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Basic Structure

Concepts

Prepared by ZMR

JanMay

2016

2.1 Forces

2.2 Equilibrium and Reactions

2.3 Moments

2.4 Stress and Strain

2.5 Elastic and plastic range

2.6 Primary Loads & Secondary

Loads

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2.1 Forces

A force is that which tends to exert motion, tension or

compression on an object.

The loads acting on a structure have mass which is

usually measured in kilograms(kg).

The basic unit of force is the newton (N). The force

exerted on a structure by a static load is dependent upon

both its mass and the force of gravity.

The force exerted by a body as a result of gravity can be

described as its weight.

F =W= m x g

Therefore, the force exerted by a mass of 1 kg is:

F=mxg

= 1 x 9.81

=9.81 N @ 0.00981 kN

1 kN

= 1000

Prepared

by ZMR N

Jan- May 2016

3

2.1 Forces

Scalars and Vectors

Scalars

Examples:

Characteristics:

mass, volume

force, velocity

It has a magnitude

It has a magnitude

(positive or negative)

Addition rule:

Special Notation:

Vectors

Simple arithmetic

None

and direction

Parallelogram law

Bold font, a line, an

arrow or a carrot

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2.1 Forces

Application of Vector Addition

There are four

concurrent cable

forces acting on the

bracket.

How do you

determine the

resultant force acting

on the bracket ?

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2.1 Forces

Vector Operations

Scalar Multiplication

and Division

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2.1 Forces

Vector Addition Using Either the Parallelogram or

Triangle

Parallelogram Law:

tip to tail):

HowPrepared

do you

subtract a vector? How can you add

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more than two concurrent vectors graphically ?

2.1 Forces

Resolution of a vector

Resolution of a vector is breaking up a vector into components. It is kind of like

using the parallelogram law in reverse.

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2.1 Forces

Cartesian Vector Notation

We resolve vectors into components

using the x and y axes system

Each component of the vector is

shown as a magnitude and a

direction.

The directions are based on the x

and y axes. We use the unit vectors

i and j to designate the x and y axes.

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2.1 Forces

For example,

F = Fx i + Fy j

or

other. Together, they can be directed at any

inclination.

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10

2.1 Forces

Addition of Several Vectors

Step 1 is to resolve each force into its

components

Step 2 is to add all the x components

together and add all the y components

together. These two totals become the

resultant vector.

Step

angle of the resultant vector.

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11

2.1 Forces

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12

2.1 Forces

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13

2.1 Forces

Example 1

The screw eye in Figure below is subjected to

forces F1 and F2. Determine the magnitude and

direction (measured from x-positive axis) of the

resultant force.

F2= 150 N

10o

F1= 100 N

15o

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14

2.1 Forces

Solution

=54.76o

F1 =

Prepared by ZMR

nt

a

lt

u

s

e

R

100

N

15o

10o

F2 =

Sin = (sin 115/212.55) x 150

= 39.76o

150

N

= 212.55 N

= 115o

15

2.1 Forces

Example 2

Determine the magnitude of the

resultant force and its direction,

measured

clockwise from the

positive x-axis

Solution

a) Resolve the forces in their x-y components.

b) Add the respective components to get the resultant vector.

c) Find magnitude and angle from the resultant components.

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16

2.1 Forces

F1 = { 15 sin 40 i + 15 cos 40 j } kN

= { 9.642 i + 11.49 j } kN

F2 = { -(12/13)26 i + (5/13)26 j } kN

= { -24 i + 10 j } kN

F3 = { 36 cos 30 i 36 sin 30 j } kN

= { 31.18 i 18 j } kN

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17

2.1 Forces

Summing up all the i and j components respectively, we get,

FR = { (9.642 24 + 31.18) i + (11.49 + 10 18) j } kN

= { 16.82 i + 3.49 j } kN

= tan-1(3.49/16.82) = 11.7

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18

2.1 Forces

Example 3

Determine the magnitude of

the resultant force and its

direction,

measured

counterclockwise from the

positive x axis

Solution

a) Resolve the forces in their x-y components.

b) Add the respective components to get the resultant vector.

c) Find magnitude and angle from the resultant components.

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19

2.1 Forces

= { 680 i - 510 j } N

F2 = { -625 sin(30) i - 625 cos(30) j } N

= { -312.5 i - 541.3 j } N

F3 = { -750 sin(45) i + 750 cos(45) j } N

{ -530.3 i + 530.3 j } N

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2.1 Forces

Summing up all the i and j components respectively, we get,

FR = { (680 312.5 530.3) i + (-510 541.3 + 530.3) j }N

= { - 162.8 i - 521 j } N

= tan1(521/162.8) = 72.64

or

= 180 + 72.64 = 253

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21

EXERCISE 1

Question 1

Two forces are applied to an eye bolt fastened to a

beam. Determine the magnitude and direction of their

resultant.

4.5 kN

25o

50o

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6 kN

22

Question 2

Two forces P and Q are applied as shown at point A of a

hook support. Knowing that P = 60 kN and Q = 100 kN.

Determine the magnitude and direction of their

resultant.

(Ans: R = 150 kN, 76o towards x axis positive)

15

P

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30o

Q

24

Question 3

The cables AB and AD help support pole AC. Knowing that

the tension is 500 N in AB and 160 N in AD. Determine the

magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces

exerted by cables at A.

(Ans: R = 575 N, 113o towards x axis positive)

2.5 m

B

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2m

C

1.5 m

25

Question 4

Determine the resultant and direction from x-axis positive

of the five forces shown in Figure below by the graphical

method.

(Ans: R = 32.5 kN, = 124o)

y

25 kN

9 kN

8 kN

15o

30o

60o

x

20o

4 kN

3 kN

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26

Question 5

Determine the magnitude and direction measured

counterclockwise from the positive x axis of the resultant

force of the three acting on the ring A. Take F1 = 500 N and

= 20o

(Ans: R = 1.03 kN, = 87.9o)

y

600 N

F1

400 N

3

4

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30o

27

Question 6

Three forces are applied at the end of the boom O. Determine

the magnitude and orientation of the resultant force.

(Ans: FR= 485 N, = 37.7o)

y

F3 = 200N

F2= 250 N

45o

5

3

4

F1 = 400 N

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29

Question 7

Two cables are attached to the frame shown in

Figure below. Using trigonometry, determine :

(a)the required magnitude of the force P if the

resultant R of the two forces applied at A is to

be vertical.

(b)the corresponding magnitude of R.

A

(Ans: 489 N, 738 N)

A

35o

25o

360

N

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P

30

Any structure subjected to loads must be

provided with supports to prevent it from

moving. The forces generated on the structure

by these supports are called reactions. If the

structure is in equilibrium (i.e. not moving)

then the net forces from the loads and

reactions must be zero in all directions.

Fx = 0

Fy = 0

M=0

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31

Example 1

Determine the magnitudes of F1 and F2 so that particle P is in equilibrium.

(Ans: F1 = 435 N, F2 = 171 N)

400 N

30o

P

60o

F2

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5

4

F1

32

Solution

The two unknown magnitudes F1 and F2 can be obtained from the two

scalar equations of equilibrium, Fx=0 and Fy = 0. To apply these

equations, the x, y axes are established on the free body diagram and

forces must be resolved into its x and y components.

400 N

30o

F1 (3/5)

P

60o

F2

F2 sin 60o

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F1

F1 (4/5)

F2 cos 60o

33

Solution

Fx =0 ;

Fy =0;

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

Simplify :

Solving Eqs. (3) & (4) by simultaneous equations to determine F1 & F2.

Ans :

Prepared by ZMR

F1 = 435 N

F2 = 170.9 N

34

in truss

of slender

members

joined

together at their end points.

construction consist of wooden

struts or

metal bars

formed by bolting or welding the

ends of the members to a common

plate, called a gusset plate,

as shown in Fig below.

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35

Timber Roof

Trusses

Steel Bridge

Trusses

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36

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37

Planar Trusses

Planar trusses lie in a single plane

and are often used

to support roofs and

bridges.

Assumption for Design

To design both the members and the

connections

of a truss, it is first

necessary to determine the force

developed in each member when the

truss is subjected to a given loading.

Two important assumption will be

made :38

i) All loadings are applied at the

joints

Prepared by ZMR

Jan- May

2016

If the force tends to elongate the member,

it is a

tensile force (T), whereas if it tends

to shorten the member, it is a compressive

force ( C)

T

C

T

C

39

The method to determine the forces

in

the members is the method of joints.

Prepared by ZMR

Jan- May

2016

Example

Determine the force in each member of the

Pratt bridge truss shown. State whether each

member is in tension or compression.

B

4m

A

3m

6 kN

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3m

6 kN

3m

H

3m

6 kN

40

Solution

4m

A

3m

9 kN

6 kN

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3m

6 kN

3m

6 kN

H

3m

9 kN

41

Solution

Joint A

B

x kN

4m

A

9 kN

3m

9 = x

4

3

x = 27/4

= 6.75 kN

Therefore AB = 92 +

6.752

= 11.25

kN (C)

HF = 11.25 (C)

AC = 6.75 kN (T)

HG = 6.75 kN (T)

9 kN

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42

Solution

Joint C

CA = GH = 6.75 kN (T)

CE = GE = 6.75 kN (T)

CB = GF = 6.0 kN (T)

3m

9 kN

E

3m

6 kN

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43

Solution

Joint B

6.75

3

6

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75

3.

11

5 .2

2.25

3 = x

4

3

x = 9/4

= 2.25 kN

Therefore BE = 32 +

2.252

= 3.75 kN

(T)

BC = 6 (T)

BA = 11.25 kN (C)

BD = 9 kN (C)

44

Solution

Joint D

B

9

F

DB = DF = 9(C)

DE = 0

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45

Solution

Checking at joint E

B

D

3

7

3.

2.25

2.25

E

6 kN

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46

2.3 Moments

APPLICATION

What is the net effect of the two

forces on the wheel?

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47

APPLICATION

What is the effect of the 30 N force on

the lug nut?

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48

measure of the tendency of the force to cause a body

to rotate about the point or axis.

called a torque, but most often it is called the moment of

a force or simply the moment

The magnitude of a moment about a point is the value of

the force multiplied by the perpendicular distance from

the line of action of the force to the point

M= T = F x d

The typical sign convention for

moment is that counter-clockwise

is considered positive.

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49

Example 1

From Figure below, determine the moment of the

force about point O. If the moment is increased to

5 kNm, what is the maximum mass can be

supported by the diving board?

Mass = 250 kg

O

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1.5 m

50

Solution

F = mg

= 250 (9.81)= 2452.5 N = 2.45 kN

F

O

1.5 m

Mo = ( 2.45 x 1.5) = 3.68 kNm

If Mo = 5 kNm, then new load is

Mo = F x d

5 = F x 1.5

F = 3.33 kN = 3333.33 N

F=mxg

3333.33 = m x 9.81

m = 339.79 kg

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51

Example 2

For each case illustrated in Figure below, determine the

moment of the force about point O.

2m

0.75 m

5O kN

Solution

Mo = - (50 x 0.75) = - 37.5 kNm

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52

Example 3

For each case illustrated in Figure below, determine the

moment of the force about point O.

3m

O

1

Solution

45o

1 sin 45o

6O kN

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53

Example 4

A 400 N force is applied to the frame and = 20o. Find the

moment of the force at A.

Solution

MA = (400 sin 20ox 3) + (400 cos 20o x 2)

= 1162.18 Nm

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54

Example 5

Figure above shows a bridge deck, of weight 500 kN, supporting a heavy vehicle

weighing 300 kN. Find the value of the support reactions at A and B when the load

is in the position shown.

Ans: RA = 430 kN, RB = 370 kN

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Solution

5m

4m

RA

300 kN 500 kN

RB

MA =0 ;

RB (10) ( 300 x 4) (500 x 5) = 0

RB = 370 kN

Fy =0 ;

RA + RB 300 500 = 0

RA = 430 kN

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56

Stress

Concept of stress

Assumptions of material:

1.

It is continuous (uniform distribution of matter)

2.

It is cohesive (all portions are connected together)

Normal stress

z =

Prepared by ZMR

lim

A 0

Fz

A

Jan- May 2016

59

A

Compressive stress: normal force pushes or compresses area

element A

Shear stress

Intensity of force, or force per unit area, acting tangent to A

Symbol used for normal stress is (tau)

zx =

lim

A 0

zy =

lim

A 0

Fx

A

Fy

A

Newtons per square meter (N/m 2) or a pascal (1 Pa = 1 N/m2)

kPa = 103 N/m2 (kilo-pascal)

MPa = 106 N/m2 (mega-pascal)

GPa = 109 N/m2 (giga-pascal)

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60

Shear in Nature

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61

Example 1

The 80 kg lamp is supported by two rods AB and BC as shown in

Figure below. If AB has a diameter of 10 mm and BC has a diameter

of 8 mm, determine the average normal stress in each rod.

C

3

4

60

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62

Solution

A

F1

F2

F1sin 60o

60o

F1cos 60o

F2sin

F2cos

F = mg

= 80 x 9.81

= 784.8 N

= 0.78 kN

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63

Solution

Fx =0 ;

Fy =0;

Simplify :

(1)

(2)

- 0.5 F1 + 0.8 F2 = 0

(3)

(4)

Solving Eqs. (3) & (4) by simultaneous equations to determine F1 & F2.

0.6 x Eqs (3)

0.8 x Eqs (4)

- 0.3 F1 + 0.48 F2 = 0

0.69 F1 + 0.48 F2 = 0.624

- 0.99 F1 = - 0.624

F1 = 0.63 kN

=0

- 0.5 F1 + 0.8 F2

- 0.5 x 0.63 + 0.8 F2 = 0

F2 = 0.315/0.8 = 0.39 kN

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64

Solution

1 = F1 / A1

= 0.63 /( x 0.0052)

= 8021.41 kN/m2

2 = F2 / A2

= 0.39/( x 0.0042)

= 7758.8 kN/m2

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65

Exercise 1

A 50 kN axial load is applied to a short wooden post which is supported

by a square concrete footing resting on distributed soil. Determine

(a) The maximum bearing stress on the concrete footing

(b) The size of the footing for which the average bearing stress on the

soil is 150 kPa.

(Ans: B = 4MPa, b= 577 mm)

50 kN

125 mm

Plan

100 mm

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66

Exercise 2

The column is subjected to an axial force of 8 kN at its top. If the cross

sectional area has the dimensions shown in the figure, determine the

average normal stress at section a-a.

(Ans: = 1.74 MPa)

8 kN

160 mm

10 mm

Front Elevation

10mm

10 mm

160 mm

Plan

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67

160 mm

Jan- May 2016

Problem 3

The 20 kg lamp is supported by two steel rods connected by a ring A.

Determine which rod is subjected to the greater average normal stress

and compute its value.

(Ans: = 2.33 N/mm2)

C

12 mm

10 mm

60o

45o

A

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68

Shear Stress

plane of the sectioned area.

Consider a force F acting to the bar

For rigid supports, and F is large enough, bar will

deform and fail along the planes identified by AB and

CD

Free-body diagram indicates that shear force, V = F/2 be

applied at both sections to ensure equilibrium

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69

section is:

avg =

avg =

P

A

be same at each pt on the section

determined from equations of equilibrium

A = area of section

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70

Example 1

The bar shown in Figure below has a square cross section for which

the depth and thickness are 40 mm. If an axial force of 800 N is applied

along the centroidal axis of the bars cross-sectional area, determine

average normal stress and average shear stress acting on the material

along section planes a-a.

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71

Internal loading

Based on free-body diagram, Resultant loading of axial

force, P = 800 N

= P/A = 800/(0.04)(0.04) = 500 kPa

Average shear stress

No shear stress exists on the section, since the shear force at the section is

zero.

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72

Example 2

Three plates are held together by two cyclindrical rivets. If a direct pull

of 5 kN is applied between one plate and the other two, estimate the

diameter of the rivets. The shear stress in the rivets is not to exceed

40 N/mm2.

5 kN

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73

Solution

P

A

40 = 5000

4(2/4)

= 6.3 mm

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74

Exercise 1

A square hole having 12 mm sides is to be punched out of a metal

plate 1.6 mm thick. The shear stress required to cause fracture is 350

N/mm2. What force must be applied to punch die? What would be the

compressive stress in the punch?

(Ans: 26.88 kN, 0.19 kN/mm2)

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75

ALLOWABLE STRESS

When designing a structural member or mechanical element, the

stress in it must be restricted to safe level

Choose an allowable load that is less than the load the member

can fully support

One method used is the factor of safety (F.S.)

F.S. =

Ffail

Fallow

member, then F.S. can also be expressed as:

fail

fail

F.S. =

F.S. =

allow

allow

In all the equations, F.S. is chosen to be greater than 1, to avoid

potential for failure

Specific values will depend on types of material used76 and its

intended purpose

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Strain

will undergo displacements or changes in position

Normal strain ( ) is a measure of elongation or

contraction of small line segment in the body

Normal Strain () = Change in length = L

Original length

L

Has no unit

Shear strain () is a measure of the change in angle

that occurs between two small line segments that are

originally perpendicular to each other.

Shear Strain () = x

L

x

L

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77

Figure shows the characteristic stress-strain diagram for

and mechanical elements

78

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Elastic behavior.

A straight line

Stress is proportional to strain, i.e., linearly elastic

Upper stress limit, or proportional limit; pl

If load is removed upon reaching

elastic limit, specimen will return to its

original shape

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Yielding.

Material deforms permanently;

yielding; plastic deformation

Yield stress, Y

Once yield point reached, specimen

continues to elongate (strain) without any

increase in load

Note figure not drawn to scale, otherwise

induced strains is 10-40 times larger than

in elastic limit

Material is referred to as being perfectly

plastic

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80

Strain hardening.

Ultimate stress, u

While specimen is elongating, its xsectional area will decrease

Decrease in area is fairly uniform over entire

gauge length

81

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Necking.

At ultimate stress, x-sectional area

begins to decrease in a localized

region

As a result, a constriction or neck tends

to form in this region as specimen

elongates further

Specimen finally breaks at fracture stress, f

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Hookes Law

When a material is worked within its elastic limit, the extension is

proportional to the force.

Strain Stress

Stress = Constant (E)

Strain

This constant is known as the modulus of elasticity or Youngs

Modulus

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83

Example 1

A tie-bar in a steel structure is of rectangular section 30

mm x 50 mm. The extension measured in a 250 mm

length of the tie bar when load is applied to the structure is

0.1 mm. Find :i) The tensile stress in the bar

ii) The tensile force

iii) The factor of safety used

Take E = 205 kN/mm2 and Ultimate stress = 460 N/mm2

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84

Solution

i)

The tensile stress in the bar

E = stress/strain

Strain () = L/L

= 0.1/250

= 4 x 10-4

E = stress/strain

205 = / 4 x 10-4

= 205 x 4 x 10-4 = 0.082 kN/mm2 = 82 N/mm2

ii)

The tensile force

= F/A

82 = F/(30 x 50)

F = 82 x (30 x 50) = 123,000 = 123 kN

iiii)

F.S. = Ultimate stress/ Tensile stress

= 460 /82

= 5.6

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85

Example 2

The ultimate stress for a steel is 450 N/mm 2. What is the maximum load

which a rod 50 mm diameter can carry with a factor of safety of 5? If the rod

is 1.5 m long, determine the extension under this loading.( E = 200

kN/mm2.)

Solution

The factor of safety

F.S. = Ultimate stress/ Tensile stress

5 = 450 / tensile stress

Tensile stress = 450/5 = 90 N/mm2

= F/A

90 = F/( r2)

F = 90 x ( x 252) = 176,714.59 N = 176.71 kN

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86

Solution

The tensile stress in the bar

E = stress/strain

200 x 103 = 90/

= 90/ 200 x 103

= 4.5 x 10-4

Strain () = L/L

4.5 x 10-4 = L/1500

L = 0.675 mm

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87

Exercise 1

A flat steel tie-bar 4.5 m long, is found to be 2.4mm short. It is

sprung into place by means of drafts driven into holes in the end

of the bar. Determine:

(a) the stress in the bar

(b) the factor of safety if the material of the tie-bar has an

ultimate

stress of 450 N/mm2. Take E for the material as

205 kN/mm2.

( Ans: 109.3 N/mm2, 4.117)

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88

Exercise 2

A metal tube of outside diameter 75 mm and length 1.65 m is to

carry a compressive load of 60 kN. If the allowable axial stress is

75 N/mm2 , calculate the inside diameter of the tube. If E of the

material is 90 kN/mm2., by how much will the tube shorten under

this load?

Ans: 67.87 mm, 1.375 mm)

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89

Primary Loads are divided into three broad categories

according to the way in which they act upon the structure or

structural element. These are DEAD LOADS, LIVE

LOADS(IMPOSED LOADS) and WIND LOADS

DEADLOADS

Dead Loads are those loads which are considered

to act permanently; they are "dead," stationary, and

unable to be removed. The self-weight of the

structural members normally provides the largest

portion of the dead load of a building. This will

clearly vary with the actual materials chosen.

Permanent non-structural elements such as roofing,

concrete, flooring, pipes, ducts, interior partition

walls, Environmental Control Systems machinery,

elevator machinery and all other construction

systems within a building must also be included in

the calculation of the total dead load. These loads

are represented by the red arrow in the illustration.

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90

Unit weights of various building materials (kN/m3)

Materials

Unit Weight

Aluminium

24

Bricks

22*

Concrete

24

Concrete blocks

(lightweight)

12*

22*

18

Steel

70

Timber

6*

Prepared by ZMR

91

Jan- May 2016

Unit weights of various sheet materials (kN/m2)

Sheet materials

kN/m2

0.1

0.45

0.04

0.1

0.3

Plasterboard

0.15

0.14

0.6

Slates

0.6

0.15

Timber floorboards

0.15

Prepared Tiles

by ZMR

Vinyl

0.05

92

The dead load of a floor or a roof is generally evaluated for one square meter of floor or

roof area

LIVE LOADS

Live Loads are not permanent and can

change in magnitude. They include

items found within a building such as

furniture, pianos, safes, people, books,

cars, computers, machinery, or stored

materials, as well as environmental

effects such as loads due to the sun,

earth or weather.

WIND LOADS

Wind and earthquakes loads are put

into the special category of lateral live

loads due to the severity of their action

upon a building and their potential to

cause failure.

Prepared by ZMR

93

Secondary loads

Structures can be subjected to secondary loads from

temperature changes, shrinkage of members and settlement of

supports.

Prepared by ZMR

94

Example 1

Figure shows a precast concrete

Beam which is 10.5 m long.

a) Calculate the weight of the

beam per unit length in kN/m

b) Calculate the total weight of

the beam

Prepared by ZMR

95

Solution

a) Cross sectional area of the

beam

= (0.6 x 0.25) (0.4 x 0.15)

= 0.09 m2

Unit weight of concrete = 24 kN/m3

Weight per unit length = 0.09 x 24

= 2.16 kN/m

b) Total weight of the beam

= 2.16 x 10.5 = 22.68 kN

Prepared by ZMR

96

Example 2

The floor in a multi-storey office. Building consists of the

following:

Vinyl tiles

40 mm sand/cement screed

125 mm reinforced concrete

slab

Acoustic tile suspended ceiling

Determine the dead load in kN/m2

Prepared by ZMR

97

Solution

From the table given

Vinyl tiles

= 0.05

40 mm sand/cement screed = 0.6 x (40/25) = 0.96

125 mm reinforced concrete = 0.125 x 24

= 3.00

slab

Acoustic tile suspended ceiling = 0.10

The dead load = 4.11 kN/m2

Prepared by ZMR

98

Exercise 1

Figure shows the outer wall of a multi-storey

building which is supported on a beam at

each floor level. The wall consist of a 1.2 m

height of cavity wall supporting 1.3 m high

double glazing. The cavity wall construction

is 102.5 mm of brickwork, a 75 mm cavity

and 100 mm of plastered lightweight concrete

blockwork.

Determine the dead load on one beam

in kN/m of beam.

(Ans: 4.77 kN/m)

Prepared by ZMR

99

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