

much

so

disagree.

but

held

was

; and

case

growth,

with

basis

writer,

to

might happen,
no

passing it

one

have
not

was

I have

for my

native

"

sense,

of

divine

to

in

Just

shall

expressing

has

opinion

the

It

of

hearer

say."

says,

things.

In

fond

the

would

whom
he

Transmigration,"

Philosophy

are

that

so

of what

of the order

it

"

Rolleston, with

Mr.

They

enigmas,

in

Celtic

of

"

Siculus

Diodonis

"

History

Short

22

have

We
may

definite

(VI.

6.

be

that
who

already
said

to

character.

lo) places

The

us

fimi

on

persuade
should

inclined

Maximus

in the next

stage

is

is

quaint
enigmatically. Finn
in the

Irish

calls up

actual

slayerof

burial, and
Celtic

by

were
"

"

to

We

the

hint.

with

thee."
with

were

Mongan
!

what
"

bodies

of lower

of this

anything

It is wrong

And
has

that

us

kind

I don't

Keelta
of

he

most

gives

to

of the

the

"

who

the

after

information
"
"

says

"

"

Alba
to

Mongan
secret."

encourage

present should

We

revealed,

place

Then

valuable

from

the

was

describes
tomb.

made
Fothad

spot where

probably

disclose

years

have

Mongan, he says
the assemblage he

coming

lest those

to

thus

enigmas."

to

to

intreats

been

doubt

hundred

three

is believed

contents

Finn

in

spiritof Keelta,
; and

And

Celt

the

people would
best examples

the exact

Turning

of you

tell

Over

prove
the

manner,

proceed

tion
concep-

metempsychosis expressed
Cumhal
defeated
King Fothad

a.d.

Fothad

dark

Hush,"

is the

of

prince Mongan

He

the

the

of the

one

mac

century

died.

of

In

expresbing himself

that he could

wager

Pythagoras."

promissory note payable

on

case

third

later the

as

nimble-minded

for

fondness

Here

same

not

soul's existence

of the

This

disguisea gift.
"

the

to

on

money

and

generous

Celt's

trouser-wearing

were

trace

goes

actuallylend
A

to

Celts.

the

Valerius

it.

these

to

immortal.

are

to

unable

am

anxious

are

Pythagoras there
purgatorialjourney through

animals.

would

describe

to

attributed

among

men

mantle-clothed

the

doctrine
of

of

23

They

fools, if their doctrine

as

of

that

says
souls

the

that

us

Man

of

"

He

ground.

be

people

Soul

him

stand
fail to undercontinues

Mongan,

"

of

History

24

Short

course,

is revealed

mighty

Finn

Lucan

is

(Phars.
**

i.

From

455f.)the

bereaved

is not

{in

learn

the

silent

orbe

the

warrior

the

region

of

death

from

of

bodies

of the

male

And

already

year

the

centre

of

1106.

opening

died

is the

in

of

and

to

facing
and

them,

unsleeping

these

of war,

companion

in

contact

Celtic

In

one

of the

graves

in Ireland.

named

Abbey
MacNeill's

of

close
arm

female.
of

volume

enormous

Academy.

the

the

grave

neck

the

scribe

Professor

bury

to

Probably

Lebar-na-Heera,

Irish

the

of

frequently laid

the

exists

learned

the

expected,to

be

life.

were

mentioned

which

of

mind

acceptance

bodily

eternal

women

Royal
a

the

bodily

the

custom

that

encircled

books

in the

Kelleher, who
the

the

earth, yet preservingthose

seem,

the

skeleton

of these

work

in

might

have

we

and
On

oldest

the

Erebus,

besides

the

soul's

men

literature

seen

of

perpetual menace

into

the

Celtic

be

halls

common

enemies

bay.

other.

I have

of

clothes, fullyarmed,

surface,

its

which

at

stage of
each

bourne

mere

no

love, requiring,it would

to

the

in

certainty

war

sentinels, received

the

that

patheticclinging to

was

thus

was

them

next

life.

future

true, is but

lore be

means

It

in his

He

trod

in

expresses

spiritanimates

alio) the

apparent

an

that

come.

Celts

we

says,

ghost anatomy.

who

of the

he

Hfe."

and

kept

beUef

is evidence

There

form,

quotation,because

Death, if your

long

of the

re-incarnation

the

as

"

he

world

members.
a

of

worthy

existence

another

once

Cumhal.

mac

you,"

man's

of

at

Philosophy

Celtic

of

This

which
bock

Mailmurri
Clonmacnoise
third

note

the

may
was

Mac
in
in the

The

appendix

this

to

with

Soul

Man

of

history,might

what

about

am

well

the

wonderful

The

ancient

rather,

exist, cr

It remains

from

informed

that

century,

set

lived

MoviUe

the

out

it

as

hardly

act

exercised.
;

"

says

uUa

in

in

the

to

daily life

Finnen

accord
the

with

Celts

will

domes

Finnen

the

the

sixth

named

The

Tuan
at

unexpected

done

door

the

are

monastery

have

to

open

to

Irish

in
the

tradition

abbot,

of

Celtic

hospitalitywas
invariably
ment
authority for this state-

serve

homines

sane

of

We

of the

chief

ruled.

always
to

Cow.

Tuan

illis

hospitalissimi,
neque
vel

quam

sponte

frequentate." Well,
undisturbed

he

witness, when

as

it

ac

seems

the

unexpected
of Tuan
he sat down
the doorstep
on
; and
intention
of employing against the inhospitable
fasted against
of a fast.
He
pecuHar weapon

for
for

certain

is unlimited

eorum

Saint

chief the

an
a

Saint, and
friends.
due

of

much

the

Dun

magis gratificari
potes,

re

behaviour

even

case

permitted

Irish abbot

an

Saint

Stanihurst

Sunt

"

voluntate

Tuan

is how

were

the

distance

refused

There

but

visit

seems

; for Tuan

of

easy

hospitahty. With

with

in the

interestinglegend of

Finnen,

to

which

over

myths

that

habits

the

Book

Saint

within

occurred,

an

incorporated into

were

consider

to

Carell

who

and

junction
con-

Church.

of the

Mac

ideas

pagan

in

through the
triumphant Christi-

in Ireland

thing

read

filtered

pagan

anity.

be

describe

to

has
legend which
cautiously designed filter-bed of

of

25

course.

entire

Sunday,

chief.

pagan
the

was

victor

Saint

Finnen
To

the

So

and

by

which

the

door

proved too
was
opened
became

vanquished

returned
monks

he

to

his

said

"

to

the

excellent

monastery
"

much

Tuan

is

in
an

History

Short

26

excellent
and

tell you

was

kept

the

chief.

curious

alone

of

fear

for

for twenty -two

possession

of

possessinglong
was

the

he

lay

down

he

came

to

and

In this mood

when

they
; and

and

of these

only

nine

it

was

were

in the

women.

And

that
the

land

very

and

took

He

over

and
the

of the

eight

he

says

him.

Tuan

; for

morning
of

body

the

to

of

coming

survived

growth

as

from

when

as

of

stag.

said.
which

the

They
of them

thousand

perilsof

king

of all the

the

colonists

thousand

and

new

land.

of

upwards

Tuan,

all this

and

himself

thirty-two ships,and
was

Ireland, watched

there

in

Ireland

there

Then

voyage.

arrived

existed

io37fulof heart," he
he composed a song

Nemed,

out

set

feeble

came

had

and

of

children

the

sailed towards

in

form

he

his face

hid

he

rock

to

full of wretchedness.

old man,

and

bodily

survive

to

rock

nails.

and

change

of his transformation,

people,

souls

untrimmed

again,

related

describes

longer old, but

young

was

told

and

an

no

was

from

became

he

Tuan

sleep as

and

desolation

this

land.

Ireland.

now-

eventually

of time

in

country, visiting the

his cousin

saw

fullness

In

"

he

when

gave

his uncle,

the

of colour, unclothed

gray

And

hair

age

visited

came

until

Nemed

the

settle

to

promise

he

that

say

you,

he

In

years,

cousin

His

old.

to

passing

wolves.

the

and

only man
pestilence. Thus

fortresses, and

tenantless

name,

on

was

the

over

This

his monks

men

terrible

comfort

and

uncoimtable

period,he

after

wander

to

first of

claimed

how, in this dim


in Ireland

he went

the

therefore

He

his

him

Then

was

and

you

Finnen

asked

answer.

to

come

afterwards

They

Philosophy

stories of Ireland."

old

the

; and

Partholan,

will

He

man.

Celtic

of

sixty

the

deer
until
men

people mysteriously died.

History

Short

28

the

obvious

the

latter

to

themselves

for

place

had

he fasted

rewarded

by

this

press

For

many

and

he

at

was

The

of

One

the

by

had
for

even

an

first Irish

herself

be

descend

the
have
In

have

might
body

of

chosen
anv

event

to

claimed
worm

of

would

an

Had

a
a

drinking
Tuan's

on

So
a

was

Tuan

been

precedent

wife,

least, proved

in

"

less ambitious
for
and

accepting
he

stronger beverage than


been

his

severe

impossible situation

water-beetle,

have

surety,

insect.

at

cite

insect,

an

and, of

That

occasion

good

or

float in
he

of

act

an

son.

becoming

though Partholan's

avoiding

is bom

I could

body

The

chief's

of

in the

one

on

(Keating's Hist. I, i6i).


he

in the

"

He

means

become

Irishwoman

by herself,

me

the

be

salmon.

salmon.

Carell.

ate

of birds

to

swallow

of

little peace

perceive a struggle
king

him

alone.

common

woman,

v/oman,

capable

to

lodged

some

been

to

not

of his

day

womb."

means

no

almost

can

hardly

could

mother

to

had

He

by

others.

swallowed

part.

test

is

shall

of

named

her

into

was

carried, apparently

and

me,

is believed

and

again was

water.

he

passed

; and

he

form

gave

chief

desired

of Tuan

legend

number

and

course,

human

wife of

says,

that

so

in due

caught

"

he

woman,"
whole,

last

claimed

be

case

any

old

the

remarkable

ninth

the

in the

awoke

in

form.

On

fishermen

the

still alive, to

; but

continued

might

In

human

the

days

This

days.

to

asleep, and

acted

he

expiation.

return

Danann

finallyrecognised

expiation theory.

fell

fast he

of

De

overcame

invisible,and

Tuan

for nine

They

Tuatha

become

land.

represent a period

to

shore.

of transformation, and

symptons
manner

of the

merely

the

possess

the

on

resistance

Philosophy

Celtic

of

better

might
water.

accord

The

are

it

I think

the

the

measure

death.
this

is

the

is

I shall set

down

to

to

which

the

the

of

case

life
over

to make
one

vidual,
indi-

after

not

his

Celtic

writings;
philosophical

ancient
after

appear

have

they

passed

filter.

however,

prove,

that

in the

case

of

of

Celtic

belief in

milk

On

from

abstain

be

can

opened only by

the

Platonism.

conduct.

upon

which

caskets

us

of advanced

The

why

philosophy, which the Druids


in esoteric
to embody
care
no
myths, there was
there
have
come
necessity for filtering.And

such

to

Celts

doctrines

sublime

took

key

out

that
would

careful

been

find aU

we

in

orthodox

the

through

numerous

monk

on

individual's

justwhat

the

has

place in

that

manner

of

doctrines

the

take

during

This

scribe

than

more

Catholic

his soul

to

the monk

transformations
and

of the

of

of the

it is

what

Book

invention

I think

But

And

it.

to abandon

Now

subject of
the Celts certainly
doctrine, which
before
them
Christianitycaused

Celtic

full

in

the

knowledge

comfort

with

ancient

held

this story in the

represents just what

down

write

29

metempsychosis.

current

of Ireland.

invasions

Man

of

probably

for the

account

to

is

It

Cow.

Dun

from

conclude

to

we

of

stories

Celtic

the

with

Soul

metempsychosis

account

flesh, eggs,

should

have

had

its effect

of this belief it
and

been

even

milk.

usual

was

Though

included, I can't

quite

imagine.
When

the

third

and

last conquerors

mythical Milesians, approached


Amergin,

gave

voice

to

what

was

her

of Ireland, the

shores,

one

probably

of them

fragment

of

History

Short

30

it

revealing

yet

"

And

of

the

wind

which

am

the

wave

upon

am

I
I

am

eagle

am

the

hon

am

"

furnishes

expression

of

Celts

of

the

earth

doctrines.

three
a

is

which
is

also

direct
the

claim

Druidic
an

the

doctrine

are

For

man

the

"

as

Erin,

they

great

eagle

himself

the

being

wave

of

anima

is

or

very

the

belief
mundi.

maker
of

reading
in

universe.

the

creature

contain

to

in

its

of

the

idealism

from

claims

these

living

later,

point
is

that

similar

intended

liturgies
can

of

parts

subject
a

with

later,

seen

expression

of

towards

Tuan,

be

this

air,

possibility

of

coming,

of

been

enigmatic

expressions

drew

will

on

that

ritual.

power

have

sea

water."

For

as

us,

truth,

people

their

or

rock

their

man's

to

battles

the

lore.

thought

own

the

in

the

waters

courage

witnessed

Wales

of

on

his

of

the

holding

upon

great

the

for

foreign

sea

bloweth

seven

salmon

and

he

no

my

of

the

personification

And

bull

the

for

"

am

as

the

brought

not

Philosophy

liturgy,

philosophical

Dniidic

Celtic

of

these

transmigration

place,

to

cosmos

and

;
there

utterances

and

in

III.

CHAPTER

NO

Celtic

complete
survived.

Being

remain
its

this

Thales

or

what

The
in

and

credited

been

Celtic

of

science

taught

might
close

be

having
had

that
termed

may

Woman

to

one

"

the

be

31

only

illustrated

is

water,

element.'*

fundamental

between

world,

double

and

man

by

the
the

"

to

seems

principle

universal

the

that

possession

woman's

to

to

discernable,

conclusion

access

access

it

received

world

clearly

earth.

the

relationship

mythology

is

curiosity

with

of

man

less

or

by

permit

the

cask

mation.
infor-

woman

not

philosophical

"

formation

the

more

obvious

curiosity

this

from

is,

the

myth

reveals

while

and

There

divine

have

could

to

has

of

pieces

given

was

she

formation

world's

the

disjointed

cask

woman,

unopened
waters.

in

of

have

marvellous

WORLD.

THE

myth

We

God.

OF

SOUL

THE

earth

creation

History

Short

32

of the

first

from

earth, his blood


and

Druids
that
It

is

difficult

because
would
for

saying, but

clearlyconvey

them

modifying
a

modified

in

Danann

the

about

Berkeley.

the

thereof.

inheritance

world

in which

In

Celtic

action
the

restfulness

broken

There

Man

is
We

he

precedent
have

know

the

the
"

"

such

Plato

"

"

this

early

its

place

the

is

Tuatha

had

this

have

and

of

De

setting

overcome

;
"

they
that

deliberate

when

unfailing strength of
the

than

troubled
in

his

expression

terse
"

the

life when,
the

doctrine

is the

measure

of

wisdom,
"

extremes

armour

philosophic

of

of Lacedaemonian
in

mere

finds in

man

despairs,and

Nothing

; and

Man

; and

world

twice

or

first-fruits

and

there

to

more

and

is full of

thyself
{Protagoras, 82)
embodied
in the
phrase
{ThecBtetus,23).
by

with

Once

for

But

world-consciousness,

sensitive

have

seem

instance

are

something

is

enigma
gained

believes.

man

some

nature.

by fate,

doctrine.
"

which

with

contact

of

revivified
This

earth.

there

of

(the Fomorians)
of everyday mind

men

the

consideration,

held

They

that

evil

ordinary

part

are

weary

the

the

folklore
the

on

the

"

light,

cosmos."*

have

of

real

the

apprehending

Milesians

to

attitude

ignorance (the Firbolgs)and


left to

kind

seems

the

in

thought

of

could

disguise. We

homely

more

which

of any

Celtic ideafist

the

statement

language

own

of

growth

in

power

of

doctrine
under

admiration

the

the

of the

makers

doctrine

the

is it clear

worthy

their

in

from

teaching

the

were

Druids

our

Mor

their

in

"

themselves

they

from

body

his face

sea,

Senchus

comprehended

his

wind.

the
the

gloss to

Philosophy

elements

the

from

his breath

From

four

from

man

Celtic

of

as

quoted

Protogoras
of

all

2ls

things

"

Soul

The

of

give

is

soul

his

him

to

Mother.

than

the mountain

top

and

kneel

that

they

the Celt his

For
able

would

she

own,

it

where

towards

that

island

and

plant

When

they

Celtic

that

of ages

course

"

Give
Of

There

just

soul

my

it be
vale

See

i,

were

reached

then

at

together,

and

little

last,
had
The

peace.

Sir William

changes

the

by

blighted tree

found

General

dig

grows
trod
by

Butler
in the

enough

island

of

from

appendix.

to

spare

"

anywhere.
Irish

an

prayer

mountain

and

meet.

meadow-sweet.
feet.
peasant's
the

tufted

shoeless

Ireland

which

inch

one

"

not."

matters

of

it

cloud

hill, where
where

parts

preserve
note

region

they

; and

dead

repeat
spot.

the

boreen,

Roscrea, upon
waters

Until

come

the

driven

were

her

as

abroad

dying

rested

six-feet- three

soil,and

is the

him

in

only

desir-''

most

"

It

Certain

the

of evil, and

late

for

Or

dust

more.

no

claims

their ashes

tradition

Above
Or

the

Irish

Let

his

bounty.
sepulchre,

me

And

earth

they

professed

weary

been

the

earth, the

the

be

ever

particleswere

composed by

prove

shall

source

which

upon

with

mingled

were

less
neverthe-

Celt

there is

of Ireland.

shore

from

of Earth's

measure

Irish nobles

soil, and

solitude

benediction

the

But

soil has

own

the

all the

when

full of
a

"

of Cruc-Maur

embrace

the

rejectedby
wind

this

formed.*

was

33

commonplace,

thereon

resting-place.

lines

is

That

experiencemore

Upon

cf comfort

message

precious commonplace.

to

World

the

stripped off, mountains

his Earth

of

no

have

Lough

Cre

female
evil

those

love

no

can

for

women.

Inishnamee,

or

live !
who

swim

near

certain

And
in

them,

where

Go

History

Short

34

like in Celtic

you

inclination

an

to attribute
"

Almost

all Celtic

Ireland

this inclination

of
pretty custom
giving him
poetry

by

world

and

consciousness

of that
Mac

this

nature.

developed, and
with
associatingman

there

or

world's

he

desired.

Conary Mor,

which

cried

Also

for

those

the

the

upon

Plato, in his

lead

soul.

As

is unnatural

Plato

the

is

there

and

'

no

for

order

Timceus,

developed

is dead

;
at

once,

intimate
forth

was

astray
from

extract

world

the

no

to

from

dead,

for

of

the

doctrine

world

the

claims

remember
world

time

and

that

fact

soul.

In
to

that
sidering
con-

Plato

having begun
the

it

statement

the

that

to

that

theory

This

with

world

the

are

is inclined

text

eternal.

of the
must

doctrine

; for he

interferes

way

of
possibility
in his opinion
the

be

Plutarch

commentator,

question we

of

he

when

true

strange

and

came

of

floor.

it in

taught

scholar,

lay heaped,

the

; but

of

; and

anger

would

Destiny,

who

precious

most

of

been

one

of

sword

touch

have

for

or

and

sorrow

of

Fail, Stone

there

danger

books

to

believed

is sound

time

in

unsuspecting readers

Plato

is,

boat

and

the

it felt the

when

those

shelves, and

world

He

The

was

Lia

Ireland

with

Ireland,

companions,
sorrow

by

arts

he is surrounded

thoughts,

There

; the

joy
in

cried

have

their

In
arose

ancestor.

an

man's

sang

for

out

king's feet.

least, in

the

consciousness.

wherever

waves

for

song

knew

mourners

of

are

was

Lir

which

to the inanimate.

dead matter
objectscomposed of no mere
;
objects,being part of a Hving world, exhibit

something
sail

"

will find

you

of

these

Mananan

and

child of the arts, but

only a

not

Philosophy

countries

wonders

however,

Celtic

of

in

regular motion

inseparable. Confusion,

History

36

Short

of this

particularmethod

doctrines

their

leave

to

An
is

the

with

of the

the

with

them

the

harp.

Lugh,

the

Dagda,

entered

the

The

called

Dagda

blending of
call

so

but

the

is the

Here
sweet

the

objects
In their

Dagda.
the

the

and

harp,

Formorians
with

Dagda

it rushed

its way.

on

harp

his

though

the

Earth

The

show

wall.

him,

to

words

of the

extraordinary
world's personalexperience(ifone might
an

found

strangely stirs

so

And

expression for

through instruments of
its feelingsto mankind.

seasons,

that

whisper of
invocation

the

from

harp
form

music

the

"

harmony,
of

mouths

an

be

Come

"

For

to her

of

music

even

or

man,

the Earth-mother

angled

Winter

should

how

of

four

come

calculated

Ogma pursued them, and


of feasting unobserved.

the

murmurer,

Summer

up

harp suspended against the

to

music

as

of

called

of the

is there

animal,

and
hall

communicated

so

what

the

it),as

its travel
and

he

when

be

Danann

harper

Formorians

killingnine
Dagda

De

Formorian
the

of the

harp

Tuatha

carried

saw

cover

of inanimate

inteUigence

before

they

could

to

uninstructed.

retreat

There

that

in the story of the

given

Philosophy

of Plato, failed

much

unhearing

example

Celtic

of

thing
any-

child ?

applecome

harps

and

pipes."
The

death

which

are

earth

and

Hound
at

but
bound

of value
men

of Cuchulain

showing

as

upon

called

his death.
him

yieldingat
it became

to

knight
A

raven

His

war.

last to

his

contains

the

its surface.

of Ulster, the

last to

and

drama

details

many

the
intimacy between
Cuchulain, the mighty

of stainless

perched
mantle

came

his chair,

upon

held

strength, the

loosed, and fell upon

honour,
him

brooch

his foot,

back
which

wounding

The

wife

His

flesh.

the

warning

of

weapons

fall for

of

tears

with

and

himself

At

to

tall

Cuchulain

heaves

that

sigh

the

unto

this

this behef

example

which

He

some

and

the

offered

She

wakened

the

cliff but
?

made

"

At

related

course

before

"

as

up,

That,
;

Rathiddy

the

of
sciousness
con-

attempt

an

it is remarkable

he

that

this

matter

me

fullyin

one

sound

the

forms

over

excellent

an

of his books.
the

fire

cliffs in the

neighbourhood
according

of waves,

explanationhad existed
history ; and this explanation was
the local

it were,

in Dr.

and

various

gave

Certain

the

clay,and

the

in

of

seen

heart

beUef

sign

be

may

discussing over

were

in turn

Of

folklore

pure

and

phenomenon.

ages

as

I talked

quite suddenly by an old


been
paying no attention

have

to

has

he

echoed

from

no

But

soul.

Sheehan,

to the wind.

comes,

greatness of

the

was
a

straps

death

manner

accepted in

has

friends

local

curious

feet, he

he

world

Professor

with

his

that

so

"

is

run

death

unto

Then,

with

see

weep
to

appear

split,

we

There

nature.

and

his

representing water

one

upon

this

all this

In

of the

the horses

waters

his blood.

After

Celt in all ages

doctrine

the

last

da}^"*

apply logicto

the

come,

enemies

chariot

is wounded

he

sigh ;
was
pillar-stone

of
to

the

the

now

his

pillar-stone. When

broken.

stone

"

mounts

When

air,to drink
his

Heed

his feet, and

ford

raven

facing

die

might

he

griefabout

other

the

As

37
"

him

entreats

blood.

and

otter

World

the

of

friend."

blood.

crimson
an

Soul

and

is it not

Sheehan's

indicates

Knockbridge,

an

Co.

who

woman

to

the

said
of

conversation.
"

"

seemed

is in

What

clay that

you

are

opinion is a piece of
expression,
intelligent
Louth.

History

Short

38
handed

from

down

Philosophy

Celtic

of

generations, of

the

of the

doctrine

soul.

world
It is

possiblethat

caused

have

may

in this

chapter

in the

inattention.

subconscious

of
superfluity

of

minds

readers

some

it is obvious

For

lore
folka

in

that

reading a book one must


carry to the end its title,or
some
subjectiveimage which will keep us attentive to
the subject. This is a book
of philosophy ; and I have
hesitated

not

which

mind

demand

to

the

of my

readers

readers
have
requires. Some
may
chapter which
they could suppose
doctrines
other than
to philosophical
to no
or
philosophicaldoctrines at
those

St.

who

travelled

have

Aquinas,

Thomas

of

understanding

proper

and

in

anima

the

mundi,

all.

Especiallyto
path of Aristotle,
there

Neo-Scholastics,

the

this

related

be

might

safe

the

by

philosophy

much

seen

of

tension

that

of my
possible the argument that many
examples could as usefullybe applied to the projection
of personality into inanimate
objects. But really in
excellent
I have
chosen
I have
pursuing the course
seem

may

Csesar

company.
that

they
has

say

handed

been

Dispater
of

source

descended

are

the

was

employed,
method

in

ville.

had

done

He

takes

from

which

he

remarks.

of Pantheism,

we

Gauls
and

Dispater ;
from

them

to

of

god

the

bring

consider

this

connection

different

Amergin,

shall

all the

the

assert

this

they

Druids."

under-world,

the

fertility.

I have

from

down

Celtic

"

that

remarks

from

this, indeed,

point to
John Scotus

Amergin

apphes
the

to

notice

in his

with
that

of

before

merely
John

the

doctrine

Scotus

of the

place.

liturgyof
De
Jubainreading his

the

reader

; but

when

The

Soul

World

the

of

39

rating
alreadyused Amergin for the purpose of illustof his lines refer to
metemps3xhosis, as some
transmigration,and others are suitable for this chapter.

I have

The

lines which

selection of those
doctrine

present
I
I
I
I
I

am

the

waves

am

the

sound

am

am

am

the

am

the

am

craft

"

the

upon
great waters,

sea,

sea,

plants,
plain,

of the

artificer,

spear-point
god

the

for the

sun,

of

in the

lake

upon
of the

finest

the

matter

bloweth

that

of the

ray

am

simple

wind

the

am

is

suitable

are

that

giveth battle,

that

in the

creates

of

heart

the

man

fire of

thought.
Who

is it that

enlightens the

if not
Who

telleth

Who

showeth

; for

alone

is not

I have

been

Which

grew

And

in the

Kat

the

dullest of stars,
of lanterns,

sistent
For

'"

the

unable

in

shield

parting

says

he

of

sword,

form.

tear

in the

I have
I have

been

in
the

a
a

the

sword

in the

string in

And

covert.

vagueness

been

grasp

harp,

of his incon

"

ferocious

bill-hook
spear.

that

cuts

then,

quite hopelesslyobscure
:
intelligible

crooked

air,the

letters,a book, the light

shower,

express

"

shapes

consistent

in battle,

becomes

"

forms," he becomes

space

comb.

poet declares

fire, wood
to

and

among

in

century bard,

...

multitude

were

word

drop

hand,

though

us,

sixth

me

the

Godeu

I assumed

These, he tells

as

rest, if

to

goes

hill

claws

been

Before

in

sun

I ?

transformations

upon
received

muddy

I have

sponge

ains,
mount-

grain discovered

hen

With

of the

if not

ages of the moon,


the place where
the

the

Taliessin, in describingmany

And

the

upon

I ?

not

Amergin

assembly

I ?

History

Short

40

Thus

discover

we

attracted

told
to

the

below

the

grew
In

and

we

the

spaces

that

told

Scotus,

John
native

his

land,

pseudo-Dionysus.

the

of

heart

The

Sinend

the

is

which

Well,

of

Earth

the

goddess

Conla's

Here

earth.

it

contact.

that
and

that,

life

according
hour's

one

the

some

hand

walked

an

to

it

at

force

from

which

the

can

stroke

one

midnight

Europe
that

hand.

writer

Celts,

the

seems

in

unknown

voyage
dead

appreciated

was

space

cite

Procopius

Indeed,
were,

inspiration.

and

say

transfer

abode.

into

the

foundations

death

as

and
to

as

in

named

may

well

oar,

destined

of

Sinend.

wisdom

one

as

sufficient

of

the

of

and

are

in

and

Wales

"

passing,

relative,

find

to

work

place

place
at

sea

trees

Plutarch

of

certain

her

enigmatically
of

pantheism

legend

the

in

went

as

had

of

hterature

therefore,

pantheistic

Wisdom

That

Philosophy

traces

the

absorbed

the

by

in

natural,

have

must

is

is

It

Ireland.
who

definite

pantheism

expressed

Celtic

of

to

night
bring

are

their

leases,
re-

great

CHAPTER

DOCTRINE

THE

OVER

against

nothing
of

Plato

The

to

to

set

of

in

evil.

that

could

We

escape

and

vaguely

city

added

the

Though,
of

the

souls

justly

all

for
fair
of

them

shall

of

words
that

region,
that

but

seek

we

"

matter,
above
have

to

in
the

the

earth,

41

where,
every-

have

no

Christianity
in

PhcBdo

Heavens."

the

tells

Socrates
the

where
after

was

should
is

we

..."

eternal

sought

abide.

Here

"

one

come,

change

declaration,

the

"

seemed

There

thinkers,

uttered

"vicious

people

any

kind.

among

ages

of

that

this

reaUty."

Plato

boundary

where

vocation

the

with

and

suppose

deliberately

or

continuing
has

hardly

in

itself
"

ultimate

is

unchanging

of

thought

consideration

it

identified

and

"

Pater,

says

seem,

standard

the

REST.

flux,"

things

motion

things

conceive

of

all

up

OF

world

the

is, but

philosophy

tendency

IV.

truth

undying
and

done

History

Short

42

would

people

be

that

suppose

Celts would

the

as

De

and

Danann

Tuatha

the

obvious

and
Tuatha

one

De

the

passing show

They,

their

which

nor

some

the

here

the

in

The

ignorance (the

Celtic

Milesians

appendix
"

as

already called

should

be

learned

the
eye,

the

eye.

and

all

they

them,

so

to

to

represent
with

them.

this

myth,"

attention

as

Firbolg

or

dwell

may

The

the

deceives

To

less
harm-

mind
to

Milesians, who

his

We

evil which

Fomorian

no

knowledge,

obvious

I have

old.

grow

among

MacNeill

Professor

active

habitations,

themselves,

of

and
igoodness

describes

wither

; but

come

active

of life which

minds,

bodies,

one

strove.

unchanging reality,invisible

behind

become

they

represent in the

and

neither

of their

activitywhich is
the
other.
(the Milesians) on

Danann

we

people

side ; and

permanent

possess

can

record

between

out

own

story of the Tuatha

whom

with

stand

their

And

some

any

absorbing problem

(the Formorians), and

Firbolgs)on

to

without

most

those

Danann

De

is obvious

may

Plato, of

this attempt, I believe, in the

have

among

acute-minded

and

us

this

solve

to

attempt

leave

of

Heracleitus.

with

sensitive

so

thinking

the

side

the

on

than

desire, rather

did

who

Certainly those

Philosophy

Celtic

of

book
a

fact

its importance

; but

noted.

foregoing claim, that the


hitherto
myths really represent
inexplicable invasion
the subject of the Doctrine
the teaching of the Druids
on
I

am

conscious

of Rest, is

great

that

claim.

the

We

philosophers; and we know


their
That they concealed
logicalmyths is evident from
them
that they embodied
: and
were

that

know

the

their method
doctrines
what
other

Druids

of teaching.

in the eschato-

Csesar

has

doctrines

said

of

in the

History

Short

44

"

thing

one

"

"

; it

might,

Just

so.

But

to

could

be

not

contrary; with

non-existent

the

assign ignorance,and
"

And

rightly.

"

Then

neither

the

the

on

Philosophy

called
the

some

greatest

styled nothing.

be

truth

non-existent

the

Well, but

Celtic

of

of

object

"

No.

"

Therefore

the

to

the

we

constrained

were

existent

to

knowledge.

existent

nor

the

is

cannot

be

either

ignorance

either

of

so

non-existent

opinion !

opinion

or

knowledge.
"

Apparently not.

"

Then

surpass

it lie

does

beyond

knowledge

either

in

these,

certainty,or

to

as

ignorance in

uncertainty.
"

It does

"

Then

tell me,

dusky

more

"

Yes,

"

And

"

Yes.

"

Then

it is
does

These
to

of

than

do you

look

knowledge,

upon

opinion

more

luminous

something

as

than

ignor

ance

neither.

strongly

so

it lie between

distinguishedfrom
these

interrogatethat worthy man


anything absolutely beautiful

beauty, which
though

for
he

ever

continues

acknowledge

extremes

be something
opinion must
positionsthen being laid down
who

any

the

same

the

between
I shall

denies

or

either.

the

two

proceed

existence

form of abstract
and

variety

of

able,
unchangebeautiful

Doctrine

The

objects,

that

told

beauty

"

that
rest."

the

is one,

the
of

centre,

their

has

Sufficient
Tuatha

the

source

As

had

there

the

way

Spain,"

convenient
land

of the

upon

the

coast, where

That

remarks

been

escaped

have

we
on

whether

placed

not

the

sustain

my

considered

character
that

in

men

they

Ireland

of
are
are

their arrival in Ireland

to

arrivals.

The

country

from

of

evil

sufficient has

their

said to have

"

of

be

remark

all wise

powers

of Tuan

with

their

indicate

to

Tuan's

the

and

have
slaves
from

for the

The

Fomorians,

they
are

Tigernmas,

death

Spain

Celtic

and

"

came

them

to

pure

Voyage of Bran,

him

made
the

from
significant

myths,

are

found
from
is

denoting the

drove

with

The

supposed
and

with

words

disease

They

are

they

the

purpose

soil.

and

It is

in

or

Irish

arrived

dwelt.

in

And

Firbolgs
and

dealing

They

first.

taskmasters,

"

equivalent

the

Ireland

perhaps

says.

dead.

by

of the Greeks,

Or

seem

for my

from

left

their

Ireland.

said

who

not

Fomorians

chaos.

been

Nemed,

Nennius

as

and

people, swept

Firbolgs, however,
to

said

several

regardingPartholan
were,

on

so

of Rest.

appreciated,before

inhabited

represent

legend

and

to

itself may

Doctrine

which

been

have

to

be

suggestive.

have

we

to

were

And

purpose.

Danann.

from
is

sprung

endure

consider

to

Danann

myth*

been

De

student
De

fixed

of Plato's

Hght

the

cannot

justiceone,

Tuatha

first contention,
in the

and

drav/

to

serve

myths

in these

of sights,who

45

{Republic478-9).

"

This may

in the

lover

Rest

of

see

my

Alfred

ii., 167-8.

war

north

point
Nntt's-

History

Short

46

that

of vision
the

of

powers
and

blunt

the

Tuatha

Firbolgshad

darkness

stupid

effect them

could

menace.

At

three

groups

little.

but

the

easy

the

land

the

in

task

driving
; heavy-witted,
spiritualsense,

the

otherwise

was

Firbolgs
the

proved

into

divided

were

and

Domnan,

for convenience

the

with

Fomorians

the

Fir-Bolg,

Galioin, all known

represent lack

an

It

whom

to
rate

any
:

from

Philosophy

of soul, evil, in

Danann,

De

Celtic

of

the

Firbolgs. They

as

no
intelligence
naturallymake
; and
of
stir in Celtic mythology.
The
character
remarkable
servility and inferiorityhas always clung to them.

The

three

of

divisions
the

in the

may,

three

degrees

of

Celtic
a

which

was

the

on

the

magic

Danann,

inhabited

De

in accord
cloud

the

by

north

extreme

Tuatha

seem

De

Tuatha

The

; and

Tuatha

De

their leader,
from

Lugh,
When

thence.

Danann
a

Celtic
the

one

came

Ireland,
what

remembers

will

coming

They
to

in

came

describe

a
a

clouds."
from

Apollo, also
cloud

the

the Fomorians,

enough

in the

presented
re-

press

invaded

character.

common

philosopheras being "up


The

don't

Firbolgs and
If

have

:
intelligence

represent, their

their

it is

then,

coast.

Danann
with

of

lack

stupidity,imbecihty and lunacy.


point ; but it's worth considering.

mind,

the
came

in which

West

; and

after them

they

arrived

discovered
by the astonished
disappeared,they were
Firbolgs occupying an entrenched
position. This needs
seemed
what
The
comment.
no
Firbolgs then sent
named
best to them
a warrior
a strong man,
Sreng to
the Tuatha
the invaders.
And
interview
dispatched a
them, named
curious, though kingly, hybrid among
the ambassador
of the Firbolgs. They
Bress, to meet

had

"

"

The

examination

the

about

set

This

great interest.
the

massive
to

attempt
And
Tuatha

myth

stupidity, as

recognise
behalf

of

its
the

exchanged

then

it, each

gained

other's

the

The

land

De

the

these

the

between

the

he

him

as

after

suffers

and

this

off in the

Uttle
the

refused

Firbolgs

be

at

their

to

interpret
of

conflicts
which

Ere,
were,

are

ensued, Nuada

naturally the
was

to

slain.
use

As
common

would

one

live.

forced

upon

of the

Silver

hand

was

of silver

made

of the Tuatha

Firbolg king,
a

spite of

In

his

the leader

was

the

of the doctrine

designation because
He

of

enough

if he

which

slender

the

offer.

war,

fight,and replacedby

; and

his forces, one


the

the

artificer.

cunning
Danann

by

battle

for in the

struck

De

They

back

examining

natural,

was

Danann,

gained

races

power.

Hand,

by

on

slight preliminary knowledge

some

must
unchanging reality,

And

two

I would

as

would

them.

himself, the philosopher,as the custodian


of

forces,

two

proposed

walked

words,

In other

it

was,

Firbolgs,

Bress

and

part

There

equally

weapons,

thought,

Tuatha

opinion, puts

that

Firbolgs, probably

spear,

the

Danann

De

respectivepeoples.

of

conflict between

Tuatha

evident

an

the

on

And

Firbolgs

force.

doubt.

beyond

represented by

the

have

my

and

Hght
the

to

brute

in

limitations.

divide

should

which,

necessityfor

no

seems,

with

fact that

the
were

we

proposition

the

Here

science

Danann

of

Danann

with

weapons

revealed

belonging

blunt.

comes

47

others

each

De

those

contrast

De

intention

if

and

now

of

Tuatha

while

sparp-pointed;

Rest

of

examination

of the

weapons

were

Doctrine

who

conflict,

result of this

phrase,

led

"

put in

Short

48
their

History

places." They

mention

No

of

As

is made

Nuada

of

Danann

the

whose

to

Connacht.

to

go

!
be

not

Hand

Bress, the

father's

allowed

could

man

Silver

chose

Philosophy.

of Hell

blemished

were

Celtic

of

identitywas

Danann

and

the

Eri,

woman,

proved

Bress

mysterv\

Ireland,

inehgible ;

was

son

in

king

him
in
was
hybrid. There
Fomorian
blood ; and he was
oppressive,and committed
the unpardonable sin of niggardliness.Apparently such
of mixed
have
not
a
case
originwas
hopeless. It must
himself, on his rightmoral choice,
depended on the man

He

unworthy.

and

his

blood,
which

general conduct.
his

on

the

intricate

Celtic

subtlety alHed
scheme

evil

than

poet !

And

had

Lugh

It is

of

principle

the

on

He

had

Bress

But

thought.

chosen

poetry

became

miraculously provided

now

king.

Ignorance

permanently destroy the


Bress

consulted

then

that

his

father

who

had

given

out
an

'and

with
army
sent

the

his

ring ;

of the
him

Fomorians,

was

one

and

seek

Balor

And

hand,
cannot

mother,

and

king

she

told

named

as

of Darkness
aid
of the

from
Evil

to

the

Eye.

set

him

Ireland,

recover

chief

him

Elatha,

pledge to her. Bress


Elatha, recognisingit, gave

ring

the

Fomorian

Powers
to

his

of

real

distort, but

may

truth

with

Celtic

in

means

from
mythology ! A single verse
Corpre, one
injured poets, forced King Bress from his throne.

Nuada,

and

proved inhospitableto

what

recollect

myth, which,

deliberatelyconstructed

good.

this

hke

point

of the

nature

Fomorian

some

design,is produced

with

harmonious
rather

For

admission.

own

reveals

however, like
of

was

king

Balor

of

the

possessed

The

this

his gaze

and

huge

feeble, must

smite

they
would

have

in

that

the

seem

the

greatly

to

release

Bress,

if he
or

West
a

step

and

under

of

evil.

Sun

rose

is the

Celtic

life only

the

earth

no

the evils of the

world/'

led

and

then

arrives,
wisdom

by him,

said

and

up

the

Sun

may

he

him

ished
aston-

am

while

every

And
and

the

said

:
"

rises in the West."*

which

region

the

attain

East."

answered

Elysium,

"

West,

the

in

"

and

of

perfection, to

having

reached

is turned

to

it,
ashes,

instantly
again,
who
The
man
man.
living
hends
compreany
the
earth
to
must
has
offer
as
regard
philosophy
cannot
body as a covering which
possess permanent

upon
older

his

in

the

in

him.

"

forth

cometh

exists

have, in such

must

to-day in

rises

were

level

grips.

to

come

it

mortal

what

value.

had

champion

already mentioned,

of the Fomorians
that

becomes

dust

it

men

The

which

the

day

Would

while

tyranny

world's

deliver

to

nf Balor,

son

that

"

evil

active

wizard

the

from

escape

Hyperborean Apollo

other

Danann

desired

have

best, he

"

I have

whom

Lugh,
and

De

Fomorians

the

At

strong enough

"

ively
effect-

of the

comfort.

condition, a place of

the

Tuatha

from

them

philosopher on

security or

one

"

particular
myth so far makes
But
surely it is clear that we
unnecessary.
this story a statement,
enigmaticallyexpressed,

comment

or

raised

might

death-dealing gaze

from

plainintention

The

grown

"

reign the

Bress'

suffered

apparently
who

He

his foes.

during

Nuada

having

exquisiterestraint

with

one,
any-

drooping eyelid imagine

his

the

that

by pulleys so

upon

in his rage.

individual, who

have

suggested

49

in anger

victim

unhappy

horrible

needs

his size thus

Even

the

slew

Rest

of

he looked

when

because

surname

was

Doctrine

than

History

Short

50

Sun, tell

It if be not

"

I pray

me,

wizard

the

And

"

questioned them, saying :

Bress

And

Philosophy

Celtic

of

what

you,

men

said

unto

the

face

brightnessof

of

manner

"

Bress
of

thing it

"

he

"

is ?

It is the

Lugh,

the

of the

ceeding
ex-

long

arm."

that

Nuada

the

drawing
warrior

challenged

one

"

might

enter

wright,"

am

smith

himself

he described

had

who

asked

was

but

and

princely
When

company.

as

said, but

"

was

compciny

young

this

of the

Lugh, son of Cian, son


As
Ethne, daughter of Balor.

Tara

he

of

name

of

trade, he

or

unusual

an

head

his

gave
and

art

some

he

Cecht

Dian

am

Tara

to

great feast, one

palace.

the

at

was

that

the

to

near

held

king

observed

door-keepers

no

"

is

Kings

While

of

Hyperborean Apollo

to prove
that the Tuatha
clearlymeant
when
all
Danann,
perfectlyrepresented,combined
was
good, and were
superiorto the highest representation
of man's
a king.
power,

of the
De

"

of this

coming

The

they

the

not

to

they
needed

needed

wright.

no

smith.

no

"

his art.

name

of

mastery

In

turn

champion, a harper, a sorcerer,


a
physician,a cup-bearer, a brazier. But they needed
Then
I pray you enquire
of these.
said Lugh :
none
he
of the king whether
one
man
having a
possesses
If in
I have
named.
knowledge of all the arts which
as

"

"

there

his company
The

King
in the

hearing

on

palace

players in turn.
into Tara by order
had

such

proof

of

be such

man

And

an

I shall not

one

of this sent

; but

Lugh

after

of the
entered

Lugh's skill,Nuada

the

all the

out

each

overcame

this

King,

enter

who

victory Lugh
declared

palace.

declared

that

After

that

Tara."
boards
chessof the

passed
never

further

in him

he

History

Short

52
there

found

they

Celtic

of

three

Philosophy

of the

kings

Tuatha

De

Danann

At
this moment
the Tuatha
De
were
awaiting them.
in triumphant
possession of the earth ; they had
conquered ignorance and evil, therefore their character

manifest.

was

and

Beauty

Their

three

Justice.

and
perfection,

Without
Tuatha

much

De

conflict

In

had

only

ceremony

the

Danann

themselves

kings

hand

to

beaten.

quarters yields to

they merely
king.

one

Milesians

physical

argument

no

sented
repre-

ordered

Ireland

over

Mere

surely Truth,

are

and

consider

force

close

at

its

except

the

own.

of the world
has
fortiorithe ordinary every-day man
little respect for such trifles as
way
opinions lying midbetween
ignorance and knowledge, and has even
"

less respect for


in

the

Phaedrus

Tuatha

De

consider

additional

truth

it could

be

therefore

appeared

give

fate, as it seemed,
What

in

judgment by

to

to

first
What
a

the

accident
be

and

Fomorian,

as

that

this
the

their

in very

possess

the

Milesians.

They

entmsted

their

significant.Amergin

judgment
does

by

own

the Milesians,named

poet among
is

the land,
to

"

There

their

Milesians

the

to

battle

the Tuatha

on

was

generous,

followed

the

Ireland."

the

give

to

leave

to

which

choose

to

in which

easilygrasp.

of action

courses

possessed, that

and

"

could

Well, the

were

to

or

failed,to possess

substance

Amergin.

mind

prepared
being to overcome

if that

or,

days

These

were

account, these

wisdom,

three

invaders,

the

Milesian

Danann

for

bestows

manike.

possiblecourses.
to

Socrates

as

and

mania
asked

submit

to

two

De

Danann

which

courses

distinction

upon

three

Ireland,

were

such

"

had

been

nounced
pro-

delivered

Surely that
representativeof evil.
mean

The

unthinkable

Doctrine

Rest

of

53

by a Firbolg,the representativeof
De
'ignorance,was
impossible; and that the Tuatha
Danann
representedjusticeperfectin itself. I am aware
was

Partholan, the

that

judgment

that

statement

three

to

first inhabitant

Evil

had

land.

empty

indicated
decreed

Amergin
their foes

and

then

and

raised

to

that

Firbolgs

the

^yorldly
of specupossibilities
lation

The

the

He

distance

the

came

But

unlimited.

are

by surprise.

to withdraw

Then

Naturally ignorance,in

precedes knowledge
thus

existed.

always

first Irish settlers all died.

sense,

Ireland, passed

(History of Ireland, Keating,


Ed.) This fact helps to confine the
Amergin's was the first judgment, to the

existing races.

an

of

his servant

on

i., 161, I.T.S.

the

Milesians

and

his

of nine

; and

not

must

therefore

people were

the shore,

from

waves

take

if

the Tuatha
they overcame
the land was
De Danann
to be fairlytheirs by right of
To
this
conquest.
proposition of their poet the
Milesians
in their ships.
agreed, and they embarked
De Danann
made
them
war
Instantlythe Tuatha
upon
in their own
manner.
a
They formed
magic tempest,

Who
?

head

which

to

their

him

cost

wind

so

were

his life ;

no

Aranan

match
as

was

among

the

Milesians

who

had

uttered

They

also

be visible from
that

space

was

for the Tuatha


it were,
sent

blowing there.
but in falling,
he

Then

lead, he

declare

level,

is

storm

shore.

hardly to

as

were

There

no

the

could

own

; and

proxy

if the

see

they

Milesians

on

by

obscured

in size

but

The

Danann

ascended

"

mist

sea.

relative
De

return

the island

reduced
the

to

to

so

the

The

they
mast

ment
experi-

shouted

"

aloft."
a

the

poet naturallytook
first

judgment.

the

And

History

Short

54

chanted

Amergin
which

ruined

himself
De

Eber

as

The

of

Phaedrus

yet possess
a

sightof beauty) of
and

Beauty

the

"

have

who

memory

of

liturgywas

the

of the

Tuatha

proved

Plato

of

worse

course,

talks

their

lost

expressed

and

wrecked,
boat.

mediately
im-

shorewards.

renewed, and

was

wind

turned

complete slaughter

Bonn's

those

The

lord, who

Milesian

ships were

Eber

them,

effect

the

storm

Many

ever.

among

for

were

prows

that

Donn,

eager

Danann.

than

the

noting

by

philosophicalliturgy,

already considered.

fell,and
It is worth

Philosophy

of his

the words

have

we

Celtic

of

in

the

"

but

wings

(capable of being awakened


by
beheld
what
of Wisdom,
they once

rest, above

heavens.

the

"

There

be

can
"

learned

of
myth
intended
that Amergin should
the Milesians, the Druids
represent one of those who have not forgotten,and who
with philosophy. As a poet
are, therefore, in sympathy

he

in contact

was

In due
landed

with
the

course

the

at

of the Tuatha

De

indicate

that

Tuatha

De

the

in

eyes

of

there

existed

to

; and

Boyne

the

me,

sovereignty and
had

portion
believes."

the

the

the

Milesians.
two

And

from

"

in

did

that

scholars

have

found

to

of the

Milesians
which

was

not

time

the

merely
yield an

invisible

and
Irelands, the spiritual

present

desired

the

defeat

The

one.

of their

power

; and

the

But

Druids

earth

queens

many

visible

vanished
of

three

slain,with

were

Milesians

great battle

and

kings

three

to

seems

of the

remnant

people of Dana
reality. They merely became

apparent

inch

Up

the

Danann

possessed that
ordinary man

of the

Danann

it

people. Thus,

beauty.

chastened

mouth

followed, in which

an

in this

I think, that

little doubt,

to

the

forward

the material.

in the

Milesian

The

myth
as

these

what

to

in

stumbling

the

least

writer

one

opinion,
has

not

the

to

been

arise

has

one

no

supposed

are

55

quite

been

have

to

confessed

to

myth
De
in

from

fact

on

these

further,

difficulty

the

of

account

in

Danann

difficulty
the

on

cases

that

philosophical

satisfied

represented

And

invasions.

three

Tuatha

attempted

Rest

of

invasion

The

characters.

the
has

the
of

block

people
of

myth

Doctrine

the

two

seems,

of
the

terpreting
in-

pearance
ap-

distinct
in

interpretation
lines.

at

my

CHAPTER

THE

THEORY

VENTURE

considered
is

beliefs

Celtic
be

having
I

the

do

not

than

no

fancy

Socrates

of

"

If
else

adequate

(he

that

dead.
be

been

Celtic

sentence

suitable

on

said)

it

of

knowledge

man

no

duction
intro-

eschatological
claimed

has

concerning

the

the

is

"

anyone

expressing

it

would
into

of

state

excursion

an

satisfied

have

capable

after
of

another

duction
intro-

suggests

which

dogmatic

waxes

mythology

wiser

that

than

who

Apology
to

so

certain

the

eschatology
thing

one

Celtic

on

justify

may
word

The
is

remarks

my

chapter

there

ground

the

to

if

touching

from

that

subject.

more

safe

on

of

the

But

dogma.

this

in

eschatology

IDEAS.

OF

hope

to

of

V.

region
point

any

would

this,

be
in

things

Hades

know."

that

myself
theories

57

the
which

Celtic

are

myths
by

no

are

means

History

Short

58

transcendental, and which


mind.

They

That

being

heart

; for

used

be
is

as

myths

neo-Platonic

vehicle

ordinary
reasoning.

after Plato's

were

notion

Plato

Plato.

the

hard

to

that

symbolise truths beyond

to

foreign to

myth

Celtic

the

the

grasped by

be

can

Philosophy

closel}^related

are

so

Celtic

of

of

grasp

in five of his works

for the

should

myths

the

presentation of

own

reason

the

uses

truth

in

; but

general he resorted to dialogue,and in its proper place


effect.
The Celt, on the
used the myth with wonderful
in a
other
hand, expressed his philosophicaldoctrine
myth, and was willingthat it should thus remain buried
of

the

system

of

the

pupil

doctrines

things certain

And

pupil.
the

out

multitude
the

myth

that

directlytaught,

and

Celt, by making

use

what

it well

to

call

it is necessary,

point like, to
described

by

to

improve

A.

E.

Taylor.

and

Plato.

"

then

taught

the
The

as

don't

summary

their

become

the

be,

initiated

the

drew

to

forth
makers

the

desirable

than

violentlyappreciative.
of

myths

upon

witness
what

into

who

more

express
the

state

that

at

soul

the

it is

provided by

yet unembodied

exactly

myself
of

his

charge

expresses

I should

feel

to

himself

who

regarding the

say

upon

would

myth,

philosophicaldoctrine, brought
of possessingno
philosophy.
I think

other

public and
man

course

among

would

myths

outside

of the
of

preservers

But

taught

of the uninitiated, one

meaning

and

be

academic

of

of the

property

would

to reconstruct

Druids, I would

the

wonderful

These

respective myths.
common

asked

were

philosophy,and
appropriately be built

might

these

their

during

twenty years

how

If I

teaching employed by

that

suggest
of

the crowd.

sightof

out

this
as

possible

Professor

soul is

pictured

History

Short

6o

what

at

happens

assembled

close of

of incarnation

ceeding
suc-

last incarnate

life,others

purgatorialprisonhouse (both here and


Plato provides for the unending punishthe Phaedo
ment
two
of only one
or
hopelessly bad malefactors
mustered
before the throne
colossal scale),are
of
a

in

on

from

bidden

"

he

"

individual

have

they

is irrecoverable.
inhabited

in that

of

vice versa,

through

to

last in

being

human

read

Plato

whom

desirable

gloriouswork

Plato's

it, to

Plato's

of

qualitiesakin
dwelt

has

it

an

for,

myths,

although, I
these

are

so

animal

to read

were

if he

have
bound

would

course

has

anyone
be

most

descriptionsof

offered
up

body
birth."

Certainly,for

is unfamiliar, this

has

itself,or

its next

at

made,

incarnate

for himself, and

more.

once

from

which
be

come

be well at this stage if the reader

It would

read

soul which

of

soul

position
dis-

or

this,once

to

may

them."

philosophy

process

body

animal

that

become

may

this

In

some

from

life

degree of

the

to

and

tastes

their choice, and

human

some

the

to

soul, and

derived

make

experience,they

for himself,

placed before

are

According

says
of the

wisdom

choose, each

to

of lives which

number

Later

and

the Fates

to

times

of their

deeds

the

Philosophy

The
period of retribution.
returning from rewards in heaven

souls, some

good
ascending from

for

of the

one

the

upon

Celtic

of

with

an

almost

supernaturallybrilliant process of reasoning that it is


The
them
unfair
to set
Phaedo, The
by themselves.
should
certainly be read as
Gorgias and the Phaedrns
a
complement to the exposition of Celtic philosophy
which
is about
to be offered in this chapter.
This
to

the

much

reader

having
how

been

great

said, I shall

is the

now

try

to

show

of investigation
difficulty

The

region of

in the

Celtic

it possesses

spiritualand

consider

the

first

characteristics

two

place,
:
(i)

tains,
physicalside ; (2)it conby side, good and evil spirits.

apparently side
Let

In

eschatology.
by

6i

Ideas

of

is marked

Otherworld

the

Theory

the

spiritualand physical character


Celtic conception of a happy Otherfirst of all. The
world, as expounded in particularby the Irish Druids,
us

for

is remarkable

find

along

now

and

And

its

with

of

beauty

spiritualbeauty

grossness

second

in the

Tartarus

the
of

then

appreciation
in

"

short,

; but

appearance

an

ception.
physical con-

find in this Otherworld

place,we

to rub
good and evil persons seem
are
numerous
together. Malignant creatures
hobgoblins,spectres, giants and witches may
no

in

Ireland

; and

found

are

giant.

or

to

seem

abode

awful

sinister

by

frontier

lovely

to be

and

the

the

scholars

mind

that

beliefs

are

myths

were

lakes

whose

valleys

forms.

Yet

and

good

the

this

later
difficulty

treated

has

the

found
not

found

be

in

repulsiveogress
regions of beauty
or

waters

the

are

peopled

forests

there

is

bad,

between

it.

But

on,

proper

no

the

not

have

Druids

been

it must

considered

already seen
taught

in Celtic

the

whatever

mythology.

produced casually,but

shall show

and

philosophicalexplanation of

We
that

some

ghastly.

have

logical Myths

case

to

enough

resident

personages

actual

the

terrible

I shall deal with


how

related

closelyupon
things, and

between
and

divine

even

Furthermore

border

of

shoulders

abundance

we

be
the

by

in

borne
Eschatothese

vestiga
in-

proofs for the


eschatological
Therefore
were

the

these
work

History

62

Short

of

deep thinkers,

the Otherworld

control
a

out

set

imagine,

to obtain

have

offer

to

an

produced

But

they

as

teachers

but

seen,

of

love

but

terrify;

to

out

set

have

we

for the

in secret

taught

desired

overflowing.

filled it to

priests,as

not

were

they

exhibiting

multitude, they might have

and

Tartarus,

for

reason

own

Had

they did.

as

the

over

their

had

who

Philosophy

Celtic

of

who

have

teaching, they

not

might
apparently, one
Otherworld
quite like the

present Ufe.
*assures

Skene

life

orbis alius is

Elysium
It is

land

have

may

reach

orbe
but

world,

region, as

he

another

region

it resembled

varied

existence."

^n

presence

clearer

"

Four

of

Ancient

at

Books

Revue

this

mean

world

not

was

Dowth,

of Wales

Celtique, xxii,

not

That

those

Mortals

still in

not

Egyptian Aaly,

t Religion of the Ancient

of

ship-mark
"

are

death.

while

does

says

"

"

ship-mark

only

says,

the

"

of the dead.

land

by

the

that

hfe."t

matter

alio," which

MacCulloch

orbis

beyond dispute by his


discusses the phrase of Lucan

the

puts

but

as

world

the

by favour,

rather

The

from

is the
out

folk, who

deathless

and

gods

investigation.He

careful
in

it

Reinach

And

**

of

passed

who

in the tales

appears

after

Celtic Elysium.

the

certainlynot

never

points

chief

body

the

of course,

MacCuUoch

For

Lucan.

of

alius

in

future

the

that

says

hfe

was

region. This,

another

in

death

belief

of this

characteristic

he

and

extremely vivid,

was

of the Celt in

the behef

that

us

"

"

at

S.

New

A.

F.

Reinach.

that

And

gloomy state,

with

of which

Celts, 341.
477,

another

its rich and

Grange, and
I know

Skene, i, 370.

as

the

The

result of

Theory

Ideas

of

63

make

personalinvestigation,
might

suspicious

us

Celtic and
regarding the apparent relationshipbetween
It is possible,though
Egyptian regions of the dead.
these

likely,that

not

tumuli

marks

constructed.

were

theory regarding the

made

were

is

It

the

possible that

also

dead

of the

condition

after

long

derived

was

But
prehistoricpeople who built the tumuli.
the Egyptian and
in any case, the comparison between
of the dead
is possibleas regards one
the Celtic world
from

the

characteristic

alone.
"

"

Egypt,

the Celts

belief in the

of

But

world

the
after
as

death,
doctrine

we

now

this

belief

of

distant

the

by

Druids,"

there

another,

was

past, that

two

conceptions being

also

have

been

exist

the

apart from

evidence

that

they

the

as

shade."

soul

bidding
*

of Saint

Religion
Do.,

of

the

Ancient

do.,

have

Celts
the

lived

of

who

"

parted
im-

body

taught

made

it the

"

from

the
grave

And

there

belief in

there

in the

besides

But

in the

believed

that

ideas
the

"

may

gration.
transmisoul

the
to

seems

future

be

existence

appearance

classical

Celts, 333.
do.

several

"

this

derived

body,

been

have

was

sort.

Cuchulain's
is

ardent

'j

degree

believed

Patrick

to

people

concomitant.

certain

Although
could

dead

the

outside

Life in the

and

of

chaos

to

pass

and

points out,

of classical onlookers/

admiration
And

MacCulloch

as

the

were

acteristic
char-

the most

cherished

Otherworld.

of the

myths

antiquity

of

races

Druids

this

expresses

beyond the grave,


its joys."* Now,
as

the

remarked,

all

to have

seem

preoccupied with
times

MacCulloch

example

at

no

of
the

of this.

History

Short

64
He

forth

came

; his

was

thick

and

his eyes

Now

is

filter again.
should

orthodoxy.

He

had

his

the

was

been

he

"

and

of

son

Lugh."

something
appeared as a stag.

have

or

Hyperborean Apollo,"

Otherworld

the

and
his

like unto

was

verily a
difficult

to

the

among

the

battle, the

the

"

to

the

demanded,

Milesian

might

from

away

presence

pure

of the

son

take

Patrick's

warning

as

the

Cuchulain's

Saint

Hell

Cuchulain,

with

that

with

before

brightness of the flesh


To my
godlike transformation.
thinking it

entry

the

dead

and

proceed

homes
the

in

not

which

the

not

sons

they

of

eat

them.

In

with
one

the

Hving

curious

one

Apollo.

lived.
of
or

Breton

is

from

Danann,

dwelling was
had

left the

Ireland.
difficulties of the

ordinary dead
the ordinary
But

the

ghosts !

as

"

from

save

who

further

is

ordinary occupations

would

of those
to

Here

De

people, whose

consider

to

came,

Tuatha

come

Eschatology.
in the body, and
were

the

company

Celtic
rose

Cuchulain

of his father's

Elysium

I shall

of

company

company

Western

same

that

suppose

Ireland, from

in

description

confronted

Then,

but

this

to what

from

Patrick's

from

appearance
into

hair

ruby

and

necessary

him

equallycommonplace,
he

His

than

unwary

are

was

that.

What,

If Cuchulain

But

the

correspond

Saint

is left ?

It

called

Consider
what

what

for

snare

signifies.We

appearance

scene

in colour

deeper

call attention

me

Cuchulain

others.

vigorous.

gleamed.

here

orthodox

Philosophy

alive and

were

lipswere

proceeding,let
of

if he

as

Celtic

of

Their

The

dead

the

house

avenge
tale

graves

would
and

perform
field, and

themselves
a

dead

were

upon

husband

The

visited

his

there

in this

convinced

to offer what

in the

What,
contain

(i) The
can

do

not

reach
may

is

there

The

touching
Milesian

"

Milesians

(3) The
flesh, and
"

which

and

side

elbows
and

Otherworld

evil

no

thing

the

dead

; nor,

side with
the

who

is

not

associate

with

Plato

describes

imperialpalace whence

grave,

as

and

of evil
almost

this

is

justthe

ghosts, but

the

and

the

region the dead


have
we
proved the
worthy may go.

dead, which
are

the

the world

region,

To

what

"

as

Danann

worthy, may
already stated,

portalsof

them

same

them.

represent

are

De

unchanging

who

with

the dead

Tuatha

reality of
enjoy perpetual youth

and

by

of the

the

the

through

remember

land

living,where

phical
philoso-

which

; to

sorrow

no

the dead

occupying

to

on

be

conditions,which

or

living, who

not

it

reach

personages,

Celtic

the

place where

which

from

and

place,but

happiness ;

will

represents perfect happiness and

Ireland.

man

It

theory.

states

Elysium,

which

go ;

this

here

"

where

to

part,

my

confronted

solution

the

me

three

For

whatever.

place,does

{2) The
permanent
Tuatiia De Da^iann,

soul

system

or

perfectbeauty,
came

reason

are

we

to illustrate my

first

Western

come,

to

seems

It contains

follows

as

that

as

complete.

not

was

eschatological chaos

no

lines,and then

are

child, because,

asks, be any

one
possibly,

firmly

wiser

65

extremely complex Otherworld

am

with

him

bore

she

Ideas

of

de enfants'

comple

sa

Could

wife, and

she said

Theory

land

remain

of the
in the

living. Remember
having forgotten

it came."

the
the

History

Short

66
And

I offer my

now

three

states

representedthe

Idea

is its characteristic

for, as

Otherworld.

I beHeve, for the

Druids,

of

perfect Beauty. Beauty


Justice dwells there in perfection,

in the last

saw

we

"

of these

explanation
Celtic

of the

Elysium,
"

Philosophy,

in

theory

conditions

or

Western

(i) The

Celtic

of

Tuatha

the

chapter, among

De

judgment was
required to be delivered.
which
Beauty, as Plato explained,was the only Idea
of the
was
capable of presentationthrough the medium
And
to this Western
so
senses.
Elysium the worthy
Danann

no

in

attain

might

this

must

must

become

Ideal

covering which,

and

"

Idea

\ therefore

of

De

dwelt

in Ireland

with

are

in

contact

uglinessand

in the

themselves.

same

In

region
this state

with
the

from
value

Western

with

worthy

the

mankind,

evil of the
of evil

Tuatha

the

body

representativeof

explains the puzzling condition

things

dust

considered

left the

who

what

his

and

permanent
meaning.

Danann

perfect Beauty

in contact

cause,
Be-

possess

lose for him' its crude

Tuatha

shmnken.

meaning,

common

merely

must

Elysium

This

its

and

comprehends
regard the earth as

worldly standpoint, cannot

(2) The
**

to

who

man

offer must

to

lose

Time

Space

the

course,

Philosophy has

'

age, withered

extravagant

an

of

the

attained

returning to their land,


a heap of ashes,
they became

its soil

they stepped upon


of

Having

"

in its fullness, if, on

Beauty

or

life.

"

and

De

spirit.
ugly

Danann

dwell.

may

he has begun, seeing


as
worldly man
goes on
of Beauty.
Idea
ideal beauty, apprehending no
eternityfor him, to his thinking, is this life,in

(3) The

"

"

no

And

dwellings

made

with

hands.

He

is tied

to

what

he

History

Short

68

together every hour


treachery; neither is
but

there

land

the
; for

death

griefnor

wailing, neither

no

anything rough

sickness
It is

in its borders.

; and

no

and
land

is

the

In

each

it shall not be.


shall bare

of

which

not

upon

had

But

sea

feet upon

access

of the

thee.

Recollect

the

that,
to

neither

uttered

marvel

the

that

two

as

set

and
land

has

worlds,

let

out

on

of women."*

been

portion of
Sink

and

man

of

thou

the

mayest
it

for the

science

across

And

pointed out,

of

strong wine

no

voyage

peradventure

of the

out

him

unto

sluggard,and

water

diseases.

Yet,

hear

less
stain-

under

though

known.

He

falleth

who

man

is

it

sea.

bed

the

the governance

the

all your

let Bran

been

ages

loftypalace

multitude

heal

made

earth

hath

which

transparent

"

been

the

on

overcome

thy

hath

speak

multitude

wisdom

one

In the

is he that hath

of you,

every

fifty

hath

and

the

unto

shall

he

thrice

world, and

earth

; yea,

to

rule

belongeth the

the

himself

unto

the

Woe

the vision

are

in

very

shall not be known

His

shall cleanse

He

; but

formed

He

heavens.

is pure
not

he will take

tation
habi-

no

its haze

Erin.

mate

displeasure; but happy

heart.

speak

whose

thousands.

him

the

his

that

great birth

end.

beginning nor
perfect. To
under

and

son,

there

West

largerthan

woman

many

fashioned

is

one

shall be

there

come

of the

waters

great

Islands, and
to

country incomparable in

fair

as

have

; and

marvellous, everywhere lovelyto behold


thereof

neither

beauty, and

of

is

sign
sign

the

sorrow,

decay

which

is the

This

knoweth

harsh

or

land

this

in

ear

full of wonder

and

uncommon

is that

thereof

is

There

the soil is tended.

familiar,and where
of Emain,

Philosophy

filleth the

music

sweet

Celtic

of

only

to

came

Celt
to

set

women
one.

The

the

pass

that

they

knew
was

number

of

whither

with

three

companies, to

each

company

for

chariot
a

two

days

came

unto

Manannan

the

many

old

which

has

space,

an

Now

his

his home

and

voyaged

the boat

body

behold

when

hath

of

creation,
end

our

this

cause

us."

among

the

them,

among

when

the

boat

shore, he

touched

of time

moment

which

he

said

Lir

greatly desired

the

unto

after

perfect land
after voyaging for a
referred, took place.

one

; and

he

that

is

come

was

lain for many

visit

to

in which

leapt out

of

the soil of Ireland

heap

even

of ashes,

hundreds

as

it

of years

earth.
to

the

placed

age

it

are

of

"

With
Zimmer

nigh

came

I have
that

pass

sin

he

of

For

reached

; and

which

his kindred

in

hath

of Collbran,

son

; and

became

has

to

came

the

the Earth.

on

described

episode to

Nechtan,

As

dwell

son

sang

Ireland

neither

us,

he

him

towards

the
in

that

beginning

possessed

companions

been

it

in the

not

and

man

And

the

the

neither
frailty,

not

and

from

over

upon

told

he

Manannan

are

that

those

Bran

We

been

him

unto

journey

to

And

water.

And

in

foster-brothers

hath

age

expect

were

like unto

revealed

the

seven,

men.

he had

the

of Lir.

son

"

Bran

and

he

; and

and

nights, behold

over

the

deep, and

score

nine

when

two

And

years

unto

he

and

one

of the

one

And

felt constrained

had

we

set

the

upon

and

when

And

gone.

out

was

69

of their midst

company

him

Bran

unto

song

him

of Bran.

companions
sea

set

each

was

had

she

Bran

come,
men

Ideas

of

departed out

woman

not

morrow

Theory

this

among

the

him

Mr.

agreed.

story. Professor
oldest
Alfred

remains
Nutt

Kuno

Meyer

of Irish
and

telling."
story-

Professor

History

Short

70

be remembered

It must

would

Bran

of

for

so,

Christian

passages

story

Such

eighth centurs^

This

De

Danann.
Milesians

the

the

with

who

and

things,
But

Milesian

to

who

is

the

those

region

worthy

it
particularise

among

and

mate

may

illumination

sheds

I shall

dwell

which

they
There

go.

of

this state

on

I conclude.

before

control

fails to

wings.'

its

sinks

coursers

to

to

Plato, "which

earth,

loses

its

"

have

the

Celtic

of

Ireland.

already seen
Neptune,
His

significance than
consideration
note

soul," according

"The

'remarkable.

We

that

the Tuatha

passing,it is worth noting that the resemblance


this episode and Plato's doctrine becomes
quite

in

between

to

and

Danann,

episode which

an

worthy might

were

without

regarding

by

that

elsewhere

the

explain why

evidence

region inhabited

the

pointed out

the dead

inhabit
is

things in

of

the state

sufficient

contains

chapter

in the

before

eagerly, and

accepted Christianityso
putting its preachers to death.
Irish

the

far to

go

this

time

probably

story, if in existence

I have

distinctly

the

at

was

Patrick, would

of Saint

coming

writing, which

into

put

was

introduced

not

were

iently
suffic-

Hues

the

that

think

to

few

in the

even

Hke

should

quoted.

Voyage

clearlyrevealed, and

is

purpose

my

the

as

for many

Elysium

Western

of the

tale

generationsin memory
Christian
have
a distinctly
passages
of the conception
originalnature

the

But

character.

such

that

exist
of the

Some

only.

Philosophy

Celtic

of

the

voyaging

was

meeting
one

of his

with

might

speech ;

concluding

Manannan

that

and

words

the

towards

Bran
suppose,

may

the

of

Lir,

the

shores

have

more

especiallyin

I shall ask
of

son

the

reader

quotation

from

The

Thecstetus, which

Plato's
this

to

return

to

so

reason

in

fittingclose
passing. But
Ireland, he
had

There

Ireland.

to

come

body of a mortal ; because


could
distinguishher, and so

Cuchulain

yet when

Emer

could

not

lord

her

the

Fann,

and

mortal,
doth

not

love

She

took

in that

form

is offered

that

only ;
a

made

seek

Fann,

and

great

beautiful

bitter

returned
be

song,

Unless

full

measure

away."
of

aware
no

this

of

state

perceivedhim

one

seized

remorse

which

who

one

woe.

in

turned

and

the

yieldedto
unto

which

to

as

love

give

be

was

of Lir ; and

son

women

bringeth

should

one

to

came

Fann

render

love

which

Manannan

sang

"

his love

gave

immortal

To

that

things,he
save

"

sang

two

his wife

her, Cuchulain

and

the

mated

great love for his

season,

The

Cuchulain.

she

the

between

regard

it is better
WTien

for

her

of Manannan

lady

dispute arose
should
give up

had

proved

she

could

seek

to

came

Cuchulain

him.*

see

wife ; yet he deserted

She

hint

and

form

the

the

as

use

Cuchulain, the highest soul in the land.

with

to

71

journey towards
His lady, Fann,

voyage.

had

and

unworthy,

I shall

Manannan's

to

Ideas

of

just offer this

chapter.

to

had

Theory

upon

her.

attempted

I have

to

"

precious unto me,


the
ruler over
Yea,
Manannan
even
lovely world.
of Lir in the glittering
when
I dwelt with the son
palace
certain
that
of Dun
Inbir, we
were
naught should
There

separate

coming
*

had

Yet

us

for

regained

when

saw

his

over

him

he

But

ever
.

hither

Bran

time

was

the

was

even

water,

he

clearly,because

wings, and

I behold

now

him

was

on

the

who

Bran
way

is the

worthy, and
rejoin the gods.

was

to

horseman

Short

72

History

of the crested
him.

the

To

s?

Cuchulain
to visit

the

"

and

only

occasions

and

had

less

the

is he

perceive

can

visible

he cometh

as

with

desirable

the sii-dwellers,

countless

But

contact

by being permitted

regionof

the

Ireland."
spiritual
heroines

is foolish

favoured

greatly

many

Philosophy

place.

was

on

that

none

^-dweller

this

unto

past us

; and

sea

Celtic

of

the

Milesian

Tuatha

inhabitants

De

of

Danann,
"

the

heroes

spiritual

Ireland."
As

the

to

of the

state

in their graves,

body
the

facts

and

the

ordinary dead,

and

already given

tales which

warriors

who

sufficient

the

standing fully armed


added

to

As

the

value

the

foregoing section
fact

the

upon

in

which

evidence

live in the
among

for my

men,

purpose

suppliedelsewhere regarding
homes
which
habited
inthey once

I have

guard

unchanged

move
are

who

this

the

grave,

chapter

of this work

that

contains.
for

depends

philosophy

be

may

its

expressed

was

enigmaticallyby the Druids, I think I may well conclude


this chapter by a quotation from Plato's Thecetetiis (25) :
Socrates
a

wise

very

thus

ThecBtetiis :

he

and

man,

"

truth

the

What

"

did
us,

mean

you

for if you

small, and

that

cannot

and

that

thing

one

it

as

himself

express

general rabble,

no

great

heavy, hght

; and

?
account

mean

exists

of itself,and
any

quality;

it will appear
so

but

secret

designate a thing by

describe
if

the

not

by this, Socrates

you

no

he

Protagoras

not

was

disciplesin

to his

I will tell you,

declares

that

then,

graces,

enigmaticallyto

speak

Socrates

the

By

"

with

to

be

everything

Theory

The

else

if

as

become

HeracUtus,
those

rank

who

comedy

To
"

asserts

and

motion.

so

say

he

flux

by

is

me

he

does."

things

each

of

the

Does

poets,
in

poetry,

Homer

all

that

always

the

tragedy
of

is

Protagoras,

kind

father

and

succession,

of

and

which

designating

in

men

or

motion,

namely

in

and

Oceanus

mother,'

produced

Theatetus

'

that

Tethys

in

highest

Epicharmus,

saying

wise

Empedocles,

and

all

is, but

ever

agreed,

Parmenides,

except

the

anything,

thereby

nothing
all

or

impulse,

other,

for

this

In

becoming.

to

if

as

from

each

incorrectly

them

but

so

with

admixture

in

quality

73

thing

one

was

any

exist,

say

we

nothing

of

possessed

Ideas

of

for

gods,

and

things
he

not

are

seem

Short

76

goes, the

is

process

intellectual
of

History

have

We

convenient

Philosophy

of

way

peaks on the map


the Early Greeks,

mountain

thought.

problems

Celtic

of

Plato

unsolved.

still remain

distinguishing
of the history
of whose

some

stands

pupilAristotle,with

out

next

and

he is followed

and

Then
have the Stoics
we
by themselves.
the Epicureans, each a school by itself. The Sceptics
no
surely the foothills where one breathes
generous
a

are

air !

destined

Graeco-Orientals

The

to

disturb

of the

Church.

if not
he

the

tetics,
Peripa-

group

mountain

eyes

his

by

reputation of

the

But

Aristotle

condemned.

And

could

who

he

Aristotle

survive

is revered

least

at

were

in

the

lation,
mistranswhere

once

interestingstudy is possible
of the influence of the Jewish mind
Greek
on
thought,
I have
as
exemplifiedin the work of Philo.
already
bear
mentioned
relation
the neo-Pythagoreans, who
a
to the neo-Platonists
resembling the thinkers by whose
names
they are distinguished. In the Patristic period
the
Saturninus, Basilides, Valentinus, and
Ophites,
Carpocrates, Marcion, and the rest of the Gnostics
could
disappear from the world of thought without
for its
causing a stir. We have to thank Manicheism
influence upon
Saint Augustine, just as the
beasts at
was

An

"

"

Ephesus
value.

Later
the

secured

Greeks
relation

mention
the

decorative

interestingwriter

because

he

who

published

his

of

name

he

to

'

career

Dionysus the Areopagite


the Acts
of the Apostles),in order to
a greater notoriety. And
bearing such

the

could
?

that

prefix pseudo

for them

name,

Paul's

to

come

we

writings under
(who figuresin
secure

Saint

in

have

be

otherwise
him

subject

of

than

enamoured

especiallybecause
this chapter.

of the
of

his

of the Middle

threshold

the

Ages
of

Erigena, offeringa system


much

would

It

and

associate

to

Philosophy. The
nothing to do with him.

will,have
bears

in the

resemblance

his

origin of

kept

Scholastic
intellect

to

We

set

to

of the

Schoolmen."

about

his

contains
the

great

was

an

as

Pater

Schoolman

originalitywithout

Scotus

John

would,

In

respects
method,

some

in his

intellectual
that

say

thinking

men

Aristotle, who,

many

John Scotus

Schoolmen

Schoolman

cannot

His

Philosophy.
which

ideas, in the

is all.

; that

rises

original by

as

Scholastic

with

he

there

him.

inaccurate

be

the

see

philosophy which

claimed

been

followed

who

thinkers

he

has

that

77

Early Greeks,
Epicureans ; and on

we

Aristotle,the Stoics and

and

Plato

in this manner,

back

Looking

Erigena

Scotus

John

company
founded

he

originaland amazing
; and

he

introduced
"

the

first

says,

was

could

be enthusiastic

being

enthusiastic

about

his
brain
there
philosophical heresy. Through
filtered,for instance, the Isagoge of Porphyry, the neoAnd
how
Platonist.
we
see
Erigena is associated by

his

this

means

who

caused

such

century by
question

the

it is

is

who

and

for him.
was

remembered

in the

uproar
that

Tradition
This

invited

by

much

his

eleventh
the

relatingto

that

mental

of the

slept,travelled,

ate,

enmities

by

consider

pleasingto

creature

indeed.

Porphyry

was

of universals.

Erigena
and

intellectual

an

of his statements,

one

it

Scholasticism, for

with

we

"

has
can

Charles

know

provided

for
a

be stated
the

products ;
himself

man

contracted

certain

with

Bald, about

ships
friendlittle

very

semi-fabulous

history

assurance

the

"

:
"

year

He

843,

Short

History

to the Schola

Palatina

yS

of the

in Ireland, and
had

He

Latin.

of Aristotle,and

affection

much

evidence

of

Erigena to Oxford,

I offer them

reason

wise

beheve

to

essential.
is related
in

So
to

the

to

credulous

Besides

the

as

many

this world

has

His

man.

of

Naturae,

dialogue
a

De

in

comprehensive
The

weight
invited

Malmesbury,
murdered
for

that

few

the

been

; and
rest

Predestinatione

lies

history which
thinkers

supreme

adorned.
to

the

ones

five books,

; his
cast

public three
"

De

Predes-

masterpiece,
in

the

form

professor and

between

system
Joannen.

Organon

real interest

intellectual

his translations, he offered

Divisione

as

for, after all,it is

important works, and a few minor


tinatione, a comparatively short book
De

also

generously,lest we should deny some


for the episodesby which
much
Erigena

of his
particulars
related
him
only to

with which

of

religioushouse
picturesque, and

are

those

prove

Abbot

of that

episodes

These

him.

the

Great

the

he

and

of Plato

tremendous

any

that he became

monks

the

that

and

parts of
Porphyry.

Alfred

that

Greek

of

first

compelledby

believe

to

educated

was

Timaeus

the

read

He

protection

for Plato, and

Isagogeof

the

is not

reader

the

He

worked.

by Chalcidius, the

translated

under

possessed a knowledge

appreciatedAristotle.

The

Paris, and

at

he lived and

Emperor

Philosophy

Celtic

of

are

is

statement

Homilia

in

taining
pupils,and conof Erigena's philosophical
Prolog. Evang. Sec.

of little moment.
because
interesting

it reveals

the

Celtic avoidance
The
of
originalityof John Scotus.
Erigena proposes a defence
plagiarismis clearlyevident.
in his own
of the doctrine of one
predestination
; and

Scotus

John
sets

peculiarway
are

Erigena

His

work.

to

79

three

principalpoints

"

is in God

that

(i) All

Himself

is God

; hence

will

the

predestinesis identical with the Divine


is absolutelysimple ;
the Being of God
But
is absolutely
follows that the predestinatingwill of God
of
be only one
kind
simple, and so there can
He

by which
Being.
it

predestination.
(2) Opposite effects suppose
and

the

Now

natures.

opposed

to

another

; it follows

of both

God

; hence

there

that

opposite
misery are

and

be the

cannot

be

can

one

effects of

evil, bliss

and

good

one

produce

cannot

cause

same

and

oppositecauses,

only

cause

kind

one

of

predestination.
(3) God

predestineonly

can

God

does

that

which

is ; what

knowledge.

Evil

follows that God


be

Himself

God
have

is

not

in

object

that

Faith

Republic
the

cause

being guUtless

was

of

It

is.

real ; and

moreover

that

world.

But
God

it would
is

that
does

therefore, predestineevil.

not

cordingl
Ac-

only one kind of predestination,


good and to happiness.*

the

foundation

Plato, Bk.

of all
of

of

it it would

knew

of it,so

the

only

philosophicalsystem of Erigena is revealed


of theosophy and
gnosticism. For him

Christian
See

knows.

be

can

predestinationto

author

the

be

cannot,

there

blend

the

It remains, then, that

evil, and

The

If He

it.

know

existence

clearlyabsurd.

be

cannot

nothing real, nothing

cannot

would

necessary

know

is not

positive,something

something

He

evil, for knowledge attains

know

not

which

that

things, but

"

2,

379

only

originating evil,"

That

of what

etc.

truth, and

of

is

the
all

is

good

it should

be,

which
as

as

8o

Short

knowledge
of

conditional

was

Celtic

of

Philosophy

thereto.

The

startingpoint

all rational

Truth

task
of

History

for him
the Divine
investigationwas
From
this he conas
cluded
expressed in the Bible.
that faith is the principlewith which
the knowledge
of the Creator in a rational being begins. Reason's
is to discover
by processes of thought the meaning

the

Divine

And

it

is

important
function of reason
to interpretthe figuresand
S3mibols
of Sacred
Scripture. Philosophy,according to Erigena,
the same
covers
ground as Revelation
; and he is a disciple
of Saint Augustine when
he says that true philosophy
and

true

utterances.

an

identical.

rehgion are

Erigena contemplates a reverential appreciation of


the authority of the
Fathers, coupled with a certain
liberaUty of mind
and freedom
of action, as the proper
condition
for the philosopher. One may
pick and choose
the Patristic commentators,
and may
prefer with
among
those

reason

of

the

Reason

East.

is to

be

the

safe

shall, if necessity arise, supersede the


guide, which
authority of the Fathers.
Erigena contemplates the
and
reason
possibilityof a seeming conflict between
he
determines
that
be
must
scripture; and
reason
it

retained, because

authority (De.
modification
is

Div.

is obvious

darkness

which

Mysteries,unless
Reason,
of

thus

Celtic

reduced
which

not

Nat.

Lib.

when

thinker

may

be

he

Divine

declares
disclose

Word

shall

triumph

can

gaze

crushed

C63).

i,

cannot

illuminated,

obscurity,and

The

the

may

upon

is revealed

the

when

an

"

the
so
as

any

mystical

that

reason

the

Divine

enlighten it.
every

supreme

"

It is not
aphorism :
Truth,
contemplates the supreme
to

over

by

form
Truth.

argument
much

reason

the supreme

is

Scotus

John
which

Truth

Passing

itself in

contemplates
God

God,

but

from

these

finds

who

Erigena

finds

define

(i) Natura,

quae

non

is

but

creates

Natures

sovereign efiicient
(2) Natura,

"

is created.

and

Word

in

far

so

conceptions

The

of all
et

et

creat,

He

ceeds
pro-

considered

the

as

things.
That

creat,
"

Ideas

creative

which

that

"

which

creates

in the

Divine

merely

Divine

aggregate of Ideas

these

as

but

Erigena.

"

creatur

quae

consider

may

creatur

cause

we

of

created, God,

not

man

in man."

general notions,

Four

is not

It

us.

Himself

brieflythe philosophicalsystem
to

8i

not

are

also

potencies

primordial

"

causes."

(3) Natura,
created

does

but

perceived by

creatur

quae
not

"

"

is to

say

individual

the

which

that

creat,

non

; that

create

with

sense

et

the

is

world

objectswhich

it

includes."

(4) Natura,
is not
the

final end

himself.

descriptionof
few

words

(i)

"

has

been

work

his

such

considered

God

all

as

things back

Ci).

i,

him

Erigena, those

about
should

the

as

which

to

go

present,

the

man

adequate

no

system is possible. I shall endeavour


Natures

of

is, in the

mind

Four

Erigena's system

in

:
"

Nature

"

applicableto realityand
realitythe world of Ideas
possess,

"

drawing

written

understand

that

creat,

nee

create

Nat., Lib.

of the

treat

not

Div.

to

In

does

creat'ur

things, and

much

desire

non

of all

(De

Though

to

and

created

to Himself

who

quae

is, in the

truest

of

Erigena,
"

also to God.
and
and

the

world

most

For
of

term

whatever

phenomena

literal sense,

the

History

Short

82

Himself."

God

realityof

Esse

favourite

is his

Divinitatis

Celtic

of

Philosophy

omnium

and

often

est

super

esse

recurringphrase

almost
paradoxical
pseudo-Dionysus. The
evident
brilliance of Erigena, revealingthe Celt, becomes
that
he declares
when
so
supremely perfect is the
God
is incomprehensible
of the Divinity that
essence
the

from

"

only

not

to

but

us

adequate

in any

Himself.

to

should

He

sense

all

is above

God

Him

about

the

than

safer in

of

the

He

be

to

quod

God

knows

that

because
as

correctlybe
of

is

negative aiTo"^aTLKr)

might correctly be
part

no

is, not

does

He

called

or

"

not

what
know

it follows

is ; and

He

He

what

is. He

knows

truly God.
must

we

to
so

be

attribute

attributed
a

attributed

His creatures.

perfections,if

consists

speak

"

that He

Him

from
when

such

therefore, we

the

some

limit Himself.

to

"

He

Perfections
come

in

comprehension
things. He is superior to all things.
defined
as
quid in comparison with any
is without
i.e.,nothing.
quiddity

of

sum

Himself

using

God

He

(nihilum).

is not

other

Himself

positiveKaTa(^aTLiir)J'

Erigena explains that


nothing

be

categories. When,

are

we

knew

place Himself

should

category of thought, which

if He

For

we

to Him.

and

But

we

the

term

affirmative

because

exactly,

It follows

they

atively
speak figur-

perfectionsto Him,

use

negative

God, because

to

that

cannot

Theology

science.

The

perfectsystem. And the system


negative is the most
definitions if we
be comprehended in our
prefix
may
we
supra before any predicateapplicableto God, when
is supra powerful, supraGod
say, for instance, that
The
so
on.
wise, and
supra-existent God, though

History

Short

84
"

1.

The

being,

entity or

indeterminate

century !
of

We

is

all matter

reducible
"

to the

2.

This

into

genera

substantial
and

genera
"

In

told

all

This

in the

written

was

is

twentieth

that

of space

universal

one

and

things are
sole

one

in the

which
negative electricity,

ether

one

this ousia

in concept, for it is the

as

things."

are

phenomena

is in itself undifferentiated

ousia.

well

as

of all

substance

which

the

"

in fact

one,

of all

substance

common

Philosophy

Celtic

of

ninth

basis

the

is further

!*

divides, within

ousia

itself,

species,without, however, losing its


unity. It is only in this self-division into
speciesthat the ousia attains actuality."
and

speciesthus generated manifest themselves


individual
the species is whole
in
objects. Hence

3.
in

The

whole

all,and

in each

of the individuals

contained

under

it."

Individualitymanifests itself in the corporealworld.


individual
versal,
And
in considering how
proceeds from uniErigena reveals his neo-Platonism.
Every
material
body can ultimate^ be analysed into separate
in themselves
are
elements, which
purely intelligible,
that is, mere
size, figure,position,
qualities.Without
fore,
If, theredensity,colour, "c., a body is unthinkable.
"

elements
separate these purely intelligible

we

the

there

It follows

body,
body.

The

more

of

approves
discoveries.
drew

from

reahse
ages

reads

one

the

notion

left
that

their

the

in

anything which can


a
body is merely

the

wisdom

that

the

The

that
of

is not

world.

Statesman

ancients
is

applause which
contemporaries is
The

of the

from

be

called

the

result

the

less

one

of great

present age
age
geologists,for instance,
an

modern

somewhat

Plato

discounted

described

the

when

we

geological

Scotus

John

85

Erigena

gible
purely intelliA
elements.
body is, therefore, its component
parts, of the purely intelHgibleand material order ;
the comto
bination
is due
the outward
corporeal substance
of intelligible
accidents
; it is merely the product
of

and

concurrence

of

conjunctionof these
corporealobjectscome

into

its ultimate

accidental
The

accidental
that it

qualities.Individual
being by the fact that the

accidental

with
invested
species,becomes
and
so
assumes
corporeal appearqualities,
ance.
ousia as such
could
be the subject of
not
quahties. It is only in its lower species

in

ousia*

of these

combination

can

them

assume

; hence

only specificallydetermined
with

which

in constant

continuing in

this

world.

The

distrusted

And

by
that

possible
"

if its possessor

the
the
be

speculations,tends
the

Ideahsm

Erigena ;
its place in

take

In

from

"

the

ousia

Kant

to

Church,

Celtic mind

towards

the

this

would

doctrine

as

Druids
IdeaHsm
It

philosophical

his

in

Idealism.

work.

Erigena was
generalizationbecomes
philosophy,
investigating

extra-Catholic

and

generally

to its conclusion

thinking,

my

of the

another

one

in which

that

are

all one."

is,obviously,if carried

ideaHsm.

change

itself,which

ousia

the

accidents, furthermore,

objects differ
specifically
they are

This
of

and

and

individual
and

accidents

enduring ; this is the explanationof


of the phenomenal
changeableness and instability

is immutable
the

with

have

is invested,
species,

transformation

respect

we

The

bodies.

the ousia, in its ultimate

involved

are

fact that

the

we

of

have

tioned
men-

now

sidered
con-

Berkeley shall

remains

surely recognise

have

his

to

consider

noumenon.

Fourth

Erigena's

of

working

all

of
He

made

fire

In

the

darkness

"

it

is

He

condemned
ccasions.

year

iron

is

the

Celtic

his

De

Leo

IX,

the

the

pronounced

the

genius,

and

but

of

it
an

he

were

would

be

failed.

The
of

Naturae
1050,

against

it.

not

of

only

the

glorified
to

his

Church,

Erigena,

actually
and

is

age

Christianity

importance

year

when

appearance

in

race

he

but

Divisione
in

accomodate
;

thought

nature

appearance

intellectual

the

1225,

of

thing

system

man.

heat.

His

to

strove

in

appearance

assumes

work

origin,

its
the

with

stages.

This

retains

return

certain

individuality

assumes

glowing

wonderful

of

recognising

the

merely

manner

of

Air

conception.
is

him.

it

in

or

the

is illuminated.

but

"

like

philosophical

retention

system

philosopher

such

character,

considers

degrees,

by

analogy.

by

when

Christian

in

for

for

Erigena's
a

God

clear

"

mental
in

friendliest

the

Erigena

obliterated,

is not

illuminated,

of

the

observe

to

association,

of

was

Nature
to

things

light."

then
whose

Church

Fourth

provides

Man

Philosophy

Scotus.

the

In

and

philosopher
the

Duns

John

Celtic

of

Nature,

with

matters

is

History

Short

86

Honorius

on

two

III

VII.

CHAPTER

WE

deal

now

in

SCOTUS.

DUNS

JOHN

with

cradled

man

in

orthodoxy, reared
Parthenius

approved philosophicalsystem.

an

"

Minges says of him :


is perhaps in no
other

The

"

real

spiritof Scholasticism

Scholastic

pronounced

so

in

as

Scotus/*
As

he

of his

matter

him.

The

Lowlands

John

Ireland,

of Dunensis
Duns

The

is found

to

the

Scotus

for
was

of Assisi under

and

Irish

point

the

of

name

the

that

retort

probably
in
the

the

to

Downpatrick,

catalogue of
the date

Duns,

favour

of

grants
emi-

still-retained

which

they

say

native.
of

Library

of 1381, in which

87

the

claim

Ireland

originallypeopled by

were

principal argument
in the

and

word

The

consider

I must

Scotland

Both

point

Scotland

from
name

this work,

Berwick.

near

of

place in

origin.

Scots

village

his

takes

his

Irish

of Saint

origin
Francis

his commentary

History

Short

88

"

the

on

"

Sentences

Celtic

of

of Peter

Philosophy

Lombard

is

designated as

magistrifratrisJohannis Scoti de Ordine Minor um


qui et Doctor Suhtilis noncupatur, de provincia Hiherniae.'*
"

In

Criticism

constructing.

is

faculty was
strong, and
he pulled down
without

master

supreme

objectto ritual,in

the very

often, and

very

highestform,

its

invariablyin
was

critical

objected that

it is sometimes

Scotus

the

Scotus

Duns

almost

constructive.

And

of criticism.

Those

Duns

who

of

prohibitingceremonies,
to
themselves
bind
a
negative ritual as rigid and as
This
they seek to remove.
requisiteas that which
to explain the
dictory
ser^^e
analogy may
apparently contraof Duns
Scotus.
opinions regarding the work
He

did

write

not

His

doctrine.
treatises

act

Summa

consisted

work

questions which

on

of

and

programme

of

his

comment

offered

interesting. Parthenius

Aristotle
or

commentaries
with

might

disputed, yet these commentaries


continuity. Duns Scotus chose his
phical

of his

Philosophicaresum6

items

and

with

in the

Peter

criticism.

Minges

impunity

made

are

or

His

describes

be
no

philoso

Lombard,
is

method
it

well

"

it is
Usually he cites first the text, or presupposes
he takes up various
points which
already known
; then
live issues, and discusses them
all
in that day were
on
time presentingthe opinions of others.
sides,at the same
with, relentless logic
is sharp in his criticism, and
He
he refutes the opinions,or at least the arguments of his
forgetsto set
opponents. In his fervour he sometimes
for
down
his own
view, or he simply states the reasons
*'

tenable

various
more

or

less

Collationes.''

opinions, and puts


probable ; this he does

them

forward

especiallyin

as

the

It

is
"

most

and

"

scholastic

of

in

philosophy

of

should

man

cosmology
used

were

It

to

assist in
also

the

and

regarding the

method

was

chemical

to

few

itself to

Saint

I shall consider.

Thomas

questions they

rival schools

owed

leaders

the

were

Scotus

of the

Aquinas
in

were

went

to

Paris

travelled
a

to

triumph

become

fame

Aquinas

vitalityto

representativesof

Aquinas

lectured

in the

year

ment.
agree-

formation
Thomists

centuries

after

of Scotus

attached

to

Paris.

the

fact

two

of the

death

liberal.

in Oxford
1304

His

Cologne.

; but

most

much

for

And
that

the

the
their

great ReHgious
Dominicans

and

Franciscans.

Scotus

Duns

The
of

that

Thomas

Saint

Orders,

existed

founders.

Oxford,

nature

of which

from

Scotists, which

of their

death

the

applied to
investigation

particulardifferences led to the


philosophicalschools supported by the

the

omena
phen-

will, is considered

and

in

scientific study of

The

of two

the

was

theory of the universe.


ethics, logic,and metaphysics.

fundamental

upon

particularof

forming

differed

Scotus

Duns

in

The

a
particulars,

In many

instance,

prominent

it

all theories

built.

His

abounded

His

itself

and

physical

appHed

was

but

and

work

of

soul, and

be

for

are,

His

makes

means

which

upon

domains.

distinctions.

intellect

sense,

foundation
of

by

activities of the

the

respective

and

Scotus, the

kept theology

of Aristotle

which

analytic method,
psychology ; and

Duns

Schoolmen,

works

definitions, terms,

89

that

purely philosophicalnature.

in

the

their

various

quaestioneson
of

consider

to

important

Scotus

Duns

John

was

; and

arrival

upon

him

for ten
four

years.

years

He

later he

Cologne proved
justwhen fame had
at

History

Short

go
An

They

absorbed

attach

both

are

distinction

the

and

between

the

to

also in the

divine attributes

re): and

in

science

is

for

of the
of

infinite ;

allows

these

"

distinction

Scotus

holds

eminence
pre-

between

fundamento

cum

the

by

fections
per-

relative

divine

the
intellectualist,

an

pre-eminent.

Infinite.

the

between

of their

matter

as

priority

perfectionsare
but they differ as

rationis
[distinctio

him,

and

all divine

allowed

be

to

Saint Thomas
the

Scotus

Duns

attributes

agreed that
unity of the

in the

Philosophy

in the consideration

occurs

should

which

to

difference

important

Saint Thomas

Celtic

of

distinctio

"

It is a distinction
formalis a parte rei ; and says :
to
(between formal and real) in every way antecedent
of
is in the thing from the nature
our
thought ; wisdom
wisdom
in the thing is not
the thing ; but
formally
(precisely)goodness in the thing." He
places the
divine will as pre-eminent,and ascribes to this will the
"

existence

fundamental

is the

Scotus

Aquinas as
rehgioustruths.

of the

soul, and

matters

establish

for him

believe.
world

more

the

; he

reason

Thomas

essences.

element.

recognised

of faith and

to

and

natures

goes

secundo

him

their

creatures,

materia prima
beyond Aquinas, and renames
for
prima, discovering a primo prima, which

Scotus

him

of

was

For

distinction

had

the powers

to

resurrection

of faith ; and
former

divine

him

of bhnd

the
of

Questions such

the

the

not

the
men

convincing than

between
confidence

the

of the

the arguments

left him

giftby
world
; and

the

immortality

body,
of

philosophers

without

could

men

faith

revelation

revelation

of

for

were

Faith

unconvinced.

which

the

of Saint

ing
in establish-

reason
as

matters

was

see

simply

of faith

sight.

and

was

VIII.

CHAPTER

BERKELEY

HUTCHESON.

AND

in

importance
BERKELEY'S
unquestioned.

is
of

County
fifteen
and

before

been
of

old

years

accomplished by
since

his

him

superseded by
non-scholastic
hfted

thinking

an

Irishman

later.

For

Kant,

mind.

gave
Time

objective world
When

the

93

the

world
outside

Hume

had

fair to

hold

and

been
the

speculation

centuries, when

laid

Kant

The

stood

atmosphere,

rarer

Locke

had

the

existed

had

which

DubUn

work

transformed

the

only

When

year,

of Hobbes.

few

which

of thought.
of man's

; and

field for

thirtieth

which

days

to

philosophy
century

Locke

into
of

the

1685.

Trinity College,

philosophical speculation

Scholasticism

was

reached

had

he

entered

he

in

born

was

March,

in

Kilkenny

He

ophy
philos-

of

history

the

the

original
of

foundation

that

expression

over

half

and

were

modes

was

Space
the

externalization

Idealist, Hegel,

hundred

History

Short

94

after

years
world

in

written

clear and

Berkeley is so
than
"

in his

own

unknowable

they
he

that
;

We

Kant's

had

style.
he

to say

seems

certain

latter

less

the

it the

names

he

genius

be

no

that

having satisfied

of Kant

of

he

thought
first.

to say

in
in

noumenon.

born

was

expressed himself in Ireland


Kant's
expressionof himself
philosophers,in view
among
can

the

to

as

experience of it, is quite

no

because

way,

former

; the

Berkeley

for

claim

reflection upon

allow

can

While

Kant.

in

agreed

are

the

while

may

there

Berkeley

phenomenon

the

candid

existed

in less formidable

that

lucid that

and

sensuous

priorior innate subjective


as
an
come
explanation for Berkeley'sbelief
comes
the idea in Berkeley beconsciousness
; and

"

himself

vivid

terse

suppose.

we

forms

much

Kant

than

language

echoed

he
intelligence,

to

the

that

and
intelligence,

of

manifestation

relation

only in

Philosophy

maintained

Berkeley,

the

was

Celtic

of

that

first in

It

is

no

Berkeley

resembHng
And
surely

manner

Germany.
of Time,
the relativity

priority!

fundamental

Berkeley published his Essay towards a new


theory of vision ; and in 1710 the Principlesof human
two
in these
contained
knowledge. His theories are
In

1709

works

though they

in

form

171 3

in

extended

somewhat

were

dialogues between

Three

in

dialogue

Hylas

and

Philonous.

Berkeley
is the
He

himself

to

deal

meaning
philosophical

did

material
desired

set

not

wish

to

prove

world, which
to establish

no

with
of

the
sane

"

the

question" What

Material

Substance.'*

practicalrealityof
man

could

meaning
philosophical

doubt.
for

**

the
He

power"

Berkeley

"

"

or

when

cause

sensible
there
be

things.

was

such

he

in which

even

manner

of

has

attitude

of

what

change

the

with

which

many

into

what

he

of

and

in

sums

his eager

the

material

what

and

He

urgent

distrustful
and

set

This

really means.

matter

our

engaged,

facts, and

to

to

world,

been

subtle

more

his

accomplish.

predecessorshad
a

and

proportion

to

of

question

that

thingsmight

metaphysical abstractions,

discover

to

With

but

causes.

desired

rigidlyfaithful

yourself
up

he

of his

words

mere

or

powers

considered

Be

question.

doubt

no

sensible

comprehensible

understanding
to

had

application to

ludicrously misunderstood

been

becomes

wished

as

95

have

terms

In his mind

properly spoken
He

Hutcheson

and

admonition.

this

that
question settled, Berkele}''trusted
intelligent
people m^ight be delivered from the incubus
of

perplexities
regarding the things

smell, hearing, and


themselves
the

it

in

in the way

upon

Locke's

thesis

outcome

of

himself

presented
called

its

as

that

human

experience in
reflected

to

are

matter, and
material

an

truded
in-

to

hoped, too,
refer

to

self-

sense

Berkeley

cause.

and

senses

our

concerned, and
that

had

all

which

the

things
physical and

are

commonly

in this matter
no

gradual

in reflection."

experienceof
which

rejected

is the

knowledge

"

substance

improperly
He

in

"

declared

touch,

perception
unintelligiblesomething

our

upon

and

which, in his opinion,

irrational

senses," with

our

sciences

abstract

to

"

matter

had

manifested

way,

sight

advance.

considered

other

"

natural

should

life,whether

any

called

be

might

conscious

He

which

physical sciences

that

or

taste,

of

place.

Locke's
"

Abstract

History

Short

96

unrelated

substance

to

and

meaningless

term

Celtic

of

Philosophy

its

phenomena,"
contradictory.

for him

was

Berkeley regarded an object,and found that for him


He
it consisted of sight,sound, touch, taste, or smell.
in saying that he found
felt justified
himself conscious
of these
sights, sounds, tastes, touches, and smells,
also of his own
conscious
and
identity during their
changes, and of his abilityto produce changes in what
he

sense

phenomena

commonly

called

became
were

Matter, for him

touched.

and

saw

after

reflection,

presented according
laws

the

of

to

all of

and

nature,

what

"

self-conscious
necessity dependent upon some
person
to
He
attributed
being percipient of them."
gestion
sugAnd
the repetitionof sense
phenomena.
gestion
sugwhich
a
was
road, as it were,
perception
upon
became
acquired and expectant, and finallyarrived at
scientific
prevision.

Berkeley
of Decartes,
his

but

refused

of

negative creed

the

he misunderstood
that

was

of matter

existence

the

sequence

to

of matter

account

own

subscribe

possiblybecause

because
was

to

he

offered

which

"

perceptions

sense

Descartes

"

could

jection
ob-

for him
not

be

doubted.
Human
with
of

knowledge

two

irreducible

its existence

phenomena
or

"

which

and
were

facts

(2)

''

"

the

(i) the
ego

in themselves

for
ego

conscious
without

Berkeley
conscious
of

sense

substance

power.
Let

us

allow

discussing the
"

began, therefore,

Berkeley
nature

of

to
sense

But, besides all that endless

After
speak for himself.
perception,he says :
varietyof ideas or objects
"

Berkeley

of

knowledge,

or

perceives

there

Hutcheson

and

is likewise

them

something

exercises

and

97
which

divers

knows

operations,

This
willing,imagining, remembering, about them.
perceiving,active being is what I call Mind, Spirit,Soul,
I do not denote
or
Myself. By which words
any one
of my
ideas, but a thing entirelydistinct from them,
as

they exist,or, which


perceived for the

wherein

they are
in being perceived.
"

"

neither

That

by

is what

everybody

evident

that

the

sense,

on

the

various

an

intuitive
who

in

attend

I say

exists

of my
that
was

an

that

in my

was

odour

is,it

"

was

that
heard

by sight or
by these and
is said
without
to
nor

the

me

of

see

I should

study
if I

is, I

the

say

and

study
is,it was
;

"

I think

colour

if I

on

out

were

meaning thereby

; there

This

was

is all that

the like

expressions.

existence

exist

I write

it.
a

it

figure,and

or

by anyone

the term

might perceive

smelt

exist

...

table

touch.

absolute

together

of this

by

less

no

cannot

feel it ; and

it existed

mind,

imprinted

combined

The

ideas

it is

ideas

or

is meant

what

to

consists

the

me

obtained

be

may

applied to sensible things.


that

to

or

when

"

without

objectsthey compose),
mind
perceivingthem

knowledge

shall

idea

an

passions,nor

sensations,
blended

however

than

of

And

will allow.

(that is, whatever


otherwise

existence

imagination, exists

the

thing,whereby

same

thoughts, nor

our

formed

is the

There

sound
was

"

ceived
per-

can

stand
under-

For

as

to what

of

unthinking things
any relation to their being perceived, that is
is perdpi,
perfectly unintelligible.Their esse

is it
minds

possiblethey
of

should

have

thinking things

any

which

existence

out

perceive them.

of

History

Short

98

It is indeed

"

their

distinct from

how

with

But,

this

soever

not,

of

them,

we

thoroughly

examine

found

For

ideas.
than

bottom

at

to

can

to

that
should

depend

there

be

extinguishthe

so
beingperceived,
Light
unperceived ?

feel

"

what

and
are

figures
"

they

of

one

to

as

and
in

but

a
so

world,

question
manifest

objects

what
?

the

these,

we

is it

and
or

unperceived
doctrine

strain

conceive

of

them

colours, heat

any
?

If

of abstract
abstraction

objects from
as

existing
cold,

and

word, the thingswe


many

do

it will, perhaps, be

tenet

nicer

and

sensations

exist

on

to involve

existence of sensible

their

extension

or

any

this

in the

to call it in

sense

ideas

real,

or

the forementioned

are

perceiveby

perceivebesides our own


not
plainly repugnant
combination

perceiveit

For, what

things we

the

entertained

be

word,

understanding.
and
acquiescence

assurance

shall find in his heart

contradiction.
but

an

in

the

being perceivedby

great

if I mistake

may,

rivers, and,

existence, natural

an

principlemay

whoever

yet

mountains,

objects, have

all sensible

Philosophy

opinionstrangelyprevailingamongst

houses,

that

men,

an

Celtic

of

see

and

sensations, notions,

And
?
is it possible
impressionson the sense
of these from
in thought, any
to separate, even
ception
per?
For my
part, I might as easilydivide a thing
itself. I may,
from
indeed, divide in my
thoughts,
conceive
or
apart from each other, those things which,
divided.
I ever
Thus, I imagine
so
perceivedby sense
the trunk of a human
body without the limbs, or conceive
without
the smell of a rose
thinking on the rose itself.
if that may
abstract
So far, I will not
deny, I can
properlybe called abstraction which extends only to the
conceiving separately such objects as it is possible

ideas,

or

"

History

Short

100

Just

Philosophy

Celtic

of

Aristophanes pictured the

as

in his Ecclesiazusae, and

Movement
the

W.A.A.C.

in the

am

convinced

that

Plato.

had

might have
Berkeley had

of the

Book

go

far

so

Berkeley
John Scotus.
no

read

Plato

all credit for his insistence

us

that

say

to
we

Plato, unless

Berkeley deserves

the absence

upon

for

known

was

without
But

drew

to

as

Suffrage

Republic,so

Berkeley's argument

I should

fact

In

Fifth

Women's

of distinction

being perceived,"and for the


being and
unequalled lucidity of his expression. Berkeley, of
in regard to the analysis
proceeds scientifically
course,
of his first conclusion, as stated above, and employs the
and
other
of space
infinite divisibility
philosophical
"

"

"

between

implements

support

to

his

He

arguments.

may

be

not

impunity ; he cannot be ignored,as some


There
of ignoring him.
fond
are
Kantians
are
many
who
by being half as enthusiastic and
might gain much
convinced
the truth of a philosophical
about
system, as

dismissed

was

with

Berkele3^

system

to

For

system,

critical,and

the

fashion

to

flitfrom

being always superficially

flitter

actually professingconviction

never

the truth

it is

nowadays

garding
re-

of any.

Berkeley'ssystem allows of the existence of minds or


spiritualsubstances, ideas, and the Divine Spirit,but
It is better to be
beyond these of nothing whatever.
have
he says :
We
is, when
quite candid, as Maher
never
an
seen
experimentalargument which, strictly
speaking, disproves the hypothesis of hyperphysical
"

"

IdeaUsm.

God, without

world, could
men's
the

minds

present

the

intervention

poteniiaahsohita
states

order.

like those
The

of

material

immediately produce

in

experience

in

which

we

only demonstrative

argument

Berkeley

Theistic

againstthe
is in
which
the

with

ascribe

of such

author

Whether
is

declared

that

to the

that

he

appreciatedby
to

seems

conclude

at

be

without

philosopherwho

such

attributes

of

''ipi'

hypothesis
veracity
a

could

be

not

accepted this
imagine he would

had

of

"

material

was

least

of the

one

desirable

in

based

that

lived contemporary

his

an

have
clusion
con-

substance."
but

the
known

were

arguments
and

Schoolmen.

this

reference

to

as

discoveringthe

startling;

was

brief

relation

no

his belief

God

Deity.

engaged

"

Berkeley's declaration
which

is, that

"".

have

was

philosophical
meaning

upon

fraud."

this argument

; and

It

the

Berkeley would
questionable.

answer,

"

Immaterialist

conflict

must

we

Hutgeeson

and

to

should

work
the

with

labours

not

of

Berkeley, and

development of thought in
Scotland is appreciatedto this present day ; and whose
Smith
unquestionably contributed
training of Adam
towards
the adoption of the principles
of
The
Wealth
of Nations
during the past century. Berkeley was
bom
the Hght
in 1685 ; and Francis
Hutcheson
first saw

whose

influence

upon

the

"

"

in the

a
Scotsman,
1694. His grandfather was
settled in Ulster, and died
a PresbyterianMinister, who
fortune, which
eventually came
leaving a considerable
into the possessionof his favourite
grandson, Francis
Hutcheson.
Francis
graduated at Glasgow University,
and set up an
the place of
to take
Academy, intended

year

His brilliance
University for Dissenters, in Dublin.
for
brought him into the Viceroy'scircle, and he moved
Swift was
the
Dean
some
years in that society of which
leader.
It is possiblethat he met
Berkeley ; in fact
a

Si^oKT'

T02

one

; for both

Inquiry

into

Virtue.

This

after

year

at

intervals

whom

the

the

to

amounts

to

owes

advice.

one

An

willingto accept
to modify his work
But

they

had

debt

entered

took

350

He

came

fresh

second

editions

lifetime.

Hume's

which

with

Hume,

to

brilliant

appeared

him

debt

edition

take
to underHutcheson

and

unknown

responds to his call for sympathy


originaland exalted intellect is always
who

correction
in

; and

Hume

had

suggestedby

manner

enough

Berkeley attacked
The
impression which
He

Ideas

our

work

; and

little

curious.

Synge.
published his
of Beauty and

correspondence,caused

some

revision

some

and

Original of

with

terms

Hutcheson

publication; and
during Hutcheson's

he had

youth

Francis

failed to meet

have

intimate

on

remarkable

Philosophy

he could

how

were

Dublin

in

While

men

Celtic

of

hardly imagine

can

him

History

in

the

sense

Hutcheson

common.

with

Hutcheson
Hutcheson

violence.

some

makes

is

one

upon

sophy
place as Professor of Moral Philohad
in the University of Glasgow, as one
who
a
duty to perform which extended
teaching.
beyond mere
He
study his life and his work,
suggests to those who
of
who
a
man
might have been picked out of Athens

by

B.C.

the sombre

his

into

world

which

tints of Puritanism,

had

in which

been

coloured

the Beautiful

He
is deeply
something worthy of banishment.
indebted
to
Shaftesbury ; and into the stronghold of
the
Old Light," the Universityof Glasgow, he brought
the spirit
of
of Greece
volence."
Bene; and taught the doctrine
How
for his teaching may
ripe the age was
be judged by the immediate
recognitionwhich his written
in
and
received.
stood
for culture
He
spoken words
was

"

"

an

age

when

culture

was

condemned,

and

when

men

Berkeley

selected

were

but

"

Stoics,

was

of

Art

the

Berkeley's attack
of

is said

that

vital

of

belief

God

Ideas

of

the

"

and

wiihin
the

to this

of

in
lecture
owed

Political

the

in

the

State

awakening

principles.In

mentioned,
which
and

may
Conduct

grain

fitness,being

his

final

his

of

months

large part
is evident

influence

teachingwhich

be named
the

Hutcheson

distinguishes

after

hearing

Hutcheson

to

of

interest

to

an

extent

some

to

had

for

led to interest

was

; and

addition

Hutcheson

of

Smith

Economy

also the direction, and


his

and

people owe

Glasgow

; and

Smith

on

enthusiasm

and

Universities.

Professor

pupil Adam

order

few

; and

While

and

decorum

opposition in his
ceeded
University. But he suc-

Scottish

present culture
day in the system

Scottish

natural

and

enormous

of their

the

All

"

"

religionanother."

Glasgow

him

To

triumph.

quoted :
order, harmony

supported without

be

of

sense

died

and

be

is said cf taste

Virtue, and

reform

to

attempt

of the

encountered

Hutcheson

may

from

two

or

passage

principleof

that

and

Beauty

thing, and

one

homely

some

without
of law or
notion
religion,
any
in a Lord or Judge or any religious
sense
the
contemplation of the mind
upon

of natural

duty, any

him

is said

well consist

very

even

Life."

upon

proportion,all that
fitness of things,all
may

exhibited

who

matter
no
mere
philosophy was
into
rather a thing to be translated
for him, as for the
Philosophy was

conduct.

life and

103

him

With

vulgarity.
of books,

Ministers

as

Hutcheson

and

his

he

only

not

but

formation

of

Inquiry, already

works,
produced many
the following: Essay on the

Passions, with

self
him-

Hutcheson

in Economics,
the

his

among
Nature

Illustrations upon the

History

Short

104

Philosophy in

Moral

the Law

and

oj Ethics

Philosophy

Celtic

of

three hooks,

containingthe
This

of Nature.

in Latin.

work

elements

ally
origin-

was

published in
that language in Glasgow, besides editions produced in
Dubhn.
In
an
Rotterdam,
Strasburg, and
EngHsh
it enjoyed four
editions.
His
translation
System of
Moral
unpubHshed for eight years
Philosophy remained
written

his

after his death, when


it

maturity, saw

if much

wonder

to include

had

Cosmos

of art

no

aesthetic

and

order
"

existence

upon

terrors.

In

in

the

excluded

moral

order

that

by maintaining

comprehenisve

"

to

be well to

the

of

His

term

His

Euclid.

as

exhibits

power
should

(Treatiseon
the

he

objective

"

Reflection

of ideas

might

points

for
the

theory

of

the

physical and

return

note

closely aUied

individual.

of

To

require

naturallyslight; and colour


order in
importance. He saw

matter

Sensation

to

are

proposition

the

source

would

of a mere
crude
possibility
or
a
morahty which
depended for its
self-interest or the persuasion of objective

determinism,

with

was

was

to

present age.
one

systems

Hutcheson

including

Benevolence

the

system

two

is led

edition, one

for the

said

be

The

for

of

knowledge

"

considers

one

analysisof Shaftesbury,and

resemblance..

capable

after

Hutcheson's

an

Beauty

edition

may

describe

To

him

When

press.

to

grown

which

public absorbed

but

time

publishersproduced philosophy
eighteenth century, and the rapiditywith which

in the

of

were

that

by

son,

through the

with

the eagerness

the

editions

Three

former

supplement

be

of

an

my

originality

perception

granted equal

the Passions, p.

subject

of

remark

of

character

"

or

rank

xi).

this

chapter

it

that

Berkeley's

Berkeley

argument

known

was

Hutcheson

and

Plato, by

to

105
extract

an

from

the

In

the

another
the
Thecetetus.
from
Republic and
Republic (Book X, 597) we have the following:

"

"

I suppose

But

creations

unreal.

are

of way,

will say

you

constructs

And

Yes, the painter too


But

what

of

the

not

certainlysay

the

Form,

the

realityof

"

he

his account

discussions
Then

in appearance.

beds

Did

he did not

you

construct

does

not

like the

artisan,

would

construct

but
reality,

describe

to

really

what

construct

he

other

as

be, in

the

work

still

of

perfectlyreal,
all probability,

opinion of

those

who

are

in such

versed

these.

as

let

particularbed

were

matter

it not

Yes, in the

kind

doctrine, constitutes

not

that

one

of any

of the

would

untrue,

bed
of

our

only

does

say

if any

bed-wright,or

as

but

"

not

we

And

ago, that

thing,but only something

unreal
a

constructs

in

so.

Consequently, if
exists, must

paintertoo,

manufacturer

bed,

(the painter's)

I wrong

am

which, according to

Yes, I did say

real

Or

minute

the

yet

bed.

all his

that

be at all surprisedat

us

not

substantial

as

bed

are

findingthat things
trasted
shadowy objects when con-

with

reality."
following passage

The

remarkable.

more

Observe

of this passage
"

say

Socrates
that
or

each

of

"

from

Consider

to

my

(97)is still
the
blance
terminologicalresemquotation from Berkeley :
the

Thecr-tetus

this, then, I beg

they explain the generation


anything
them

is

else pretty much

did

of heat,

or

in this manner,

impelled, together

with

we

not

ness,
whitethat

perception,

Short

io6

History

the

between

affected

becomes

itself,
a

certain

and

you

collective
the

hot

and

white,

you

surely

one

thing

nor

that

is

perception

certain

Isolated
read

Plato

little

has

the

and

quotations
as

been

said

that

to

is

in

other

to

detail.

which

that,

from

that
is

the

one

no

agent

an

meeting

and

the

but

things.

before

that

this

objects
be

to

of

percipient."
be

may

whole

in

whiteness,

nor

cause

other

the

used

perception

other,

produced

being

quality

but

patient,

with

each

neither

itself,

of

by

strange

it

said

we

ception
per-

Perhaps,

be

when

respect

that

explain

heat

with

so

remember

which
of

neither

and

exists

it

then,

me,

becomes

agent

together
of

Hear

yet
affected

to

you

understand

not

may

to

patient

not

itself

quality

not

the

becomes

agent

appear

may

sense.

For

is

but

quality

word,

the

that

quality,

however,

For

and

is

but

perception,

by

that

and

patient,

the

and

agent

Philosophy.

Celtic

of

discover

new.

effective

that

but
since

one

his

must

time

Short

io8

History

Celtic

of

Philosophy

judgment." God's judgment is all justice,but a good


could be expected from the saint who
share of partiality
loved Ireland so passionately.
TUATHA

De

DaNANN.

before

In Clare Island, the year


in Irish,of what

sixty years

time, about
of taste, and

therefore

according to

the

sat

and

saw

saluted

He

whom

you,

are

"

answered

:
"

island

Tuatha

De

and
I

of woods,"
Danann

gods

come

to read.

this

island

and

having

out

went

look

was

The

since

its

said

so,

as

up,

utter

an

"

asked

"

day,

to

who

:
"

Of

stranger
was

name

vanished.

immortals, and

full grown

were

man

in him,

One

chanced

you

him, and would

stranger, and

the

in

of the

he

his

in

seen
was

with

book

sit down

whence

am

had

Whenever

reading in the sunshine, he


standing before him the man

stranger.

the

and

his work

often leave
he

criterion.

told me,

man

islander

the blood

had

old

This

ago.

fields,he took

in the

to work

islanders

of the

one

last,a

no

fairies.
The
near

is

Gray Man who


Ballycastleis no

seen

could

appear,
or

up

Time

40.

shortened

Gray

Path

Man's

of

Time.

appreciatedas relative,and
of the immortals, lengthened
company

also

in the

the

dwarf.

Relativity

Page

at

was

Of
indefinitely.

this I could

turn

several instances.

Myths,

and

Origins

Page 45 (footnote).The

of

Civilization.

Tigernmas

case,

as

to

the

Notes

109

originsof civilization,does not


from
this extract
a
pedigreeof
Luguid Lagne, by

alone.

kings of

the

and

spears

Consider
Cashel

glass were

"

first

Ireland.

in

made

whom

stand

Imliuch, by whom

forts

first dug out

were

of earth

in

Ireland.
Road

Rothchend

compositions and poetry


Rigarlid,by
Failhe

whom

(wheel-head),by
first made

were

chariots

whom

whom

Ilchorach, by

in Tara.

first made

were

historical

in Ireland.

were
pillar-stones

first

erected.

Cetchumnech, by
first made

were

Aed

whom

commemorations

in

ogham

in Ireland.

firstmade
fessaand forfessawere
in Ireland.
to mean
(The words seem
knowledge and
superknowledge, but their technical meaning is unknown
to

Derg, by

me.)
Mainmairec,

bought

The

by

whom

gold

and

silver

were

first

in Ireland.

Oithecht,by

We

whom

order

have

whom

gold and

of the

names

silver
is

(i) the discovery of


which
(3)science (?),

were

firstdiscovered.

chronologicallyreversed.
the precious metals, (2)
had

franklymercenary
side in ancient Ireland, (4)writing,(5)inscribed monuments,
cation,
(6) vehicles, (7) history and poetry, (8) fortifithis in a
and
And
ornaments.
(9) weapons
Milesian pedigree!
commerce,

In it Nuadu
as

can

be

Fail is identical with

proved

from

another

text.

Nuadu

Silverhand,

History

Short

no

Nutt

Alfred

Celtic

of

mistaken

was

in

Philosophy

supposing

found

something specialin the case


merely found a typicalfragment of
The

effect of the

and

Classical

that

swept

the

over

belief,cleared

left

few

in

in

away

away

shallows

he

had

Tigernmas.

He

the

primitive Irish

special

introduction

Ireland
old

of

of the

most

circumstances.
of

national

and

and

their old sites


nooks

deluge

tradition

standing structures,

badly shaken,

from

Christianity

the effect of

was

ground

positionbut

fragments

stranded

in

combined

lore into

and

lot of

survived

that

cosmogony

of

that

where

washed

leaving them
they did not

originallybelong. The Cashel pedigree holds a cluster


of these
fragments. The Tigernmas story holds one.
The

is

Partholon
to

sure

find

caution, that

by

holds

But

of the

remnants

and

rescued

cluster.

another

plenty more.

most

flood

the

story

by

must

we

have

Research

observe
been

this

displaced

historians, who

medieval

in such

fore
Therebest.
placesas they deemed
the present chronology and relative positionof any
be quite deceptive. If Dublin
to
were
fragment may
be overwhelmed
like Herculaneum,
the future explorer
the
would
find several
ogham pillar-stonesamong
of Trinity College !
remains
set them

up

ments
knowledge of most of the extant fragthat set in when
to a great syntheticmovement
the New
Learning of the Christian propaganda had lost
its foreign aspect and
become
domesticated, so that
the old native
no
learning was
longer unruly in the
sight of God," and a ninth century grammarian was
accounted.
been
so
puzzled to explain why it had ever
The
began to collect, arrange, and date
poet-historian
(in a purely ecclesiastical chronology and in relation to
We

owe

our

"

Notes

Latin

and

Greek

not

says

an

this

work

ascribed
lived

Torpeist,who

till the

on

had

process

to

rises

to

light

esoteric
with

the

mysteries

"

Mai

how

world."

fully

eastward

of

used

best

it

use

I have

baptism."

in the

this

But

or

plicitly
ex-

met

tradition-holders

of

our

time.

own

suppressionof explicitteaching

The

consequence

was

and yet it
mysterious vagueness,
main
thing often survives through
a

the

verses

thing dehghtful

hold

To

of mind

of the

The

show

"A

the

of

Druid

poets preserved under

Irish-speakingpeasants

the

among

The

succession,

tradition.

reserve.

renunciation

attitude

later.

held, transmitted, and

was

extraordinary

work

spiritshedding

my

the

pagan

unbroken

of all this
.

knowledge

same

the

mind

was

the

that

pagan

poets were

my

upon

an

even

From

regarding Luguid

me

the

conscious

prove

stories,"

century, and

was

esoteric

Christianityan
quoted by

sixth

specialcharacter.

Fili, there

it is easy

and

all the

"

century and

twelfth

one

Christian

to

in the

fill who

no

beginning of
Senchan
King-poet

"

the

ditions
tra-

The

document.
to

ancient

is

"He

synchronise

and

eighth century
is

of

mass

flood.

the

harmonise

does

went

histories)the

survived

that

hi

is

strange how

this nebulous

existence.
the

What
or

Ler

be
such

or

his father, takes


from

taken
an

sea-god

extreme

him
was

Manannan
sea-spirit,
and

without

for his own,

claims

incurring

this doctrine

perhaps

carried

his

cannot

wrath.

that it

was

To
and

is

perhaps yet believed that the good act of rescuing a


of ill-luck,"
from drowning is followed
a stroke
man
by
in that
i.e.,by retaliation from the sea-spirit.I was
"

wonderful

place the

Town

of the

Seven

Churches

in the

History

Short

112

of

Eoghanacht
with

family

Arranmore,
A

me.

under

brisk breeze,

mile

over

the

About
look

hat, and

it would

"

ahead

Go

and

his

son,

anxious

and

gaze,

let go

the

ceart

se

"""

that

wanted

Manann^

They

hat,

FOMORIANS
"

Page 45.
the

country from

the

migrated to
Partholon's
people
invaders.
in

nach,
death,
year

having

They

dwelt

annal

the

records

how

had

smitten

and

the

been

revealed

of

they

the

had

in that

be

in that
I said

ahead
an

nach

right."
urchin.

sea

Fomorians

The

every
to

from

colony

and

encounter
were

northern

seas.

fifth year

visited
a

inhabited

have

Fomorians

dark

it wnth

for

had

the

1084,

skipper
myself,

siad

not

Right.

Gaels

in the

so

Deir

to

seem

first."

to

straw

FiRBOLG.

AND

in Ireland, and

fight them

"

doubt

no

his

lad, discarded
:

Ireland, but

never

hat,

it would

Fomorians

The

I said to

grown

say

knew

put

skipper went

remark

and

get up

The

straw

The

heads.

our

tacking about

to go

it."

almost

till it knifed

away.

battered

mind

don't

nothing, but

said

mbeadh

and

find

out

was

to

wind

word.

put

caught his

the

never

We

of them

one

mile

ask

placesthey

breeze

trouble

could

till we

breeze

the

quarter of

much

be too

As

sea.

uttered

and

me

the

how

see

the

boys

charged
dis-

to

me

above

was

spinning down
a

waves

at

to

sail.

my

just

to

gunwale

of my

one

gunwale,

it

sent

the

looked

from
the

above

head

into

gunwale

looked

ashore

gunwale

I told

out

had

it occurred
a

and

ago,

hooker

the lee

that

so

years

children

the

weather

the

and

awash,

few

turf, and

give

to

boatman

Philosophy

Connemara

of

its cargo
the

Celtic

of

always

Tigerhis

before

Ireland

in

that

this,he says
pestilence,
year,

on

Hallow

Eve,

to

Notes

113

Lughan, by the god Aonghus ; and Gilla Lughan


afterwards
drawn
a legionof the invaders
saw
up on the
where
hill of MuUaghmast,
is buried,
Dunlaing's son
as
facing Niall's son in Tara.
They were
high as the
Gilla

one

clouds
them

airl

and

of heaven,
there

soever

from

forth

ecclesiastical

an

nach

does

islands

not

the

This
chronicler

domestic

are

confirmed

the

foreigners'
gods.

we

Gael

broken

or

of

father

precisely

art

"

**

metier," in the

were

view

that

domestic

gods of
immigrants.

were

all the

gods,

akin, for every


parentage. Elatha,
"

Ni

in

of artes

or

h-ealadha

"

for

cela

mogony
cos-

the

"

science

means

phrase

sense

the

Fomorians

cosmogony,

culture."

or

record

from

in the

The

hold

near

Bress,

contemporary

the

themselves,

foreign,were
one
begins with
"

is the

Since

spot,

lost

what

Tiger-

demons

Sea.

and

Fomorian

but

the

in the

contemporary

in Clonmacnois.

Fomorians,

say

Gael, like the

But

is the

of

one

of the Northern

always on
they were

of every

flaming sword, and in


they breathed, there the pestilencetook
came

of the country around.

by

mouth

the

n'est

more

dhuit
pas

ton

Virgil's
apostrophe to

Imperial Rome
Hae

tibi erunt

parcere
"

These

desert and
out

the

There

Bolg,

et
subjectis,

the

are

debellare

of

arts

superbos

empire,

to

make

spiritual

call it peace, to foster

spiritof
of oghams,
is

pacisque imponere modum,

artes,

subserviency,and crush
ventor
liberty." Ogma, of the T.D.D., in-

double

tradition

the

was

son

current

that

holds

of the

Fomorian

of tradition
them

about

in honour

Elatha.
the

and

Fir
one

114

Short

History

that

holds them

in

the

national, the

For

the

Fir

Celtic

of

for

the

remained

Bolg

tradition stands

One

contempt.
other

Philosophy

outlook.

ascendency

Ireland, and

in

for

the

were

history. The story of their


plebeiansof early medieval
in Greece
is a late
expulsion and their enslavement
development. I have the older story which says that
from tiading in Irish earth, which
they got their name
they exported

in

bags

to

the

used

cities,as

to

"

The
character
Page 46.
has always clung to them,"
"

Diad

cycle the
Oisin, and

the

spread it on the ground around their


reptiles.
protectionagainst venomous

orientals

Fer

world, where

eastern

was

of the

Galians

the

are

Oscar

Fer

of

and
servility

yes, but

of the

of Galian

were

and

Domnann,
bravest

"

not

inferiority
throughout."

in the

Fionn,

brave.
This

race.

Ulster

does

not

For the Fir Bolg


necessarilydisplaceMr. Pim's view.
in
historical people,not mythical. They were
an
were
before
Ireland
the Celts arrived.
They had therefore
that the Celts brought with
no
place in the cosmogony
I have
Ireland.
them
to
already argued that the
had
Fomorians
a
place in it, and are best explained as
in
imports, with their geographicalplace maintained
the
Northern
relative position,about
Sea.
the same

Doubtless,
an
or

besides

inferior to the
Celts

the
in

came

confused

Fomorians,

the

tained
con-

cosmogony

folk of dull earth-dwellers,representing

ancient

the
reflecting

the

northern
Celts
to

way

peoples of

in culture

Ireland
their

they

and
would

continental

Mid

Europe, vastly

civiUzation.

When

naturallytransfer
tradition

to

their

experience,and if they did not succeed in quite


fittingthe two together,is not that exactly what we
should
pre-CelticIrish of the
expect to find ? The
Irish

History

Short

ii6

like

that,

but

modified

"

transcript

ancestors

The

pedigrees
of

grandson
of

the

of

ultimate

The

Lugh's

55.

tradition,
Gaelic.

The
the

were

people
cosmogony,
in

there

Ireland.

Milesians

represent
(2)

the

Tren

are

some

Picts,

ment.
treat-

Philistines

Elatha,
of

son

Balor
the

Domna),
of

son

Rigbuide

god
Tuiri

Trescadal,

(yellow-arm).

Myth.

to

ancestors

(i)

father),

view

my

only

were

traditional

goddess

Learned

According

Mor

the

Eochaid

and

of

son

their

of

the

Indech

Fomor-

esoteric

to

from

Bress

of

(or

Page

been

the

names

point
is

of

of

The

and

(a war-god),

Net

Luath,

Loiscenn

Lecan.

those

are

slew

sons

Celtic,

have

must

Genealogy

descent

Domnanns

(whose

it

body,

the

curious,

very

are

*'

of

Book

the

from

living

purely

as

environment."

"

Philosophy

regarded

be

must

other

any

by

have

ians

tradition

Irish

ancient

Celtic

of

two

of

of
element

regarded

the

in
as

primitive

pre-Gaelic

races,

learned

the

and

myth.

The

Gaels.

Partholon's

the

old

T.D.D.

continental

suppressed

race

WORKS

THE

Pall

MAN

Mall

"

and

"

The

The

"

the last and

to

"

It is

"

Post

"
"

"

Rosary

says
Pessimist

"

"
"

which

and

is the

product

itself

demands

book

which

and
many

...

read

of

twice."
acter."
char-

The

IMMORTALS.
"

Independentsays :
of commonplace
rich fancy and
places Mr. Pim
"

He

clothes

the rags and

in the
a

glowing garments
This
splendid vision.

in

the

front

rank

of

bones
of

book

modem

writers."
"

says

bids

Extraordinary courage."

UNKNOWN

Globe

who

Courage is written all over


indescribablyfelicitous."

Gazette says

Irish

author

Extraordinary abilityand

says

The

first

fame."

book

challenges thought
to
people will want

Irish

the

PESSIMIST,

"

says

Pall Mall

to

pieceof capital

An

"

profound thinking,

Irish

from

makes

rapidly to

THE

Morning

contrives

absorbing reading."

fair to rise

Month

author

story holds

BelfastEvening Telegraph says

The

LIVES.

hugely."

chapter

says

us

says

AUTHOR.

THIRTY
"

Gazette

World

SAME

WITH

interest
The

THE

BY

"

Very

clever."

"

We
begin to appreciate the
says :
ful
fantastic genius of the author
and his wonder-

Daily Graphic

"

insightinto

the unrevealed."

PLAYS.

VILLAGE

By Margaret

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